VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts

By Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachinger, DACVECC

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Description

VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts. With VETgirl, you can learn clinical veterinary medicine with style, passion, and efficiency! VETgirl is designed for veterinary professionals who have time poverty and are on the run. Who has time to read journals or sit through hours of lectures? Download the podcasts you want to listen to, and get clinical tips within just a few minutes of listening! We'll help get you the facts you need in a convenient way! Want more information? Go to JoinVETgirl.com.

Episode Date
The use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:32
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats. Nowadays, we're doing more and more FAST (Focused Assessment of Sonography in Trauma) ultrasounds in the ER setting, and it's great (and easy) for diagnosing cavital effusion (e.g., hemoabdomen, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, etc.). But can it be easily used for lung ultrasound (LUS) to detect pathology (or water) in the lung? Does it work to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
Jun 11, 2018
The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:27
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in cats. Before you blame it "platelet clumping," let's make sure it's not from something else!
Jun 01, 2018
Does tramadol work in dogs with chronic arthritis? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of tramadol in dogs. Does it work? Well, you may have heard over recent years that tramadol has been put on the hot plate, receiving much attention for its role as an analgesic in canine patients. The reason for doubting tramadol's pain relief properties stems from the pharmacokinetics of the drug and differences between human and canine pain receptors. Tramadol is a weak pure-mu opioid agonist. It is metabolized to O-desmethytramadol, which is the metabolite responsible for tramadol's ability to inhibit the reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin in nerve endings, thus making these two neurohormones more available to continue blocking pain signals. However, dogs produce very little of this active metabolite. Perhaps this difference in metabolism is why clinicians have trended towards recommending higher doses of tramadol (doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg). Previous studies have been complicated by a placebo effect when measuring analgesic outcomes, and the placebo effect is a difficult bias to overcome when creating a study design. So, Budsberg et al out of University of Georgia (Go, Dawgs!) wanted to evaluate tramadol as an analgesic in the treatment of chronic osteoarthritis in a study entitled Lack of effectiveness of tramadol hydrochloride for the treatment of pain and joint dysfunction in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate objective measurements of pain relief in orthopedic dysfunction associated with tramadol use in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis.
May 28, 2018
What to do with that infectious coughing dog | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:32:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Leah Cohn, PhD, DACVIM, on the approach to the infectious coughing dog. In this podcast, she reviews what Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD) is, what the diagnostic work up is, and how to treat these patients. She'll also review what vaccines are available for the different etiologies, and how it's more than "just kennel cough." Check out this important Guideline and Recommendation from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine here:
May 21, 2018
Breeds predisposed to aspiration pneumonia | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:42
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether certain breeds are more predisposed to aspiration pneumonia or not.
May 14, 2018
Short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with CCL treated surgically or nonsurgically | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture - do they all need surgery?
May 07, 2018
Is brief echocardiographic training for noncardiology veterinarians useful? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not brief echocardiographic training is beneficial for noncardiology veterinarians. Will it help house officers or general practitioners in the ability to diagnose cardiac emergencies like pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and more?
Apr 30, 2018
Can you detect pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade on chest radiographs? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:44
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether you detect pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade on chest radiographs in veterinary medicine.
Apr 23, 2018
Clinical approach to anemia in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss anemia in veterinary patients. Anemia is a common, yet frustrating disease process and is defined as a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin (Hb). Anemia can be categorized as regenerative or non-regenerative, and it is important to obtain a thorough history and a careful and systematic diagnostic approach to anemia. In this podcast, we review the 3 major causes of anemia:
Apr 16, 2018
Diagnostic approach to hypoalbuminemia | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:18
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, board certified emergency and critical care specialist and co-founder of VETgirl, reviews the diagnostic approach to hypoalbuminemia in dogs and cats. Hypoalbuminemia is a common problem seen by the small animal veterinarian. It is important to understand that albumin is the major determinant of oncotic pressure (i.e., otherwise known as colloidal osmotic pressure or "COP"). This pressure is the main force that holds fluid within the vascular space.
Apr 09, 2018
Can canine fresh frozen plasma be thawed in a microwave? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not you can thaw your unit of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) in the microwave versus in the more traditional warm-water bath.
Apr 02, 2018
How hyperglycemic are you? Clinical approach to the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Patient (HHS) - Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews part 2 of treatment of the endocrine emergency in dogs and cats: hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). In the previous VETgirl podcast on HHS, we reviewed the subtle differences of patients with HHS as compared to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), HHS criteria, and common clinical signs.
Mar 26, 2018
How hyperglycemic are you? Clinical approach to the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Patient (HHS) - Part 1 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:59
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in dogs and cats.
Mar 19, 2018
How well are compounded itraconazole formulations absorbed in healthy cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of compounded itraconazole in cats - can you use it?
Mar 12, 2018
Financial pearls with White Coat Investor, Dr. Jim Dahle, MD, FACEP | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:36
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review Dr. Jim Dahle, MD, FACEP of White Coat Investor. VETgirl has to admit: we're addicted to his podcasts (for iOs or Android). In this podcast, we interview him on how to tackle the debt-to-income ratio in veterinary medicine, whether you should consider buying a small business or starting a corporation, how to live like a broke resident, how to set up a backdoor ROTH IRA, and whether or not you should charge to that credit card versus max out your employer's 401K match! Tune in to get financially savvy!
Mar 05, 2018
The prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:48
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical social worker and veterinary social worker, discusses the prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine. Why is our veterinary field so predisposed, and what can we do to increase our resilience and self care?
Feb 26, 2018
Dystocia and Reproductive Emergencies in Dogs and Cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:40
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC (VETgirl, COO) discusses common reproductive emergencies.
Feb 19, 2018
The effect of lidocaine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:16
Lidocaine is a sodium channel blocker that is widely used in both large and small animal medicine as a local anesthetic, analgesic, and as a class 1B antiarrhythmic. A perhaps less common application for this medication in small animal medicine is as a gastrointestinal promotility agent in cases of ileus. The effects of lidocaine on improving the clinical signs of ileus in post-operative horses (1) and humans (2) have already been documented. However, what about dogs? So, Johnson et al out of the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine wanted to evaluate the effect of lidocaine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs. The authors aimed at measuring the effects of lidocaine CRI's at two different doses on the gastrointestinal transit times of healthy adult canines as compared to saline CRI controls (3).
Feb 12, 2018
Effect of venipuncture quality on thromboelastography | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:04:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the effect of venipuncture quality on thromboelastography. Now, if you've never heard of thromboelastography or TEG, you'll need to know that it's the best way to detect for hypercoagulability. Keep in mind that your PT/PTT test for hypocoagulability, not HYPER-coagulability. Unfortunately, TEG is really only available at academic (e.g., veterinary school) settings. So, if you have a TEG machine (or you're an emergency critical care or internal medicine resident), pay careful attention!
Feb 05, 2018
Atrial Fibrillation as a Prognostic Indicator in Dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:25
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review atrial fibrillation in medium- to large-sized dogs. Are there any other prognostic factors can we look at when it comes to heart disease? Is the presence of atrial fibrillation a prognostic indicator in certain dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valvular Degeneration (MMVD) and congestive heart failure?
Jan 29, 2018
Venous blood gas interpretation and risks of mortality in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether or not venous blood gas parameters (such as anion gap, base excess, lactate, etc.) predict survival in veterinary patients. When animals are initially presented to the emergency room, the extent of their condition often cannot be fully assessed without additional diagnostics. Is there a way we can handle questions from pet owners regarding the financial investment in their pet's medical treatment (such as prognosis and anticipated costs of medical care) based on evidence-based medicine? We strive to look for indicators in our physical examination findings and in our initial diagnostic work up (e.g., preliminary lab work or quick assessment tests) to help bolster our understanding of the patient's prognosis, but presently veterinary medicine is greatly lacking in these indicators of mortality and disease severity. In the veterinary emergency room, blood gases are a quick and easy piece of lab work that can be obtained relatively quickly at the time of triage for cats and dogs. So, Kohen et al out of University of California at Davis wanted to look at the information that can be obtained off a simple blood gas analysis for possible predictors of mortality. In this retrospective study, they looked at plasma lactate concentrations, pH, base deficit, and anion gap in both cats and dogs, and looked for any correlation of these values to an increased in mortality risk.
Jan 22, 2018
'Push-Pull' Blood Sampling in Veterinary Medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Ciara Barr. Dr. Barr is a lecturer in the anesthesia department at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
Jan 15, 2018
The EPIC Study: The effect of pimobendan in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:29
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review an "EPIC" study called "Effect of Pimobendan in Dogs with Preclinical Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Cardiomegaly: The EPIC Study -; A Randomized Clinical Trial" by Boswood et al. This was a huge study that was conducted at dozens of different institutions (both academia and private practice) around the world and was undertaken by dozens of cardiologists.
Jan 08, 2018
Survival time of dogs with congestive heart failure andamp; the effect on revenue | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the survival time of dogs with congestive heart failure... but add a unique twist to this... the effect of revenue. This sounds strange, but keep listening.
Jan 01, 2018
Treating parvovirus on an outpatient basis | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:15:12
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review OPP: outpatient parvovirus treatment. Does it work?
Dec 18, 2017
Pet peeves in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:33
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC review their top 10 pet peeves in veterinary medicine. Tune in to check out what peeves to avoid! Do you have any? Comment below!
Dec 11, 2017
An interview with a forensic veterinarian | Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore, DVM (VETgirl's internmate from the MSPCA-Angell Memorial Animal Hospital). She's an animal welfare expert and the President of Forensic Veterinary Investigations, LLC. Many in the veterinary profession may not be aware of this job opportunity, which poses a unique way of protecting animals!
Dec 04, 2017
The prevalence of heartworm infection in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:11
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of heartworm disease in cats in the United States and Canada. Now, you may think that heartworm disease is pretty rare, depending on where you live (or practice), but you need to know about this disease. What clinical signs are seen with it? How do you diagnose it?
Nov 27, 2017
Dexmedetomidine versus xylazine as an emetic in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:00
We all know how difficult it can be to make a cat vomit when we actually need for them to vomit. Veterinary emergency hospitals are encouraged to stock formulations of apomorphine for inducing emesis in dogs, but sadly this medication doesn't seem to work in cats. The theorized reason behind the feline's lack of robust emetic response to apomorphine stems from anatomical differences in their chemoreceptor trigger zone receptors where they are believed to favor more of the alpha-2 receptors over the dopamine receptor abundance that dogs exhibit. For this reason, most hospitals carry xylazine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist more commonly used in large animal anesthesia. However, if you've ever tried to make a cat vomit using xylazine, their response is variable and many will not vomit when appropriate doses are used. Clinically, I've always felt like it only works half the time in my poisoned cat patients!
Nov 20, 2017
Acute Lung Injury andamp; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in dogs and cats | Dr. Deb Silverstein | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:08
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, Associate Professor in Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a study called Retrospective evaluation of the prevalence, risk factors, management, outcome, and necropsy findings of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs and cats: 29 cases (2011-;2013). In this study, the authors evaluated dogs and cats with Acute Lung Injury (ALI) or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and assessed overall prevalence, treatment, and outcome of these critically ill patients.
Nov 13, 2017
Job opportunities available in veterinary medicine: Veterinary Careers with the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:24
Nov 06, 2017
Outcome and survival in dogs with sick sinus syndrome | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:23
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the outcome and survival in dogs with sick sinus syndrome, a life-threatening bradyarrhythmia.
Oct 30, 2017
Cats are NOT Small Dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:09
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the difference between dogs and cats in the veterinary setting. As the old saying goes… ”cats are not small dogs!” The question remains, what does that really mean? They can both be small. They can both be fluffy. Catch them at the wrong time and they can both bite! But what does it mean when we say, “cats are not small dogs”? What we are referring to is the medical response to disease as we compare our feline and canine patients. Our feline patients have unique physiologic responses to shock, medications, fluid therapy, and even neoplasia as compared to the canine patient. As a result, it is crucial that the veterinary team understands these unique feline characteristics!
Oct 23, 2017
Prediction of blood pressure based on peripheral pulse palpation in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:17
How do you assess your feline patients for shock at the time of triage?
Oct 16, 2017
Aortic thrombotic disease in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:59
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss aortic thrombotic disease (what we'll call ATD from now on). We know that patients with ATD develop this due to Virchow's Triad - the combination of vascular endothelial injury, altered blood coagulability and changes in blood flow. Common underlying causes resulting in vascular endothelial injury include trauma, dirofilarial infection, hypotension, vasculitis, inflammation, acidosis, hypoxemia, dextrose fluid administration, arteriosclerosis (more in humans), and immune mechanisms. Altered blood coagulability may be due to platelet dysfunction (or hyperfunction), or any factor along the coagulation cascade or fibrinolytic system that has gone awry. Lastly, changes in blood flow may be due to blood stasis (e.g., an enlarged atrium), compressive lesions, trauma, or turbulence.
Oct 09, 2017
Using a point-of-care glucometer to identify septic peritonitis in the dog | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:19
Do you use a AlphaTRAK 2 glucometer in your veterinary clinic? In the veterinary emergency room, many of us utilize the veterinary handheld point-of-care (POC) glucometers to obtain rapid glucose measurements, as it only requires a tiny volume of blood. Not all hospitals have the benefit of having expensive lab analyzers and instead rely on the POC glucometers for glucose measuring. However, it's important to note that the accuracy of these POC glucometers can be affected by various factors such as the concentration of red blood cells present in the sample (e.g., anemia, hemoconcentration) and various medications. The POC glucometer utilizes a different mechanism by which to measure blood glucose levels than our traditional lab analyzers.
Oct 02, 2017
Fluid analysis in veterinary medicine: Effusion Confusion | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:31
Normally, our small animal veterinary patients have a very small amount of fluid within their body cavities. We can not see this radiographically, and most novice users of the ultrasound machine would also likely miss this effusion. The main goal of this fluid is to lubricate the surfaces of the organs and body walls like motor oil for your car engine. This allows the organs to glide over each other without friction, avoiding inflammation. That is in health. However, in states of disease, we see effusion develop which needs to be identified and characterized for both diagnosis and targeted treatment. So, if you see a dog or cat with abdominal effusion or pleural effusion, rapid fluid analysis is imperative!
Sep 25, 2017
Learning with veterinary toxicologist, Dr. Tina Wismer, DABT, DABVT, with the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:29:44
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Tina Wismer, DABT, DABVT, Medical Director at the #1 Animal Poison Control Center, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, based out of Urbana, Illinois. Here, she shares the top 5 poisons affecting dogs and cats, including what clinical signs you may see and how to treat them. We'll also discuss some helpful hints when it comes to calling the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center - like having the patient signalment and exposure information ready, along with having the pet owner initiate the first phone call to create a case number. Dr. Wismer will also discuss the differences between cholysteramine and activated charcoal, talk about new updates in veterinary toxicology, and discuss why your veterinary clinic should be utilizing their expertise and services!
Sep 18, 2017
How to write a good veterinary client discharge | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:58
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss how to write a good discharge for your pet owners. While we're often busy in general practice, emergency practice, or specialty practice, it's so important that we write clear, concise discharges for pet owners. Here, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC review all the pertinent information you need in your discharges! Help promote better client communication and education with these simple tips.
Sep 11, 2017
Prospective study on the use of hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent in dogs | Dr. Alicia Niedzwecki | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:23
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Alicia Niedzwecki, DACVECC, on a recent study that she performed entitled Effect of oral 3% hydrogen peroxide used as an emetic on the gastroduodenal mucosa of healthy dogs. In this study, Dr. Niedzwecki performed a prospective study aimed to investigate the effects of 3% hydrogen peroxide on the gastrointestinal mucosa in healthy dogs when ingested in amounts we routinely use for emesis induction. What'd they find? Maybe we shouldn't be using hydrogen peroxide in our veterinary poisoned canine patients after all, as evidence of esophagitis, gastritis and gastric ulceration can be seen. This study supports that hydrogen peroxide is not as benign as perhaps we once thought. While the authors' take away from this study was that the use of hydrogen peroxide shouldn't be recommended for at-home use in pet owners unless the benefits outweigh the risks, the toxicologist in me is going to take a little bit of a different take on it. VETgirl will likely still use it as an emetic agent (again, only in dogs), but now I'm going to add on gastric protectants and antacids for 1-2 weeks post-administration of hydrogen peroxide.
Sep 04, 2017
Survival of hypotensive cats in the ICU | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:08
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the significance of lactate levels in hypotensive cats in the ICU. Can lactate be a prognostic factor for survival?
Aug 28, 2017
The growing prevalence of Lyme disease based on forecasting | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:02
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jenna Gettings, DVM MPH, who is a Post-Doctoral Fellow with the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) on her recent paper A Bayesian spatio-temporal model for forecasting the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, in domestic dogs within the contiguous United States. While this is mouthful, find out what you need to know about the Lyme prevalence data and the practical implications that this may have for veterinarians. Based off some pretty complex stats and math, this paper forecasts that Lyme disease is expanding geographically. More importantly, why do we care as health care professionals, and does this affect our treatment as veterinarians? Tune in to learn more!
Aug 21, 2017
How accurate are point-of-care glucometers in hemodiluted and hemoconcentrated canine blood samples? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:34
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the importance of anemia or hemoconcentration on blood glucose measurements when using point-of-care (POC) gluometers in our veterinary patients.
Aug 14, 2017
Tips and tricks to survive your veterinary internship and residency | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:28:37
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC, discuss some helpful tips and tricks on how to survive your veterinary internship and veterinary residency. While you have to work hard during this upcoming year (or next two to three years), there are some easy tips to survive this learning period! You can do it! Any hints that you guys have? Share below!
Aug 07, 2017
Can I use maropitant chronically in my veterinary patients? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:33:36
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the chronic use of maropitant in veterinary medicine based on the most recent, cutting edge veterinary studies that have been done. In this podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM and Dr. Craig Clifford, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology) on their chronic use of maropitant in cats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and oncology patients, respectively. Can you use maropitant long-term without any problems?
Jul 31, 2017
Assessing quality of life in veterinary medicine | Dr. Mary Gardner | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:37
In today' VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Mary Gardner, CoFounder of Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice. She discusses quality of life in veterinary medicine, along with the decision to euthanize versus when to consider hospice care.
Jul 24, 2017
Should we be using 3% hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether or not we should be using 3% hydrogen peroxide (H202) as an emetic agent in dogs. With most of our pets' toxin ingestions occurring outside the veterinary hospital, we, as veterinary professionals, must use our best judgment when making recommendations to pet owners regarding how best to help their pet. If the pet has ingested a toxic substance or an overdose of medication, and you know the best course of action is to prevent further absorption by way of emesis, what do you recommend to the client? Does your hospital induce emesis with apomorphine or with hydrogen peroxide? Do you sometimes recommend to clients to induce emesis at home? Or do you just direct them to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center instead?
Jul 17, 2017
Why you should stop your veterinary career and have kids now! | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:26
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT, CEO of VETgirl, discusses her personal struggle with infertility and why you need to stop your veterinary career to have kids now...
Jul 10, 2017
How to tackle your veterinary student debt with Travis Hornsby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Travis Hornsby, Founder of Student Loan Planner, LLC. He's a student loan consultant and is here to discuss the veterinary student debt issue. With so many veterinary students having six figures of student debt, how does one find help to come up with a repayment strategy? You can also check out his blog here on veterinary student debt HERE.
Jul 03, 2017
Hospice care in veterinary medicine | Dr. Dani McVety | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:45
In today' VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Dani McVety, CoFounder of Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice. How did she get involved with hospice, and what is the role of it in veterinary medicine? Learn more about how this can preserve the human-animal bond with your patients.
Jun 26, 2017
Signalment changes in our canine leptospirosis patients | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:31:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. George Moore, DVM, PhD, on the newest updates with canine leptospirosis. Is lepto seen in our roaming, rural large farm dogs, or is it now seen in 15 pound, urban city dogs? How should we diagnose leptospirosis? A MAT? PCR? ELISA? Find out all you need to know about this growing, zoonotic canine disease!
Jun 19, 2017
Anticonvulsants in veterinary medicine | Dr. Simon Platt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:11
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is sponsored by PRN, makers of KBroVet, potassium bromide. In this podcast, Dr. Simon Platt, BVM&S, MRCVS, DACVIM (Neurology), DECVN, neurologist from University of Georgia, reviews the different types of anticonvulsants available in veterinary medicine. Which should you pick? What are the pros and cons? When should we add an additional anticonvulsant?
Jun 12, 2017
Myth-busting about Veterinary Practice Ownership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:17:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Trichel about some of misconceptions of going from veterinary associate to small business veterinary practice owner! What are some myths that need to be debunked when it comes to veterinary practice ownership?
Jun 05, 2017
Does the size of the syringe and blood filter affect survival of RBCs in cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:26
Do you give a lot of blood transfusions in your veterinary clinic? Ever wonder if your protocol for blood transfusion administration is correct? In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not the size of the syringe and blood filter affect survival of RBCs in cats. BTW, check out some of our transfusion videos here and here.
May 22, 2017
The prevalence of dry eye (KCS) in the veterinary ICU | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:09
Are you doing Schirmer tear tests to test for the prevalence of dry eye (KCS) in your veterinary ICU?
May 15, 2017
Smoke Inhalation and House Fire Trauma | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:10:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discusses common concerns following house fire trauma and smoke inhalation in veterinary medicine. How do we treat carbon monoxide toxicosis, cyanide toxicosis, and the respiratory distress seen in these smoke inhalation patients?
May 08, 2017
The incidence of pneumonia in post-operative IVDD dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:25
Have you treated cases of postoperative pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia in your practice? Have you wondered what factors might predispose your canine patients to developing postoperative respiratory complications? In people, there are a number of risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in the peri- and postoperative period that include: increased age, co-morbidities, preexisting pulmonary disease, immobility, decreased consciousness, analgesia and gastrointestinal problems like motility disorders, increased gastric acid, esophageal disease, among others.
May 01, 2017
Do's and Dont's of Dextrose Administration | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:07:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review's the DO's and DONT's of dextrose.
Apr 24, 2017
Top 4 Things to Consider Before Taking the Plunge into Practice Ownership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Trichel about the top 4 things to consider before taking the plunge into practice ownership. While this is a huge step, this is a great way of being able to help pay off your veterinary school debt by being a veterinary practice owner! Are you passionate? Do you want to be a leader in your practice? Do you like mentoring and training people? If so, it may be time to consider before buying a veterinary clinic.
Apr 17, 2017
The use of arterial catheters in veterinary medicine with Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:28
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVAA, MS, DACVECC, Professor at University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine on the use of arterial catheters (commonly called "A-lines") in veterinary medicine. While arterial catheters are typically only used in academia or veterinary specialty clinics, it's still important to know the pros and cons of using them. These are considered the gold standard for measuring blood pressure, as they are the most accurate. But what are the potential pros and cons of using them? Also, when do we start to worry about hypotension under anesthesia. Get some great anesthesia tips from Dr. Quandt!
Apr 10, 2017
Top 5 pet peeves in the veterinary emergency room | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:10
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review their top 5 pet peeves to avoid in the veterinary emergency room. Whether or not you're a rookie or experienced emergency veterinarian, or about to switch from general practice to emergency medicine, these are mistakes you want to avoid!
Apr 03, 2017
What you need to know about food allergies and food trials | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:06
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Kacie Blessing, DACVD, of the Animal Dermatology Clinics on food allergies in veterinary medicine. What type of diet should we use, and for how long? When's the best season or timing to test a dog? How do we differentiate atopy from food allergies? Get your dermatology on with this VETgirl podcast!
Mar 27, 2017
Lyme nephritis: State of the Art Review | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:57
If you've practiced where VETgirl has, you'd hate Lyme disease as much as we do. Having practiced in all the tick-infested states (e.g., NJ, NY, MA, MN, PA, etc.), I've seen a lot of Lyme disease. That said, only a small subset of Lyme positive dogs (1-2%) go onto develop severe, life-threatening complications from Lyme disease - the dreaded Lyme nephritis. So, in today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll discuss this rare complication: Lyme nephritis.
Mar 20, 2017
Speed rounds on everything veterinary neurology! | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Missy Carpentier-Anderson, DACVIM (Neurology) from Animal Emergency & Referral Center of Minnesota. In this veterinary podcast, she reviews everything you need to know about veterinary neurology including localization of disease, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in dogs, and the use of anticonvulsants in dogs with epilepsy. Learn more in this VETgirl online CE podcast!
Mar 13, 2017
What you need to know about veterinary radiation therapy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:21:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Siobhan Haney, VMD, MS, DACVR (RO), a radiation oncologist from Hope Veterinary Specialists on radiation therapy. What types of neoplasia respond the best to radiation therapy (RT). Should we use traditional RT or consider Cyberknife or stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in veterinary medicine? This may be a new option for osteosarcoma, brain tumors, etc. Learn more in this VETgirl online CE podcast!
Mar 06, 2017
So...you are transitioning to EMERGENCY MEDICINE? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:28:16
I was recently asked to assist a veterinarian transition from general practice to emergency medicine. Now, if you've never been exposed to the emergency medicine side of veterinary medicine, it's a whole different world. That said, it's a great opportunity to practice in an exciting way! So, here, some helpful hints to reduce your anxiety of transitioning to emergency medicine. These are tips from the emergency trenches!
Feb 27, 2017
Is Feline Herpes the gift that keeps on giving? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:15:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast sponsored by Aventix, Dr. Shelby Reinstein discusses Feline Herpes Virus (FHV). FHV is a very common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats, and is THE MOST common cause of surface ocular disease. Kittens which suffer from the initial viral exposure are often quite sick with both upper respiratory infections (URI) and ocular signs. These kittens can have significant fever, decreased appetites, and secondary bacterial infections may ensue. Adult cats, however, usually have a more mild form of the disease, as the virus is reactivating from its dormant state. Given the wide variety of clinical syndromes attributable to FHV, it can be challenging to know exactly WHO to treat, and with what. In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Shelby Reinstein reviews examination findings, as well as drug therapies for the treatment of FHV including antibiotic therapy, lysine, and even famciclovir!
Feb 20, 2017
Paradoxical breathing and pleural space disease in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss paradoxical breathing in our canine and feline patients. As we all know, pleural space diseases like pleural effusion, pneumothorax and diaphragmatic hernias can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. You might not always hear obvious muffled heart or breath sounds, and often our veterinary patients aren't stable enough for radiographs right away. In one study of dogs with pleural effusion, almost 1/3 died during initial examination and diagnostics!1 Remember, we always want to rapidly identify and stabilize our dyspneic patients to maximize survival and patient comfort!
Feb 13, 2017
The use of maropitant in veterinary medicine: Literature review | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:33:07
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of maropitant in veterinary medicine based on the most recent, cutting edge veterinary studies that have been done. In this podcast, we interview Dr. Bonnie Hay Kraus, DVM, DACVS, DACVAA on her recent studies evaluating dosing, route of administration and use in veterinary patients. How does this apply to you? Should you use it routinely pre-operatively? Will it prevent aspiration pneumonia or nausea? Tune in and find out more about this anti-emetic!
Feb 06, 2017
Top mistakes that veterinarians make with veterinary behavioral disorders | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:10
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB, who is a board-certified veterinary behaviorist at Florida Veterinary Behavior Services on the top mistakes that veterinarians make with veterinary behavioral disorders. Find out what mistakes you need to avoid, what medications you should be reaching for more, and how to appropriate communicate to your pet owners about behavioral problems!
Jan 30, 2017
Should you use FFP in your critically ill veterinary patients? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:10
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not you should use fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in your critically ill veterinary patients. Do you use FFP in your practice? What clinical situations prompt you to consider its use? Bleeding patients? Patients with prolonged clotting times? Patients with hypoalbuminemia or pancreatitis? Before we discuss our use of FFP and the evidence (or lack thereof!) behind it, let's make sure we're all on the same page about what FFP is. It's plasma that has been separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours, and it contains not only our coagulation factors, but also anticoagulation factors, fibrinogen, albumin and alpha-macroglobulins. Once it's frozen, it can be stored for up to one year. [After which, it becomes expired plasma or frozen plasma (FP), which still has it's uses!]
Jan 23, 2017
The role of a criticalist in your veterinary hospital | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review the role of a veterinary criticalist in your veterinary hospital. Whether you're an emergency critical care resident about to apply for jobs for the first time, or you're a veteran board-certified veterinary criticalist, find out what roles we have in the veterinary community.
Jan 16, 2017
Tracheal stenting in dogs with end-stage trachea collapse | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:55
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review tracheal collapse. Tracheal collapse is found in smaller breed dogs, especially Yorkshire terriers, miniature poodles and Pugs and presents as airway obstruction with the classic “goose honking” cough. Possible contributing factors include:
Jan 09, 2017
Are Bulldog ocular problems different than other dogs? Or is that just a bunch of bull? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast sponsored by Aventix, Dr. Shelby Reinstein discusses why it is not just "bull" that brachycephalic dogs have more challenging eye conditions!
Jan 02, 2017
Enoxaparin in dogs with primary IMHA | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Do you see a lot of dogs with primary IMHA in your practice? Do you have an anticoagulation protocol that you like to use in treating them? Does it involve aspirin? Clopidogrel? Unfractionated heparin? What about LMWH?
Dec 26, 2016
The role of women in veterinary leadership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:03
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Karen Bradley, who is one of the founders and former President of the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative (WVLDI). Their goal? To support women in seeking and achieving leadership, policy, and decision-making positions within all areas of professional veterinary activity. Check out some of their great resources here. For more information, check out their website here and their Facebook group here.
Dec 19, 2016
Treating the ITP patient with vincristine versus human IVIG | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss treatment for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) in dogs. Have you treated a patient with primary ITP? Did you use steroids alone, or did you try combination therapy with vincristine or human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG)? Well, while treatment with immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids is the initial treatment of choice, and most patients will have platelet recovery within 1-15 days of starting treatment, adding treatment with vincristine or hIVIG has been shown to shorten platelet recovery time. In some peer-reviewed, scientific veterinary prospective studies, dogs with severe ITP treated with prednisone alone versus prednisone and vincristine, or prednisone alone versus prednisone and hIVIG, both combination therapies resulted in faster increases in platelet numbers and shorter durations of hospitalization. To date, though, there haven't been any studies looking at the efficacy of vincristine versus hIVIG as adjunctive treatments. This is important because hIVIG is much more expensive, and giving it to your patient is more time consuming and challenging that giving vincristine.
Dec 12, 2016
Using the appropriate antibiotics for septic peritonitis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:26
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the appropriate use of antibiotics for dogs with septic peritonitis. In patients with sepsis, early antimicrobial therapy is one of the cornerstones of treatment, along with resuscitation and source control. In human medicine, a landmark study of patients with septic shock revealed that for every one hour delay in antibiotic administration for the first six hours after presentation, mortality increased by 7.6%!(1) In critically ill, septic patients, antibiotics should be started before culture and sensitivity results are generally available, right? Well, the questions remain in both human and veterinary medicine about how we should choose those antibiotics, and whether or not our choices matter.
Dec 05, 2016
Risk factors and outcome predictors in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Do you see cats with DKA in your practice? Does DKA really stand for "Diabetes Kills Animals?" (No.) What do you usually tell owners about their prognosis and what do you base that information on? While we know that DKA is a complicated form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and we often tell owners that it usually happens due to some other complicating concurrent disease or condition, we don't actually know a lot about those diseases or conditions, and whether or not they contribute to the patient's outcome.
Nov 28, 2016
Types of insulin commonly used in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:09
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DACVIM, a board-certified veterinary specialist in internal medicine. She is an internal medicine consultant for Merck Animal Health, and an endocrinologist who consults on complicated diabetes mellitus cases. In this podcast, we review the types of insulin commonly used in veterinary medicine.
Nov 21, 2016
Diagnostic accuracy of canine pancreatitis tests | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:08
Have a dog presenting to you with abdominal pain and vomiting? In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the diagnostic accuracy of canine pancreatitis tests. Specific tests that are often used to test for canine pancreatitis are the Spec cPL and the SNAP cPL test; however, these tests must be interpreted carefully.
Nov 14, 2016
Common mistakes to avoid in management of diabetes mellitus | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DACVIM, a board-certified veterinary specialist in internal medicine. She is an internal medicine consultant for Merck Animal Health, and an endocrinologist who consults on complicated diabetes mellitus cases. In this podcast, we review the common mistakes to avoid in management of diabetes mellitus in your canine and feline patients.
Nov 07, 2016
Vitamin D levels in Dogs with Chronic Valvular Heart Disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:06
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether Vitamin D plays a role in heart disease in dogs. Vitamin D deficiency, as determined via serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, is associated with worsened cardiac function, heart failure symptoms, and prognosis in human heart failure patients. Supplementation of vitamin D in such patients improves cardiac function and improves prognosis. A 2014 study in dogs demonstrated that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in dogs with CHF secondary to either CVHD or DCM than in normal dogs. So, Osuga et al out of Japan wanted to evaluate if an association exists between vitamin D status and all stages of CVHD, as well as investigate if any association exists between vitamin D status and echocardiographic parameters of cardiac structure and function in these canine patients.
Oct 31, 2016
Clinical findings and survival in cats with FIV | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:45
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss clinical findings and survival in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Is it a death sentence?
Oct 24, 2016
Veterinary technician or veterinary nurse? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:19:35
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Heather Prendergast and Ken Yagi, both veterinary technician extraordinaires, on the terminology of "veterinary technician" versus "veterinary nurse." First, what's the difference, and why is there so much push back from the human nursing community on this? Learn all about the current credentialing and standardization (which varies state by state) that is currently being reviewed. NAVTA is currently working with several organizations (such as AVMA) to create an updated national credentialing and standardization. Check out the results of a veterinary technician survey that was originally released by NAVTA here. More importantly, during National Veterinary Technician Week, what better way to support your right-hand-veterinary-technician-extraordinaire-staff by supporting this movement?
Oct 17, 2016
Does dexmedetomidine affect cardiac function based on echocardiography in dogs? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:29
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of certain sedatives such as dexmedetomidine on cardiac function (based on echocardiography) in dogs. We know that alpha-2 agonist sedatives provide dose-dependent sedation by reducing the central nervous system's sympathetic outflow. The alpha agonist properties of these drugs also have significant cardiovascular effects - specifically vasoconstriction - which results in an increase in vascular resistance and potential for reflex bradycardia. Dexmedetomidine, a readily available alpha-2 agonist in veterinary medicine, has been documented to cause bradycardia, systemic hypertension, hypothermia, and reduced cardiac output with administration. Given these cardiovascular effects, it is possible that these drugs may significantly alter echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function if used for sedation for echocardiography (thus resulting in artifactual results). So, Kellihan et al out of University of Wisconsin wanted to evaluate this by assessing dexmedetomidine's effect - in other words, how well it results in level of sedation and whether it effects echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function. They looked at two doses - the labeled dose at 10 ug/kg and a lower dose of 5 ug/kg.
Oct 10, 2016
The prevalence of immune-complex glomerulonephritides in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:43
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the prevalence of immune-complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN) in dogs. Is it always due to glomerulonephritis? Or is it due to amyloidosis? Why should we care? First, we should care as glomerular injury is common to many renal diseases. Both primary and secondary glomerular disease is commonly seen in dogs. Primary glomerular disease refers to diseases where the glomerulus suffers the initial injury, while secondary glomerular disease refers to those diseases in which the glomerulus is secondarily injured. Based on the ongoing WSAVA Renal Standardization Project, primary glomerular disease in dogs is divided into 3 main groups: immune-complex glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, and non-immune-complex glomerulonephritis. You can download the guidelines here, btw. Non-immune-complex glomerulonephritis is a diagnosis of exclusion, if neither immune complexes nor amyloid is demonstrated, but primary pathology is noted in the glomerulus.
Oct 03, 2016
Does the urine dipstick paddle work to identify urinary tract infections in dogs and cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:31
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not the urine dipstick paddle works to help identify urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs and cats. Being that 14% of dogs will develop a UTI at some point in their life, and that UTIs are more prevalent in older (versus younger cats), veterinarians should be well aware of how to treat UTIs. Keep in mind that most UTIs in dogs and cats involve a single bacterial species, with E.coli being the #1 isolated bacteria from the urine of dogs and cats (followed by Staph, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Strep).
Sep 26, 2016
Left ventricular abnormalities in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:52
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review echocardiographic findings in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism (e.g., "Cushing's disease") is common in middle to older aged dogs and results in a state of chronic hypercortisolemia. Resultant systemic sequelae of this disease state include renal/urinary disease, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary thrombembolism (due to hypercoagulability), and systemic hypertension, among others. (Hence, one of the reasons why it's so important that we treat this endocrine disease in dogs!). In humans with hyperadrenocorticism, increases in left ventricular wall thickness have been detected echocardiographically. So, Takano et al out of Japan wanted to evaluate myocardial structure and function in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
Sep 19, 2016
Placing nasojejunal feeding tubes in dogs by fluoroscopic technique | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:54
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review a new technique of placing nasojejunal feeding tubes in dogs. In critical care, the pendulum has swung to the side of enteral feeding over parenteral nutrition in both human and veterinary patients. However, when so many of our critical patients are vomiting or regurgitating, and the risks associated with surgical jejunal feeding tube placement may not outweigh the benefits, do any non-invasive options for enteral feeding exist? Or is our only option total or partial parenteral nutrition? The critical care and interventional radiology group at Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine (Beal at al.) developed a novel technique for placing nasojejunal feedings tubes in critically ill dogs using fluoroscopic visualization and wire guidance. Sounds interesting, right?
Sep 12, 2016
Organ dysfunction and mortality risk factors in severe canine bite wound trauma | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:16:49
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review organ dysfunction and mortality risk factors in dogs with severe bite wounds. How frequently do you see dogs with severe bite wounds requiring intensive care in your practice? While many of us see “routine” bite wounds that can be managed with wound care on an out-patient basis pretty frequently, there is another population of canine patients with bite wounds that are much more severely affected. These patients may have much more extensive wounds, and can develop complications such as SIRS, DIC, MODS and sepsis. Unfortunately, little evidence exists on which patients may develop these complications. So, Ateca et al from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine set out to retrospectively evaluate dogs with bite wounds requiring hospitalization in the ICU, to characterize their treatments, complications and outcomes, and to identify any risk factors for mortality.
Sep 05, 2016
Immunochromatographic testing for feline AB blood type | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the accuracy of a newer test (using immunochromatography) for detecting feline blood types (AB) in a study titled “Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for feline AB system blood typing.” AB blood typing is commonly performed in hospitalized cats to ensure blood compatibility and to prevent hemolytic transfusion reactions or potentially life-threatening reactions (e.g., B cats receiving A blood). Blood typing is a necessity for all feline transfusions because cats are born with antibodies against red blood cells of the opposite blood type. For this reason, there is no universal donor in cats, and cats must always be blood typed and/or cross-matched prior to administration! AB blood typing is also important in feline breeding programs in order to prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis. Several methods that allow AB blood typing have been previously validated and include gel column testing, which is no longer commercially available, as well as tube or plate testing, which are both cumbersome and difficult to standardize in practice. Agglutination cards are probably the most commonly used test kits in veterinary practice and can reliably identify type A and B cats, but traditionally have shown weak reactions with type AB blood, resulting in mistyping of AB cats.
Aug 29, 2016
What does a shortened PT/PTT mean in dogs? Hypercoagulability in dogs with Dr. Jennifer Song | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jennifer Song, who recently finished her surgical residency at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. Dr. Song, a board-eligible veterinary surgeon, discusses a retrospective study that she performed while at PennVet entitled "Retrospective evaluation of shortened prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time for the diagnosis of hypercoagulability in dogs: 25 cases (2006-2011)" in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care. Previously, we didn't pay much heed to a shortened PT/PTT; we generally only looked at prolongation as an indicator of hypocoagulability (the inability to clot). However, in recent human studies, there may be some evidence that a shortened PT/PTT is suggestive of hypercoagulability! While thromboelastography (TEG) is traditionally looked at - along with increased fibrin (or fibrinogen) and D-dimers - to evaluate hypercoagulability, Song et al's new evidence may prove otherwise. So, start paying attention to your shorter PT/PTT readings after all!
Aug 22, 2016
Diabetes mellitus monitoring in your veterinary patients | Dr. Stijn Niessen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:38:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Stijn Niessen, DVM, PhD, DECVIM, PGCVetEd, FHEA, MRCVS. Dr. Niessen is a Senior Lecturer at the Royal Veterinary College University of London, President of the European Society of Veterinary Endocrinology and the Head of Internal Medicine. He is also the Director of the Diabetic Remission Clinic.
Aug 15, 2016
Wellness for veterinarians | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:02
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the importance of wellness for veterinary professionals. Why is it that we care for our veterinary patients so well and constantly advocate for their quality of life, but have poor self care? Due to the growing prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine, we wanted to review a recent study that was published in JAVMA in October 2015 on the importance of wellness for veterinarians. Make sure you've also checked out our other podcast on “Risk factors for suicide, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians,” along with our free VETgirl webinar on suicide (by Jeannine Moga).
Aug 08, 2016
Boxing down cats in veterinary medicine Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:06:08
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVAA, DACVECC, on whether it's appropriate to "box" down cats with inhalant therapy alone. This is no longer considered standard of care and not recommended by anesthesiologists, with the exception of the rare exotic animal that cannot be easily intubated (e.g., gerbil, pocket pets, etc.). So, if you have a fractious cat, check out this veterinary podcast for some better, safer tips from Dr. "Q!"
Aug 01, 2016
How to treat pyothorax in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:04
How do you treat patients with pyothorax in your practice? Do you have a different protocol for dogs versus cats? Do you know they are likely to have different causes of pyothorax?
Jul 25, 2016
Behavior Supplements: Zylkene andamp; Anxitane | Dr. Lisa Radosta| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB of Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses the role that supplements like Zylkene and Anxitane have in veterinary behavior. Do they work? Since supplements aren't regulated by the FDA, are they safe? Should you be recommending them? Tune into this podcast to find out more!
Jul 20, 2016
Common injuries of working dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:09
Treat a lot of working dogs? Well, this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is for you. Parr and Otto out of University of Pennsylvania wanted to evaluate the primary presenting problem of working German Shepherd dogs (GSD) presenting to the ER. What was the underlying etiology of illness? In a study called "Emergency visits and occupational hazards in German Shepherd police dogs (2008-;2010)," they retrospectively reviewed GSD presenting to the Penn emergency services from 2008-2010 (Shout out to the Penn Working Dog Center!). They wanted to be able to identify the number and underlying conditions of police dog visits and confirm the primary causes of illness in working GSD.
Jul 18, 2016
Should I buy a veterinary clinic? Small Business Ownership with Dr. Michael Tokiwa| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:34:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Michael Tokiwa, owner of Progressive Veterinary Care, a family of veterinary hospitals located in the Princeton, NJ area. Dr Tokiwa is also the host and medical consultant for the popular pet radio show, Your Pet Matters on 107.7 The Bronc. Here, Dr. Tokiwa discusses the pros and cons of small business ownership and what tips you should consider when considering purchasing that small animal clinic.
Jul 11, 2016
How long can you keep your pRBC transfusions around? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review how long you can keep your packed red blood (pRBC) cell transfusions around. 2-3 weeks? 4-6 weeks? What's the right answer? Does it depend on the patient, their disease, or the hospital's protocol?
Jul 04, 2016
Prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma based off a recent study by Sharma et al entitled “Retrospective evaluation of prognostic indicators in dogs with head trauma.” Many of us in emergency practice see head trauma patients and would agree that the prognosis for these patients can be difficult to predict. Some dogs or cats admitted with signs of traumatic brain injury make astounding turnarounds, whereas others do not seem to respond to therapy. Studies investigating veterinary patients with head trauma are relatively sparse. A study investigating the utility of a modified Glasgow coma scale score (MGCS) was published back in 2001 and showed an almost linear correlation between the score and mortality. Alternatively, large studies investigating the utility of the Animal Trauma Triage (ATT) score have been published recently, but this score has not been specifically investigated in a population of head trauma patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and laboratory variables or scoring systems such as the modified Glasgow coma scale, mentation, or ATT scores recorded at hospital admission have prognostic value in dogs with head trauma.
Jun 27, 2016
Real-Life-Rounds Podcast: How to perform a splenectomy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:47:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Steve Mehler, DACVS, reviews how to perform a splenectomy in dogs and cats. Not sure of the approach? Want some tips on how to manage a hemoabdomen surgically without getting it all over your surgical field? What type of suture should you use? Tune into this 30 minute podcast to learn it! Please note that this podcast is a modification from our Real-Life Rounds, so you won't be able to see the videos. Interested in seeing it? Join VETgirl ELITE and get access to our podcasts, webinars, Real-Life Rounds, videos and more!
Jun 20, 2016
Mushroom I'm-Yunity used for the treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Dorothy Cimino Brown, Professor of Surgery at University of Pennsylvania on the use of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, known commonly as the Yunzhi mushroom. This mushroom, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, is thought to contain immune-boosting properties from polysaccharopeptide (PSP). The specific product being used is I'm-Yunity, made by Chinese Medicine Holdings LTD (NOTE: This product is manufactured in the USA in adherence to USP c-GMP guidelines). A preliminary University of Pennsylvania pilot study that was released in 2012 evaluated 15 dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma that were treated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day of I'm-Yunity. While there wasn't a statistically significant difference in survival between the three dosage groups, the median survival time was highest in the 100 mg/kg/day group, at 199 days. As as result, a second clinical trial is currently being conducted to evaluate dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma. This will evaluate dogs treated with I'm-Yunity alone, dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + chemotherapy, or dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + a placebo.
Jun 13, 2016
Does Hetastarch cause acute kidney injury in dogs? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In the last several years, the debate over the use of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions in veterinary medicine has intensified. In human patients, HES products now have a boxed warning recommending against their use in critically ill patients, based on evidence that they contribute to coagulopathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), and increased risk of mortality.1 In veterinary patients, no studies of AKI or outcome in clinical patients receiving HES have been performed. So, Hayes et al out of Ontario Veterinary College set out to determine if HES administration was associated with outcome or AKI in canine ICU patients in a study called "Retrospective cohort study on the incidence of acute kidney injury and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010)." Because many of these patients would already be considered critically ill based on their admission to the ICU, a retrospective cohort study was designed with an illness severity measure included.
Jun 06, 2016
Transfusion practices for treatment of critically ill or emergent dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review two studies that describe the transfusion practices used for the treatment of dogs hospitalized after trauma and for dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses. These are both large retrospective studies out of Tufts University, a busy veterinary teaching hospital in Massachusetts.
May 30, 2016
Treating pulmonary hypertension with Viagra | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review pulmonary hypertension (often called cor pulmonale) and the use of sildenafil (more famously known as Viagra). Pulmonary hypertension is classified is as an increase in either pre-capillary (pulmonary arterial ) or post-capillary (pulmonary venous) pulmonary resistance. In dogs, the disease occurs most commonly in older, small breed dogs as a result of chronic lung disease, chronic left-sided heart disease, heartworm infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, or left-to-right cardiac shunts (which is one of the reasons why it's so important that you treat underlying lung disease before it progresses to pulmonary hypertension!). The clinical signs of pulmonary hypertension may be indistinguishable from primary respiratory disease or congestive heart failure and includ tachypnea, cyanosis, dyspnea, increased respiratory effort, syncope, etc. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is made via echocardiogram by estimation of pulmonary artery pressures (typically, a dog needs to have tricuspid regurgitation to have this measured on echo). Thoracic radiographs remain an important component to the medical workup in these patients (usually performed prior to echocardiography).
May 23, 2016
Why is our veterinary profession so at risk for suicide | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the important topic of the prevalence of suicide in our field. Why do veterinarians and veterinary technicians have a higher rate of suicide as compared to other fields? In a recent publication in JAVMA by Nett et al, they review the field of mental health and wellness in the veterinary profession. This is an area receiving some much-needed attention recently, due to the occurrence of some widely publicized suicides amongst veterinary professionals during the last few years. (BTW, you can check out our free VETgirl webinar on suicide by Jeannine Moga here).
May 16, 2016
Hypothyroidism and DCM in Doberman Pinschers | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not there is an association between hypothyroidism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Doberman Pinschers are overrepresented among canine patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (familial/genetic), as well as those diagnosed with hypothyroidism. So the question is, is there a link? This is a very controversial topic. After all, we know that thyroid hormone plays an important role in the systolic function of the myocardium and cardiac rate and rhythm via its effect on density of beta-adrenergic receptors and their sensitivity to catecholamines. A deficiency of thyroid hormone has been associated with reduced myocardial function and alterations in cardiac conduction and heart rate thus leading to the premise that the hypothyroid state may be a metabolic etiology for dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies to date have not supported that premise.
May 09, 2016
Hetastarch and the concern for Acute Kidney Injury with Dr. Galina Hayes | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Galina Hayes, PhD, DVM, DACVECC, DACVS (Hello, letters!), Assistant Professor in Small Animal Surgery at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. In her recent retrospective study performed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, she evaluated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010). In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 180 dogs receiving HES compared to 242 random dogs receiving just IV fluids. This is the first veterinary paper evaluating the risk of AKI with HES administration; however, be aware of the limitations of the study (e.g., retrospective, higher cumulative crystalloid dosing differences, higher transfusion rates, etc.). That said, before you reach for a bag of colloids, listen to this VETgirl podcast!
May 02, 2016
Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices andamp; blood transfusion requirements in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a recent study titled Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices, and blood transfusion requirements in 45 critically ill cats. This study hypothesized that iatrogenic anemia occurs in hospitalized cats undergoing repeated venipuncture. This has been observed in people, especially critically ill children, and has been associated with the need for blood transfusions. Unfortunately, we know that transfusions can increase hospital cost to clients, risk of transfusion reactions, and risks of complications such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) or transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Given that less is known about iatrogenic anemia in cats, the objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and development of anemia, to document phlebotomy practices and transfusion requirements in these cats, and to evaluate the association between these factors and duration of hospitalization and outcome in critically ill cats.
Apr 25, 2016
The effect of antivenom on hospitalization duration andamp; treatment in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:13:22
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of antivenom in dogs. Is it worth the $500/bottle? How many bottles should we use? Is it necessary in all cases? So, we interview Dr. Daniel Foy, DACVIM, DACVECC, who published a study called "Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-;2012)." This was a retrospective study looking at a large case population (over 100 dogs) who were envenomated with Crotalus viridis, or more commonly known as the prairie rattlesnake (which isn't as bad as other types of Crotalid species). In this study, it appeared that the use of antivenom did not positively affect outcome or duration of hospitalization, and actually increased costs! So, test your envenomation knowledge here in today's VETgirl podcast.
Apr 18, 2016
Measuring iron levels in dogs with SIRS | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:42
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the usefulness of measuring iron levels in dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Now, you probably don't think you see SIRS or septic cases, but you do. SIRS is a result of overstimulation of the inflammatory cascade (with secondary release of inflammatory mediators). SIRS can be seen due to thermal injury (e.g., heat stroke, burns), immune-mediated disease, etc. and can be seen with neoplasia, pancreatitis, trauma, infectious disease, etc. The definition of SIRS is very loose, unfortunately and includes two of the following criteria:
Apr 11, 2016
Recurrence of septic peritonitis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:12
Do you treat patients with septic peritonitis in your clinic? If you do, do you agonize over them for the first few days after surgery, worried that they will require a second surgery due to recurrence (Is this dog going to perf!)? Have you thought about what factors might put these patients at risk for recurrence?
Apr 04, 2016
Routes of furosemide administration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:50
What's your favorite way of giving furosemide to the critically ill, fragile, dyspneic congestive heart failure patient? Is it worth putting in an IV catheter just to give furosemide IV? (No). Does it matter what route you give it?
Mar 28, 2016
Should I do a decompressive cystocentesis in my blocked cat? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
How do you like to treat blocked cats in your practice? Do you have an opinion about the use of decompressive cystocentesis (DC)? If you aren't familiar with it, this procedure involves performing cystocentesis in cats with urethral obstruction (UO) prior to placement of a urinary catheter. Some argue that it makes patients comfortable more quickly by relieving bladder distention, and also makes it easier to pass a urinary catheter due to reduced back pressure. Others feel strongly that decompressive cystocentesis increases the risk of bladder rupture and uroabdomen.
Mar 21, 2016
FAST ultrasound in non-traumatized patients in the ER | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:22:58
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Soren Boysen, DACVECC from the University of Calgary and Dr. Jantina McMurray on their recent publication on the use of AFAST and TFAST ultrasound in non-trauma patients presenting to the emergency services. In this prospective study, the looked at 100 dogs and cats and found that 33% had free fluid identified on presentation. In unstable or dyspneic patients, 75% had evidence of effusion. So, if you have an ultrasound machine, are you using it enough in your clinic and patients?
Mar 14, 2016
Ventricular septal defects in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:07
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in dogs and cats. VSDs are defined as an opening or communication in the interventricular septum due to defects in closure or alignment of the septum during fetal development. VSDs are a regularly identified form of congenital heart disease in animals, albeit less common than the incidence of VSDs in humans. VSDs are subclassified based on anatomic location and include the following varieties:
Mar 07, 2016
Assessment of Blood Pressure with Pulse Quality | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:18:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Erica Reineke, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor in Emergency Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a recent paper that she published. In this JVECC publication, she evaluates systolic blood pressure measurement based on physical examination as compared to Doppler analysis. In this prospective, observational study, the authors evaluated 102 cats that presented to the emergency services and evaluated the femoral and dorsal pedal pulse to predict systolic blood pressure in cats. House officers (e.g., interns, residents) evaluated pulse quality and defined it as either: strong, moderate, poor, or absent. A concurrent SBP was also performed. What'd they find?
Feb 29, 2016
VETgirl Real-Life Rounds - The use of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:32:04
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education Real-Life Rounds podcast, we review the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in veterinary medicine. Should we veterinarians be using it with every poisoning or toxicology case? Listen to find out more!
Feb 22, 2016
Synthetic Marijuana Toxicity in Dogs with Dr. Raegan Wells | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:23:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Raegan Wells, DACVECC, Director of Medical Management at Blue Pearl in Phoenix, Arizona. In this veterinary podcast, she reviews a recent case report published in JVECC on the use of intravenous lipid emulsion for a synthetic marijuana toxicity case she saw in a dog. Learn how to treat THC (i.e., the real and synthetic case poisonings!), what signs to look for, and whether or not the use of intravenous lipid emulsion would benefit your patient. When in doubt, contact the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center for life-saving advice!
Feb 15, 2016
Perioperative outcomes in dogs with hemoabdomen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common presenting complaint to emergency veterinarians: hemoabdomen. Most of us know that the majority of spontaneous hemoperitoneums are due to bleeding splenic masses (malignant or not), and if you're dealing with a hemangiosarcoma, the long term prognosis isn't great. But have you thought about what factors might be associated with a worse perioperative outcome (for example, from the time of admission for the bleed through surgery to discharge) in this critically ill, emergent population?
Feb 08, 2016
Incidence of acute lung injury in dogs receiving transfusions | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:31
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review TRALI (again, as it's super important!). Have you ever heard of TRALI? The acronym stands for transfusion-related acute lung injury, and is a type of acute lung injury (ALI) recognized in human patients receiving transfusions. In people, this syndrome occurs either immediately after transfusion (TRALI) or within 6-72 hours of transfusion (delayed TRALI). It is characterized by an acute onset of clinical signs, hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrates in the absence of heart disease, and no ALI before the transfusion. TRALI can affect between 5-25% of human ICU patients receiving transfusions, and can be life-threatening. In veterinary patients, the condition is termed VetALI and is characterized by similar criteria, including:
Feb 01, 2016
Cocaine toxicosis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review cocaine toxicosis in dogs. Have you ever seen a patient with cocaine toxicosis in your practice? Do you know how to recognize one? What do you tell owners about prognosis with treatment?
Jan 25, 2016
Heparin versus saline flushes: Which is better? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:59
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of heparin versus saline flushes. Which is better?
Jan 18, 2016
Does food affect activated charcoal absorption? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:48
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether mixing dog food with activated charcoal works. After all, it's usually easier to get a dog to eat the charcoal if you mix it with some palatable food with poisoning cases, right? Well, have you ever wondered about the effect of that food on the adsorptive capacity of the charcoal? Will it decrease its efficacy in terms of helping to eliminate that toxin from your patient's system?
Jan 11, 2016
Association between previous splenectomy andamp; GDV in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the association between previous splenectomy and gastric-dilatation volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Picture this scenario: it's late into your overnight emergency shift, and you're cutting a hemoabdomen in a middle age, large breed dog. You found a bleeding splenic mass and removed it, and now you're trying to decide if you should do a prophylactic gastropexy. Sounds familiar, right? Well, there are actually some theories out there that suggest splenectomy might increase a patient's risk for GDV, so considering that pexy might be smart. Possible reasons for this increased risk include the void created by removal of the spleen (especially if it was enlarged) leading to increased gastric mobility, or stretching of the ligaments in the cranial abdomen due to a splenic mass, torsion, or previous episodes of gastric dilatation (without volvulus). But, regardless of these theories, previous studies have been mixed, so how are you going to decide if you should pexy this dog that's on the table?
Jan 04, 2016
The Use of Lysine in Cats with Herpes - Dr. David Maggs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:26
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. David Maggs, BVSc, DACVO, Professor of Ophthalmology at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine on the use of lysine supplementation in cats with herpesvirus. Does it work? A recent paper adamantly debunked its use (Boll et al), and veterinarians are left wondering - should I be recommending this (safe and benign) medication? When in doubt, consider reaching for topical antivirals instead...
Dec 28, 2015
Radiology tips from Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:27:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR, Department Head of Radiology at the Animal Medical Center in New York. Here, this veterinary podcast reviews some great tips on "FAST" ultrasound to what type of probe you need to how to avoid some common mistakes when interpreting radiographs!
Dec 21, 2015
Effect of body position on blood pressure in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:19
How do you measure blood pressure non-invasively in your patients? Do you use Doppler? Oscillometric? Do you perform the measurement with your patient sitting or standing? Do you always do it the same way? Have you ever given it much thought? Well, in today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the effect of body position on blood pressure measurement in dogs.
Dec 14, 2015
C-reactive protein levels in canine parvovirus | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:55
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review C-reactive protein levels and whether or not they can be useful in managing your parvovirus cases.
Dec 07, 2015
Pimobendan for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of pimobendan in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). Pimobendan (commonly known as Vetmedin in the United States) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor and calcium sensitizer. It is commonly used as a therapy for congestive heart failure and is often referred to as an “inodilator” due to its positive inotropic and peripheral vasodilatory mechanisms of action.
Nov 30, 2015
Calcium oxalate plant toxicosis in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:17
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common plant toxicosis seen in both dogs and cats: insoluble calcium oxalate containing plants. We'll also review the less common plant toxicant soluble calcium oxalate containing plants and discuss the difference between the two types.
Nov 23, 2015
Patent ductus arteriosus in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:32
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Left-to right patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs. PDA also occurs in cats but with much lower incidence. If PDA is left untreated, it results in left-sided volume cardiac overload, with a high incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) within the first year of life. Definitive treatment usually carries a good prognosis and consists of attenuation of flow across the PDA by either surgical ligation (e.g., via thoracotomy) or placement of occlusion devices (e.g., such as coils, plugs or occluders) from within the vascular space via a transcatheter/transvascular approach. Both methods are highly successful in dogs, with transvascular methods preferred as they are less invasive and have a lower rate of major complications. So what about cats? Unfortunately, these approaches can both be more difficult in cats due to their small size. To date, minimal data exists in veterinary literature about correction of PDAs versus medical management in cats.
Nov 16, 2015
Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:04
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). In veterinary medicine, the use of transfusions has become more prevalent, particularly in the field of emergency and critical care. Transfusion medicine is important to help improve oxygen delivery, provide coagulation factors, and provide hemoglobin. That said, the benefits of transfusions must outweigh the risks - albeit rare - from the product itself.
Nov 09, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 2 of 2 podcasts, we review the clinicopathologic results of parvovirus and focus on treatment of the critically ill pediatric patient.
Nov 02, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 1 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:38
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 1 of 2 podcasts, we review the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical signs of parvovirus.
Oct 26, 2015
Pulmonary hypertension in dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the significance of pulmonary hypertension in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (or what we'll call MMVD from now on). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is thought to commonly occur in dogs with MMVD due to passive elevations in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures; this can progress to pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature (with the latter considered an irreversible stage).
Oct 19, 2015
SIRS, MODS, Sepsis and Septic Shock | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:33:18
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, DACVECC, Associate Professor of Critical Care at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine. (She's also one of the co-editors for the fantastic book Small Animal Critical Care Medicine). She talks about all the scary acronyms of critical care: SIRS, MODS, sepsis, and septic shock. So, if you don't think you see Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), think again. Tune in to learn what you need to do to treat your critically ill patient.
Oct 12, 2015
The use of ILE for naproxen toxicosis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:36
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Herring et al's recent publication in Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care called "Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in three cases of canine naproxen overdose." Naproxen, an OTC or prescription human NSAID, has a narrow margin of safety in dogs and cats. As little as 5 mg/kg can result in gastrointestinal distress (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) while doses > 10-25 mg/kg can result in acute kidney injury (AKI). Doses > 50 mg/kg can result in central nervous system signs (e.g., tremors, coma, etc.).
Oct 05, 2015
Cardiac troponin I in cats with dyspnea | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:55
Who likes treating dyspneic cats?
Sep 28, 2015
What are VetCOT Trauma Centers? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:35:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Kelly Hall on what the Veterinary Committee on Trauma (VetCOT) Veterinary Trauma Center (VTC) network is. The goal of VETCOT is to create a network of lead hospitals that seed development of trauma systems. There are three different levels (1 through III) of Veterinary Trauma Centers. This is different from VECCS Facility Certification. These hospitals will work collaboratively to define standards of care and disseminate information that improves trauma patient management efficiency and outcome. Find out more about VetCOT here!
Sep 21, 2015
Acute liver failure in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:19:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE blog podcast, we interview Dr. Allison Sande, DACVIM, DACVECC on her JVECC publication on acute liver failure in dogs and cats. What are the underlying causes of acute hepatic necrosis in dogs and cats, and what is the overall treatment and prognosis? Learn more in this VETgirl podcast!
Sep 14, 2015
cTnI as a predictor of cardiac death in cats with HCM | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:23
Sep 07, 2015
Fenoldopam in Acute Kidney Injury | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:25:03
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast blog, we interview Dr. Lindsey Nielsen, DACVECC on her study that she conducted retrospectively at Angell Animal Medical Center on the the use of fenoldopam. Fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor partial agonist used to help attempt to vasodilate the renal vessels in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. So, does fenoldopam help increase urine output and improve the outcome with AKI (No.)? Here, a review of AKI, fluid therapy, dopamine, mannitol, or other unique drugs like fenoldopam.
Aug 31, 2015
Utilizing the Veterinary Technician Efficiently | David Liss | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:19:38
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, David Liss, RVT, discusses how to best utilize your veterinary technician in helping you manage emergencies in daily practice. Are you not taking the time to do "doctor things" during an emergency? Check out this podcast to learn what you can do to improve your efficiency thanks to the help of your team!
Aug 24, 2015
Holter monitoring in dogs with mitral valve disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:16
In this VETgirl podcast, we review the clinical utility of Holter monitoring in dogs with advanced myxomatous mitral valve disease with or without a history of syncope. Syncope - or fainting - is characterized by a transient loss of consciousness and is generally considered of cardiac or non-cardiac etiology (e.g., neurologic, pulmonary, etc.). Syncopal episodes typically have short duration, rapid recovery, and lack of aura or post-ictal phase. Causes for syncope secondary to cardiac causes is believed to be due to reduced blood flow/nutrient delivery to the brain and can occur for a variety of reasons in patients with cardiac disease. Arrhythmias (either bradyarrhythias or tachyarrhythmias) represent one category of etiologies of cardiac syncope. Determining the exact etiology of syncope via Holter monitoring can be challenging due to the sporadic nature of syncope as a clinical sign and the relatively short duration (24 hours) of most Holter monitor recordings. In other words, it's often hard to catch, even with a Holter! Syncope is associated with increased mortality in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a complex parameter with many variables that quantifies beat-to-beat rhythmic variability over time. This rhythmic variability is dictated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic). Heart rate variability is decreased in dogs with congestive heart failure secondary to MVD, and is associated with an increased risk of death in experimental canine myocardial infarction and various forms of human cardiac disease. So, Rasmussen et al wanted to evaluate the presence of arrhythmic activity and heart rate variability in dogs with stable congestive heart failure secondary to advanced MVD. In this prospective study, they evaluated 42 dogs: 20 with syncope and 22 without syncope. Dogs had the following assessed in this study: history, physical examination, echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter recording (to evaluate for the presence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability analysis). So what'd they find? Overall, there was no significant difference in incidence or severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension between groups. In this study, only 4 dogs experienced a syncopal event during the Holter recording period; of these dogs, one experienced an arrhythmic event at the time of syncope, while the other 3 dogs had normal sinus rhythm at time of syncopal event. Between the two groups (e.g., syncopal vs. non-syncopal), there was no significant difference in arrhythmic activity, and overall, evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) indicated a statistically lower HRV and incidence of sinus arrhythmia overall in dogs with syncope. So it turns out that dogs with advanced MVD and a history of syncope had reduced heart rate variability overall compared with dogs without syncope and that there was no difference in actual arrhythmic activity. Findings suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic (and increased sympathetic) influence on cardiac rhythm and may be less likely to have arrhythmic etiologies for their syncope. The complex parameter of HRV in this study is used to evaluate a relatively simple concept: the relative influence of parasympathetic and sympathetic influence on cardiac rate and rhythm. The study results suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic influence than their counterparts without syncope. We know that parasympathetic influence decreases with severity of cardiac disease (thus the reason an active CHF patient generally does not have a sinus arrhythmia on presentation - and are often tachycardiac) so the results of this study may simply reflect that dogs with syncope have more advanced disease. It could also suggest that the reduced parasympathetic activity plays a causal role in the syncope, but this is speculation only. The lack of significant difference in arrhythmic act
Aug 17, 2015
What's new with canine parvovirus? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:42:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Lauren Sullivan, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor at CSU. She reviews this common infectious disease affecting immunocomprised, poorly vaccinated puppies, and discusses etiology, clinical signs, treatment, and some new updates in veterinary medicine. In a recent study at CSU, the use of outpatient therapy with canine parvovirus can still yield a good prognosis. Check out this VETgirl podcast for more information and get your street medicine on!
Aug 10, 2015
Litterbox Size Preferences in Cats | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:36
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses litterbox size preference in domestic cats. As inappropriate urination is the #1 feline behavioral disorder, help your clients by educating them on what exact size box is appropriate for the average-sized cat.
Aug 03, 2015
Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities seen in dogs with GI foreign bodies | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:22
In today's VETgirl podcast, we review the importance of performing a venous blood gas in the vomiting patient. Why? Because when we see a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, we should be ruling out an obstructive gastrointestinal (GI) foreign body. Previously, the presence of a metabolic alkalosis has been associated with a upper GI (e.g., pyloric) foreign body. Why? Because of protracted vomiting and loss of chloride, which deletes the body of an anion. In order to maintain electroneutrality, when a sodium (Na+) moves, a negatively charged anion must exchange with it. While this is typically chloride, if the body is chloride deplete, it absorbs bicarbonate (HCO3-) instead, resulting in the classic metabolic alkalosis. Normally, dogs reabsorb 98% of their gastrointestinal secretions per day. Once a GI obstruction is present for more than 24 hours, resorption in the bowel proximal to an obstruction results in increased secretion of Na+, K+, and water into the lumen. Historically, proximal GI obstructions have been said to lead to hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis due to the reasons mentioned before (e.g., hypochloremia). Distal obstructions were thought to lead more to metabolic acidosis instead of alkalosis. So Boag et al (originally out of Royal Veterinary College), wanted to identify the most common types of GI obstructions and to identify the metabolic derangements found in patients with various GI obstructions. This was published in JVIM (Now open access and free!) as Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies. In this study, Boag et al retrospectively looked at 138 dogs, with a mean age of 3.8 years (range 0-14 years) who had presented for vomiting. They assessed several factors in this study including: SignalmentInitial acid-base status and electrolytesSurgical findingsLocation of foreign bodyHistorical informationDiagnostic imaging modalities usedComplications seen (e.g., intra- or postoperative)Overall survival and cost of hospitalizationThe mean duration of vomiting in these cases was 48 hours. Of these dogs, a foreign body was found in the stomach 50% of the time, in the proximal duodenum 3.6%, distal duodenum 2.9%, jejunum 27.5%, ileum 2.9%, and colon 3.6% of the time (Boo. Try not to cut those colon foreign body cases!). Of all these cases, 36.2% of the time, the cases had a linear foreign body; of these, 6% of the linear foreign bodies were anchored in the mouth (Again, reiterating the importance of a thorough oral examination!). Linear foreign bodies were more likely to be associated with the presence of hyponatremia (OR 0.85). In 28% of the cases (38/138), a resection and anastamoses (R&A) needed to be performed. Of these cases requiring an R&A, 55% (21/38) cases were due to linear foreign bodies, while the remaining were discrete foreign bodies. Overall, the prognosis for foreign body was excellent, with almost all (137/138) surviving to discharge. So what about the electrolytes and acid-base status? The most common electrolyte disturbances found in all these cases included hypochloremia (51.2%), metabolic alkalosis (45.2%), hyperlactemia (40.5%), and hypokalemia (25%). 12% of dogs with proximal GI obstructions and 13.7% of dogs with distal obstructions had a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. 40.5% of dogs were hyperlactatemic (which was defined as a lactate >2.3 mmol/L). No other biochemical abnormalities were significantly associated with the exact location of the foreign body. Some limitations of this study? First, it was retrospective, so it has limitations from data collection. Also, the variable duration of clinical signs in different patients may have affected the results and severity of acid-base and electrolytes changes. Another limitation? While this study had a very high reported survival rate, this may have been due to the short duration of clinical signs (with a mean of 2 days) in
Jul 27, 2015
Arterial Thrombembolism in Cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:53
Jul 20, 2015
Timing of antibiotic administration in septic peritonitis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:16
In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC reviews a study out of Tufts University assessing the time of antimicrobial administration in the treatment of septic peritonitis and overall survival. Does it matter when you reach for a vial of antibiotics in your emergent or critically ill patients? The goals of this study were to determine whether creation and implementation of a canine abdominal sepsis protocol decreased time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. What did this study find? Overall, the median time from diagnosis of septic peritonitis to antimicrobial administration was 6 hours in the preprotocol group (PRE), and 1 hour in the postprotocol group (POST) (P = 0.001). 25% of the culture and sensitivity results were negative in the PRE versus the POST group (17.6%). 15% of the time, the wrong empirical antimicrobial was selected in the PRE group (compared to 8.8% of the time in the POST group). Overall, the survival to discharge was 60% in the PRE and 70% in the POST, but this wasn't statistically significant (P = 0.425). That said, the development of an emergency department antimicrobial protocol did apparently decrease thetime to antimicrobial administration following identification of septic peritonitis in dogs. VETgirl's take from this? Implement antibiotics soon, but ideally culture first. Do a simple Gram stain in your clinic to make sure you are choosing the correct empirical antimicrobials to use! References: 1. Abelson AL, Buckley GJ, Rozanski EA. Positive impact of an emergency department protocol on time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013;23(5):551-556
Jul 13, 2015
How to handle veterinary respiratory emergencies | Dr. Balakrishnan, DACVECC | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:36:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Dr. Anusha Balakrishnan from the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine reviews how to handle the respiratory emergency in dogs and cats. In this 30-minute podcast, she reviews approach, signalment, oxygen therapy, general handling, differential diagnoses, pharmacological interventions, and overall treatment. So, don't get tachypneic with your dyspneic patients and get all your tips here!
Jul 06, 2015
Outcome of dogs with PDA | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:13
In this VETgirl podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the long-term outcome. Should you be recommending your puppies for PDA closure? PDA is a congenital cardiac anomaly that allows for left-to-right shunting of blood from the descending aorta to the main pulmonary artery (in most cases). This results in volume overload to the left sided cardiac chambers, and ultimately, congestive heart failure, if left untreated. Left sided cardiac dimensions are usually significantly reduced following PDA closure and outcome is generally considered good in dogs but published data on long-term outcome is limited and factors affecting this outcome have not been well investigated. So what's the outcome? Before my client spends a few thousand for a coil, is it worth it? So, Saunders et al out of Texas A&M wanted to evaluate the long-term outcome, and the factors affecting this outcome, in a large group of dogs with PDA. In this study, they retrospectively evaluated 520 dogs (with the majority of them - 513 - having a left-to-right PDA). The top dogs represented: Bichon Frise, mixed breed, Chihuahua, Poodle, and German shepherd. The majority of dogs (87.7%) had closure attempted via catheter-based procedures (e.g., such as coils, ductal occluders, etc) or surgical ligation. The good news? The majority of dogs survived immediately post-operatively (with a 3-day post-operative mortality of 2.6%). Most importantly? This study found that it worked: PDA closure resulted in a median survival time of 12 years, as compared to only 2 years when the PDA was not surgically corrected! This study also found that not having PDA closure and presence of other congenital HD at time of diagnosis were negatively correlated with survival. Another finding? If clinical signs already exist at the time of presentation for referral, or if the dog has concurrent congenital HD, or severe mitral regurgitation within 24 hours of the procedure, there was a decreased survival. So, what's VETgirl's take on this? Diagnose the PDA fast, and encourage closure ASAP! Don't wait for clinical signs to develop, and encourage your pet owners to proceed, as the survival is dramatically longer once corrected. Overall, findings from this study are similar to previous studies in demonstrating a significant survival benefit to the PDA patient with closure of the PDA (by either method) and significant (although not always complete) reverse remodeling of cardiac enlargement in most patients following closure. With PDA closure, preload is significantly reduced but afterload actually increases, which can result in a significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function following closure. This is of particular concern for PDA patients with evidence of left ventricular dysfunction on baseline evaluation (pre-closure). What we liked about this study? This study is of relatively large size and confirms some of the previously reported survival data for dogs undergoing PDA closure. In short, PDA closure is highly successful, provides excellent long-term survival in most cases, and NOT closing a canine PDA results in markedly shortened life span. It is not surprising that the presence of concurrent other congenital heart disease, symptoms pre-closure, or significant mitral regurgitation post-operatively would correlate with worse survival as these will complicate short and long-term hemodynamics and management techniques. It is also not surprising that parameters of systolic function prior to closure were highly predictive of these same parameters prior to closure for all dogs. It's important to note that systolic dysfunction pre-closure did not appear to result in worse clinical outcome, however. This conclusion must be interpreted with caution as only a small number of dogs in the study had reduced systolic function pre-closure. Copyright, VETgirl, LLC, 2014. Suggested reading: 1. Saunders AB, Gordon SG, Boggess MM, et al. Long-term outcome in dogs with patent duc
Jun 29, 2015
Assessing oxygen saturation to FIO2 ratios in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:08
In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC reviews a pilot study out of Animal Medical Center that evaluates whether the ratio of pulse oximetry saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2 or [SF]) correlates with the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/FiO2 (PaO2 /FiO2 or [PF]) in dogs. Traditionally, the PF is used to evaluate the severity of acute lung injury (ALI, < 300) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, < 200). But can we use our pulse oximetry as a non-invasive way of obtaining assessment? This study found that in dogs spontaneously breathing room air, the SF and PF radio had good correlation. This suggests that you can use your pulse oximeter instead, which is helpful especially in cats and small dogs (where it may be harder to obtain an arterial blood gas sample). Further studies are warranted however, to validate this relationship and to assess the ability of SF to predict outcome in critically ill, hypoxemic patients. References: 1. Calabro JM, Prittie JE, Palma DA. Preliminary evaluation of the utility of comparing SpO2/FiO2 and PaO2/FiO2 ratios in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013;23(3):280-285.
Jun 15, 2015
Debt Management Discussion with Jeremy Campfield | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:24:26
Today's VETgirl podcast is an interview with Dr. Jeremy Campfield, an emergency veterinarian from southern California. He's a blogger for DVM360 at Death to Debt, and recently lectured as an IGNITE speaker at NAVC 2015. In today's podcast interview, he discusses his views on how to pay off the overwhelming, massive debt associated with veterinary school. Here, Dr. Campfield reviews a few key tips on how to pay off your veterinary school loans. Please note that Dr. Campfield is not a financial advisor, and the opinions expressed here are his own!
Jun 08, 2015
Platelet activation in cats with HCM | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:06
Jun 01, 2015
Sewing needle foreign bodies in dogs andamp; cats| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:50
May 25, 2015
How to perform a thoracocentesis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:55
May 18, 2015
Doing cytology on pericardial effusion | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:01
In this VETgirl podcast, we review the diagnostic yield of cytologic analysis of pericardial effusion in dogs. Is it worth submitting fluid analysis and cytology for your hemorrhagic sample? The most common causes of canine pericardial effusion include neoplasia and idiopathic effusions. Coagulopathies, left atrial rupture, and septic pericarditis are much less common. Among neoplastic causes, cardiac hemangiosarcoma (typically right atrial or right AV groove) occurs most frequently followed by heart base tumors (chemodectomas), mesothelioma, and lymphoma. Prognosis for neoplastic causes is highly dependent on tumor type. Cytologic analysis is considered highly useful in providing a definitive diagnosis of infectious causes and cardiac lymphoma, but is of limited value in identifying other neoplastic causes. This is in contrast to the relatively high diagnostic ability of pericardial effusion cytology to identify neoplastic etiologies in humans (likely because of the types of neoplasia seen in humans). Additional testing of blood or pericardial parameters/biomarkers (pH, lactate, glucose, bicarbonate, chloride, HCT, urea nitrogen) in dogs has proved to be of minimal additional diagnostic value. The main objective of this study were to quantify the ability of pericardial effusion cytology to provide a definitive etiology in dogs, with and without additional diagnostic data at time of presentation. In this podcast, we review the recent findings of a study by Cagle et al out of UC Davis. They retrospectively evaluated 259 dogs with cytology samples based off an electronic medical records review between 1990-2012. What they found? Depressing. Over 90% of the samples were considered nondiagnostic (in other words, hemorrhage!), while only 7.7% were found to be diagnostic. This study provides solid evidence-based parameters that can be used as guidelines for deciding whether to submit pericardial effusions for additional testing for patients, in particular when pet owners are financially constrained and further diagnostics must be prioritized (in which case the low relative overall diagnostic yield of effusion cytology may preclude necessity for its submission). VETgirl's philosophy? Echocardiography still remains the #1 diagnostic test to evaluate for causes of pericardial effusion and is the first diagnostic test recommended for such cases. What they did find in this study was that pericardial effusion RBC count and calculated HCT were significantly lower in diagnostic effusions. In particular, an effusion RBC count of 1.35 M/uL and a hematocrit value of 10% provided the ideal statistical cutoffs for nondiagnostic vs diagnostic effusions. Diagnostic utility of effusion cytology increased to 20.3% when effusion HCT was < 10%. So, what do we learn from this? Check a PCV off your pericardial effusion sample before submitting it for analysis. After all, it's cheap and easy to do, and every veterinary clinic can check a PCV (if they can't, boo!). Effusion PCV < 12-13% indicates greater potential diagnostic yield of adding cytologic analysis. Suggested reading: 1. Olcott MD, Sleeper MM. Recognizing and treating pericardial disease. Veterinary Medicine 2010. 2. Cagle LA, Epstein SE, Owens SD, et al. Diagnostic yield of cytologic analysis of pericardial effusion in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28(1):66-71. 3. Fine DM. Use of pericardial fluid pH to distinguish between idiopathic and neoplastic effusions. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 17 (4):525-529; 2003.
May 11, 2015
Effect of colloids on hemodynamic and laboratory values in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:39
In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC reviews a study out of Canada that reviews the effects of tetrastarch, a synthetic colloid fluid on hemodynamic and laboratory variables in both healthy dogs and dogs with systemic inflammation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the response of administering equal volumes of isotonic crystalloids (0.9% saline) and synthetic colloids (e.g., tetrastarch) on hemodynamic and laboratory variables in dogs. This study looked at two population of dogs: healthy dogs and dogs with systemic inflammation. This study also evaluated several parameters including heart rate (HR), blood pressure, PCV, total protein (TP), lactate, and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) measurements. So, what'd they find? Overall, the administration of colloids was associated with a larger improvement in HR, systolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure. Dogs with systemic inflammation also had similar increases in systolic blood pressure and decreases in PCV, TP, and lactate after administration of either fluid. This study found what we already know: colloids make great resuscitation fluids as compared to crystalloids (of course, Dr. Powell and Dr. Lee are biased for colloids). But are there potential side effects of colloids? References: 1. Gauthier V, Holowaychuk MK, Bersenas AM, et al. Effect of synthetic colloid administration on hemodynamic and laboratory variables in healthy dogs and dogs with systemic inflammation. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2014;24(3):251-258.
May 04, 2015
Localized demodicosis in cats due to inhalant glucocorticoids | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:38
Apr 27, 2015
What you need to know about radiation oncology | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:23:05
Apr 20, 2015
Pneumomediastinum in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:09
In today's VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC, reviews pneumomediastinum in cats. This original study was published by Thomas et al out of University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, and characterizes the incidence, causes, presenting complaint, clinical course, and outcome of cats diagnosed with pneumomediastinum. So what did this study find? 69% of cats had a secondary (e.g., obvious inciting) cause, with 38% of the cases having had endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation (PPV). In approximately a quarter of the cases, trauma was the cause, while in 4% of the cases, a tracheal foreign body caused the pneumomediastinum. Interesting to note? The clinical signs and diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum was due to emesis in 6 of 14 cats. Regardless, this study found that the prognosis is good with supportive care, so a) don't give up on these, and b) stop over inflating your endotracheal tubes under dental procedures. References: 1. Thomas EK, Syring RS. Pneumomediastinum in cats: 45 cases (2000-2010). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013;23(4):429-435. Errata:OK, once in a while, we all mess up. In this podcast, Dr. Powell stated that a pneumothorax can progress to a pneumomediastinum. That's wrong. A "pneumomediastinum may progress to pneumothorax if mediastinal pressure results in tearing of the mediastinal parietal pleura, thus establishing communication between the mediastinum and the pleural space. Pneumomediastinum can also progress to pneumothorax if gas dissects through fenestrations in the mediastinal pleura. Conversely, pneumothorax does not progress to pneumomediastinum. Dyspnea usually is not seen with pneumomediastinum unless it results in pneumothorax." (Thanks to the super smart, book savvy veterinary student for pointing this out from page 568 of Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology by Donald E. Thrall, DVM, PhD).
Apr 13, 2015
Testing for anticoagulant rodenticide | Review with Dr. Garret Pachtinger | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:46
In today's veterinary online podcast, we interview VETgirl's COO Dr. Garret Pachtinger on some recent veterinary studies about anticoagulant rodenticide (ACR) toxicosis. How should we test for it? Should we run a prothrombin and when? Should we automatically treat with Vitamin K1 therapy? Tune in to find out more!
Apr 06, 2015
Evaluation of Point-of-Care Glucometers with Dr. Amie Koenig | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:13:32
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Dr. Amie Koenig, an Associate Professor at University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine on her recent publication in JAVMA entitled "Formulation and validation of a predictive model to correct blood glucose concentrations obtained with a veterinary point-of-care glucometer in hemodiluted and hemoconcentrated canine blood samples."
Mar 30, 2015
The effect of Beta Blockers in Dogs with SAS | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:53
In this VETgirl podcast, we review subaortic stenosis (SAS) in dogs, and whether or not the affect of certain cardiac medications (e.g., specifically beta-blockers) affect the overall survival. Subaortic stenosis, more commonly causes SAS, is a common congenital cardiac condition in dogs; it is characterized by a fibrous ring/ridge of tissue below the aortic valve, causing narrowing of this region and secondary pressure overload to the left ventricle. The severity of SAS is determined by the left ventricular-to-aorta pressure gradient (PG), with severe pressure gradients considered to be ≥ 80 mm Hg. In general, the prognosis for mild to moderate SAS is generally considered significantly better than for severe SAS with minimal treatment initiated for the former group. In cases with severe SAS, prior data is limited to a single, small study that reported a 19 month median survival.1,2 As a result, the overall long-term prognosis for severe SAS has been considered to be poor. Treatment of severe SAS has been limited to: Medical therapy (including cardiac medications like beta-blockers). The goal of beta-blocker therapy is to slow the heart rate and force of contraction, thus reducing overall myocardial workload and stress.Miscellaneous therapy (including non-cutting balloon valvuloplasty). Unfortunately, balloon valvuloplasty has showed no difference in survival times compared with beta blocker therapy alone.In this podcast, we review the recent findings of a study by Eason et al, where they retrospectively evaluated 50 dogs with severe SAS. Approximately half the group (n=27) received beta-blocker therapy (with a median dose of 0.55 mg/kg PO BID), while the remaining group acted as the control group (and were untreated). Overall, what they found was that beta-blocker therapy did not appear to improve survival in dogs with severe SAS. This study did find that dogs with lower pressure gradients had a markedly improved median survival time (8.3 years as compared to 2.8 years). There were some significant limitations of this study, as the group size was small (n=50), and it was retrospective in nature. That said, while this study didn't find any difference between beta-blocker treated groups versus control groups, they found some good news: the overall median survival times in both groups are significantly longer than those previously reported. So, don't give up on those severe SAS dogs yet - no need for a beta-blocker necessarily, but don't euthanize them right away, as they can survive longer than previously suspected. The identification of a significant difference in survival at a pressure gradient cutoff of 133 mm Hg may carry highly useful prognostic importance and warrant reclassification of what is generally considered to be severe (> 80 mm Hg) SAS in dogs. Errata: In the podcast, we say "Overall, what they found contradicted previous studies: beta-blocker therapy did not appear to improve survival in dogs with severe SAS." This should have been read as "Overall, what they found was that beta-blocker therapy did not appear to improve survival in dogs with severe SAS." References: 1. Kienle RD, Thomas WP, Pion PD. The natural clinical history of canine congenital subaortic stenosis. J Vet Int Med 1994;8(6):423-31. 2. Meurs KM, Lehmkuhl LB, Bonagura JD. Survival times in dogs with severe subvalvular aortic stenosis treated with balloon valvuloplasty or atenolol. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227(3):420-;4. 1. Eason BD, Fine DM, Leeder D, et al. Influence of Beta Blockers on Survival in Dogs with Severe Subaortic Stenosis. J Vet Int Med 2014;28(3):857-862.
Mar 23, 2015
A review of testing for canine pancreatitis with Dr. Garret Pachtinger | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:42
In today's veterinary online continuing education podcast, we interview VETgirl's COO Dr. Garret Pachtinger on some recent veterinary literature about the accuracy of canine pancreatitis tests such as SNAP and Spec canine pancreatic lipase tests. What tests should you use, and what has shown to be the most effective? Should we be using these tests in every dog that presents for vomiting (No!). Tune in to VETgirl to learn how to diagnose pancreatitis... especially if you don't have abdominal ultrasound readily available!
Mar 16, 2015
Why you need to Lean In | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:50
In this VETgirl podcast, we discuss why it's so important that everyone in veterinary medicine Lean In - regardless if you're male or female. Is there a lack of women in leadership in veterinary medicine? (Please see the article previously published here in Veterinary Team Brief).
Mar 09, 2015
The effect of IV fluids on microcirculation | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:15:50
In this VETgirl podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, associate professor in critical care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine's Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia on her paper published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research on the effects of intravenous fluids on microcirculation. This study was funded by Abbott Animal Health. In this study, Silverstein et al assessed the microcirculatory effects of IV crystalloid fluid administration in 49 healthy, client-owned dogs that were anesthetized for routine ovariohysterectomy. Lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) was administered at rates of 0, 10 or 20 mL/kg/hour to anesthetized dogs. Videomicroscopy (check out the cool YouTube video below) was used to assess and record the effects of the fluid therapy on the microcirculation of the buccal mucosa. Several parameters were evaluated in this study including: Heart rateBlood pressure (as measured by Doppler)Oxygen saturation (as measured by pulse oximetry)CRTBody temperatureSeveral measurements of microcirculatory variables were also assessed including: Total vessel desnityMicrocirculatory flow indexProportion of perfused vesselsPerfused vessel density by vessel size [< 20 μm, ≥ 20 μm, and all diameters]Parameters were measured as soon as the patient was induced, at 30 and 60 minutes afterwards, and overall. What'd this study find? Overall, this study found that those patients that received 20 mL of LRS/kg/hour had the greatest total and perfused density vessel (in those vessels that were > 20 μm in diameter, which are mostly venules and arterioles). So what do we take from it? While our healthy patients undergoing elective procedures are at low-risk for hypoperfusion under general anesthesia as compared to our critically ill patients, keep in mind that fluid losses can occur through blood loss, the respiratory tract, and through the abdominal cavity. When these fluid losses occur in the face of anesthetic drugs, there is the risk of poor perfusion. And you know a criticalist's favorite answer to every veterinary question out there: perfusion and metabolic acidosis, right? “When we monitor a patient's blood pressure or oxygen levels, we're not always able to discern what is happening at the cellular level,” Silverstein said. “Sometimes there are tissues and cells that are getting a surplus of oxygen while other cells or tissues are in need of more, but our measuring the big things, like blood pressure, doesn't tell us that. The only way we figure that out is when the patient develops organ dysfunction or new complications arise following anesthesia.” The American Animal Hospital Association and American Association of Feline Practitioners recommend the use of IV fluids in their guidelines under even routine procedures. While it adds to the cost of surgery (well, barely), it's worth it. Based on this study, it may improve the microcirculation in our anesthetized patients! “The larger vessels are the ones that are constricting and dilating to feed the microcirculation,” Silverstein said. “And it appears that the animals that got the highest rate of fluids in this study - which may not be the optimal rate - are the ones that seemed to have the greatest recruitment of arterioles and venules.” For more information, check out Penn News. References: 1. Silverstein DC, Cozzi EM, Hopkins AS. Microcirculatory effects of intravenous fluid administration in anesthetized dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Am J Vet Res 2014;75(9):809-817. 2. Keane PW, Murray PF. Intravenous fluids in minor surgery. Their effect on recovery from anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1986;41:635-;637. 3. Terry RN, Trudnowski RJ. Intraoperative fluid therapy: relationship to anesthetic and surgical complications. N Y State J Med 1964;64:2646-;2654. 4. Trinooson CD, Gold ME. Impact of goal-
Mar 02, 2015
Journal Club Veterinary Literature Review with Dr. Garret Pachtinger | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:15:58
In today's veterinary podcast, we interview VETgirl's COO Dr. Garret Pachtinger on some recent veterinary studies that he likes. Too busy to read your veterinary journal? Tune in for our online veterinary continuing education to learn it! Tune in to find out about what's more effective: buprenorphine or butorphanol for ovariohysterectomies in cats, or heparin versus just plain saline for flushing IV catheters. Learn it here with VETgirl!
Feb 23, 2015
The use of positive pressure ventilation in dogs andamp; cats with congestive heart failure | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:31
In today's VetGirl podcast, we review a study published out of North Carolina State University and University of Georgia on the use of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) in dogs sand cats with congestive heart failure (CHF).
Feb 16, 2015
Pigmentary Keratopathy in Pugs | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:34
In this VETgirl podcast, we review pigmentary keratopathy in Pugs. About to see a "black" eyeball, and not sure what to do with it? Corneal pigmentation develops secondary to chronic corneal irritation due to primary inflammatory conditions (e.g., pannus), entropion, dry eye, incomplete blinking, aberrant eyelashes, etc. The term pigmentary keratitis implies that there is inflammation component to the primary corneal disease, which leads to pigmentation. While this diagnosis is made frequently in clinical practice, the primary cause of inflammation is not always identified.
Feb 09, 2015
Using pimobendan in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review a study published out of North Carolina State University on the use of pimobendan in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Should we use it?
Feb 02, 2015
Fish Oil Supplementation | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:50
Today's VETgirl podcast is by Dr. Catherine Lenox, DVM, CVA, DACVN, a board-certified veterinary nutritionalist. She'll be speaking on the role of fish oil and how and why to supplement it in your veterinary patient population!
Jan 26, 2015
A Review of Veterinary Nursing with David Liss | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:36:56
In this VetGirl podcast, we interview David Liss, BA, RVT, VTS (ECC, SAIM), CVPM, who is an internal medicine and emergency critical care veterinary technician and the Program Director in Veterinary Technology at Platt College. Here, he provides a review and some tips of veterinary nursing, and why it's so essential to our critically ill, emergent patients! Follow him on Facebook here!
Jan 19, 2015
Tramadol Toxicosis in a Cat | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:26
In this VetGirl podcast, we review tramadol toxicosis in a cat (80 mg/kg!) and the general mechanism of action of how this commonly used, scheduled oral analgesic works. We'll also discuss dosing and what drugs to avoid with concurrent tramadol administration. Most importantly, we'll discuss how to treat tramadol toxicosis, what clinical signs you can see in dogs and cats, and overall treatment for serotonin syndrome (including fluid therapy, cyproheptadine, sedatives, etc.).
Jan 12, 2015
Does LRS increase lactate levels? | Dr. Soren Boysen | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:48
In this VetGirl blog, we interview Dr. Søren R. Boysen, DACVECC, Associate Professor at University of Calgary on his recent study on "Effects of rapid intravenous 100% L-isomer Lactated Ringer's administration of plasma lactate concentrations in healthy dogs" published in JVECC (2014). In this blog, we find out the whether or not the "L" in LRS is potentially detrimental when used to fluid resuscitate veterinary patients in the emergency room who may have a lactic acidosis. More importantly, we review the differences between d- and l-lactate, and whether or not LRS should still be one of the favorite fluids of emergency clinicians and criticalists (Yes, VetGirl likes it). We also briefly review the use of the handheld Accutrend lactate devices, and what we're measuring with these devices. Finally, we review the importance of lactate when evaluating patients with gastric-dilatation voluvulus (GDV) and whether or not LRS can be used in these situations!
Jan 05, 2015
Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: Part 3 | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:12
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is by veterinary behaviorist, Dr. Lisa Radosta from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service on Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS) or Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD); these terms are often used interchangeably. In Part 3 of 3, we discuss medications and their role in the treatment of CCD.
Dec 29, 2014
Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: Part 2 | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:09
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is by veterinary behaviorist, Dr. Lisa Radosta from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service on Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS) or Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD); these terms are often used interchangeably. In Part 2 of 3, we discuss diet and supplements and their role in the treatment of CCD.
Dec 22, 2014
Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: Part 1 | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:10:09
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is by veterinary behaviorist, Dr. Lisa Radosta from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service on Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS) or Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD); these terms are often used interchangeably. With our aging pet population, we veterinarians are seeing more behavioral problems in dogs (typically over 9 years). In current studies, 22-28% of elderly dogs showed at least one sign of CDS. So, what should we do? We want to make sure to monitor our patients for DISHA, which stands for:
Dec 15, 2014
Xenotransfusions in cats | Ken Yagi | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:16
Ever heard of xenotransfusions - in other words, giving blood from one species to another species (like a dog to cat transfusion)? Ken Yagi, a veterinary technician specialist in both emergency critical care and internal medicine, explains all about this. The popularity of xenotransfusions came into light thanks to social media recently based on a veterinarian in New Zealand giving dog blood to a cat supposedly intoxicated with an anticoagulant rodenticide. While xenotransfusions can be performed for a first time transfusion, know that 100% of cats receiving a xenotransfusion had anaphylaxis, with 66% of the cats dying with 2nd exposure of a transfusion. For VetGirl, not worth the risk, when we can volume resuscitate them with crystalloids and colloids first. That said, there are some rare indications for it (e.g., if you live remotely with no access to blood anywhere within 24 hours!). References: 1. Bovens C, Gruffydd-Jones T. Xenotransfusion with canine blood in the feline species: review of the literature. J Feline Med Surg 2013;15(2):62-67. 2. Roux FA, Saï P, Deschamps JY. Xenotransfusions, past and present. Xenotransfusions. 2007;14(3):208-216. 3. Garcia JL. Journal Scan: Can canine blood be safely given to cats? DVM360. Feb. 1, 2014.
Dec 08, 2014
The use of stem cells for osteoarthritis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:15:47
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Dr. Kristina Kiefer, PhD, Assistant Clinical Professor at University of Minnesota on the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs. Osteoarthritis is a non-reversible disease in which the joint loses cartilage and begins to ossify. This causes pain and therefore lameness. Current therapies involve weight control, pain management (including NSAIDs, tramadol, etc.), alternative medicine (e.g., acupuncture), and physical therapy. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) therapy is currently being looked at as a possible treatment for this disease. This involves the collection of mesenchymal stem cells from fat in normal dogs undergoing routine surgeries. Because the cells come from one dog to another, it is considered allogeneic (non-self). The reason stem cell therapy is promising is that these cells are multipotent, or are capable of becoming many types of cells, and anti-inflammatory. In theory, mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into cartilage. We suspect that allogeneic stem cell therapy will increase healing of joints affected by osteoarthritis and slow down arthritic progression. [caption id="attachment_7920" align="alignright" width="300"] Dr. Kiefer administering canine stem cells[/caption] Dr. Kiefer is teaming up with the Clinical Investigative Center (CIC) at the University of Minnesota on a study called "Evaluation of Allogeneic Stem Cells as an Adjuvant Therapy for Osteoarthritis." They are currently enrolling patients in the study. If you are in the state of Minnesota, Iowa, or the surrounding area, this study is seeking canine patients that have osteoarthritis in one or more joints, that clinically impacts their daily life. Inclusion criteria are adult dogs that have been diagnosed with osteoarthritis through physical examination, blood work, urinalysis and radiographs, and the commitment to complete a 12 week study. If the dog qualifies, they will be randomly assigned to a treatment group or control group. The treatment group will receive allogeneic stem cells either intravenously or intra-articularly, while the placebo group with receive saline in place of cells. Stem cell therapy is provided free of charge to all participants. If a patient was assigned to a placebo group, they will receive stem cell therapy at the conclusion of the study. To enroll in the study, please contact the CIC at vcic@umn.edu or 612-624-2485. Dr. Kiefer can be contacted directly at kief0048@umn.edu
Dec 03, 2014
Using desmopressin for the treatment of aspirin-induced coagulopathy | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:47
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, DACVECC discusses the use of desmopressin (DDAVP) for the treatment of aspirin-induced coagulopathy! So, if you're about to take a dog to surgery, and just found out he's been on chronic aspirin therapy, consider listening to this podcast... it'll help with the oozing!
Dec 01, 2014
The effects of trauma on coagulation | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:14:15
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, DACVECC discusses the findings of a large, prospective multicenter evaluation of coagulation abnormalities seen in dogs following severe trauma. So, should you be running more coagulation panels in your hit-by-car (HBC) cases? If you see a lot of trauma cases in your busy ER, this podcast is a must-listen to!
Nov 24, 2014
A step-by-step basic approach to the obese veterinary patient | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:06:06
A big shout out to guest blogger, veterinary nutritionalist Dr. Catherine Lenox, DVM, CVA, DACVN for this great nutrition blog contribution! In today's VetGirl podcast, we're going to discuss a step-by-step basic approach to the obese veterinary patient. With obese patients, prevention is key. However, with pet obesity on the rise, we all need a plan for obese patients. This step-by-step guide is designed for management of the “basic” obese patient. By “basic,” I mean the dog or cat does not have any concurrent health issues that need to be addressed, and is not already consuming a low number of calories. Obese patients with systemic diseases (including things like adverse food reactions, diabetes, or renal disease) would be managed differently. Patients who are obese but are already consuming a low number of calories (I call them the “easy keepers”) are also more complicated and would require additional diagnostics such as thyroid testing, rechecking the diet history with the owner (maybe the “cup” is really 16 ounces instead of 8 ounces), evaluation of the activity plan, and a potential consult with a board-certified nutritionist (DACVN) to ensure adequate nutrient composition of the chosen diet and plan. 1. Take a thorough dietary history This includes not only the type of food fed with amount and frequency, but also treats, table scraps, human foods, foods for medication administration, dietary supplements, food used for training purposes, anything the dog or cat could get into (other pets' food, etc), and anything else the pet may be eating on a regular basis. Try to estimate calories consumed as best as possible. Calorie information on many diets can be found on the packaging, or in the company product guides, on the company's website, or by calling the manufacturer. 2. Estimate body condition, muscle condition, and ideal weight Body condition score and muscle condition score should be assessed on all patients. Body condition score is a subjective assessment of cutaneous fat mass, and is generally on a scale of 1-9, with 1 being emaciated and 9 being obese. 4-5/9 is ideal for most patients, with emphasis on making pets leaner if there is presence of joint disease or neurologic disease. Muscle condition score describes the lean muscle mass and can be assessed by palpating over the epaxial muscles, scapulae, hips, and hindlimbs. Body condition and muscle condition charts can be found, along with other nutrition resources at: http://www.wsava.org/nutrition-toolkit Ideal weight is best estimated in one of two ways. The first way is based off historical weight or by asking the owner if the pet looked normal at a specific weight. This does not always work, so I use the following method, keeping in mind that each point on the 9-point BCS scale is equivalent to approximately 10% of body weight. Ideal Body Weight (IBW) = current weight / (100% + ([BCS-5] x 10)%) Example: a 10 kg dog with BCS of 8/9: IBW = 10 kg / (100% + (8-5)%) = 10 kg / (100% + 30%) = 10 kg / 1.3 = 7.7 kg This is always an estimation and the patient should be monitored frequently (see step 6). 3. Calculate resting energy requirements for ideal body weight Always use body weight in kilograms for the following formula: RER = 70 x (BW)^0.75 This can be done on a regular calculator by using the following formula: RER = BW x BW x BW =, √ √ =, x 70 Example: Take our 10 kg dog who should weigh 7.7 kg as mentioned above. Resting energy requirements for IBW = 70 x (7.7)^0.75 = 324 kcal/day. 4. Compare current intake to estimated energy requirements a. Complicated cases: For dogs with RER [IBW] x 1.0 > current intake, check thyroid, recheck diet history, increase activity, and/or consult with a DACVN For cats already consuming less than 0.8 x RER [IBW], recheck diet history, discuss environmental enrichment, and/or consult with a DACVN. For these complicated c
Nov 17, 2014
Cognitive Dysfunction in Dogs | Dr. Lisa Radosta| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:26
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is by veterinary behaviorist, Dr. Lisa Radosta from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses cognitive dysfunction in dogs and cats. Dr. Radosta discusses how to implement a simple, one-page cognitive dysfunction quiz that can be used by veterinary clinics for pet owners to test for it. This VetGirl podcast specifically discusses DISHA, which is short for Disorientation, Interaction, Sleep Wake-Cycle, House-training, and Activity/Anxiety/Aggression level changes.
Nov 10, 2014
Trauma Scoring in Dogs with Trauma | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:26
Today's VetGirl podcast is by Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, DACVECC. She discusses a multicenter prospective evaluation of dogs with trauma. This podcast will review trauma scoring with different scoring systems: animal trauma triage [ATT], modified Glasgow coma scale [MGCS], and acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation [APPLE]. More importantly, it'll review the usefulness of these scoring systems and see if they can predict outcome. Overall, this study found that the severity of injury (e.g., penetrating trauma), along with surgery and how low the blood lactate levels were helped predictf survival.
Nov 03, 2014
Canine Leptospirosis | Case Example: Part 6 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:56
In this VetGirl podcast, we review a clinical case example of canine leptospirosis. Small dog from the city? Azotemic with increased liver enzymes? It's leptospirosis until proven otherwise? This podcast reviews a true case example of Darby, a 5 year old Papillon.
Oct 27, 2014
Management of ARDS with airway pressure release ventilation | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:47
Today's VetGirl podcast is by Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, DACVECC. She discusses a published case report of a French bulldog with severe aspiration pneumonia post-ovariohysterectomy and brachycephalic surgery, only for it to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She discusses the successful use of a unique type of ventilation called airway pressure release ventilation (with a reverse inspiratory to expiratory ratio). After two weeks on the ventilator, the dog did great! This podcast is vent-heavy and is a must-listen to for emergency critical care residents!
Oct 20, 2014
PaO2, SpO2, and end-tidal CO2 |Dr. Jane Quandt | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:06
PaO2, SpO2, and end-tidal CO2, oh my!! Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVA, DACVECC explains all you need to know about these confusing abbreviations! Why should you care? Because it lets you assess your oxygenation and ventilation! Find out why you need to care (a lot!) when your pulse oximetry reading (SpO2) is only 90%!
Oct 13, 2014
What you need to know about food trials | Dr. Catherine Lenox | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:03
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Catherine Lenox, DACVN discusses what you need to know about implementing a food trial in your veterinary patients or pets. So why do food trials? To rule out gastrointestinal disease or cutaneous adverse food reaction. Check out what you need to know and how long you need to food trial your patients for!
Oct 06, 2014
Treatment of Canine Leptospirosis: Part 5 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:04
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss further treatment for canine leptospirosis, along with zoonotic risks and preventive measures (e.g., vaccines, etc.). Fluid therapy In the leptospirosis patient, aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is indicated as many patients are often massively polyuric, dehydrated, and azotemic. In general, a balanced, maintenance, isotonic crystalloid (e.g., LRS, Norm-R) can be used at 2.5-4.5X maintenance, and monitoring of ins and outs may be necessary to guide treatment (based on the severity of polyuria seen in patients with leptospirosis). The patient should be assessed carefully to ensure that volume overload does not occur, particularly in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Fluid therapy should be continued until azotemia and clinical signs resolve (typically 2-4 days); IV fluids should then be slowly tapered to ensure that polyuria has resolved and the patient can maintain hydration. Goals of fluid therapy Serial physical examination is imperative to adequately evaluate a patient's hydration status-checking for return of skin turgor, appropriate weight gain, and moisture of mucous membranes. However, physical examination findings are subjective, and <5% dehydration is subjective and difficult to assess on physical examination. The concurrent use of evaluation of PCV/TS, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN or AZO), weight, urine output (UOP), urine specific gravity (USG), and thirst can be used in conjunction with physical examination findings to better assess hydration status. Packed Cell Volume/Total Solids, Blood Glucose, and Blood, Urea, Nitrogen (BUN/AZO) Patients on IV fluids should have daily blood work (including PCV/TS, blood glucose, electrolytes, renal or biochemistry panel) assessed while hospitalized. Because patients often experience hemoconcentration when they are dehydrated (e.g., PCV/TS 55%/7.8 g/dl), the goal of fluid therapy is to ensure that these numbers improve with appropriate therapy (consistent with hemodilution). Ideally, the PCV/TS in a normal, systemically healthy patient on IV fluids at sea level should be 35%/5.0 g/dl. In fact, oxygen delivery is maximal at such a “hemodilute” PCV/TS, as there is less viscosity of red blood cells and “sludginess.” Note that some patients with leptospirosis may have a mild to moderate non-regenerative anemia; the goal should still be to hemodilute the patient, and total protein/solids should be used as a more appropriate guide in this situation. We can still evaluate the PCV/TS in abnormal, metabolically inappropriate patients. Classically, a 10% to 12% dehydrated, cachectic, geriatric cat with chronic renal failure may present to you with a PCV/TS of 28%/11 g/dl. Once that patient is adequately hydrated, the PCV/TS may decrease to 20%/7 g/dl, unmasking the anemia from lack of erythropoietin. Urine Specific Gravity (USG) In normal healthy patients, USG can be evaluated in patients on IV fluids to help assess hydration status. Ideally, USG should be measured before fluid administration to allow for evaluation of renal function. Dehydrated patients with concentrated urine demonstrate adequate renal function (cat > 1.040, dog > 1.025) - in other words, the kidneys are working and trying to absorb as much water from the urine as possible. Once started on IV fluids, normal, systemically healthy patients should have isosthenuric urine. Patients on IV fluids for > 6 to 12 hours should have adequate dilution of USG, and the ultimate goal of fluid therapy and adequate hydration should be USG of 1.015 to 1.018 on IV fluids. Patients on IV fluids with USG > 1.020 are still likely dehydrated and should be treated more aggressively with IV fluids if other parameters of dehydration persist (e.g., hemoconcentration). Hydration can be determined by assessing the color, volume, and USG of urine. A patient that is still dehydrated while hosp
Sep 29, 2014
Long Term Outcome of SARDS | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:11
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration (SARDS), a condition in dogs in which total blindness occurs acutely, usually over days to weeks. Diagnosis of SARDS is made in cases of acute vision loss with an otherwise normal eye exam, and a flat-line electroretinogram (or ERG) recording is confirmatory. Multiple investigations into the pathogenesis of SARDS have failed to identify an underlying cause.1-4 The average age at diagnosis is about 8 years, and approximately 60% of cases are female dogs.5 The Dachshund, Miniature Schnauzer, and mixed-breed dogs are most commonly affected. 4 The blindness from SARDS is considered permanent, with no reported successful therapy.

In addition to blindness, about 40% of dogs with SARDS demonstrate systemic clinical signs of polyuria/polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight gain. These signs may develop prior to the onset of blindness, or shortly thereafter.5,6 Serum biochemical abnormalities including elevated cholesterol, AST, ALT, and ALP are also commonly reported. Despite the clinical resemblance to hyperadrenocorticism, it is very rarely confirmed in SARDS patients.4,7
Sep 22, 2014
Prevalence of and risk factors for isolation of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus in dogs with pyoderma | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:41
In today's VetGirl podcast, we'll discuss the prevalence and risk factors for growing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus -; what we'll call MRS from now on - from dogs with pyoderma. Clinically, what do we see with dogs that have a superficial pyoderma? Classic lesions include pustules, papules, epidermal collarettes, and crusts.
Sep 17, 2014
Evaluation of Chronic Diarrhea in Dogs | Dr. Frederic Gaschen | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:01
In this VetGirl podcast, we interview Dr. Frederic Gaschen, Professor at Lousiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine (Geaux, Tigers!). As Dr Gaschen is well-known for all things gastrointestinal-related, he tells our VetGirl podcasters about the approach to the chronic diarrhea canine patient. Did you know that 50% of dogs with chronic diarrhea respond to dietary changes alone? Click to learn more! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Sep 08, 2014
Treatment of Canine Leptospirosis: Part 4 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:28
In this VetGirl podcast, we review treatment for canine leptospirosis, including aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid therapy, appropriate antibiotic therapy, gastrointestinal support, supportive care, and monitoring.
Sep 03, 2014
All I need to know about Keppra | Dr. Bill Bush | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:39
In today's VetGirl podcast, we interview Dr. Bill Bush, DACVIM (Neurology) of Bush Veterinary Neurology Services on his favorite anti-convulsant to use in veterinary medicine. So, why keppra, a newer anti-epileptic drug, instead of phenobarbital or potassium bromide? Is it effective? How expensive is it? Should it be my first choice drug for my epileptic patients? Dr. Bush discusses some of the pros: the generic version of the extended release product (making it cost-effective) and its minimal side effects (e.g., aside from sedation, ataxia, etc.). Tune in to learn if you should be using it! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Sep 01, 2014
Canine Leptospirosis | Part 3: Diagnostic Testing | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:05:29
In this VetGirl podcast, we review the clinicopathologic testing for leptospirosis. The diagnosis of canine leptospirosis is based on clinical suspicion, clinical signs, and clinicopathologic results consistent with leptospirosis. Clinicopathologic findings consistent with leptospirosis include the presence of: neutrophilia, a left shift, lymphopenia, a mild to moderate non-regenerative anemia, hemoconcentration (seen with dehydration), hemolysis (seen with cattle), thrombocytopenia (seen in up to 58% of dogs), azotemia (seen in > 80-90% of dogs), increased liver enzymes (including increases in ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin; these changes are almost always seen with concurrent azotemia with leptospirosis), electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloridemia, hyperphosphatemia), and increased creatinine kinase. Additional findings consistent with leptospirosis include isosthenuria, bilirubinuria, hematuria, glucosuria, proteinuria, and evidence of coagulopathy (e.g., increased fibrinogen, FDP, FSPs). Prolonged PT or PTT may be seen in 6-50% of dogs with leptospirosis.
Aug 27, 2014
The use of probiotics in cats | Dr. Craig Webb | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:56
Today's VetGirl podcast features Dr. Craig Webb, PhD, DVM, DACVIM of Colorado State University, who discusses his research supported by Morris Animal Foundation on the use of probiotics in cats. Do probiotics survive the gastric acid, and should you be using veterinary probiotics versus what's over-the-counter? Do they play a role in gastrointestinal disease? Tune into this VetGirl podcast for more info!
Aug 25, 2014
Veterinary Apps andamp; why you need them | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:22
In this VETgirl podcast, we interview Dr. Stacee Santi of Vet2Pet on the importance of veterinary apps for pet owners and clients. Think you need one? Listen to this podcast to find out if it's worth the investment for your clinic!
Aug 20, 2014
ELISA Testing Food Antigens Diet Trial | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:29
Today's VetGirl podcast is on food trials. I'm particularly passionate about this podcast since my own pit bull just went on his first ever food trial. Not knowing anything about dermatology, I learned quite a bit from our VetGirl dermatology expert, Dr. Amy Haarstad. So, today's podcast is going to focus on food trials… and whether or not it's appropriate to use over the counter foods as dietary elimination trials!
Aug 18, 2014
Canine Leptospirosis | Part 2: Transmission andamp; Clinical Signs | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:06
In this VetGirl podcast, we review the transmission and clinical signs seen from canine leptospirosis. When it comes to leptospirosis, there are both saprophytic and pathogenic leptospires. Pathogenic leptospires are shed from renal tubules of both domestic and wild animals, and can remain viable in the soil and environment for weeks to months. That said, leptospires are inactivated by UV radiation and freezing. Infection can also occur through intact mucous membranes or abraded skin with direct or indirect exposure to urine. Rarely, leptospirosis can be transmitted via bite wound, ingestions of infected tissue (e.g., eating raw meat), or by venereal or placental transfer).
Aug 13, 2014
All I need to know about IMHA | Dr. Chris Byers | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:02
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Chris Byers, DACVIM, DACVECC reviews all you need to know about the pathophysiology and diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Test your knowledge to see what you know about this difficult disease!
Aug 11, 2014
Canine leptospirosis | Part I: Geographic distribution andamp; risk factors | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:04:13
In this VetGirl blog, we review the basics about leptospirosis, a thin, motile spirochete with a hook-shaped end that results in zoonotic disease in veterinary medicine. With canine leptospirosis, infection with certain serovars are thought to be associated with certain types and severities of clinical disease, although this is not definitive (Goldstein et al). L. pomona appears to result in more severe renal disease and worse outcome (50% as compared to 78-81%) as compared to other serogroups (Goldstein et al).
Aug 06, 2014
Rickettsial diseases in dogs and cats
00:11:15
Pronunciation help from Dr. Ashleigh Newman!
Aug 04, 2014
FAST Ultrasound with Dr. Greg Lisciandro | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:16:43
In this VetGirl podcast, we interview Dr. Greg Lisciandro, DABVP, DACVECC about ultrasound techniques in small animal medicine.
Jul 30, 2014
Pharmacokinetics of clindamycin | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:13
When it comes to treating skin disease, we know that Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common cause of canine pyoderma. Previous dermatology studies have found that dogs with superficial or deep bacterial pyoderma respond well to clindamycin administration, with success rates of approximately 71-100%. As a result, dermatologists often recommend using clindamycin hydrochloride as an antibiotic for systemic therapy to treat canine pyoderma, with a dosage ranging is 5.5-11 mg/kg once a day to twice a day. In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss whether or not you can use clindamycin at 11mg/kg once-aday versus 5.5 mg/kg twice-a-day when it comes to dosing in dogs.
Jul 28, 2014
Chondroitinase Clinical Trial for Spinal Cord Injury | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:21
In today's VetGirl podcast, we interview Dr. Hilary Hu, PhD candidate at Iowa State University. Dr. Hu and Dr. Nick Jeffery are conducting a clinical study on the experimental use of chondroitinase, which may improve outcome in dogs after spinal cord injury.
Jul 23, 2014
Lyme disease: Part 6 | Clinical Case Reviews | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:10
In this final Lyme VetGirl podcast, we review 3 clinical cases. Decide if you want to treat or not, and see if you learned all you need to know about both acute and Lyme disease and chronic Lyme nephritis.
Jul 16, 2014
Acetaminophen poisoning in dogs and cats | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:38
Did your patient just ingest a toxic amount of acetaminophen (commonly called paracetamol in other countries)? Acetaminophen toxicosis is commonly seen in dogs and cats, and can result in liver failure, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), oxidative injury, methemoglobinemia, and Heinz body anemia. In dogs, the toxic dose is > 100 mg/kg, while in ferrets and cats, the toxic dose is as little as 10 mg/kg. This VetGirl podcast reviews all you need to know about acetaminophen toxicity. Thankfully, this toxicity has an antidote, n-acetylcysteine (NAC).
Jul 14, 2014
Lyme disease: Part 5 | Additional treatment for chronic lyme nephritis | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:18
In this VetGirl podcast, we review initial treatment of chronic Lyme nephritis, focusing specifically on antihypertensive therapy, ACEi therapy, nutritional support, and possible immunosuppressive therapy. For chronic Lyme disease, appropriate monitoring for proteinuria or microalbuminuria should be performed q. 3-6 months. In patients that have continued proteinuria (after 4-6 weeks of antibiotic therapy), a renal biopsy should be considered (to rule out an immune-mediated glomerulonephritis), along with a low-protein diet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy, and an additional course of antibiotic therapy. If evidence of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis is seen, the use of immunosuppressive therapy is warranted (e.g., azathioprine, cyclosporine, mycophenolate, etc.).
Jul 09, 2014
Lyme disease: Part 4 | Treatment for chronic lyme nephritis | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:37
In this VetGirl podcast, we review initial treatment of chronic Lyme nephritis, focusing specifically on fluid therapy and gastrointestinal support. For chronic Lyme disease, appropriate monitoring for proteinuria or microalbuminuria should be performed q. 3-6 months. In patients that have continued proteinuria (after 4-6 weeks of antibiotic therapy), a renal biopsy should be considered (to rule out an immune-mediated glomerulonephritis), along with a low-protein diet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy, and an additional course of antibiotic therapy. If evidence of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis is seen, the use of immunosuppressive therapy is warranted (e.g., azathioprine, cyclosporine, mycophenolate, etc.).
Jul 02, 2014
Postoperative complications from phacoemulsification | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:05
Phacoemulsification, or small incision cataract surgery, is the preferred technique for removal of cataracts in dogs. Previous studies evaluating visual outcomes following phacoemulsification in dogs report success rates varying from 71.4 -; 95.3%. However, there are some potential complications of phacoemulsification, including post-operative ocular hypertension (POH), uveitis, retinal detachment, and secondary glaucoma. In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss the success rate for restoring vision after cataract surgery with foldable intraocular lens implantation…and what you need to know about when it comes to the Boston terrier breed!
Jun 30, 2014
Lyme disease: Part 3 | To treat or not to treat | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:57
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss clinical signs seen with Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). In canine patients suspected of having Lyme disease based on a positive 3DX or 4DX SNAP test, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of clinical signs, breeds at risk for developing life-threatening chronic effects (e.g., breeds predisposed to Lyme nephritis), and presence of proteinuria or microalbuminuria.
Jun 25, 2014
Is skunk musk poisonous to dogs? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:56
When it comes to skunks, we all know that they can cause an odiferous problem to dogs (and less commonly, cats). Most of us have the “skunk bathing formula” ready to recite to owners on the phone. However, when skunk exposures happen, do we warn pet owners about the other potential health risks that can occur? This VetGirl podcast reviews skunk musk toxicity, and how it can result in oxidative injury, Heinz body hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia.
Jun 23, 2014
Lyme disease: Part 2| Clinical Signs of Lyme Disease | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:17
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss clinical signs seen with Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). In dogs, three states of Lyme disease can be seen. With acute Lyme disease, dogs typically develop transient fever, lethargy, depression, hesitance to move, anorexia, pain, lymphadenopathy, and acute arthritis (seen as a mono- or polyarthropathy). Joints may be inflamed and warm to the touch. Sub-acute signs may also be seen, where lameness can last several weeks. While clinical arthritis may be transient, inflammatory changes to the synovial fluid may be ongoing and potentially persistent. Typically, lameness in dogs occurs months after tick exposure. Chronic signs include cardiac changes (e.g., bradyarrhythmias such as heart block, etc.), neurologic signs, arthritis and changes related to Lyme nephritis (estimated to occur in 1-2% of dogs affected by Lyme disease).
Jun 18, 2014
BNP: What role does it play in monitoring cardiac disease? | Dr. Marc Kraus | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:31
What the heck is BNP? BNP stands for B-type natriuretic peptide, and is released from left atrial stretch (commonly seen with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure). How important is it, and can it help my patient? In this VetGirl veterinary CE podcast, Dr. Marc Kraus, a board-certified cardiologist on faculty at Cornell University, tells us all we need to know about this soon-to-be bedside test.
Jun 16, 2014
Lyme disease Part I: Transmission, Pathophysiology andamp; Testing| VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:43
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss transmission, pathophysiology and testing for Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). While Bb can be transmitted by urine, milk, and blood, the most common transmission is likely via tick infestation by hard-shell deer ticks (e.g., Ixodes scapularis or other related Ixodes species). Ixodes ticks have a 2-year life cycle and hatch in the spring (into larvae). A female tick lays approximately 2000 eggs. Larvae become infected with Bb when feeding on white-footed mice, which are persistently infected, but often remain unaffected or asymptomatic. The larvae molt into nymphs that feed on new hosts. While nymphs are less effective vectors than adult ticks, they can still infect their hosts within the four-day feeding period. Likewise, nymphs can become infected when feeding on an infected animal. In the fall, nymphs molt to adults, with 50% of adult ticks in the Northeast estimated to be carrying Bb. Once the tick attaches and feeds, the spirochetes (which live in the midgut of the tick) begin to migrate to the salivary gland and enter the host. Risk of infection is believed to be minimal during the first 12 hours of feeding. Typically, transmission of Bb occurs during prolonged feeding periods (typically > 48 hours).
Jun 11, 2014
Bromethalin toxicity in dogs and cats | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:44
Bromethalin is a mouse and rat poison that may sound like brodifacoum or bromadiolone, but it has nothing to do with Vitamin K1 or coagulopathy. Bromethalin results in cerebral edema and has a narrow margin of safety. Check out this VetGirl veterinary podcast to learn more about this rodenticide that is becoming more prevalent due to new EPA mandates!
Jun 09, 2014
Feline medicine with Dr. Susan Little | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:08
Today's VetGirl podcast is an interview with feline guru Dr. Susan Little, DABVP, who tells us about some current cutting-edge research updates in feline leukemia (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Learn about the link between inflammatory disease and FeLV/FIV, some potential treatment options for FIP with polyprenyl immunostimulant, and hints on how to make your practice more feline-friendly! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Jun 04, 2014
Evaluation of Diff-Quik for staining mast cell tumors (MCT) | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:31
Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the #1 cutaneous dermal mass of dogs. As MCT exfoliate well, aspirates are often diagnostic. However, before looking at it in-house, keep in mind that Diff-Quik does not stain the granules of MCT well. This VetGirl veterinary CE podcast reviews whether staining for a longer period of time in Diff-Quik helps, or whether or not you should just submit for Wright's stain analysis!
Jun 02, 2014
Homemade Veterinary Diets |Dr. Catherine Lenox | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:50
Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
May 28, 2014
You aspirated fluid. Now what? | Dr. Ashleigh Newman | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:30
Just aspirated fluid from your patient? Not exactly sure what to look for or run on the fluid? In this VetGirl veterinary podcast, Dr. Ashleigh Newman (clinical pathology resident guru at Cornell) gives us some clin path tips on what to do what that effusion.
May 26, 2014
Candida Peritonitis | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:00
As criticalists, we frequently manage and treat septic peritonitis cases; this is typically due to disease or pathology in the gastrointestinal (secondary to a linear foreign body, ruptured neoplasia, etc.). Rarely, we'll see atypical causes for peritonitis aside from bacteria, like fungal etiologies (like Candida). So, in today's VetGirl podcast, we're going to discuss Candida peritonitis in dogs, and why dogs potentially develop this rare type of peritonitis! Now keep in mind that the diagnosis of Candida peritonitis is rare, especially given the rare number of case reports; however, it may be due to being under-diagnosed and/or under-represented. When in doubt, if you have suspicion of a Candida peritonitis, send peritoneal fluid to a clinical pathologist to evaluate! And remember to make a direct smear soon after obtaining the fluid and send that fresh, unstained smear in along with the fluid in a purple top tube. Early identification of organisms in fluid samples can allow you to start life-saving treatment faster and potentially improve clinical outcome! When in doubt, as soon as you diagnose Candida peritonitis, start intravenous fluconazole ASAP! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
May 19, 2014
Anticoagulant rodenticide (ACR) poisoning: What's the best way to confirm? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:06
Have a patient that you suspect was poisoned by an anticoagulant rodenticide (ACR; also called long-acting anticoagulant or "LAAC")? When in doubt, consider the usefulness of anticoagulant rodenticide screening, as it is readily available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. That said, it may take days to weeks before results are available. Find out in this VetGirl podcast what the best clinical tool for diagnosing ACR in the ER.
May 12, 2014
5 myths about veterinary trauma patients with Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, DACVECC | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:01
Dr. Marie Holowaychuk, a board-certified veterinary emergency critical care specialist, discusses 5 misconceptions that many veterinary professionals have about trauma cases. Before you treat your next HBC (hit-by-car), make sure to check out this VetGirl veterinary podcast for some key simple trauma tips! Dr. Holowaychuk discusses key things like, giving shock boluses of fluids, treating with steroids, or euthanizing those trauma patients.
May 05, 2014
Tips for identifying intestinal obstructions | Dr. Matt Winter | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:53
In this VETgirl podcast, we interview Dr. Matt Winter, DACVR from University of Florida's College of Veterinary Medicine about tips on identifying intestinal obstructions on radiographs. Just had a vomiting dog walk into your clinic? Suspicious of a possible migrating foreign body obstruction (FBO), but not sure if it needs emergency surgery or not? Check out this podcast! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Apr 28, 2014
Getting the most out of your hematology | Dr. Ashleigh Newman | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:20
Did your in-house hematology analyzer just go down? Have to do a blood smear? In this VetGirl veterinary CE podcast, Dr. Ashleigh Newman (our clinical pathology guru, who is a resident at Cornell) gives us some tips on interpreting your blood smear accurately and appropriately. As in vitro, artifactual changes can occur in hematology samples, make sure to perform a fresh blood smear (at the time of blood collection) to submit with your hematology sample and to look at it in-house!
Apr 21, 2014
Canine influenza virus: Coming to your area? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:15
Seeing a Greyhound that just presented to you for dyspnea? Did he just retire from a Florida racetrack? Don't forget to have canine influenza on your list of differentials! Canine influenza A virus subtype H3N8 causes acute respiratory signs similar to other respiratory infections. Clinical signs include coughing, oculonasal discharge, sneezing, fever, lethargy and respiratory difficulty. This VetGirl veterinary podcast tells you all you need to know about when it comes to this highly contagious virus. As this virus is typically geographically limited, make sure it's not coming to your area! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Apr 14, 2014
Effects of Lidocaine on the GDV Patient | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:59
Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening emergency requiring immediate stabilization. Prompt surgical correction is necessary. Post-operative care typically includes fluid therapy, anti-emetics (e.g., maropitant), pro-kinetics (e.g., metoclopramide), analgesics (e.g., opioids), and sometimes, anti-arrhythmics (e.g., lidocaine, procainamide). In this veterinary podcast, we review if a continuous intravenous infusion (CRI) of lidocaine is warranted. In dogs with GDV, does the use of anti-arrhythmics decrease the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias, acute injury and the duration of hospitalization? Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Apr 07, 2014
Using glargine insulin for the treatment of DKA | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:23
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Marie Holowaychuk reviews the use of intramuscular (IM) glargine insulin in cats for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While we were always taught that you should only ever use regular insulin IM, this study may prove otherwise! So before you refer all your DKA cases away, pay heed to this VetGirl podcast!
Apr 02, 2014
Evaluation of the Sonoclot coagulation tool | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:42
In veterinary medicine, coagulation testing is imperative in the critically ill patient. Hypocoagulability is often easily measured with prothrombin (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet count, while hypercoagulability is more difficult to measure with point-of-care testing (typically requiring a thromboelastography (TEG) machine). In this veterinary podcast, we review a recent study out of UGA assessing the Sonoclot in comparison to the TEG. Before you rush out and buy one, check out this podcast first! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Mar 31, 2014
Lyme disease with Dr. Richard Goldstein | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:32
In today's VetGirl podcast, we interview Dr. Richard Goldstein, DACVIM (SAIM), DECVIM-CA, Chief Medical Officer at Animal Medical Center in New York City, NY on Lyme disease. If you're not sure if you should be vaccinating for Lyme disease, this podcast is a must! More importantly, learn specifically about how the Lyme vaccine works directly against OpsA. What about the Idexx SNAP 4DX Plus - just how do we interpret that blue dot? Check out this podcast to learn how to help prevent lyme nephritis! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Mar 26, 2014
Vertebral Heart Score (VHS) in dyspneic cats | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:42
How many of you are using VHS in clinical practice? (No, not the video home system for your VCR.). The vertebral heart score (VHS) can be useful as a tool to help confirm cardiomegaly. If you're stuck with a cat in respiratory distress and you can safely take a lateral thoracic radiograph, will VHS different cardiac from respiratory disease? In this veterinary podcast, we discuss whether or not VHS is worth doing. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Mar 24, 2014
Canine hemostatic profiles in septic peritonitis | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:49
Septic peritonitis can be a challenging diagnosis to make. The prognosis for septic peritonitis is still poor (with an approximate 50% survival), despite the improvements in emergency and critical care. In this podcast, we review some coagulation tests including protein C, antithrombin, and fibrinogen and look to see if these tests are helpful for prognostication in the future. The lower these values are, is it worse for the patient? Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Mar 17, 2014
The use of Gram staining your urinalysis | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:27
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in our veterinary patients, and can sometimes be tricky to diagnose and treat appropriately. An aerobic urine culture is the gold standard, allowing identification of the infectious agent and a sensitivity profile to direct treatment; however, this test takes several days to get back, and treatment (in other words, appropriate use of antibiotics!) is often required in the meantime. This veterinary podcast reviews the importance of Gram staining urine versus evaluating an unstained urine sediment exam for the detection of bacteriuria in dogs with suspected UTI. Stain your urine!
Mar 10, 2014
The effects of colloids on coagulation | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:35
The use of colloids is more commonly utilized in veterinary medicine as a means of increasing colloid osmotic pressure (COP). Rarely, there are complications associated with the use of colloids, including volume overload and effects on coagulation (hypocoagulability). This veterinary podcast reviews the effects of the synthetic colloid hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) on coagulation and reiterates how clinical patients receiving synthetic colloids should be monitored for changes in their coagulation profiles and treated accordingly.
Mar 03, 2014
Payment plan options for your clinic | VetGirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:01
In this VetGirl podcast, Heidi Brenegan, Director of Marketing at Animal Emergency & Referral Center of Minnesota discusses different payment plan options available for pet owners and for your clinic. Need more than just Care Credit out there? Learn about a new payment system called PaymentBanc that allows draft payments from your pet owner's banking account without it affecting (or costing) your clinic anything!
Feb 28, 2014
The use of pimobendan in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:13
Feline cardiac disease and secondary congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common presenting complaint to the ER or ICU. Treatment often includes diuretics (e.g., furosemide), oxygen therapy, calcium channel blockers, and other cardiac medications. Recently, the use of pimobendan has been evaluated to treat cats with heart failure. Should we wait to get our echocardiogram results before starting pimobendan? Is HCM a contraindication for giving pimobendan? This veterinary podcast reviews whether the use of oral pimobedan is beneficial, and what contraindications exist.
Feb 24, 2014
Acquired vs. congenital portosystemic shunts | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:47
Portosystemic shunts (PSS) are a primary differential for the ADR ("ain't doing right"), obtunded, seizuring puppy. While PSS aren't commonly seen, veterinarians should be aware of the clinical features seen with this disease, including urate urolithiasis, presence of microhepatica (commonly seen on radiographs), and bilateral renomegaly. This veterinary podcast reviews how to differentiate between congenital (CPSS) vs. acquired (APSS) shunts, as the treatment and prognosis differs. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Feb 17, 2014
GDV and gastric decompression techniques | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:54
Gastric-dilatation volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening emergency seen in large and giant breed dogs. Immediate stabilization includes IV access, aggressive fluid resuscitation, and gastric decompression. The question is, what's the best way to decompress the stomach? This veterinary podcast weighs the pros and cons of trocharization versus orogastric tube placement. After all, trocharization is way easier... but does it work?
Feb 10, 2014
A clinical review of CPR in veterinary medicine | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:29
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important technique to master in veterinary medicine. After all, none of us like having our patients undergo cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). While the prognosis for survival from CPA is guarded even with CPR, it's important to be aware of the new updates in CPR (e.g., AHA guidelines, RECOVER) as it has some potential applications to veterinary species and might contribute to improved outcomes. Check out our 7 podcasts on RECOVER for additional information on CPR also.
Feb 03, 2014
Biliary mucocele: To cut or not to cut? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:23
Gallbladder mucoceles (GM) can be frustrating to treat, often requiring long-term medical management and sometimes surgical intervention. As mucoceles can result in common bile duct obstruction and sometimes even rupture (resulting in a bile peritonitis), they must be treated. Check out this podcast to find out if you should be rushing them to surgery or not! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Jan 27, 2014
IRIS Scoring Criteria in Veterinary Medicine | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:49
In this VetGirl podcast, Dr. Chris Byers, DACVIM, DACVECC reviews what IRIS scoring is. IRIS is an acronym for International Renal Interest Society, and allows us to potentially prognosticate renal disease based on specific scoring criteria (e.g., creatinine, proteinuria, etc.). Will this affect your chronic kidney failure patients? Check out this VetGirl podcast to find out! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Jan 22, 2014
Zinc oxide (AKA "Baby diaper rash cream") toxicity | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:04
Have a patient that just ate some baby diaper rash cream? (VetGirl's personal fav? Boudreaux's Baby Butt Paste). How worried should you be? This VetGirl podcast reviews zinc oxide toxicosis, and whether it's going to result in heavy metal toxicosis or not.
Jan 20, 2014
Anesthesia andamp; pre-medication tips in dogs | Dr Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:25
Have an aggressive dog that you can't get near? Need to sedate it but don't know what's the most effective sedative? Have a C-section and not sure what to anesthetize the dog with? Today's VETgirl podcast interviews Dr. Jane Quandt, DVM, DACVA, DACVECC for some fantastic anesthesia and pre-medication hints for dogs!
Jan 15, 2014
Common mistakes to avoid when preparing cytology | Dr. Ashleigh Newman | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:06
Years ago, while running a stat cytology back from the surgery suite to the clinical pathologist, the nice clinical pathology resident asked me "Did you blot this before you made an impression smear onto the slide?" (He did this after looking at my blood-stained, non-diagnostic stat cytology). Doh. No. Here, in this VetGirl veterinary podcast, Dr. Ashleigh Newman (clinical pathology resident guru at Cornell) gives us some great tips on what common mistakes to avoid when preparing cytology. You know, like simple hints of blogging your organ before making an impression smear...
Jan 13, 2014
Anesthesia andamp; pre-medication tips in cats | Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:49
Have a fractious cat that you need to sedate? Want to consider using an epidural for a feline urethral obstruction (FUO)? Dr. Jane Quandt, DVM, DACVA, DACVECC, discusses some great anesthesia and pre-medication tips for cats. Today's VETgirl podcast interviews Dr. Quandt for some fast, efficient, helpful tips that every veterinary practitioner must review!
Jan 08, 2014
Base excess (BE) as a predictor of transfusion requirements in trauma patients | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:59
The use of arterial (ABG) or venous blood gases (VBG) plays an important role in both the ER and ICU. One particular parameter of the blood gas - the base excess (BE) - has been shown to be indicators of shock, intra-abdominal injury, fluid requirements, efficacy of resuscitation, and to be predictive of mortality after injury in human trauma patients. In human trauma patients, base excess (BE) also been used to predict which patients require blood transfusions within the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Does this apply in veterinary medicine? Check out this podcast to find out if the BE is your new BFF (Best Friend Forever!)!
Jan 06, 2014
DKA: Does Diabetes Kill Animals? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:03
DKA, otherwise known as diabetic ketoacidosis (AKA "Diabetes Kills Animals"), is an endocrine emergency that can be costly - but fun and exciting - to treat. This veterinary podcast reviews how to diagnose DKA for $5 or less and overall emergency management of DKA (including fluid therapy, correction of electrolyte abnormalities, insulin therapy, and treatment for the severe metabolic acidosis).
Jan 01, 2014
Peritoneal-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) in veterinary medicine | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:32
Just diagnosis a peritoneal-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) incidentally on chest radiographs? Not sure if it need to be cut? PPDH is a developmental malformation that allows abdominal contents to slide through a hernia in the diaphragm directly into the pericardial sac. Clinical signs of PPDH, if there are any in your patient, can be attributed to compression of the heart by contents in the pericardial sac or adverse effects on the organs that are herniating. Check out this veterinary podcast to find out if medical versus surgical management is warranted!
Dec 30, 2013
Veterinary NSAIDS: Friend vs. foe? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:00
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provide analgesia by altering the body's inflammatory response. However, when ingested in toxic amounts, severe clinical signs can be seen. The question remains, what NSAIDS are safe for dogs? What NSAIDS are safe for cats? What side effects should we monitor for in these patients? More importantly, how do we treat NSAID toxicosis? VetGirl answers all things NSAIDs in this veterinary podcast.
Dec 23, 2013
General approach to evaluating a cytology smear | Dr. Ashleigh Newman | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:59
Not sure what you're looking at on your in-house cytology? Dr. Ashleigh Newman, clinical pathology guru resident from Cornell, discusses how to approach evaluating a cytology smear in this VetGirl veterinary podcast.
Dec 18, 2013
Early goal directed therapy: Goals of treatment in veterinary medicine
00:05:41
The use of goal directed therapy (GDT) is prevalent in human medicine, based off a 2001 study by Rivers et al in New England Journal of Medicine. This concept has improved outcome in patients with stroke, acute myocardial infarct, and trauma. Can we apply GDT to veterinary medicine? In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl discusses the concept of goal directed therapy in veterinary medicine, and how we can better apply it to our critically ill patients.
Dec 16, 2013
Aortic thromboembolism in dogs
00:05:20
Although more common in cats, aortic thromboembolism (ATE) can be seen in dogs as well. While ATE in cats is commonly seen with heart disease, the pathogenesis and presentation of ATE in dogs can be variable. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates ATE in dogs including presentation, underlying causes, treatment options, and prognosis.
Dec 09, 2013
Seizures following head trauma in dogs
00:05:02
Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) are complications that are seen following head trauma, notably resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTS has been well documented in human medicine, but not well documented in veterinary medicine. While we commonly warn pet owners about the risks of seizures post-trauma, how prevalent is it? In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates the risk, incidence, and treatment of dogs with seizures following head trauma. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Dec 02, 2013
Top 5 radiographic interpretation errors | Dr. Matt Winter | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:58
Don't you wish a board-certified radiologist could read all your radiographs? Dr. Matt Winter, DACVR from University of Florida's College of Veterinary Medicine, talks about the top 5 radiographic interpretation errors to avoid! In this veterinary podcast, get some key tips from VetGirl's favorite radiologist! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Nov 27, 2013
Steroids in head trauma: Contraindicated or indicated?
00:09:43
Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Nov 25, 2013
All you ever needed to know about ECG interpretation | Dr. Marc Kraus | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:55
Don't feel comfortable interpreting abnormal electrocardiograms (ECG)? Can't tell the difference between a bundle branch block from a ventricular arrhythmia? Dr. Marc Kraus, a board-certified cardiologist on faculty at Cornell University, offers a few simple clues to help differentiate ventricular versus sinus arrhythmias, how to calculate heart rate, and more!
Nov 20, 2013
Phenobarbital versus potassium bromide: Which anticonvulsant is most effective?
00:05:14
All types of veterinarians, from general practitioners to emergency clinicians to specialist end up treating seizuring patients. So, when it comes to treating them, what's your favorite “go to” anticonvulsant therapy? Ultimately, our goal of anticonvulsant therapy is to eradicate all seizure activity… or at least minimize them to less than 1 per 3 months, ideally. Although this goal may not be possible in every patient, we hope to achieve this goal. With that in mind, which anticonvulsant will help you achieve this? Which one would a neurologist pick? In this veterinary podcast, we compare phenobarbital and potassium bromide in treatment of seizures in dogs.
Nov 18, 2013
Xylitol poisoning in dogs | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:14
Xylitol, a natural, sugar-free sweetener, is becoming more prevalent in human foods, baked goods, gums, mints, and consumer products (like mouthwashes, tooth brushes, nasal sprays, chewable multivitamins, etc.). While it is very safe in people, it poses a significant poisoning risk in dogs. That's because xylitol is a strong promoter of insulin release and can cause severe hypoglycemia and acute hepatic necrosis. This VetGirl podcast reviews xylitol toxicosis in veterinary medicine, including toxic doses, clinical signs, and life-saving treatment.
Nov 13, 2013
Lispro insulin in veterinary medicine: Short-acting insulin in dogs and cats
00:05:50
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in dogs and cats. Unfortunately, while diabetes mellitus alone is often easy to manage, complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can occur. DKA is a serious complication which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. In the emergency room, we often use regular insulin for the treatment of DKA patients. However, with recent drug shortages and backorders, regular insulin is less readily available. What do you do if you no longer can obtain regular insulin? In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates the use of a new, short acting insulin, Lispro™, in the treatment of ketoacidotic patients to help determine if this is a reasonable alternative to regular insulin therapy.
Nov 11, 2013
Canine Specific Albumin (CSA): Does it help with colloid osmotic pressure (COP)?
00:05:17
Albumin is the primary determinate of colloid osmotic pressure (COP). Albumin plays key roles within the body. Hypoproteinemia has been associated with a poorer outcome in numerous diseases (e.g., sepsis, etc.). For this reason, the use of albumin transfusions has become more popular in the past 5-10 years. Due to the side effects of human serum albumin (HSA) administration in veterinary medicine, canine specific albumin (CSA) has been developed. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates the usefulness of canine specific albumin in dogs with septic peritonitis.
Nov 04, 2013
Oncology tips | Dr. Sue Ettinger | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:22
Oncology cases can be challenging. Something as simple as knowing when to remove a slow growing mass versus when to perform a fine needle aspirate (FNA) prior to biopsy are important tips to know. Dr. Sue Ettinger, DACVIM (Oncology), discusses some important management tools to implement into your oncology patients. Check out this VetGirl veterinary podcast to find out when to start prednisone!
Oct 30, 2013
Acute kidney injury and hemodialysis: What's the prognosis?
00:04:44
Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) is an accepted method for acute kidney injury (AKI) in both human and veterinary medicine. It is often considered in patients with severe azotemia, hyperkalemia, fluid overload, or severe clinical signs. While it can be a life-saving therapy, most current publish information only evaluates the short-term outcome following IHD. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl discusses common reasons to consider intermittent therapy, and also evaluates IHD's use on long-term outcomes based on underlying diseases.
Oct 28, 2013
Aerosol Therapy in Veterinary Medicine | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:23
This VetGirl veterinary podcast tells you how you can implement asthma inhalers and chambers in your clinic and for your patients with feline asthma or canine chronic bronchitis. The use of inhaler steroids (e.g., fluticasone) and/or beta-agonists (e.g., albuterol) can be life-saving in patients with acute respiratory distress. However, appropriate use and medical management (including oral systemic drug therapy) is imperative!
Oct 24, 2013
The general approach to blood smear evaluation | Dr. Ashleigh Newman | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:30
Just made a blood smear? Not really sure what you're looking at? In this VetGirl veterinary podcast, Dr. Ashleigh Newman (clinical pathology resident guru who evaluates blood smears all day long!) gives us a few hints on how to approach blood smear evaluation. Don't forget to focus on red blood cell morphology, platelet clumps, parasites and more!
Oct 23, 2013
Glucagon Therapy for Hypoglycemia - What you should know! | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:22
Glucagon is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels. It has an opposite effect of insulin in the body. An injectable form of glucagon is available and can be considered in hypoglycemic patients (e.g., insulin overdose). In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl discusses the use of subcutaneous glucagon in veterinary medicine.
Oct 21, 2013
How to diagnose congestive heart failure (CHF) on exam | Dr. Anna Gelzer | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:53
Diagnosing congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs and cats can be challenging. In this VetGirl veterinary podcast, Dr. Anna Gelzer, DACVIM, provides some simple tips - found on physical exam - in diagnosing CHF. That way, you can figure out how to treat it sooner!
Oct 16, 2013
Impedence threshold device use in CPR | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:13
The impedance threshold device (ITD) is a device which attaches to the end of an endotracheal tube; it is used in human medicine to enhance circulation during CPR. You can find great information here about it's use in human medicine. This device works by regulating the influx of gases into the chest during the chest wall recoil phase. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl discusses the ITD and how it affects the outcome of patients during CPR. Should we be using this in veterinary medicine?
Oct 14, 2013
To vomit or not to vomit: That is the question | VetGirl CE Podcasts
00:07:31
Think you're all over that poisoning case? Just going to induce vomiting and give it some charcoal? Well, before doing that, don't forget about those contraindications for emesis induction. More importantly, make sure you're using the appropriate emetic agent to begin with. In this VetGirl podcast, find out all the pros and cons of emesis induction in this veterinary podcast. It's full of vomitus.
Oct 07, 2013
Cathartics: What you need to know about accelerating defecation! | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:07
In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss the use of cathartics, when to use them, and potential side effects (e.g., hypernatremia) seen with their use. Decontamination is still the mainstay treatment of the poisoned veterinary patient. While activated charcoal is commonly used as an adsorbent, there are several forms of activated charcoal: those containing a cathartic (e.g., sorbitol) and those that do not contain a cathartic. Find out all you need to know about accelerating defecation with cathartics!
Sep 30, 2013
Ionized Hypocalcemia in Trauma | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:40
It is well documented that human trauma patients with low levels of ionized calcium at admission are at increased risk for death. As calcium has many important functions in the body, hypocalcemia can lead to numerous systemic abnormalities. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates the importance of calcium in the body -; particularly in veterinary trauma patients - and evaluates how calcium levels may affect overall treatment plan and outcome in veterinary medicine.
Sep 23, 2013
When to mechanically ventilate your patient | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:02:46
Have a dyspneic, hypoxemic, hypercapneic dog or cat? Not sure when to put them on a mechanical ventilator or initiate positive pressure ventilation (PPV)? Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC, guest-podcasts for us on a few simple tips of when to decide to initiate PPV, including the 50:50 rule, certain pulse oximetry values, and even based off venous blood gas results. Check out this VetGirl veterinary podcast for more information. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page. Suggested reading: 1. Lee JA, Drobatz KJ, Koch MW, et al. Indications for and outcome of positive-pressure ventilation in cats: 53 cats (1993-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226(6):924-931. 2. Hopper K, Haskins SC, Kass PH, et al. Indications, management, and outcome of long-term positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 148 cases (1990-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230(1):64-75. 3. Edwards TH, Coleman AE, Brainard BM, et al. Outcome of positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats with congestive heart failure: 16 cases (1992-2012). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2014;24(5):586-593. 4. Campbell VL, King LG. Pulmonary function, ventilator management, and outcome of dogs with thoracic trauma and pulmonary contusions: 10 cases (1994-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217(10):1505-1509.
Sep 18, 2013
Cardiopulmonary effects of an impedance threshold device in hemorrhagic shock in dogs | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:01
The impedance threshold device (ITD) is a device used to enhance circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This device works by regulating the influx of gases into the chest during the chest wall recoil phase. In this podcast, VetGirl discusses the ITD and how it affects the outcome of patients with hemorrhagic shock.
Sep 16, 2013
Baclofen toxicity in dogs and cats| VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:18
In this VetGirl podcast, we review baclofen toxicity, a centrally-acting muscle relaxant used commonly in human medicine. Unfortunately, ingestion by veterinary patients can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis include severe dysphoria, agitation, profound sedation, bradycardia, hypoventilation, coma, and death. In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss common clinical signs when ingested by dogs and cats, treatment options, and prognosis.
Sep 09, 2013
Intravenous Lipid Emulsion with Lidocaine Toxicity in Cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:25
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), otherwise known as intravenous fat emulsion (IFE), in veterinary medicine. ILE has been documented now in both human and veterinary medicine as an antidote for fat-soluble drug toxicities such as macrocylic lactones (e.g., ivermectin, moxidectin), local anesthetics, baclofen, cholecalciferol, etc.). In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss how ILE works, what toxins it is effective for, and how to use this exciting antidote option.
Sep 02, 2013
ABCs of acid-base analysis | Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:02:21
Not sure how to interpret all those values from your arterial (ABG) or venous (VBG) blood gas? Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC, gives us 5 tips on how to interpret your blood gas, from looking at your pH and base excess (BE). Check out this VetGirl veterinary podcast for quick tips on analysis of blood-gases! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page. Suggested reading: 1. Waddell L. Blood gas analysis. Clinicians Brief 2012.
Aug 28, 2013
Lactate evaluation in GDV Patients - What's the evidence? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:11
Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) patients often typically present shocky, due to vascular congestion and poor perfusion, resulting in hypoxia and tissue ischemia. While lactic acid is a known product of anaerobic metabolism, why should we care about hyperlactatemia in our GDV patients? This podcast will evaluate lactate levels in GDV patients and help you understand what this means. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Aug 26, 2013
Transfusion medicine: How much blood should I give to correct the anemia? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:19
Transfusion of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) is a common treatment for anemia. Transfusion to a normal PCV is unnecessary and may result in fluid overload due to the volume needed to return the PCV back to the normal range. The goal of pRBC transfusion is to alleviate the clinical signs associated with anemia or decreased oxygen content (CaO2). The question is: how much blood do you have to give to achieve the “desired packed cell volume (PCV)?” In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl will examine transfusion formulas to help you determine how much blood you need to give for these anemic patients.
Aug 19, 2013
Managing chylothorax in dogs and cats: Can't cure chyle? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:56
Chylous effusions are produced when lymph escapes lymphatic vessels to enter the body cavities, commonly the pleural space. In this veterinary podcast, VetGirl evaluates the causes of chylothorax, the species we commonly see this disease in, treatment options, and the outcome with treatment.
Aug 12, 2013
Steroids and trauma: To use or not to use?
00:05:11
Should no animal die without the benefit of steroids? Like a pendulum, the use of corticosteroids is constantly being debated, up one day, down another day. While corticosteroids have many theoretical benefits (e.g., including decreased inflammation, anti-tumor properties, and enhancing appetite), there are many adverse effects which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. In this podcast, VetGirl discusses the use of steroids in trauma patients in veterinary medicine, including the benefits and risks associated with its administration.
Aug 05, 2013
Chest radiographs on your GDV patients: Are they worth it? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:06
Chest radiographs are a common diagnostic tool used in veterinary medicine to evaluate the entire thoracic cavity, including the heart, lungs, esophagus, bony structures, mediastinal space, and pleural space. When it comes to an “acute abdomen” or abdominal emergency such as a gastric-dilatation volvulus (GDV), is it worth taking the extra 10 minutes to perform chest radiographs? In this podcast, VetGirl discusses why they are important!! Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
Aug 02, 2013
Fertilizer poisoning: Commonly implicated, rarely toxic... | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:01
In the next installment of “Your patient ate what?” VetGirl talks about fertilizer toxicosis. While most pet owners often blame clinical signs on fertilizers, they generally have a wide margin of safety. This VetGirl podcast reviews common components of fertilizers, clinical signs expected, and treatment options.
Jul 29, 2013
Colloid osmotic pressure: Should I use plasma or whole blood? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:06
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) or oncotic pressure is a measure of water attracting force, which is due to important proteins such as albumin within the body. This is often affected with significant blood loss, loss of protein (either from lack of production or loss via the gastrointestinal tract, liver or kidneys), vascular permeability, or following massive fluid therapy. Rapid measurement in critically ill patients is important to help determine the best method of treatment (e.g., the use of crystalloids versus colloids). In this podcast, VetGirl evaluates the accuracy of testing COP on whole blood as compared to plasma.
Jul 22, 2013
Fluorouracil (5-FU) poisoning in dogs: A deadly topical toxin | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:17
This VETgirl podcast reviews the dangers of fluorouracil, also referred to as 5-FU. 5-FU is a topical chemotherapeutic agent commonly prescribed for human actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinomas. When accidentally ingested by dogs and cats, this topical cream can be life-threatening as it has a very narrow margin of safety. In this VETgirl podcast, we discuss toxicosis concerns including decontamination, clinical signs, treatment options, and prognosis. When in doubt, contact the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) for life-saving advice 24/7 as needed!
Jul 15, 2013
Lower Motor Neuron Disease (LMND) and mechanical ventilation: Do they live? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:42
Lower motor nerve diseases (LMND) cause fatigue, weakness, and collapse. If severe, LMND can affect respiratory muscles, resulting in hypoventilation. In this podcast, VetGirl evaluates causes for lower motor neuron diseases, indications for mechanical ventilation/positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and the outcome of patients treated with PPV. Before putting your LMND patient on a ventilator, do you know the pros and cons?
Jul 08, 2013
Seizures in cats following head trauma | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:22
Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) are complications that are seen following head trauma, notably resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTS has been well documented in human medicine, but not well documented in veterinary medicine. While we commonly warn pet owners about the risks of seizures post-trauma, how prevalent is it? In this podcast, VetGirl evaluates the risk, incidence, and treatment of cats with seizures following head trauma.
May 30, 2013
Coccygeal epidurals for feline urethral obstruction | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:40
Feline urethral obstruction (FUO) is a common emergency condition seen in feline medicine. This disease is not only life-threatening, but can be painful as well. Once the acute obstruction has been relieved, the focus is often shifted to pain management to help reduce urethral spasm. In this VetGirl podcast, we evaluate the use of a new pain management technique - coccygeal epidurals - and how this easy to perform technique may benefit cats with FUO. For more information, check out our epidural video, where we walk through the steps of what you need and how to perform an epidural.
May 19, 2013
CPR updates in small amimal medicine: RECOVER Part 4 | VetGirl Veterinary Podcasts
00:06:24
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part 4 of the RECOVER project.
May 19, 2013
Parvovirus strain variations andamp; diagnostic testing | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:58
In this online veterinary CE podcast, VETgirl discusses the latest in veterinary medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of parvovirus. Canine parvovirus can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Clinical signs of parvovirus include vomiting, diarrhea, inappetence and lethargy. This podcast also review a study by Markovich et al called "Effects of canine parvovirus strain variations on diagnostic test results and clinical management of enteritis in dogs." References: Markovich JE, Stucker KM, Carr AH, et al. Effects of canine parvovirus strain variations on diagnostic test results and clinical management of enteritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:66-72. Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
May 18, 2013
Fluid therapy for hypotension: What bag do you grab? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:47
Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is one of the most commonly used therapies for hypotension in veterinary medicine. Despite numerous research studies, there is still a question as to what fluid type is best. Should we be reaching for crystalloids, colloids, hemoglobin oxygen carriers (HBOCs), or canine specific albumin (CSA)? In this podcast, VetGirl will evaluate the types of fluid options, indications, and clinical pearls to help you guide fluid therapy in your practice.
May 18, 2013
Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) with ivermectin toxicity in dogs : Getting the skinny on using fat! | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:29
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), otherwise known as intravenous fat emulsion (IFE), in veterinary medicine. ILE has been documented in both human and veterinary medicine as a possible antidote for fat-soluble drug toxicities such as macrocylic lactones (e.g., ivermectin, moxidectin), local anesthetics, baclofen, cholecalciferol, etc.). In this VETgirl podcast, we discuss how ILE works, what toxins it is effective for, and how to use this exciting antidote option.
May 18, 2013
Inducing vomiting in dogs and cats: Picking the right emetic agent | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:30
Decontamination (which includes emesis induction, gastric lavage, and/or administration of activated charcoal) is an important step in the treatment of the poisoned veterinary patient. Before decontaminating, the pros and cons should be considered, including: the type of toxin itself, the time since ingestion, the stability of the patient, and choosing the appropriate emetic agent. When choosing to induce emesis in dogs and cats, the appropriate emetiic agent should be used (e.g., dogs: peroxide or apomorphine; cats: xylazine). In this VetGirl podcast, we answer all of these important questions to help best treat the poisoned patient.
May 18, 2013
Aspiration pneumonia in veterinary medicine: What's the outcome? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:27
Pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs) or infectious pneumonia (e.g., due to bacteria, viral, etc.) can result in significant morbidity in our patients… but, does this correlate to mortality too? Our pneumonia patients may present with mild to life-threatening signs of illness. In this podcast, VetGirl will discuss clinical presentation, physical examination findings, underlying etiologies, and the overall prognosis for aspiration pneumonia. Learn about which appropriate diagnostic tests and treatments are vital in these patients to ensure the best chance of survival.
May 18, 2013
Activated Charcoal: To Give or Not To Give... | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:28
Decontamination of the poisoned veterinary patient typically includes emesis induction, gastric lavage, and/or activated charcoal administration. While the use of decontamination has significantly decreased in human medicine, it is still considered a mainstay therapy in veterinary medicine. Before administrating charcoal to your poisoned patient, however, make sure to weigh the pros and cons. In this VETgirl podcast, we will help you understand the advantages and disadvantages of the use of activated charcoal.
May 18, 2013
Esophageal foreign bodies in dogs: What do we know? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:00
Questions? You can always contact us via our Contact Us page.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part I | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:58
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part I of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
SSRI antidepressant poisoning in dogs and cats | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:57
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of medications that are commonly used in human medicine for depression. As these medications are the #1 prescribed drug in America, they are becoming more of a problem in veterinary medicine when our patients accidentally ingest them. In this podcast, VetGirl discusses the mechanism of action of SSRIs, how they affect our pets, what signs of toxicosis they cause, and how to treat them.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part 2 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:19
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part 2 of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
Which emetic should you pick in dogs: Hydrogen peroxide or apomorphine? | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:47
So, your client calls you at 9pm on a Sunday evening…their dog just ingested something poisonous! What do you do? Is it ok to administer hydrogen peroxide to cats? What dose would you use? Is apomorphine better? What about salt or ipecac? This VetGirl podcast is a must for any clinician treating the poisoned veterinary patient.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part 7 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:34
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part 7 of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part 5 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:20
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews part 5 of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part 6 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:02
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part 6 of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
CPR updates in small animal medicine: RECOVER Part 3 | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:54
When's the last time you had to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a patient? Do you know all the cutting edge updates in veterinary medicine? These seven VetGirl podcasts looks at the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) updates, which assess the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This podcast reviews Part 3 of the RECOVER project.
May 18, 2013
Toxicology mistakes to avoid in your poisoned patients! | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:43
Toxin ingestion is a common presenting complaint in both general practice and emergency medicine. In this VetGirl podcast, we discuss common toxins, decontamination options (e.g., emesis induction, activated charcoal), and how to avoid errors in the assessment and treatment of the poisoned veterinary patient.
May 01, 2013
Sleep aid poisoning in dogs and cats | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:52
In this VetGirl podcast, we review the dangers of sleep aid poisoning in dogs and cats. Sleep aids, commonly used by pet owners, often have active ingredients that classify them as non-benzodiazepines. Due to the increased prevalence of sleep aids in human medicine, veterinarians are seeing an increased incidence of sleep aid toxicosis with drugs such as Ambien™ and Lunesta™. In this podcast, VetGirl evaluates the most common medications in this category, doses of concern, common clinical signs, treatment options, and overall prognosis.
May 01, 2013