Science Vs

By Gimlet

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Description

There are a lot of fads, blogs and strong opinions, but then there’s SCIENCE. Science Vs is the show from Gimlet Media that finds out what’s fact, what’s not, and what’s somewhere in between. We do the hard work of sifting through all the science so you don't have to. This season we tackle sex addiction, nuclear war, Lyme disease, and serial killers.

Episode Date
UFOs: What the Government Covered Up
2329
Could aliens actually exist? Is there any chance they’ve visited Earth already? What really happened at Roswell? The truth... is right here. We talked to astronomers Dr. Jill Tarter, Dr. Seth Shostak, investigative journalist David Clarke, and physicist Prof. Jim Al Khalili. <br><br>Check out the full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1irQTjN-g5JaoWimKTc3jml25LBAzJaRsgI7caivL2wg/edit">here</a>.&nbsp;<br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="https://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/aliens-line-one-180960067/">Seth’s account of that day in 1997</a></li><li><a href="http://files.ncas.org/condon/text/contents.htm">The “Condon report”-- a 1968 effort to go through and identify all UFO sightings</a></li><li><a href="http://www.afhra.af.mil/Portals/16/documents/AFD-101201-038.pdf">The Roswell Report</a></li><li><a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/110/48/19273">This paper estimating how many planets are in the “Goldilocks” zone</a></li><li><a href="https://www.quantamagazine.org/newfound-wormhole-allows-information-to-escape-black-holes-20171023/">A good read on wormholes and their history</a>; <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/prop.201700034">a tough read on how we might use them to teleport</a></li></ul><br>Credits: This episode has been produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, as well as Wendy Zukerman and Rose Rimler, with help from Shruti Ravindran and Meryl Horn. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Meryl Horn. Music by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Editing by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Caitlin Kenney. We performed this live for GimletFest - and we were joined onstage by our Aussie mate and mathematician Adam Spencer who has his own podcast you should check out ‘The Big Questions’, and astronomer Dr Emily Rice, who helps run <a href="https://astronomyontap.org/">Astronomy on Tap</a> which brings together astronomers and beer. Check it out to see whether it runs in your city. Also thanks to Dr. Ravi Kumar Kopparapu, Dr. Craig O'Neill, Dr. Jessie Christiansen, Dr. Cameron Hummels, Dr. Phil Hopkins, Dr Avi Loeb, and the many other researchers who helped us on this.&nbsp;
Jun 21, 2018
Lyme Disease: How Scary Is It?
2176
This week, we’re entering the Lyme Wars. We’re asking: what <em>is </em>Lyme disease? How do you get it? How do you know you have it? And if you get infected, are you stuck with it forever? To find out we talk to neurologist Dr John Halperin, neuropsychology researcher Dr Kathleen Bechtold, and a Lyme patient we’re calling Emily. <br><br>Check out the full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/13bztdV6aDWB1_xBx-INLezshDdJONkFJ5d5kaMjfiaE/edit">here</a>.<br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5029759/">About the culprits behind Lyme Disease&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://www.labmed.theclinics.com/article/S0272-2712(15)00100-6/fulltext">The best summary on how well the Lyme tests work</a></li><li><a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2017.00224/full">Kathleen's study about patients suffering from Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome</a></li><li><a href="http://www.aldf.com/pdf/2008_Marques_Review_Article.pdf">A most helpful primer on Chronic Lyme</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200107123450202">Two controlled trials showing that long-term antibiotics use doesn’t help zap out lingering Lyme symptoms&nbsp;</a></li></ul><br>Credits:&nbsp;<br>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Rose Rimler and Meryl Horn. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Recording assistance from Daniel Woldorff, Susan Valot, Davis Land and Julian Weller. For this episode, we also spoke to Dr John Aucott, Dr Brian Fallon, Dr Allen Steere, Dr Paul Lantos, Dr Adriana Marques and Dr Alan Barbour. Thank you so much. Thanks to the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. And our favorite songstress Rachel Ward.
Jun 15, 2018
Circumcision: To Snip or Not to Snip?
2043
This week, we’re entering the foreskin firestorm. We’re asking: what are the risks of circumcision? And are there any medical benefits? To find out we talk to pediatric urologist Andrew Freedman, HIV researcher Godfrey Kigozi, and sex researcher Caroline Pukall. <br><br>Check out the full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jF-7JqrnVje8bt8AldLETxibckZ6XKGww1s1oI9iAZI/edit?usp=sharing">here</a>.<br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/130/3/e756.full.pdf">The American Academy of Pediatrics technical report, which Andrew helped write</a></li><li><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/04/04/peds.2016-0594.full.pdf">A thoughtful opinion piece from Andrew</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17321311">The trial in Uganda that Godfrey co-authored</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724395">Caroline’s team’s penis-poking study</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28894958">Another paper from Caroline’s team on how men feel about their circumcisions</a></li></ul><br>Credits:&nbsp;<br>This episode has been produced by Rose Rimler, with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Shruti Ravindran and Meryl Horn. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Extra thanks to Soraya Shockley and Saidu Tejan-Thomas. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Recording assistance from Gideon Brower, Ryan Delaney, Tom Wayne Harris, and Bahizi Ignatius. For this episode, we also spoke to Dr. Jenn Bossio, Dr. Aaron Tobian, and a bunch of folks at the CDC. Thank you so much. A special thanks to the parents and circumcised men who spoke with us for this story, as well as Frank Lopez, the Zukerman Family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.<br><br><br><br><br><br>
May 31, 2018
How Science Created Morons
2168
This week, how one of the worst ideas in science got a big push from a bad study… and intellectuals of the day lapped it up. We speak to science writer Carl Zimmer and Prof. J. David Smith, whose research helped get to the bottom of this disturbing story.<br><br>UPDATE 05/25/18: This episode has been updated. A previous version said that the 'good' side of the Kallikak family included someone who had signed the Declaration of Independence. It now says that the 'good' Kallikak family member married into the family with the relative who signed the Declaration of Independence. <br><br>Check out the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/16_4CC1pb8Ei3w2hILPoperkh5jqHXJq7_cYeWFbbZZ8/edit?usp=sharing">full transcript here</a>.<br>To find a list of our sponsors and show-related promo codes, go to <a href="http://gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers">gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers</a><br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="https://www.panmacmillan.com/authors/carl-zimmer/she-has-her-mother-s-laugh">Carl Zimmer's book 'She Has Her Mother's Laugh'</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Kallikak_Family.html?id=rrJ5QeS52H4C&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;source=kp_read_button#v=twopage&amp;q&amp;f=false">Henry Goddard’s book about the Kallikak family</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987907/#R9">J. David Smith’s article on the truth about Emma’s family</a></li><li><a href="https://readingroom.law.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&amp;httpsredir=1&amp;article=2593&amp;context=faculty_pub">The sad story of Carrie Buck and forced sterilization</a>&nbsp;</li></ul><br>This episode was produced by senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, Wendy Zukerman, Romilla Karnick with help from Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler, and Shruti Ravindran.&nbsp; We’re edited by Blythe Terrell, extra editing help from Alex Blumberg and PJ Vogt. An extra thanks to Phoebe Flanagan as well as Emily Ulbricht for help with German translations. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Meryl Horn. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Thanks also to Professor Peter Visscher, the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.
May 25, 2018
Polar Bears... On the Edge of Extinction?
1935
We have this idea that polar bears are teetering on the brink of extinction. But the story isn’t that simple. To find out why, we talk to environmental lawyer Kassie Siegel, wildlife biologist Dr. Karyn Rode, and sea ice expert Dr. Ignatius Rigor. With a little help from Payton, a polar bear at the Memphis Zoo. <br>Check out the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1GlnAY_0Z27Oc1jo2ewvww-gui_T1h_f1NaYemPIDO4U/edit?usp=sharing">full transcript here</a>.<br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="http://pbsg.npolar.no/en/status/population-map.html">This map of polar bear populations around the Arctic</a></li><li><a href="https://digitalcommons.law.utulsa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&amp;httpsredir=1&amp;article=2649&amp;context=tlr">On the Endangered Species Act and global warming</a></li><li><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.12339">Karyn’s tale of two bear populations</a></li><li><a href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6110S">This paper on Arctic sea ice</a></li></ul><br>This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman, senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, and Heather Rogers, will help from Rose Rimler, Shruti Ravindran, and Meryl Horn. Extra help from Saidu Tejan-Thomas. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell, extra editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Recording help from Peter Frick-Wright, Amber Cortes and Katy Sewall.&nbsp; A huge thanks to all of sea ice and polar bear researchers that we contacted for this story, including:&nbsp; Dr Walt Meier,&nbsp; Professor Kent Moore, Dr Ian Stirling, James Wilder, Anthony Pagano, and Dr Peter Boveng. And more thanks to Danielle Brigida, Frank Lopez, Gerald Thompson, the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.<br><br><br><br><br>
May 17, 2018
Scott Kelly: How A Year in Space Changes You
1898
This week, something different. We speak to astronaut Scott Kelly, who went up to space a man and came back a Rhesus monkey. Just kidding, that didn’t happen at all. Listen to find out the real story. PLUS: We talk to Lynn Levy, star producer of the Gimlet show <a href="https://www.gimletmedia.com/the-habitat">The Habitat</a>. <br><br>Check out the full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1h8sw1jztONY2OsBaNE2AXMit0Xfe05RXzmz8U3HeJ0U/edit?usp=sharing">here</a>.<br><br>Selected readings:<ul><li><a href="https://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-twins-study-confirms-preliminary-findings">NASA’s updated press release about Scott and Mark</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/2104.html">More information about its Twins Study</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29167331">A paper about what space does to your eyeballs</a></li></ul><br>This episode has been produced by Romilla Karnick, Wendy Zukerman, and senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, with help from Rose Rimler and Shruti Ravindran. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. With additional help from Lynn Levy and Peter Bresnan. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Recording help from Mark Bramhill. Extra thanks to Susan Bailey, Alan Hargens, Chris Mason,&nbsp; the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.&nbsp;<br><br><br><br><br>
May 03, 2018
Ketogenic Diet... Is Fat Good For You?
1979
People who love the ketogenic diet swear it boosts their brainpower, melts their fat, and makes them better athletes. Is it true? To find out, we go keto. And, we talk to some scientists: neuroscientist Dom D’Agostino, medical researcher Eric Verdin, and nutritionist Louise Bourke. Also, Wendy’s mum drops in.<br>Check out our full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CvZauPR1h-74UZ2E_t72koujqzw2YbLbNlg8hCw1gQU/edit?usp=sharing">here</a>.<br><br>Selected readings:<ul><li><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01821.x">This history of the ketogenic diet</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2013116">A pretty comprehensive review</a></li><li><a href="https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(17)30489-8">Eric’s exploration of keto on the memories of mice</a></li><li><a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40279-015-0393-9">Louise’s paper on keto and sports</a></li></ul><br>This episode has been produced by senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey with help from Wendy Zukerman along with Rose Rimler, Shruti Ravindran and Romilla Karnick. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional help from Eric Menell and Simone Polanen. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord. Recording help from Marissa Shieh and Mary Shedden. Extra thanks to Professor Jon Ramsey, Professor Judith Wylie-Roset, Professor Clare Collins, <a href="https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Person/63944">Dr Deirdre K Tobias</a>, Joanna Lauder and Frank Lopez. Thanks to Jack Weinstein. And extra special thanks to Joseph Lavelle Wilson and Ingrid Zukerman.
Apr 26, 2018
Nuclear War... Total Annihilation?
2149
Nine countries, including North Korea, have nuclear weapons. What would happen if a nuclear bomb was dropped-- say, in New York City? We talk to nuclear historian Dr. Alex Wellerstein, nuclear engineer Dr. Tetsuji Imanaka, and epidemiologist Dr. Eric Grant. <br><br><strong>UPDATE 04/27:</strong> We've adjusted this episode to correct the elevated risk of cancer in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombs. If you survived the atomic bombs your risk of cancer is 10% higher than someone who is the same age as you.<br><br>Check out our <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/100ndnjBpiJvkVhVKVdAeQ2v3X2qWYrdtT3X296OuU4c/edit">full transcript here</a>.&nbsp;<br><br>Selected readings:<ul><li><a href="https://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/effects/">This comprehensive report on nuclear bombs</a></li><li><a href="https://nuclearsecrecy.com/nukemap/">Alex’s nuclear weapon simulation website</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21914640">Tetsuji’s paper calculating the radiation exposure of Hiroshima survivors</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865006/">This review of the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/pdf/WiresClimateChangeNW.pdf">This sobering report on nuclear winter</a></li></ul><br>To find a list of our sponsors and show-related promo codes, go to <a href="http://gimlet.fm/sponsors">gimlet.fm/sponsors</a> <br><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, Rose Rimler, and Shruti Ravindran, with help from Romilla Karnick. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional thoughts from Lulu Miller. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Thanks for recording help from John Wild. For this episode we also spoke to <a href="https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/Richard.Wakeford.html">Prof. Richard Wakeford</a>, Dr. Richard Turco, Prof. <a href="http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/personnel/brian.toon/">Brian Toon</a>, Prof. Alan Robock, Dr. Dale Preston, Dr. William Kennedy, Dr. Jonathan D. Pollack, and a bunch of other experts on North Korea and nuclear weapons. Thank you so much. Also, special thanks to Shigeko Sasamori and Kathleen Sullivan. An extra special thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.
Apr 19, 2018
Sex Addiction: Are They Faking It?
2110
Harvey Weinstein and Kevin Spacey are said to have it. You probably have a friend who says they have it too. But is sex addiction the refuge of scoundrels? Or is it a real psychological problem? We speak to sex therapist Dr. David Ley, clinical psychologist Dr Shane Kraus, neuroscientist Dr. Nicole Prause, and someone we call Jeff. <br><br>If you are experiencing troubles related to sex, you can <a href="https://www.aasect.org/referral-directory">look for support here</a>.<br><br>Check out our <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1FTLHt1IKDEOs6Sh43_lwHpotXZEyf7h2J_E6U5zEeqc/edit">full transcript </a>and its beautiful thickets of footnotes. <br><br>To find a list of our sponsors and show-related promo codes, go to <a href="http://gimlet.fm/sponsors">gimlet.fm/sponsors</a><br><br>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Rose Rimler, Heather Rogers and Romilla Karnick. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from PJ Vogt. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord. Recording help from Gideon Brower and Hannah Colton. For this episode we also spoke to Dr. Marc Potenza, Dr. Carl Erik Fisher, Dr. Valerie Voon, Dr. Joshua Grubbs, and Dr. Mateusz Gola. Thank you so much for your help. And an extra special thanks to Frank Lopez, Joel Werner, Joseph Lavelle Wilson, and to all the men and women who allowed us to hear their stories in meetings for sex addicts and sexual compulsives in New York.<br><br>Selected readings:&nbsp; &nbsp;<ul><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893127">Shane’s review paper on the case for sex addiction&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1037/mil0000147">Shane’s survey on sex addiction among veterans</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687897">A review paper critiquing the case for sex addiction</a></li><li><a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2014.993595">Nicole’s lab study testing whether sex addicts can control sexual response</a></li></ul>
Apr 05, 2018
Opioids: Kicking America's Addiction
2201
America’s got an opioid problem. So where do we go from here? What&nbsp; can actually help people struggling with opioid addiction? We speak to Dr. Anna Lembke, Dr. Marvin Seppala, and a patient we call Mischa.<br><br><strong>UPDATE 04/17: </strong>We’ve adjusted a couple of lines of script in this episode to clarify the role of religion in Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. A previous version of this episode incorrectly implied that the 12 step philosophy considers addiction a sin and a “defect of character”.<br><br>If you or someone you love is struggling with an opioid addiction, in the US you can call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP or visit their <a href="https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/">website</a>.<br><br>Check out our <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/15sjdSXNyQiENplcYTe4zaOSYuf85VFcpNVYlhpztddU/edit"><strong>full transcript</strong></a> with all the footnotes you can handle.<br><br>To find a list of our sponsors and show-related promo codes, go to&nbsp; <a href="http://gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers">gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers</a> <br><br>This episode has been produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Shruti Ravindran and Romilla Karnick. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Lulu Miller. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord. Recording help from Marissa Shieh and Julia Smith. For this episode we also spoke to Dr. Hilary Connery, Dr. Ben Davies, Prof. Linda Gowing, Dr. Laura Payne, Prof. Suzanne Nielsen, Prof. Tom McLellan, and Prof. Wayne Hall. Thank you so much for your help. And special thanks to the Rimler family, Devon Taylor, Sarah McVeigh Joseph Lavelle Wilson, and to everyone who spoke with us about their personal experiences with addiction and treatment. <br><br><strong>Selected readings: &nbsp;</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Final_Report_Draft_11-1-2017.pdf">The White House report on combating drug addiction&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028521">This study that followed about 150 people in NA&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://journals.lww.com/hrpjournal/Fulltext/2015/03000/Medication_Assisted_Treatment_of_Opioid_Use.2.aspx">This review on buprenorphine and other medications</a></li><li><a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1550">This review on risk of death</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(17)30029-6/pdf">This survey that asked doctors what stopped them from prescribing buprenorphine</a></li></ul>
Mar 29, 2018
Opioids: How America Got Hooked
2601
More people in the U.S. died from opioids in 2016 than the peak year of the AIDS epidemic. So how did we get here? We speak to Prof. June Dahl, pain specialist Dr. David Tauben, and emergency physician Dr. Jeanmarie Perrone.<br><br>If you or someone you love is struggling with an opioid addiction, in the US you can call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP or visit their <a href="https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/">website</a>.<br><br>Check out our full transcript with all the footnotes you can handle - <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1rsXzns4edjx3Z2VbiaF3ik9LoomDeIFNVUXprAaTRvs/edit?usp=sharing">here</a>. <br><br>Credits:This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman with help from Rose Rimler, Heather Rogers, and Shruti Ravindran. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Alex Blumberg and Sruthi Pinnamaneni. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord. Recording help from Amber Cortes. And a huge thank you to all the researchers and doctors who spent time with us. We really appreciate it.&nbsp; Dr Andrew Chang, Dr Michael Vagg, Dr Andrew Kolodny, Dr Michael Von Korff, Dr Mary Lynch, Prof Gary Franklin, Prof David J. Clark, Dr Andrew Rosenblum, Frank Lopez, the Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. <br><br>Selected Readings:<br><a href="https://www.nap.edu/read/24781/chapter/1">The National Academies of Sciences report on the epidemic</a><br><br><a href="https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04110.pdf">This government report on the marketing of Oxycontin</a><br><br><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842922">The Danish study on chronic pain</a><br><br><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21412369">This review of opioids and hyperalgesia </a><br><br>For a list of our sponsors and show related offer codes, go to <a href="http://gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers">gimlet.media/OurAdvertisers</a>
Mar 23, 2018
Brand New Science Vs!
123
We'll be in your ears with new episodes next week - Thursday March 22nd.
Mar 16, 2018
Obesity - Is It Your Fault?
2216
We’ve always been told to get off the couch and stop eating junk food if you want to lose weight - but is the obesity epidemic that simple? (Spoiler alert: it’s not.) We speak to geneticist <a href="http://www.neuroscience.cam.ac.uk/directory/profile.php?gshy2">Dr Giles Yeo</a>, exercise physiology researcher <a href="https://ssom.luc.edu/public_health_sciences/faculty-staff/laradugas/">Dr Lara Dugas</a>, gastroenterologist <a href="http://www.bwhcrohnscolitis.org/meet-your-team/jessica-allegretti-md-mph/">Dr Jessica Allegretti</a>, nutrition researcher <a href="https://medicine.wsu.edu/directory-faculty/pablo-monsivais-ph-d-mph/">Dr Pablo Monsivais</a> and Italian radio maker Jonathan Zenti, Check out Jonathan’s <a href="http://www.meatpodcast.com/">podcast<strong>&nbsp;MEAT</strong>&nbsp;here.</a><br><br><br>Check out the<a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1SLcqsFJ2TiTLgfyFgp5vFnIDn6QNIdoW5__hFq2anw0/edit"> full transcript with all the footnotes here</a>.<br><br><br>Selected reading:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434869">The 2007 study announcing the FTO gene and its link to obesity</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2008174">The cute cookie study</a></li><li><a href="http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/49/15/967.long">The paper that says ““Let us bust the myth of physical inactivity and obesity”</a></li><li><a href="https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/2/1/ofv004/1461242">The curious case of the poo transplant</a></li><li><a href="https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/food-desert-in-detroit-associations-with-food-shopping-and-eating-behaviours-dietary-intakes-and-obesity/D2188CBE6C3608BEDCE7BE7698C58D6C/core-reader">Food deserts in Detroit</a></li><li><a href="https://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/reports/2013/rwjf408549">On fast food advertising</a>&nbsp;</li></ul>
Dec 14, 2017
Chiropractors
2004
Can they help with back pain or anything else? We talk to chiropractor Carl Cleveland III, physical therapist Anita Gross, neurophysiologist Dr. Marcello Costa...and Kaity Sawrey’s parents.<br><br><br>Check out our full transcript <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1W5yD38_QnRjdrDzvv4V1Ba71UWCnzEOhELKxOXoc6fE/edit">here.</a><br><br><br>By the way… Gimlet’s doing a holiday pop up shop selling <strong>t-shirts and stickers</strong>. So show your support by getting your very own Science Vs tee shirt! Check it out at <a href="http://sciencevs.show/shirt">sciencevs.show/shirt</a>.<br><br><br>Credits: This episode has been produced by Rose Rimler, Wendy Zukerman, with help from Shruti Ravindran and Heather Rogers. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord. Music written by Bobby Lord. For this episode we also spoke to Dr. Richard Deyo, Prof. Tim Mirtz, Prof. Gregory Whitcomb, Dr. Adam Cifu, and Julie Knaak,-- Thank you for your insights. An extra big thanks to Rachel Ward, Emma Morgenstern, Christina Sullivan, Jasmine Romero and Phoebe Flanigan. As well as Alex Ward, Russell Gragg, Fiona Croall and Judy Adair. Also, a shoutout to the Sawreys! Thank you, Bill &amp; Chris.<br><br>&nbsp; Selected readings:<ul><li><a href="https://www.brianesty.com/bodywork/PDF/Chiropractic%20History.pdf">A history of DD Palmer and chiropractic, which Carl co-wrote</a></li><li><a href="http://www.cochrane.org/CD004249/BACK_manipulation-and-mobilisation-neck-disorders">Anita’s review on spinal manipulation and neck pain</a></li><li><a href="https://chiromt.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1746-1340-18-3?site=chiromt.biomedcentral.com">The UK evidence report on manual therapy</a></li><li><a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2616379">JAMA editorial on spinal manipulation and lower back pain</a></li><li><a href="http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2603228/noninvasive-treatments-acute-subacute-chronic-low-back-pain-clinical-practice">Clinical guidelines on treating lower back pain from the American College of Physicians</a></li><li><a href="http://journals.lww.com/theneurologist/Abstract/2008/01000/Does_Cervical_Manipulative_Therapy_Cause_Vertebral.16.aspx">An analysis of neck manipulation and stroke</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yA98MujNeM">And of course….this</a></li></ul>
Dec 07, 2017
Birth Control - The Biggest Myths
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Everyone’s got a myth or two about birth control they want cleared up. Like... is 'pulling out' AKA withdrawal really such a bad idea? Does the pill change your brain? Are IUDs safe? And why isn’t there a pill for men, already?! We ask gynecologist Dr. Amita Murthy, neuroendocrinologist Dr. Nicole Petersen, men’s health researcher Prof. Robert McLachlan and a whole roomful of experts on sex -- teenagers.<br><br>UPDATE 05/12/17: We have updated this episode to further emphasize that the pre-cum studies are only very small. Use withdrawal at your own peril!<br><br><br>Check out our <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ta9DFtBm2xw5KGoS9sHau3nsydvu5vSSPNTj2jy3PoE/edit"><strong>full transcript here</strong></a><strong>. <br></strong><br><br>Selected readings:<ul><li><a href="https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2006/disparities-rates-unintended-pregnancy-united-states-1994-and-2001">The Guttmacher report on unintended pregnancies</a></li><li><a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.22797/abstract">Nicole’s research on the brain</a></li><li><a href="http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6356.full">The Nurses’ Health Study results on oral contraceptives</a></li><li><a href="http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJOG_2014112714582934.pdf">A history of the Dalkon Shield</a></li><li><a href="http://sci-hub.bz//10.1016/S2213-8587(16)00034-6">The latest on male contraception</a></li></ul><br><br>Credits: This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Shruti Ravindran, Heather Rogers and Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Extra editing help from Alex Blumberg and Eric Mennel. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord. Music written by Bobby Lord.&nbsp;<br>An extra thanks to Dr Aparna Sundaram at the Guttmacher Institute, Dr Sarah Prager, Prof Brittany Charlton, Dr Lisa Iversen, Prof James Trussell, Dr Sara Holton. Big thank you to Libby Shafer and all the Chicago teens, plus Jonathan Goldstein and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Nov 30, 2017
Molly - Scary Drug or Promising Therapy?
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Molly, Ecstasy, MDMA... whatever you want to call it, it's all the same thing. This week, we’re turning up the bass and checking out what does it do to your brain. Is it bad for you? Could it be a potential medicine? To find out, we talk to public health researcher Prof. Joseph Palamar, DEA special agent James Hunt, and neuroscientist Prof. Harriet de Witt. <br><br>Check out the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ttsq5WXRgXUpv_3cghzsaeHVgmOpgtoVW_RcE3mVTgY/edit?usp=sharing"><strong>full transcript here</strong></a><strong>.<br></strong><br><strong>Selected reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316346">Harriet’s paper on MDMA and feelings of rejection</a></li><li><a href="http://sci-hub.cc//10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.010">Joseph’s paper on club kid hair</a></li><li><a href="https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/11534/2009%20Health%20Tech%20Ass_The%20harmful%20health%20effects_Garside.pdf?sequence=2">This big British report on the risks of ecstasy&nbsp;</a></li></ul><br><strong>Credits: </strong>This episode was produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, Shruti Ravindran and Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, Rose Rimler and Ben Kuebrich. Sound design by Martin Peralta and Haley Shaw. Music written by Bobby Lord. An extra thanks to Johnny Dynell, Jesse Rudoy, Brian Earp, Prof. Jerrold S. Meyer, Prof. Niamh Nic Daéid and Dr. Carl Roberts.<br><br><br><br><br><br>
Nov 16, 2017
Balding - What Actually Works?
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So... you’re losing your hair. Is there anything that can be done about it? And are the treatments dangerous -- for your or your penis? We talk to geneticist Prof. Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach&nbsp; and dermatologists Dr. Wilma Bergfeld and Dr. Robert Bernstein.<br><br>Check out the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/186mTodaND0c9L-ir2O-Qbe44Ci4jNV-a4c5gYvJ3c50/edit">full transcript here</a>.<br><br>Extra reading:<ul><li><a href="http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s40257-014-0077-5">A review of balding treatments</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14694.pdf">Stefanie’s paper on balding genetics</a></li><li><a href="http://sci-hub.cc/10.1126/science.186.4170.1213">This research on the intersex population of the Dominican Republic&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://escholarship.org/content/qt1954f4vv/qt1954f4vv.pdf">Notes on hair transplants</a></li></ul>
Nov 09, 2017
The Bee-pocalypse
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What is killing the bees? And will we have enough food to eat if the bee-pocalypse becomes worse? We speak to Dave Goulson, Professor of Biology and Bumblebee ecologist at the University of Sussex, Judy Wu-Smart, Research Entomologist at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Steve Ellis, a beekeeper in Barrett, Minnesota. <br>Check out the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1afGDNCZa3S0AeuiDgfkUL0aCgHbGhsX2W9yEDHKwZlk/edit?usp=sharing">full transcript here</a>. <strong>Extra reading &nbsp;</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/srep32108">Judy Wu-Smart’s study</a> on how neonicotinoid pesticides affect queen bees</li><li><a href="http://sci-hub.cc//10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.10.001">Dave Goulson’s round-up</a> of the parasites that plague bees</li><li>A <a href="https://nature.berkeley.edu/kremenlab/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Global-pollinator-declines.pdf">comprehensive laundry list </a>of all the factors that make the world inhospitable to bees</li></ul>
Nov 02, 2017
Vitamins & Supplements - Are They Worth It?
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Americans spend billions of dollars on vitamins and supplements, but are they worth it? We look at the science behind some of the most popular supplements with nutritional epidemiologist Prof. Katherine Tucker, neuroscientist Dr. Simon Dyall, and medical researcher Dr. Mark Bolland. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors: </strong><a href="http://g.co/gsuitegimlet">G Suite</a> | <a href="http://wpengine.com">WP Engine</a><br><br><strong>Credits:</strong> This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers, and Shruti Ravindran. Production assistance from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Blythe Terrell with help from Alex Blumberg. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord. Music written by Bobby Lord. An extra thanks to the Zukerman Family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson, Chris Giliberti, Jasmine Romero, Matthew Nelson, Stevie Lane, Dr Harri Hemilä, Stephanie from the New York State Library and Dr Rajaprabhakaran Rajarethinam.<br><br><strong>Selected Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://web1.sph.emory.edu/users/hpacho2/PartnershipsMaize/Bishai_2002.pdf">The history of fortified foods</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56050/#summary.s11">The Institute of Medicine Report on calcium and Vitamin D</a></li><li><a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1568520?dm_i=13BV,1CD82,875I88,4JUZN,#full-text-tab">Survey on vitamin shopping habits in the US</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641248">Simon’s paper on Omega 3 and spinal cord injuries in rats</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125316/">Mark’s work on calcium</a></li><li><a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1389615#full-text-tab">This whopper of a study on multivitamins</a></li></ul><br>Check out the <strong>full transcript</strong> <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1iajo00ZwQo9hLqhuAVQdtRQbr50L9cA0-V0MFoD6zuo/edit?usp=sharing">here with all the footnotes</a>.<br><br><br><br><br><br>
Oct 19, 2017
Bigfoot
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All over the world people report sightings of big, hairy, human-like beasts, so could Bigfoot really be out there... somewhere? We ask Dr. Jeff Meldrum, Prof. Bryan Sykes, Prof. Todd Disotell, and the Round Rock, Texas, Department of Parks and Recreation. <br><br>CORRECTION: In a previous version of this podcast we said Dr Meldrum works at the University of Idaho. He actually works at Idaho State University. We've updated this episode with his correct title.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong> <a href="http://Extraordinariesonthemic.com">Cole Haan </a>| <a href="http://wpengine.com">WP Engine</a> |<a href="http://sundancenow.com"> Sundance Now</a><br><br>Listen to Gimlet's newest show, <strong>Uncivil </strong>wherever you get your podcasts<br><a href="http://gimlet.media/2gA4XyF">Apple Podcasts</a> | <a href="http://gimlet.media/2yg0p8h">Overcast</a> | <a href="http://gimlet.media/2g4FQmV">Stitcher</a> | <a href="http://gimlet.media/2kJYpSJ">Pocketcasts</a><br><br><strong>Credits:</strong> This episode has been produced by our senior producer, Kaitlyn Sawrey, as well as Wendy Zukerman, Rose Reid, Heather Rogers and Shruti Ravindran. Production assistance from Rose Rimler. Edited by Blythe Terrell and Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord. And a big thank you to Dr Michael J Hickerson and Professor James L. Patton for his 7 PAGE document describing the last large mammals discovered by western scientists in North America, suffice to say, Bigfoot wasn’t on the list.<br><br><strong>Selected Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02152.x/full">Paper on Bigfoot reports in North America</a></li><li><a href="http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1789/20140161?ijkey=9c2adef552cefc8e4c9a848d1180cd963821067e&amp;keytype2=tf_ipsecsha">Bryan’s paper on Bigfoot hairs</a></li><li><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Christopher_Stringer/publication/224887877_Evolution_What_makes_a_modern_human/links/54e325ae0cf2de71a71e1996/Evolution-What-makes-a-modern-human.pdf">A review of the human family tree</a></li><li><a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=hPST5ZLI4dAC&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;dq=Sasquatch:+Legend+Meets+Science&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjf4eTqzevWAhVBQCYKHVDpCe0Q6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&amp;q=Sasquatch%3A%20Legend%20Meets%20Science&amp;f=false">Jeff Meldrum’s book</a>Check out the full transcript&nbsp;</li></ul><a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1rCN-R__1vrYvsJdrK6DQbFVFjV1c-cL8zlV56M0x0MI/edit">here</a> with all the footnotes.&nbsp;
Oct 12, 2017
100% Renewable Energy - Can We Do It?
2413
We need to ditch fossil fuels. Can America go 100% renewable by 2050? Does the technology already exist? We speak to Prof. Mark Delucchi, Prof. Christopher Clack, and Prof. David Connolly.<br><br>UPDATE: Since this episode was published, Tesla have <a href="https://www.tesla.com/semi/">unveiled a prototype of a electric semi truck.</a> <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors: </strong><a href="http://hellotushy.com/sciencevs">Tushy</a> | <a href="http://wordpress.com/science">Wordpress.com</a> | TuneIn<br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers and Shruti Ravindran. Production help from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited this week by Blythe Terrell and Annie-Rose Strasser, with extra help from Rachel Ward. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord. For this episode we also spoke to Professor Vijay Modi, Professor Mark Jacobson, Dr Gorm Bruun Andresen,&nbsp; Professor Willett Kempton, Dr Dylan McConnell, and Dr Jane CS Long. And an extra thanks to the Zukerman family. <br><br><strong>Selected reading</strong>:&nbsp;<ul><li><a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/112/49/15060.full.pdf">Mark Jacobson and Mark Delucchi paper </a>showing that the US could be run on 100 percent renewable energy.</li><li><a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/114/26/6722.full#aff-16">Christopher Clack and his team’s paper criticising Mark’s work</a></li><li><a href="http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/GFR-Full-Report-2017_webversion_3.pdf">Survey published this year of more than 100 energy experts</a> on the future of renewables.</li><li><a href="https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/52409-ES.pdf">National Renewable Energy Lab’s</a> look at Renewable Electricity&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7bp7p049#page-8">Detailed report&nbsp; on California’s energy</a> future Check out the&nbsp;</li></ul><a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1DP2_FX2-VxzBfGKUr96VGEJPm-fLEdIY_OZXaU3sMCg/edit?usp=sharing">full transcript here</a> with all the footnotes.&nbsp;<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Oct 05, 2017
Science Vs Presents: I Want That Purple Stuff
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We're on a break this week -- we're back in your ears next week with an episode on Renewable Energy. <br><br>So we have a treat for you - <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/episode/want-purple-stuff/">The Nod</a> (another show from Gimlet Media) did a great episode on the science of purple drink. We wanted to share it with you so the next time you're eating Jolly Ranchers or Skittles you'll know what you're tasting. Enjoy!
Sep 28, 2017
The Rise of Anti-Vaxxers
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Last week we explored the science behind vaccine safety. This week we try to understand where these fears came from, and why they persist. We speak to three historians: Prof. Nadja Durbach, Prof. Elena Conis, and Prof. Robert Johnston. And a concerned mom named Noelle. Sign up to our newsletter &gt;&gt;<a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/">here</a>&lt;&lt; so you get the full transcript of the show with all of the footnotes and links to the science.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors: </strong><a href="http://madewell.com/denimrecycling">Cotton Inc + Madewell</a> | <a href="http://spotify.com/podcasts">Spotify</a> | <a href="http://sundancenow.com">Sundance Now's Riviera</a> | <a href="http://wordpress.com/science">Wordpress.com</a><br><br><strong>Credits</strong>:<br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, and Shruti Ravindran. Production help from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited this week by Blythe Terrell with editorial assistance from Alex Blumberg, Annie-Rose Strasser and Lynn Levy. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, with help from Rose Rimler. Sound design by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord. For this episode we also spoke with Russ Bruesewitz, Prof. Sharon Kaufmann, Prof. Alison Buttenheim, Barbara Loe Fisher, Sally Mendelsohn, Prof. Mary Holland, Prof. Paul Jackson, Prof. Michael Willrich, Julie Livingston and Kari Christianson. Thanks to Gimlet producer Luke Malone, the whole Zukerman clan, Joseph Lavelle Wilson, and Leo Rogers.<br><br><strong>Selected references:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Confessions-Medical-Heretic-Other-Health/dp/0809241315">Dr. Robert Mendelsohn’s book,&nbsp;<em>Confessions of a Medical Heretic</em></a></li><li><a href="https://www.dukeupress.edu/bodily-matters">Nadja Durbach’s book,&nbsp;<em>Bodily Matters</em></a></li><li><a href="http://mde.biologia.gr/ferma/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2017/03/Vaccine-hesitancy-vaccine.pdf">Vaccine hesitancy paper</a></li><li><a href="http://paul-offit.com/booksby/deadly-choices/">Paul Offit’s book,&nbsp;<em>Deadly Choices</em></a></li></ul>
Sep 21, 2017
Vaccines - Are They Safe?
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Autism, seizures, and overloaded immune systems. Could these really be side effects of vaccines? This week, we dive&nbsp; into the science to find out how safe vaccines really are. We also talk to public health researchers Prof. Dan Salmon and Prof. Amy Kalkbrenner and neurologist Prof. Ingrid Scheffer. Sign up to our newsletter <strong>&gt;&gt;</strong><a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/"><strong>here</strong></a><strong>&lt;&lt;</strong> so you get the full transcript of the show with all of the footnotes and links to the science. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><a href="http://extraordinariesonthemic.com?utm_source=Science%20VS&amp;utm_medium=podcast&amp;utm_campaign=ColeHaan&amp;utm_content=shownotes">Cole Haan</a> |<a href="http://g.co/gsuitegimlet"> Google Cloud, Maker of GSuite</a> | <a href="http://ziprecruiter.com/sciencevs">Ziprecruiter</a> | <a href="http://wpengine.com">WPEngine</a><br> <br><strong>Credits:</strong> <br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, and Shruti Ravindran. Production help from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited this week by Blythe Terrell and Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, with help from Rose Rimler. Sound design by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord. For this episode we also spoke with Dr. Saad Omer, Dr. Neal Halsey, Dr. Paul Offit, Dr. Frank DeStefano, and Prof. Alison Buttenheim. And an extra thanks to Bonnie Stanway,Ivona Stamatoska, Reese and Walter Ludwig, the Zukerman Family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson and - of course! - Leo Rogers. <br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.nap.edu/read/13563/chapter/1">The National Academies (aka Institute of Medicine) report on vaccine safety&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/09/09/peds.2014-0690">A report on the genetic underpinnings of epilepsy</a></li><li><a href="http://fourteenstudies.org/pdf/MMR_7.pdf">This study looked for neurologic disorders after the MMR shot in half a million kids</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa021134#t=article">This one looked at all children born in Denmark between 1991 and 1998</a></li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Sep 14, 2017
Detoxing & Cleanses - Do They Work?
2254
Juice cleanses, fancy foods, sweat, charcoal, and colonics-- is there a scientifically proven way to ‘clean out’ your system? This week, we dig in deep to the science of detox and turn ourselves into guinea pigs for a juicing experiment. We talk to a passionate proctologist named Prof. Graham Newstead, as well as nutrition researcher Prof. Stella Volpe and toxicologist Dr. Susanne Ramm.<br><br>Sign up to our <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/"><strong>newsletter</strong>&nbsp;here</a> - for all the cool science stuff we’re reading. View our guide to <strong>Gimlet's Fall shows</strong><a href="http://fall.gimletmedia.com/?show=science-vs?utm_source=ScienceVS&amp;utm_medium=podcast&amp;utm_campaign=Fall2017&amp;utm_content=shownotes"><strong> here</strong></a><strong>.<br></strong><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><a href="http://extraordinariesonthemic.com?utm_source=Science%20VS&amp;utm_medium=podcast&amp;utm_campaign=ColeHaan&amp;utm_content=shownotes"><strong> Cole Haan</strong></a><strong> |</strong><a href="http://g.co/gsuitegimlet"><strong> Google Cloud, Maker of GSuite</strong></a><strong> |</strong><a href="http://madewell.com/denimrecycling"><strong> Cotton Inc + Madewell</strong></a><br><br><strong>Credits: </strong>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Wendy Zukerman, and Heather Rogers. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, with help from Rose Rimler. Sound design by Martin Peralta.&nbsp; Music written by Bobby Lord. Extra thanks to Lynn Levy, the Zukerman Family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson, Torey Armul, Dr. Naveed Sattar, and Dr. David Juurlink.<br><br><strong>Selected References</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v94/n1/full/ajg199931a.html">On the inability of activated charcoal to absorb wind, aka the ‘poo in a blender’ study</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v104/n11/full/ajg2009494a.html">Review paper on the dangers of colonics</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="https://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v32/n4/full/0803776a.html">Why liquids don't make you feel very full&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/chemse/bjr100">An investigation of capsaicin, aka the spice in spicy food, for weight loss&nbsp;</a></li></ul>
Sep 07, 2017
New Season... Coming Soon!
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Science Vs is back in your ears next week! This season we're going to dissect the science behind detox diets, the safety of vaccines and whether America can run on 100% renewable energy. We also figure out whether vitamins and supplements are a waste of your money, why the bees are dying and where the heck the Male Pill is at?! <br><br>Go to <a href="http://sciencevs.show/fall">sciencevs.show/fall</a> to check out Wendy's favourite episodes of other Gimlet shows coming back this Fall.&nbsp;<br><br>Fact you next week!
Aug 31, 2017
Introducing... The Pitch
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Check out a new show from Gimlet Media called The Pitch! On it, real entrepreneurs pitch to real investors for real money. In this episode, a startup founder pitches his technology designed to reduce repeat head injuries in sports
Jul 26, 2017
Artificial Sweeteners - not so sweet?
3185
Low calorie, no calorie and so sweet. Artificial sweeteners just seem too good to be true. Is there a catch? We dig into two big questions: Do artificial sweeteners cause cancer, and are they making us fat? We talk to Prof. John Glendinning, Prof. Susie Swithers, Dr. Kieron Rooney, and PhD student Jotham Suez about the latest research. Plus we do a fun experiment with PJ Vogt and Alex Goldman from Reply All!&nbsp; Also, please sign up for our brand spanking new <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/ ">newsletter</a>! We’ll share science that’s been blowing our minds, plus great content like the most amazing calculation from an academic of how much bigger 323 African Elephants are than nuclear waste. Head to: <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/">https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/</a>&nbsp; <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><ul><li>Postmates - New customers get a $100 credit by downloading the app and entering the promo code SCIENCE</li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress">Wordpress</a> - go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress"> wordpress.com/science</a> to get 15% off a new website</li><li>Hello Fresh - For $30 off your first week of meals go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/hellofresh2017"> hellofresh.com</a> and enter the promo code SCIENCEVS30&nbsp;</li></ul><strong>Credits:</strong> <br><br>This episode has been produced by Ben Kuebrich, Heather Rogers, Shruti Ravindran and Wendy Zukerman.Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie-Rose Strasser. Production assistance by Stevie Lane. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Original music and mixing by Bobby Lord. Extra thanks to Dr. Mary Pat Gallagher, Peter Bresnan, Euromonitor International and ubiome.&nbsp; &nbsp;<br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.122.1.161">Prof. Susie Swithers’s study on artificial sweeteners and feeding behavior in rats</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.12703">A 2015 systematic review of the relationship between artificial sweetener consumption and cancer in humans</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13793">Jotham Suez’s study on artificial sweeteners and the gut microbiome</a></li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Jun 08, 2017
Nuclear Power - what are the Risks?
2529
Fukushima. Chernobyl. Three Mile Island. There’s been some big nuclear accidents over the past few decades, but how dangerous is nuclear power really? We take you inside the core of America’s biggest nuclear power plant and trace what went wrong at Fukushima to try to figure out: when will the next meltdown happen? And what our chances are of getting cancer from it? This week we talk to Dr. Spencer Wheatley, Dr. Jonathan Samet, and Jack Cadogan, an executive at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station.<br><br>UPDATE! We’ve made a couple of small changes to this episode, thank you to all the listeners who picked up on them.&nbsp; 1. We called the energy that comes from nuclear power a chemical reaction… it’s not. It’s a <a href="https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;id=p_P1Wm5MnVAC&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PA70&amp;dq=nuclear+reaction+fission&amp;ots=XmLTKDbBdD&amp;sig=RnzyX9V-L8tARJKXGmRWLEZKk-4#v=onepage&amp;q=nuclear%20reaction%20fission&amp;f=false">nuclear reaction</a>. Chemical reactions involve the electrons in an atom. Nuclear reactions involve the nucleus.&nbsp; 2. We said that the Joker became The Joker After falling into a vat of radioactive waste. This is disputed. It seems it was a vat chemicals.. But what those chemicals were , that’s unclear. 3. A clarification: We said that the waste that nuclear power produces in the US… <a href="https://www.gao.gov/key_issues/disposal_of_highlevel_nuclear_waste/issue_summary">2200 metric tons per year</a>… was like 323 male African Elephants. That was a weight comparison. They weigh roughly the same… It wasn’t a three dimensional size comparison. Nuclear waste is much denser than an elephant, and so it takes up much less room. And if you want to read the most amazing calculation from an academic of how much bigger 323 African Elephants are in 3D space you’ve got to sign up to our brand spanking new newsletter! To do that head to <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/">https://gimletmedia.com/newsletter/</a>&nbsp; And FINALLY! We got a lot of feedback from that episode that listeners really wanted to hear how nuclear power compares to other energy sources: like coal, solar and wind! Now we decided that to do a fair comparison that really needs it’s own episode - it wasn’t as simple as just throwing out some numbers. So we’re working on that episode for next season. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:<br></strong>Cloudflare - To learn more visit<a href="http://gimlet.media/2nJE2G6"> cloudflare.com/sciencevs</a><br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Ben Kuebrich, Shruti Ravindran and Wendy Zukerman.Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Ben Kuebrich and Heather Rogers. Original music and mixing by Bobby Lord. Extra thanks to Leo Rogers, Joseph Lavelle Wilson as well as Prof. Steven Biegalski, Prof. Mark Jacobson, Jussi Heinonen, and Dr. Eric Grant.<br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/radiation-basics.html">Radiation Basics Primer from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2015.12.026">Dr. Spencer Wheatley’s paper ‘Reassessing the safety of nuclear power’</a></li><li><a href="https://www.nap.edu/read/11340/chapter/1">National Research Council Report on Health Risks from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation</a></li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Jun 01, 2017
Meditation
2140
Silicon Valley CEOs, Tibetan monks, and crunchy hippies alike describe meditation as blissful and life-changing, but what does the science say? Can it reduce stress, increase your attention, and improve mental health -- or is all this focus on breathing just a bunch of hot air?&nbsp; Sit back, get comfortable, and focus your mind as we talk to Tim Ferriss, Professor Gaelle Desbordes, Dr. Clifford Saron, and Dr. Britta Hölzel. Please note: we have updated this episode. We removed a reference to Peter Thiel, the founder of Paypal. He was a guest on Tim Ferriss' show, but didn't discuss whether he meditates.&nbsp;<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors</strong><ul><li>Everyday Bravery - Listen to Everyday Bravery, a podcast from Prudential, by going to <a href="http://everydaybravery.com/">everydaybravery.com</a></li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress">Wordpress</a> - go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress"> wordpress.com/science</a> to get 15% off a new website</li></ul><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Ben Kuebrich, Heather Rogers and Wendy Zukerman. Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Ben Kuebrich. Music production and original music written by Bobby Lord. Extra thanks to Dr Jonathan Schooler, Dr Florian Kurth Aldis Wieble and Dr. Madhav Goyal.<br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr079.pdf">CDC Report: Trends in the Use of Complementary Health Approaches Among Adults: United States, 2002–2012</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705269">Review of Neuroimaging Studies on Meditators</a>&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1809754?wptouch_preview_theme=enabled">Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis</a> - JAMA review of Clinical Trials with Active Controls</li><li><a href="http://saronlab.ucdavis.edu/uploads/5/7/5/5/57553417/jacobs_(2010)_-_intensive_meditation_training_immune_cell_telomerase_activity_and_psychological_mediators.pdf">Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators</a> - Dr. Cliff Saron’s study on telomerase activity after a meditation retreat</li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
May 25, 2017
True Love
2863
What <em>is</em> love? With half of first time American marriages ending in divorce by the 20th anniversary, and infidelity being widespread, Science Vs asks: have we been lied to by our love songs?<br>On today’s episode we explore: What happens to the brain when we fall in love? Is the compulsion to stay together biological? And, is monogamy really unnatural? We talk to Dr. Helen Fisher, Professor Larry Young, and Dr. Dieter Lukas about their labors of love. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><ul><li>Everyday Bravery - Listen to Everyday Bravery, a podcast from Prudential, by going to <a href="http://everydaybravery.com/">everydaybravery.com</a></li><li>Virgin Atlantic - Listen to their podcast, The Venture, wherever you get your podcasts</li><li><a href="http://ziprecruiter.com/sciencevs">Ziprecruiter</a> - try Ziprecruiter for free by going to <a href="http://ziprecruiter.com/sciencevs">ziprecruiter.com/sciencevs</a></li></ul><br><strong>Credits:<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers, Ben Kuebrich, Shruti Ravindran and Rose Reid. Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser. Extra editorial help from Alex Blumberg. Production assistance from Stevie Lane. Fact checking by Ben Kuebrich. Music production and original music written by Bobby Lord. Special thanks to Joseph Lavelle Wilson, Austin Mitchell and to Professor Karen L Kramer, Professor Garth Fletcher, Dr. Alexander G. Ophir, Professor David Barash, Richard Bethleham .<br><br>Check out Gail and Rose Reid's podcast<em> </em><a href="http://www.detailsplease.org/"><em>Details Please</em></a><em>.&nbsp;</em><br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/marriage-divorce.htm">CDC - Data on First Marriages in the United States</a></li><li><a href="http://jn.physiology.org/content/94/1/327.short">Helen Fisher fMRI Paper on Early-Stage Love</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v7/n10/abs/nn1327.html">Larry Young Review Paper on the Neurobiology of Pair Bonding</a></li><li><a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/526">Dieter Lukas’s Paper on the Evolution of Monogamy in Mammals</a></li><li><a href="http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/mrossano/evo_psych/readings/FletcherPairBonding.pdf">The monogamy camp - review paper arguing “we evolved to be monogamous</a>”</li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
May 11, 2017
Antioxidants
2268
Are chocolate, coffee and red wine actually good for us? Reading the news it seems that one day they are helping us live longer, and the next day they are giving us heart attacks.&nbsp; So what’s going on here? Host Wendy Zukerman and DJ/senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey explore the science live on stage, with interview clips from Prof. Bruce Ames, Prof. David Sinclair and author Aidan Goggins.<br><br>This show was recorded live at The Bell House on Thursday, March 23rd, 2017. If you want to listen to the Q&amp;A after the show, sign up to become a <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/join-gimlet/">Gimlet member</a> for $5 a month. If you sign up for a year, you can receive a Science Vs t-shirt! <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><ul><li>Cloudflare - To learn more visit<a href="http://gimlet.media/2nJE2G6"> cloudflare.com/sciencevs</a></li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress">Wordpress</a> - go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress"> wordpress.com/science</a> to get 15% off a new website</li><li>Hello Fresh - For $30 off your first week of meals go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/hellofresh2017"> hellofresh.com</a> and enter the promo code SCIENCEVS30</li></ul><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers, Diane Wu, and Shruti Ravindran. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Diane Wu and Ben Kuebrich. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, and mixed by Austin Thompson.&nbsp; Music written by Bobby Lord.&nbsp; Extra thanks to Martin Peralta, Rachel Ward, Eric Mennel and the Bell House, and live show art by Alice Lay (which you can see at <a href="http://facebook.com/sciencevspodcast">facebook.com/sciencevspodcast</a>) <br><strong>Further Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.277028">JAMA Review - Are antioxidant supplements associated with higher or lower all-cause mortality?&nbsp;</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7117/full/nature05354.html">David Sinclair’s Study: Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet</a></li><li><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.951015056.x">Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu194">Coffee Meta-analysis: Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes…</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308347">Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women</a></li></ul>
May 04, 2017
Abortion: What You Need To Know
2836
Abortion is so taboo. People don’t talk about abortions they’ve had. Doctors don’t talk about abortions they’ve given. But it's happening a lot. Almost a million abortions<a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/psrh.12015/full"> happened in the US in 2014</a>. So, what actually happens in an abortion, can the fetus feel pain and what are the risks?&nbsp; To find out we visit an abortion clinic in Texas and talk to Dr. Amita Murthy, Dr. Lisa Harris, Dr. Bhavik Kumar, and Dr. Diana Greene Foster. This episode is not about being pro-choice or pro-life, but <strong>pro-facts</strong>.<br><br><strong>Credits:</strong>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, Ben Kuebrich, Shruti Ravindran and Rachel Ward. Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser.&nbsp; Fact Checking by Michelle Harris and Ben Kuebrich. Extra help with production and editorial from Alex Blumberg and Jorge Just. Music production and original music written by Bobby Lord. Thanks to Lola Pellegrino, Ronnie Shankar, Dr. Diane Horvath-Cosper, Rachel Jones, Elizabeth Nash, Dr Yoon-Jin Kim, Delma Limones and Gilda Sedgh. Also thanks to Katie Bishop and Reverend David Gushee.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong>There is no sponsor! Weirdly we couldn’t find any companies were like ‘hey yeah we want to advertise on an episode about one of the most controversial issues in America’. So… you should be our sponsor! Support quality journalism that isn’t afraid to tackle controversial topics. <a href="https://gimletmedia.com/join-gimlet/?utm_source=science_vs&amp;utm_medium=podcast&amp;utm_campaign=SVabortionep&amp;utm_content=sv-shownotes"><strong><em>Become a Gimlet Member</em></strong></a><em> for $5 a month to support our shows and receive exclusive perks like early access to new show pilots, an invite to our member Slack, first notice about Gimlet events, and for our annual members, your choice of a newly redesigned Gimlet t-shirt (we recommend the Science VS design). </em><br><br><strong>Further Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/ss/ss6512a1.htm">CDC Statistics on Abortion</a></li><li><a href="https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2017/01/abortion-incidence-and-service-availability-united-states-2014">Guttmacher Institute Report on Abortion</a></li><li><a href="http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2592320">The Turnaway Study - Women’s Mental Health and Well-being 5 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion</a></li><li><a href="https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/abortion-guideline_web_1.pdf">Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists - The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion</a></li><li><a href="https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/abortion-guideline_web_1.pdf">Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists - Fetal Awareness</a></li></ul>
Apr 27, 2017
Introducing... Every Little Thing
1040
<a href="https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/every-little-thing/id1225760210?mt=2"><strong>Every Little Thing</strong></a> is a new show from Gimlet Media... plus, a mea culpa on last week's GMO episode.&nbsp;
Apr 20, 2017
GMO... OMG?
2832
Science Vs peels back the label on GM foods to find out whether they’re safe to eat and what impact they can have on the environment. Both sides of the debate have written impassioned songs, but what does the science say? We talk to Prof. Fred Gould, Dr. Janet Cotter, and Prof. David Douches to find out. <br><br>***Please note*** this episode has been updated. In the original version we suggested that the Bt corn that killed monarch caterpillars was taken off the market as a direct result of studies demonstrating its harm. But although the corn was eventually taken off the market, the company that made it later told us it was phased out "for business reasons", such as declining sales -- and they did not mention the dead butterflies. <br><br><strong>Credits:<br><br></strong>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Heather Rogers, and Wendy Zukerman.&nbsp; Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Production assistance by Ben Kuebrich. Our editor is Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris and Ben Kuebrich. Music production, mixing and original scoring by Bobby Lord. Thanks to Professor Elizabeth Ransom, Professor Stephen Long, Stephen Tindale, Dr Chuck Benbrook and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><ul><li><strong>Ziprecruiter - </strong>Try Ziprecruiter for free by going to<a href="http://gimlet.media/2pyeKrc"> ziprecruiter.com/sciencevs</a></li><li><strong>Cloudflare - </strong>To learn more visit<a href="http://gimlet.media/2nJE2G6"> cloudflare.com/sciencevs</a></li></ul><br><strong>Further Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://nas-sites.org/ge-crops/">The National Academy of Sciences report on GE crops</a></li><li>Our favourite youtube videos about genetically modified crops <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnN6FFjZBZQ">here</a>, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fofKzn6qSo&amp;feature=youtu.be&amp;t=39">here</a> and <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pE0igWnSCyI'">here</a>.&nbsp;</li></ul>
Apr 17, 2017
Lemmings
2078
Why do four out of five dentists recommend Colgate? How many Americans really approve of Trump? This special episode is a two-parter: First, we talk to Prof. Dan Levitin, author of ‘Weaponized Lies: How to Think Critically in the Post-Truth Era’, about some recent news stories and how to be skeptical of the statistics you see. Then, we bring you a surprise you won’t want to miss. It’s about deception, murder, and of course, ~science~. <br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/podcast/">Ebay</a> - Listen to Ebay's podcast Open For Business on iTunes, or wherever you get your podcasts</li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress">Wordpress</a> - go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/ScienceVSWordpress"> wordpress.com/science</a> to get 15% off a new website</li><li>Hello Fresh - For $30 off your first week of meals go to<a href="http://gimlet.media/hellofresh2017"> hellofresh.com</a> and enter the promo code SCIENCEVS30</li></ul><strong>Our Sponsors:<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Austin Mitchell, Ben Kuebrich, Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers, and Shruti Ravindran. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Our editor is Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact Checking by Ben Kuebrich. Sound engineering, music production and original scoring by Bobby Lord. The lemmings musical mega-mix was created by Austin Mitchell. Thanks to Dr. Malte Andersson, Dr. Anders Angerbjörn and Dr. Rolf Anker Ims. As well as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for the use of Cruel Camera.&nbsp; <br><br><strong>Further Reading:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/558493/weaponized-lies-by-daniel-j-levitin/9781101983829/">Weaponized Lies by Prof. Dan Levitin</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/articles/srep27225">A Theory on the Cause of Lemming Booms</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7218/full/nature07442.html">Linking Climate to Lemming Cycles</a></li></ul>
Apr 06, 2017
Ghosts
3075
One third of Americans believe in ghosts, and one fifth have had a personal encounter. We go to a haunted house with some paranormal investigators and things get spooky. But, scientists aren’t scared - they have a range of explanations for why so many people encounter ghosts. We speak to Dr. Katie Mack, Baland Jalal, Dr. Shane Rogers, and Prof. Chris French and find out what ghosts are all about. <br><br><strong>Credits:<br></strong>This episode has been produced by Ben Kuebrich, Diane Wu, Heather Rogers and Shruti Ravindran me.&nbsp; Senior Producer Kaitlyn Sawrey. Our editor is Annie-Rose Strasser. Production assistance: Audrey Quinn. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris. Sound engineering, music production and original scoring by Bobby Lord. &nbsp; Thanks to Dr. Ciaran O’Keeffe, Dr Neil Dagnall, Dr. Giulio Rognini, Raymond Swyers,&nbsp; Dr. Joseph Baker, Prof. Kwai Man Luk,&nbsp; Prof. Kin Seng Chiang, Prof. Tapan Sarkar, Prof. Maxim Gitlits, The Zukerman family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson as well as Jorge Just, Devon Taylor ...and thanks to Haley Shaw for the spooooky violins in the Science Vs theme. <br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:<br></strong>Meet real Subaru owners and hear their stories on<a href="http://gimlet.media/GimletSubaru"> MeetAnOwner.com.</a><br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Baland_Jalal/publication/266795862_Sleep_Paralysis_and_the_Bedroom_Intruder_The_Role_of_the_Right_Superior_Parietal_Phantom_Pain_and_Body_Image_Projection/links/546842010cf20dedafcf57d9.pdf">Baland Jalal’s Sleep Paralysis Hallucination Hypothesis</a></li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013036/">Review of Folklore Surrounding Sleep Paralysis</a></li><li><a href="http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/43325/E92645.pdf">World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould</a></li><li><a href="http://www.each.usp.br/rvicente/HauntProject.pdf">Chris French’s Haunted Room Experiment</a></li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Mar 30, 2017
Climate Change... the Apocalypse?
2878
<a href="http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/public-views-on-climate-change-and-climate-scientists/">Less than half of </a>Americans think climate change is caused by humans, but scientists are sure about it. So, how do they know that humans are to blame? We also look into the climate change crystal ball to figure out are we doomed? Is the apocalypse nigh? We speak to Prof. Ralph Keeling, Prof. Chris Field, and Dr. David Pierce to find out.<br><br><strong>Science Vs Live!<br></strong>Come see our live show on the science behind red wine, coffee and chocolate - could our favorite treats actually be good for us? Thursday 3/23 at the Bell House. Get your tickets here: <a href="http://bit.ly/2mnNNpv">http://bit.ly/2mnNNpv</a>&nbsp; <br><br><strong>Credits:<br></strong>This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Dr Diane Wu, Shruti Ravindran, and Heather Rogers. Senior Producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Production assistance from Ben Kuebrich. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser. And a big thanks to&nbsp; Eric Mennel, Pat Walters, Caitlin Kenney and Alex Blumberg. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris and Ben Kuebrich.&nbsp; Sound engineering, music production and original scoring by Bobby Lord.&nbsp; Even more thanks to Dr Alexander Robel, Dr. Ted Scambos, Dr Pieter Tans, Prof. Jason Box, Ass. Prof. Martha Buckley, Assoc Prof. Zanna Chase, Sarah Shackleton, and Stevie Lane.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><br><a href="http://www.audible.com/mt/sincerelyx?source_code=CHLFPPR013117002U&amp;ref=Prmaud_sx_pr">Audible Channel's Sincerely X</a> - Go to<a href="http://www.audible.com/mt/sincerelyx?source_code=CHLFPPR013117002U&amp;ref=Prmaud_sx_pr"> audible.com/sincerelyx</a> to listen. Audible and Amazon Prime members can listen for free.<br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/assets/publications/keeling_autobiography.pdf">David Keeling on his life’s work</a>:<em> “I too pondered the significance of returning a half a billion years’ accumulation of carbon to the air”.</em></li><li><a href="https://www.nap.edu/read/18714/chapter/6#291"><em>National Academy of Sciences Report on Climate Change</em></a><em> in 1983</em></li><li><a href="http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/exec-office-other/climate-change-full.pdf"><em>National Academy of Science Report on Climate Change in 2014</em></a></li><li><em>EPA Report: </em><a href="https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-02/documents/2017_complete_report.pdf"><em>Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks</em></a></li><li><em>IPCC</em><a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_Chapter09_FINAL.pdf"><em> Evaluation of Climate Models</em></a></li></ul><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Mar 16, 2017
Acne
2951
Trying to get rid of acne can feel like a science experiment with your face -- so we get to the bottom of what works and what doesn’t. We investigate the role of diet, stress and hygiene, and meet internet celebrity Dr Sandra Lee aka Dr Pimple Popper. We also speak to dermatologist Dr. Jonathan Weiss, MD and Prof. Huiying Li, PhD. <br><br><strong>Science Vs Live!</strong><br>Come see our live show on the science behind red wine, coffee and chocolate - could our favorite treats actually be good for us? Thursday 3/23 at The Bell House in Brooklyn, NYC. Get your tickets <a href="http://bit.ly/2mnNNpv">here</a>.&nbsp; &nbsp;<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors:</strong><br><a href="http://www.audible.com/mt/sincerelyx?source_code=CHLFPPR013117002U&amp;ref=Prmaud_sx_pr">Audible Channel's Sincerely X</a> - Go to<a href="http://www.audible.com/mt/sincerelyx?source_code=CHLFPPR013117002U&amp;ref=Prmaud_sx_pr"> audible.com/sincerelyx</a> to listen. Audible and Amazon Prime members can listen for free.<br><a href="https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/podcast/">Ebay's Open for Business</a> - Season 2 returns March 16th. You can listen on iTunes, Google Play, or wherever you get your podcasts.<br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Senior Producer Kaitlyn Sawrey and Wendy Zukerman, as well as Heather Rogers, and Shruti Ravindran.&nbsp; Production assistance from Ben Keubrick. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris.&nbsp; Sound engineering, music production and original scoring by Bobby Lord.&nbsp; Thanks to Dr Robert Delavalle, Grand View Research and Stevie Lane, Pat Walters, Rose Reid, the Zukerman family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson. <br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2015.12.037">2016 Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2013.21">2013 study on ‘good’ vs. ‘bad’ strains of P. Acnes</a> by Dr. Huiying Li</li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPPkGS4RZ-c">Dr. Pimple Popper’s ‘Blackheads for Dayzzzz’ video</a></li><li><a href="http://www.cochrane.org/CD007917/SKIN_use-light-therapy-acne">Cochrane Review on Light Therapy for Acne Treatment</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201529">A great summary of&nbsp; up to date</a> research on acne and acne treatment.</li></ul>
Mar 09, 2017
Immigration
2985
We head to a farm in Alabama to find out what happened after thousands of immigrants left the state. Did it create more jobs for Americans and what happened to the crime rate? We speak to economists Prof. Samuel Addy, Prof. Jennifer Hunt, and Prof. Brian Bell to find out.<br><br><strong>Science Vs Live!</strong><br>Come see our live show on the science behind red wine, coffee and chocolate - could our favorite treats actually be good for us? Thursday 3/23 at The Bell House in Brooklyn, NYC. Get your tickets <a href="http://bit.ly/2mnNNpv">here</a>.&nbsp; &nbsp;<br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Shruti Ravindran and me. Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. Production assistance by Ben Kuebrich. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser.&nbsp; Fact Checking by Michelle Harris. Sound engineering, music production and original music written by Bobby Lord. Thanks to Dr Anna Piil Damm, Professor Charis Kubrin, Assistant Professor Jorg Spenkuch, Professor Kristin Butcher and Ramiro Martinez… as well as the Zukerman family.<br><br><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.17226/23550">2016 NAS report: The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration</a> (with ‘key messages and conclusions’ starting on page 202.</li><li><a href="https://www.aclu.org/files/assets/prelimanalysis_alabama_hb56_0.pdf">ACLU analysis of “Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act,” HB 56</a></li><li><a href="https://doi.org/10.1162/003355303322552810">2003 analysis</a> and <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2586427">2015 analysis</a> on how immigrants affect wages&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/59323/1/CEP_Bell_Fasani_Machin_Crime-and-immigration_2013.pdf">Brian Bell’s 2013 study on the effect of two different immigration waves on crime in the UK</a></li><li><a href="https://ucr.fbi.gov/">FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Database</a>&nbsp;</li></ul>
Mar 09, 2017
New season... coming soon!
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We’ve read the studies. We’ve spoken to the experts. And now it’s time for facts. There is no alternative.&nbsp;<br><br>The new season of Science Vs will be out March 9th.
Feb 28, 2017
Introducing Undone
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Today, we’re introducing you to a new Gimlet Media podcast about how big news stories that we thought were over were actually the beginning of something else. It’s called Undone. We spoke with the show’s host, Pat Walters, and give you a peek of their second episode, ‘The Ancient One’. It’s about some very old human remains that two teenagers stumbled on in 1996 -- and the 20-year-long fight to identify them.<br>
Nov 21, 2016
Antidepressants
2494
There’s an intriguing body of research that suggests the power of antidepressants doesn’t come from chemicals in the drugs, but from the power of placebo. Not everyone agrees, though. We speak to researchers and medical professionals on either side of the debate, and some wedged in-between -- Prof. Peter Kramer, psychiatrist and author of <em>Ordinarily Well: the Case for Antidepressants</em>; Prof. Irving Kirsch, psychologist and author of <em>The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth</em>; psychiatrist and radiologist Prof. Helen Mayberg; and psychiatrist Prof. Gregory Simon.<br><br><strong>Crisis Hotlines:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org/">US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline</a> 1-800-273-TALK (2755)</li><li><a href="http://www.crisistextline.org/textline/">US Crisis Text Line</a> Text “GO” to 741741</li><li>Australian <a href="https://www.lifeline.org.au/">Lifeline</a> 13 11 14</li><li><a href="http://suicideprevention.ca/thinking-about-suicide/find-a-crisis-centre/">Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention</a></li></ul><strong>Our Sponsors</strong><ul><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVCasper">Casper</a> - Get $50 towards any mattress by visiting <a href="http://gimlet.media/SVCasper">casper.com/sciencevs</a> and use the promo code SCIENCEVS</li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVThirdLove">Third Love</a> - Go to <a href="http://gimlet.media/SVThirdLove">thirdlove.com/sciencevs</a> to start your free trial</li><li><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVWealthsimple">Wealthsimple</a> – Investing made easy. Get your first $10,000 managed for free.</li></ul><strong>Credits<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Shruti Ravindran, and Diane Wu. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta and Matthew Boll. Music written by Bobby Lord and Martin Peralta.<br><br><strong>Selected References</strong><ul><li><a href="http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045">2008 study </a>suggesting that antidepressants are not much better than placebo for people suffering in severe depression.</li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v21/n4/pdf/mp201553a.pdf">2016 study </a>suggesting that antidepressants were way better than placebo in treating people suffering from severe depression.<em>&nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002127">2016 study </a>on how drug companies under-report side effects in clinical trials.&nbsp;</li><li><a href="http://www.kalbemed.com/Portals/6/komelib/central%20nervous%20system/Psikiatri/Fluoxetine/long%20term%20side%20effect%20ssri.pdf">2003 </a>round-up of the most common side-effects of antidepressants.&nbsp;</li><li><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23760393">2013 study</a> which uses brain imaging to try to pinpoint whether patients would respond better to medication or psychotherapy.&nbsp;</li></ul>
Oct 28, 2016
DNA and the Smell of Death
3034
In these cases, emerging DNA evidence and the smell of death (yes, really) pushed the boundaries of what was technologically possible. But how reliable are they? To find out, we go to a body farm and talk to Assoc. Prof. Joan Bytheway, Asst. Prof. Sheree Hughes-Stamm, Matt Young, Dr. Arpad Vass, and Asst. Prof. Donovan Haines.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors<br></strong><a href="http://gimlet.media/SALenovo">Lenovo</a> – See how Lenovo is revolutionizing data center technology.<br><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVModcloth">Modcloth</a> - Enter promo code SCIENCEVS at checkout to get $20 off an order of $100 or more!<br><a href="http://squarespace.com/">Squarespace</a> – The easiest way to create a beautiful website, portfolio or online store. Use the offer code “SCIENCE VS” to get 10% off your first purchase.<br><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVWealthsimple">Wealthsimple</a> – Investing made easy. Get your first $10,000 managed for free.<br><br><strong>Credits</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Diane Wu,and Heather Rogers. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey.Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Thanks to Joseph Lavelle Wilson, Will Doolan and Beth McMullen.Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta and Matthew Boll Music written by Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Selected References</strong><br><a href="https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf">2009 National Academy of Sciences</a> and <a href="https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/PCAST/pcast_forensic_science_report_final.pdf">2016 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology reports on forensic science</a>.<br>How <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23623709">DNA is transfer</a>red in trace evidence. Report on e<a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1872497314000908">rror rates in DNA forensic analysis</a>. <br><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747330">Study that showed dogs could pick up the smell of a corpse</a> 667 days later. <br><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580996/">Call to arms on improving forensic science:</a> editorial.<br>Scent of death - <a href="http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137341#pone-0137341-t004">Belgian paper that found three out of four of Dr Arpad Vass' “human specific markers”</a> in other animals.<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
Oct 21, 2016
Forensic Science
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There are a slew of scientific techniques that forensic experts use to solve crimes. But how reliable are they? We’re putting forensic evidence under the microscope. To help us crack the case, we talk to Assoc. Prof. Sibyl Bucheli, attorney Chris Fabricant, former crime lab director Barry Fisher, Dr. Itiel Dror, and Assoc. Prof. Patrick Buzzini.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors<br><br></strong><a href="http://gimlet.media/SAHelloFresh">Hello Fresh</a>&nbsp;– To get $35 off your first week of deliveries visit&nbsp;<a href="http://gimlet.media/SAHelloFresh">hellofresh.com</a>&nbsp;and enter promo code “ScienceVS”.<br><br><a href="http://www.gimlet.media/SVFrankandOak">Frank &amp; Oak</a>&nbsp;– Go to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.gimlet.media/SVFrankandOak">frankandoak.com/science</a>&nbsp;to get your first outfit for $79 (a pair of pants and a shirt).<br><br><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVWealthsimple">Wealthsimple</a>&nbsp;– Investing made easy. Get your first $10,000 managed for free.<br><strong>Credits<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Diane Wu, Austin Mitchell and Heather Rogers. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey.<br><br>Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris.<br><br>Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord. Music written by Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Selected References<br><br></strong><a href="https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf">2009 National Academy of Sciences</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/PCAST/pcast_forensic_science_report_final.pdf">2016 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology reports on forensic science</a><br><br><a href="http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/28983405/amendt_2004.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&amp;Expires=1475790025&amp;Signature=6hENz%2B7ghdKVdLoGV%2BZkkXQtZ1w%3D&amp;response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DForensic_entomology.pdf">Overview of forensic entomology</a>&nbsp;Amendt et al, “Forensic entomology,” Naturwissenschaften, 2004<br><br><a href="http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/jme/tjw070">Study modeling precision of dating time of death from flies</a>&nbsp;Faris et al, “Forensic Entomology: Evaluating Uncertainty Associated With Postmortem Interval (PMI) Estimates With Ecological Models,” Journal of Medical Entomology 2016.<br><br><a href="http://dx.doi.org.sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.03.006">Review paper on bite mark analysis</a>&nbsp;Clement et al, “Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?”<br><br><a href="https://oig.justice.gov/special/s0601/exec.pdf">Department of Justice review of Brandon Mayfield case</a><br><br><a href="http://www.distancelearningcentre.com/access_2014/materials/Criminology/Forensic_Science_and_the_Reliability_of_Evidence/PDFs/Dror_et_al_contextual_influences.pdf">Context can change how fingerprints are read</a>&nbsp;Dror et al, “Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to making erroneous identifications,” Forensic Science International, 2006.<br><br><a href="http://www.sjsu.edu/people/steven.lee/courses/c4/s1/Houck_and_Budowle_JFS2001398_475.pdf">Hair microscopy can lead to incorrect matches</a>&nbsp;Houck et al, “Correlation of microscopic and mitochondrial DNA hair comparisons,” Journal of Forensic Science, 2002.
Oct 07, 2016
Zika
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Since 2015 there have been Zika outbreaks reported in sixty countries. So, where did Zika come from? What happens when you get infected? How worried should you be?And why has Zika has become such a problem recently? To find out, we speak to Assoc. Prof. Desiree LaBeaud, Dr Cathy Spong, Dr Andrew Haddow, and New York Times health reporter Donald McNeil Jr.<br><br><strong>Credits<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Diane Wu, Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, and Shruti Ravindran. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey.<br><br>Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser.<br><br>Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta. Music written by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Our Sponsors<br><br></strong><a href="http://gimlet.media/GimletPrudential">Prudential</a>&nbsp;– Download the MapMyRun app and join the Prudential 4.01K challenge. When you do, pledge to save at least 1% or more of your annual income for retirement and run and log 4.01K to be eligible to win a prize.<br><br><a href="http://squarespace.com/">Squarespace</a>&nbsp;– The easiest way to create a beautiful website, portfolio or online store. Use the offer code “SCIENCE VS” to get 10% off your first purchase.<br><br><a href="http://gimlet.media/SVWealthsimple">Wealthsimple</a>&nbsp;– Investing made easy. Get your first $10,000 managed for free.<br><br><br><strong>Selected References</strong><ul><li><a href="http://trstmh.oxfordjournals.org/content/48/2/139.full.pdf+html">First case of Zika reported in Nigerian girl</a>&nbsp;N. McNamara, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1954.</li><li><a href="http://www.worldcat.org/title/zika-the-emerging-epidemic/oclc/949986945">Donald McNeil Jr’s recent book on Zika epidemic</a>&nbsp;McNeil, DG “Zika: The emerging epidemic,” W. W. Norton and Co, 2016</li><li><a href="http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/history/en/">Interactive history of Zika from the World Health Organization</a></li><li><a href="http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(16)30193-1.pdf">Zika virus may linger in the vagina</a>&nbsp;Prisant, N et al “Zika virus in the female genital tract,” The Lancet 2016</li><li><a href="http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1605367">Estimated risk of microcephaly if you get zika when pregnant is between one and 13%</a>&nbsp;Johansson, M et al “Zika and the Risk of Microcephaly,” New England Journal of Medicine, 2016</li><li><a href="http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/5/10-1939_article">First report that Zika can be spread through sex (confirming Andrew Haddow's hunch over a beer in Senegal)</a>&nbsp;Foy, BD et al “Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2011</li><li><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/zika/">U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommendations on Zika</a></li><li><a href="http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/">World Health Organization recommendations on Zika</a></li></ul>
Sep 30, 2016
Hypnosis
2564
This week, we explore the science of hypnosis, and take Science Vs to the edge of consciousness. In the service of journalism, Wendy tries to get hypnotized at a comedy club&nbsp; and in a doctor’s office. We talk to comedian Jim Spinnato, Prof. Philip Muskin, Prof. Amanda Barnier, and Prof. Amir Raz.<br><br><br><strong>Credits:<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, Dr. Diane Wu, and Shruti Ravindran. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey.<br>Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris.<br>Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta. Music written by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord.<br><br>Thanks to Alex Blumberg for being the man that spoke pretty often in the end… and Jonathan Goldstein for being our CIA agent… and if you like his CIA agent you’ll love his new show Heavyweight. It’s out next week and you can <a href="https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/heavyweight/id1150800298?mt=2">subscribe now</a>.<br><br><strong>Selected References</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528837/#R70">2013 paper reviewing 100 journal articles on hypnosis</a> Kihlstrom, JF, “Neuro-Hypnotism: Prospects for Hypnosis and Neuroscience,” Cortex, 2013.</li><li><a href="http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.724.6491&amp;rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf">Is hypnotizability a genetic trait? Maybe, but it’s complicated</a> Raz, A, et al. “Neuroimaging and genetic associations of attentional and hypnotic processes,” Journal of Physiology, 2006.</li><li><a href="http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/PDFfiles/Hypnotizability/SHSSC%20Script.pdf">Script for the Stanford test of hypnotizability</a> Weitzenhoffer, AM and Hilgard, ER. “Stanford hypnotic susceptibility scale, Form C.” 1962.</li><li><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263304915_Using_hypnosis_to_disrupt_face_processing_Mirrored-self_misidentification_delusion_and_different_visual_media">Highly hypnotizable people can be hypnotized to not recognize their own reflections</a> Connors, MH et al. “Using hypnosis to disrupt face processing: Mirrored-self misidentification delusion and different visual media,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2014.</li><li><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381001200044X">There's more to hypnosis than expectation</a> Lifshitz, M et al. “Can expectation enhance response to suggestion? De-automatization illuminates a conundrum,” Consciousness and Cognition, 2012.</li><li><a href="http://hypnosisunituk.com/assets/files/Halligan2000b.pdf">Brain study of a hypnotized man responding to suggestion that his leg is paralyzed</a> Halligan, PW et al. “Imaging hypnotic paralysis: implications for conversion hysteria,” The Lancet, 2000.</li><li><a href="https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000140404.pdf">1955 CIA memo on hypnosis</a>, <a href="https://research.archives.gov/id/7282638">1960 CIA report on hypnosis</a></li></ul><br><br><br>
Sep 23, 2016
The G-spot
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Join us on a hunt for the elusive G-spot. Our guides: Prof. Beverly Whipple, who introduced America to the G-spot in the 1980s, and Prof. Helen O’Connell, a urologist and expert on female sexual anatomy. <br><br><br><strong>Credits</strong>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris.Production Assistance by Dr Diane Wu &amp; Shruti Ravindran. Extra thanks to Lola Pellegrino, Andres Montoya Castillo, Rose Reid, Radio National’s Science Show -- <a href="http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceshow/">they make a podcast</a>. It’s great.<br>Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord.And be sure to check out our producer Austin Mitchell’s podcast <a href="http://profiles.nyc/">Profiles:NYC</a>. <br><strong>Selected References</strong><ul><li><a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/3812358?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents">1981 study identifying G-spot in 47 women . . . but not confirming that it leads to orgasm</a> <em>Perry and Whipple, “Pelvic Muscle Strength of Female Ejaculators: Evidence in Support of a New Theory of Orgasm,” The Journal of Sex Research, 1981. Note: not freely available. &nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022534701631884/1-s2.0-S0022534701631884-main.pdf?_tid=150e5292-7054-11e6-ab36-00000aab0f6b&amp;acdnat=1472741891_fd982fcb8b61a9b94cd464ceb94ac779">Report of the first modern dissection of the clitoris</a> <em>O’Connell et al, “Anatomical relationship between urethra and clitoris,” Journal of Urology, 1998.</em></li><li><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1283096/pdf/nihms3946.pdf">Everything besides the clitoris is just a shade of gray in the MRI</a> <em>O’Connell et al, “Clitoral anatomy in nulliparous, healthy, premenopausal volunteers using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Urology, 2005.&nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7616832_Anatomy_of_the_Clitoris">Comprehensive account of clitoris anatomy</a> <em>O’Connell et al, “Anatomy of the clitoris,” Journal of Urology, 2005.</em></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/nrurol/journal/v11/n9/full/nrurol.2014.193.html">Review of research on the G-Spot and cliteralurethrovaginal complex</a> <em>Jannini et al, “Beyond the G-Spot: clitourethrovaginal complex anatomy in female orgasm,” Nature Reviews Urology, 2014. Note: not freely available.&nbsp;</em></li></ul>
Sep 02, 2016
Organic Food
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People are going bonkers for organic, but what are you really getting when you buy them? Better taste? Fewer toxic chemicals? A cleaner environment? Farmers Mark, Andy, and Brian Reeves, nutritional epidemiologist Dr. Kathryn Bradbury, Ass. Prof. Cynthia Curl, and Prof. Navin Ramankutty help us sort it all out.<br><br><br><strong>Credits:<br></strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Lynn Levy, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Editing by Annie-Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Production Assistance by Diane Wu and Shruti Ravindran. Special thanks to Stevie Lane and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixing by Martin Peralta, Austin Thompson and Haley Shaw. Music written by Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Selected Resources:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329399000221">Organic vs conventional tomato taste test</a><br>Johansson et al, “Preference for tomatoes, affected by sensory attributes and information about growth conditions,” Food Quality and Preference, 1999</li><li><a href="http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1355685">Nutritional analysis of organic vs organic food</a><br>Smith-Spangler et al, “Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier Than Conventional Alternatives?: A Systematic Review,” Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012.</li><li><a href="https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Pesticide%20Residue%20Testing_Org%20Produce_2010-11PilotStudy.pdf">2012 USDA report on pesticide residues in organic produce</a></li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v110/n9/full/bjc2014148a.html">Largest (620,000 women) long-term (9 year) study of how eating organic food affects human health -- focusing on cancer</a><br>Bradbury et al, “Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom”, British Journal of Cancer, 2014</li><li><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4299503/">Biodiversity is higher on organic farms</a><br>“Tuck et al, “Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis,” The Journal of Applied Ecology, 2014.</li><li><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479712004264">Nitrogen leaching is higher per unit product on organic farms</a><br>Tuomisto et al, “Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A meta-analysis of European research”</li><li><a href="http://serenoregis.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/nature11069.pdf">Crop yield on organic farms is on average 75% that of conventional farms</a><br>Seufert et al, “Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture,” Nature 2012</li><li><a href="http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160419/ncomms11382/pdf/ncomms11382.pdf">If we want to feed the world without cutting down more forests, we’re going to need more vegetarians</a><br>Erb et al, “Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation,” Nature Communications, 2016</li><li><a href="http://ic.ucsc.edu/~dletour/lab/documents/OrgAgChap4.pdf">On combining organic and conventional farming techniques </a><br>Letourneau et al, “Crop protection in organic agriculture,” Chapter 4 of Organic agriculture: a global perspective, 2006.</li></ul>
Aug 26, 2016
Gun Control (Pt 2)
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In last week’s episode, we learned that around 30,000 Americans die each year from guns. This week, we examine possible solutions. Do better background checks, buybacks, and gun registration lead to fewer shooting deaths? What happened in Australia after they got rid of all the guns? To find out, we talk to gun shop owner Bob Kostaras, former ATF special agent Mark Jones, Prof. Philip Alpers, and Prof. Peter Squires.<br><br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Editing by Annie Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production Assistance by Diane Wu, and Shruti Ravindran. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixing by Martin Peralta and Haley Shaw. Music written by Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Crisis Hotlines:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org/">US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline</a> 1-800-273-TALK (2755)</li><li><a href="http://www.crisistextline.org/textline/">US Crisis Text Line</a> Text “GO” to 741741</li><li>Australia: <a href="https://www.lifeline.org.au/">Lifeline</a> 13 11 14</li><li><a href="http://suicideprevention.ca/thinking-about-suicide/find-a-crisis-centre/">Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention</a></li><li>UK &amp; Ireland: <a href="http://www.samaritans.org/how-we-can-help-you/contact-us">Samaritans</a> 116 123&nbsp;</li></ul><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/html/bcft/2009/bcft09st.pdf">Background Checks for Firearms Transfers, US Bureau of Justice, 2009</a> Including details on federal gun purchase regulations</li><li><a href="https://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/vprp/CBC%20White%20Paper%20Final%20Report%20022013.pdf">Issues with the current US background check system, plus recommendations for improvement</a> <em>Wintemute, “Background checks for firearm transfers: Assessment and recommendations.” Violence Prevention Research Program, UC Davis. 2013.&nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222085810_State_background_checks_and_firearms_homicides">States with more comprehensive background checks, including better reporting, have lower rates of gun homicide</a> <em>Ruddel and Mays, “State background checks and firearms homicides,” Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.&nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fuo.pdf">Most prisoners incarcerated for a gun-related offense did not buy their gun from a licensed dealer</a> <em>Harlow, C. “Firearm use by offenders”, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, 2001.&nbsp;</em></li><li><a href="http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.8.1397">How much of violent crime in Sweden can be attributed to people with severe mental illness? About 5%</a> <em>Fazel and Grann. “The Population Impact of Severe Mental Illness on Violent Crime.” Am J Psychiatry, 2006</em></li><li><a href="http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2530362">A study of how gun laws in Australia changed gun homicide rates</a> <em>Chapman et al, “Association Between Gun Law Reforms and Intentional Firearm Deaths in Australia, 1979-2013”, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2016.&nbsp;</em></li></ul>
Aug 12, 2016
Guns
2498
We find out how many times a year guns are used in self-defense, how many times they’re used to murder someone, and what impact guns have on the crime rate. In this episode we speak with Prof. David Hemenway, Prof. Helen Christensen, Prof. Gary Kleck and New Jersey gun-range owner Anthony Colandro.<br><strong>Credits:</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Caitlin Kenney, Heather Rogers and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production Assistance by Austin Mitchell. Sound design and music production by Martin Peralta and Matthew Boll, music written by Bobby Lord<br><br><strong>Crisis hotlines:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org/">US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline</a>&nbsp;1-800-273-TALK (2755). Online chat available.</li><li><a href="http://www.crisistextline.org/textline/">US Crisis Text Line</a>&nbsp;- text “GO” to 741741</li><li><a href="https://www.lifeline.org.au/">Lifeline</a>&nbsp;13 11 14 (Australia). Online chat available.</li><li><a href="http://suicideprevention.ca/thinking-about-suicide/find-a-crisis-centre/">Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention</a>&nbsp;- see link for phone numbers listed by province</li><li><a href="http://www.samaritans.org/how-we-can-help-you/contact-us">Samaritans</a>&nbsp;116 123 (UK and ROI)</li></ul><strong>Selected References:</strong><ul><li><a href="http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf"><strong>2013 US Mortality Statistics - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention&nbsp;</strong></a>(published 2016)</li><li><a href="http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6853&amp;context=jclc"><strong>Gary Kleck’s defensive gun use survey</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Kleck &amp; Gertz, “Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun”, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1995</em></li><li><a href="http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f7102#alternate"><strong>Survey of virgin births in the US</strong></a><em><br>Herring et al, “Like a virgin (mother): analysis of data from a longitudinal, US population representative sample survey”, BMJ, 2013</em></li><li><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743515001188"><strong>David Hemenway’s defensive gun use analysis using National Crime Victimization Survey</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Hemenway &amp; Solnick, “The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: Evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011”, Preventive Medicine, 2015</em></li><li><a href="https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2010/192/8/suicide-australia-meta-analysis-rates-and-methods-suicide-between-1988-and-2007"><strong>Analysis of suicide rates and methods in Australia</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Large &amp; Nielssen, “Suicide in Australia: meta-analysis of rates and methods of suicide between 1988 and 2007”, The Medical Journal of Australia, 2010</em></li><li><a href="http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1150&amp;context=law_and_economics"><strong>John Lott’s study on right-to-carry laws and crime rates</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Lott &amp; Mustard, “Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns”, Coase-Sandor Institute for Law &amp; Economics, 1996</em></li><li><a href="http://www.nap.edu/read/10881/chapter/1"><strong>National Research Academies Panel which found guns don’t increase or decrease crime</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Wellford, Pepper, and Petrie, editors, “Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review”, The National Academies Press, 2005</em></li><li><a href="https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_01.html"><strong>US Crime statistics, 1990-2009</strong></a><strong>&nbsp;</strong>(US Dept of Justice, FBI)</li></ul>
Aug 04, 2016
Attachment Parenting
2347
Judy, a mother of two young kids, practices a demanding style of child-rearing. It’s called attachment parenting, and it says you should keep your baby close at all times, breastfeed on demand, share your bed, and avoid strollers. Like many attachment parents, Judy believes the sacrifices she makes will ensure her kids will become well-adjusted, successful, happy adults. But, what does the science say? To find out, Science Vs speaks to Prof. Alan Sroufe, Prof. Jane Fisher and Reut Avinun.<br><br>If you liked this episode - our friends at The Longest Shortest Time have just&nbsp;<a href="http://longestshortesttime.com/episode-90-a-childless-man-makes-edible-placenta/">published a story about *eating* placentas</a>.&nbsp;<br><br><strong>Credits:&nbsp;</strong>This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, who interviewed our attachment parent Judy, also Caitlin Kenney and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production Assistance by Austin Mitchell and Stevie Lane. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, music written by Bobby Lord.<br><br><strong>Sponsors:<br></strong>For 10% off your new Squarespace site, click&nbsp;<a href="http://squarespace.com/">here</a>&nbsp;and punch in Science Vs at checkout.<br>For 15% off your first purchase at Ministry of Supply, click&nbsp;<a href="http://ministryofsupply.com/science">here</a>.
Jul 28, 2016
Fracking
2647
We often hear stories about fracking that go like this: a gas company comes to a small town, starts drilling wells, and then terrible things start to happen. People get sick. Water burns from taps. Earthquakes ruin houses. And the climate will soon be destroyed. But, is fracking really a disaster unfolding? To find out, Science Vs speaks to Prof. Robert Jackson, Asst. Prof. Peter Rabinowitz and Prof. Bob Howarth. We’re also joined by Pennsylvanian resident James Hughes and Seneca Resources’ Rob Boulware and Doug Kepler.&nbsp;<br><br><strong>Credits:&nbsp;</strong><br>This episode has been produced by Caitlin Kenney, Heather Rogers, Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production assistance by Austin Mitchell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris.<br>Recordings from the Town Hall meeting in 2014 are from NPR's WHYY reporter Katie Colaneri, and the team at NPR’s StateImpact Pennsylvania. Thank you.&nbsp;<br>Big thanks to the Gimlet hive mind for comments, plus the Zukerman family.&nbsp;<br>Music written by Bobby Lord. Sound design and music by Matthew Boll. Engineered by Austin Thompson.<br><br><strong>Sponsors:<br></strong>For 10% off your new Squarespace site click&nbsp;<a href="http://squarespace.com">here</a>&nbsp;and punch in Science Vs at checkout.<br><br>
Jul 27, 2016
Sneak Peek
207
There are a lot of fads, a lot of strong opinions and a lot of blogs, but then there’s SCIENCE. Science Vs is the new show from Gimlet Media that finds out what’s fact, what’s not, and what’s somewhere in between. We do the hard work of sifting through all the science so you don't have to. This season we'll be tackling organic food, fracking, gun control, and the G spot. The first episode premieres July 28th. Tell your mom/mum.
Jun 28, 2016