BibleProject

By BibleProject

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 Aug 24, 2022

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 Dec 10, 2020
Insightful discussions bringing new perspectives on the many layers of Scripture


 Aug 24, 2020

Description

The creators of BibleProject have in-depth conversations about the Bible and theology. A companion podcast to BibleProject videos found at bibleproject.com

Episode Date
Entering the Promised Land – Numbers E9
01:01:20

After years of wandering in the wilderness and what seems like way too many rebellions against Yahweh, Israel has finally arrived on the edge of the promised land. What could possibly go wrong now? And yet even here, two of Israel’s tribes rebel, repeating the sins of Adam and Eve and dividing themselves from their brothers. Join Tim and Jon as they wrap up the Numbers scroll.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-20:20)
  • Part two (20:20-33:50)
  • Part three (33:50-43:29)
  • Part four (43:29-01:01:21)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Solar Cove" by Mama Aiuto
  • "Alone Time" by Sam Stewart
  • Sound design by a contributor

This episode was produced by Cooper Peltz with Associate Producer Lindsey Ponder. It was edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey and Frank Garza. MacKenzie Buxman provided the annotations for our annotated podcast in our app.

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Sep 26, 2022
Joshua: The New Adam and Moses – Numbers E8
01:04:15

As Moses’ death draws near, Yahweh selects Joshua to lead the people of Israel. What made Joshua uniquely qualified to lead? How does his leadership differ from Moses’? In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they discuss how the Hebrew Bible depicts Joshua as a new Adam, a new Moses, and a precursor to the Messiah himself.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-15:08)
  • Part two (15:08-37:33)
  • Part three (37:33-49:43)
  • Part four (49:43-1:04:16)

Referenced Resources

  • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “I Main Samus Now" by Sleepy Fish
  • "Empty Me Out" by Liz Vice
  • "I'll Pray for You" by Xihcsr

This episode was produced by Cooper Peltz with Associate Producer Lindsey Ponder. It was edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. MacKenzie Buxman provided the annotations for our annotated podcast in our app.

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Sep 19, 2022
Five Women and Yahweh’s New Law – Numbers E7
01:11:47

In the third movement of Numbers, five sisters approach Moses with a legal case not covered in God’s laws: Without any brothers to inherit their father’s land, their family inheritance will be lost unless women are allowed to receive an inheritance too. Yahweh agrees with these five women, setting an important precedent for not just how Israel was to engage the laws of the Torah but for later followers of Jesus as well. Join Tim and Jon as they discuss the story of Zelophehad’s daughters and Jesus’ fulfillment of the law.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-19:55)
  • Part two (19:55-33:05)
  • Part three (33:05-55:24)
  • Part four (55:24-01:12:30)

Referenced Resources

  • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Long Lost Friend" by Sam Stewart
  • "Limitless" by chromonicci
  • Sound design (untitled) by Tyler Bailey

This episode was produced by Cooper Peltz with Associate Producer Lindsey Ponder. It was edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey and Frank Garza. MacKenzie Buxman provided the annotations for our annotated podcast in our app.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Sep 12, 2022
Why Couldn’t Moses Enter the Promised Land? – Numbers E6
00:55:07

So far in the second movement of Numbers, the leaders of the twelve tribes of Israel have rebelled against Yahweh, the people themselves have rebelled against Yahweh, and even the Levites have rebelled against Yahweh. In fact, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, and Caleb are the only people that haven’t rebelled. So what happens when those closest to Yahweh fail to obey his word, too? In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about Moses’ rebellion, the high cost of leading God’s people, and humanity’s deep need for a more faithful representative to intercede on our behalf.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-14:55)
  • Part two (14:55-39:37)
  • Part three (39:37-55:08)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Spiritual Mind" by C Y G N
  • "Easy Chair" by Tyler Bailey

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Sep 05, 2022
Yahweh’s Judgment and Mercy – Numbers E5
00:42:47

God chose the Levites to take care of the tabernacle, and within the tribe of Levi, he picked Aaron’s family to have the special duty of offering sacrifices and burning incense. In Numbers 16, a Levite named Korah and 250 Israelite leaders accuse Aaron and Moses of setting themselves above everyone else. What’s going on here? In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss the story of Korah’s rebellion, God’s judgment and mercy, and the responsibility of the leaders God chooses.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-7:24)
  • Part two (7:24-27:40)
  • Part three (27:40-42:47)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Wake Up” by xander.
  • “The Size of Grace” by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Aug 29, 2022
Twelve Spies and the Promised Land – Numbers E4
01:04:11

We’re looking at a story about God’s chosen ones facing a test with fruit trees in a beautiful garden—sounds like Genesis 3, right? Surprisingly, this is a story from Numbers 13-15, with another tree and another test. In this episode, Tim and Jon dive into the second movement of Numbers and the choice Israel faces when they reach the border of the promised land. Will they choose to trust their wisdom or Yahweh’s?

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-17:24)
  • Part two (17:24-33:01)
  • Part three (33:01-51:10)
  • Part four (51:10-1:04:11)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Sub Sandwich” by Tyler Bailey
  • “Attack of the Clones” by JGivens (feat. John Givez and Jackie Hill Perry)

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Aug 22, 2022
There Isn’t a Law For That – Numbers E3
01:06:49

How do God’s people follow his will in situations where there are no explicit rules or laws given? At the conclusion of the third movement of Numbers, the Israelites don’t know how God wants them to respond to a situation. Join Tim and Jon as they explore Numbers 6-9 and how followers of Jesus today can learn to understand the will of God.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-19:22)
  • Part two (19:22-32:42)
  • Part three (32:42-45:40)
  • Part four (45:40-01:06:50)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Evening Flight" by Sam Stewart
  • "I Ain't Got an Answer" by Propaganda
  • "Butterfly" by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Aug 15, 2022
What’s a Nazarite Vow? – Numbers E2
00:57:55

Confession of sins, strange water rituals, Nephilim, and Nazarite vows—Numbers 5 and 6 might feel like a confusing mix of laws, but the scroll’s author is cleverly reminding us of the Hebrew Bible melody we first encountered in Genesis 1-9. In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about four odd laws that are part of the intricate story we’ve been following through the Torah. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-9:03)
  • Part two (9:03-22:31)
  • Part three (22:31-39:27)
  • Part four (39:27-57:55)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Fizzle Pop" by Tyler Bailey
  • "Goofy Nights in Tokyo" by Sam Stewart
  • "Today Feels Like Everyday" by Mama Aiuto

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Aug 08, 2022
What Made the Tribe of Levi Special? – Numbers E1
00:58:54

The scroll of Numbers can be difficult to make sense of without context, and there’s a reason for that. The scroll was never meant to be understood on its own. Numbers picks up where Leviticus leaves off and mirrors the scroll on the other side of Leviticus (Exodus). To fully understand all of these scrolls, we need to read them together. Join Tim and Jon as they dive into Numbers, trace the theme of the temple, and discuss the unique role of the tribe of Levi.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-22:02)
  • Part two (22:02-40:55)
  • Part three (40:55-58:55)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Library Card" by Sleepy Fish
  • "Portland Synth Cruise" by Sam Stewart

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 01, 2022
The Law of the Blasphemer – Leviticus E9
01:08:33

Blasphemy, principles of restitution, jubilee, exile, and the mercy and justice of God––it’s all there in the final lines of the scroll of Leviticus. Join Tim and Jon as they talk about the great gift and responsibility of carrying Yahweh’s name and discuss the wisdom and surprising hope of the Law that’s finally fulfilled in Jesus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-18:22)
  • Part two (18:22-31:17)
  • Part three (31:17-44:54)
  • Part four (44:54-1:08:33)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Sails" by Strehlow & Aylior
  • "Wonderful" by Beautiful Eulogy
  • "A Bridge Between" by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Jul 25, 2022
What Israel's Feasts Teach Us – Leviticus E8
01:00:18

Are there specific times humans can meet with God in special ways? For ancient Israel, the answer was yes. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they explore the final movement of Leviticus, talk about the Sabbaths and festivals ancient Israelites celebrated every year, and discuss the significance of rituals and liturgies that allow us to see our time as a significant part of God’s story.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-11:49)
  • Part two (11:49-40:12)
  • Part three (40:12-01:00:19)

Referenced Resources

  • Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord?: A Biblical Theology of the Book of Leviticus, L. Michael Morales
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Stomp" by Evil Needle
  • "Movement" by Felty

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Jul 18, 2022
Why Is the Sabbath So Important? – Leviticus E7
01:08:12

Throughout the Leviticus scroll, Yahweh instructs Israel, “Be holy as I am holy.” But what does that actually mean? As we enter into the third and final movement of Leviticus, we’ll find that living holy lives had everything to do with how Israel treated others and utilized their time, a theme reinforced by the continual command to honor the Sabbath. Join Jon and Tim as they explore the wisdom we can find in these ancient laws.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-15:18)
  • Part two (15:18-32:43)
  • Part three (32:43-48:12)
  • Part four (48:12-01:08:13)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Alive" by Ouska
  • "No Problem" (from a contributor)
  • “Beneath the Cross" by Eventide

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Tyler Bailey, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 11, 2022
What Is the Day of Atonement? – Leviticus E6
01:08:30

At the center of the center of the Torah is the Day of Atonement. What is the significance of this day the biblical authors have placed at the heart of the Torah? What does this day accomplish? And what’s with the sacrificial goat and the scapegoat? In this episode, Tim and Jon explore the Day of Atonement and the ultimate atonement accomplished by Jesus on the cross.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-20:20)
  • Part two (20:20-37:53)
  • Part three (37:53-51:08)
  • Part four (51:08-01:08:30)

Referenced Resources

  • Sin, Impurity, Sacrifice, Atonement: The Priestly Conceptions, Jay Sklar
  • Cult and Character: Purification Offerings, Day of Atonement, and Theodicy, Roy Gane
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Wanna Get Away with Me?" by Xihcsr
  • "Pockets" (Artist Unknown)
  • "Butterfly" by Swørn

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 04, 2022
Purity and Impurity in Leviticus – Leviticus E5
01:05:32

Childbirth, non-kosher food, sex, death, disease—they’re all considered impure in the book of Leviticus. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they discuss the levitical laws of purity and impurity and how they create a way for humanity to share in God’s own life and form a surprisingly beautiful backdrop for Jesus’ miraculous healings.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-10:50)
  • Part two (10:50-28:04)
  • Part three (28:04-44:35)
  • Part four (44:35-01:05:32)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Harbor" by Stan Forebee & Francis
  • "Protected" by Swørn
  • "Acquired In Heaven" by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 27, 2022
Did God Try To Kill Moses? – Exodus Q+R
01:12:35

Why did God say he was going to kill Moses? What exactly was God’s test for Abraham on Mount Moriah and Israel on Mount Sinai? What’s the connection between the ten plagues and the ten commandments? In this episode, Tim and Jon respond to your questions about the Exodus scroll. Thanks to our audience for your incredible questions!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • What Was God’s Test for Abraham on Mount Moriah and Israel on Mount Sinai? (00:00-31:57)
  • What Can We Learn From the Genesis and Exodus Pharaohs? (31:57)
  • Did God Try To Kill Moses? (37:46)
  • Are There Other “Floods” Prevented by Intercessors? (47:35)
  • What’s the Connection Between the Ten Plagues and Ten Commandments? (52:24)
  • How Important Is Ancient Culture To Understanding Biblical Law? (55:18)
  • Will We All Have Equal Access to God in the New Creation? (1:01:46)
  • ​​Following Up on the Test Involving Manna (01:09:57)

Referenced Resources

  • To Climb or Not To Climb? Israel's Ascent in Exodus 19:12–13 (SBL 2012), Michael Kibbe
  • Abraham's Silence: The Binding of Isaac, the Suffering of Job, and How To Talk Back to God, J. Richard Middleton
  • The Exodus You Almost Passed Over, Rabbi David Fohrman
  • The Lost World of the Torah: Law as Covenant and Wisdom in Ancient Context, John H. Walton and J. Harvey Walton
  • Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought, Joshua A. Berman
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman.

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Jun 22, 2022
The Dangerous Gift of God’s Presence – Leviticus E4
01:03:48

In the second movement of Leviticus, Aaron and his sons agree to the terms of their covenant with Yahweh, signing up to be the gatekeepers of Heaven and Earth. But then Aaron’s sons offer unholy fire before Yahweh—and then they die. What’s going on here? A seven-day ceremony of consecration and celebration ends with everything going terribly wrong. Join Tim and Jon as they kick off the second movement of Leviticus, discussing the theme of holiness and a very difficult part of the story.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-15:55)
  • Part two (15:55-23:52)
  • Part three (23:52-50:02)
  • Part four (50:02-01:03:48)

Referenced Resources

  • Art and Faith: A Theology of Making, Makoto Fujimura
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Adieu” by Evil Needle
  • “Drowning In You” by L'Indécis 
  • "Covet" by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 20, 2022
What Did the Burnt Offerings Really Mean? – Leviticus E3
00:52:36

What is the significance of the offerings described in Leviticus? In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they walk through the five offerings ancient Israelites made to Yahweh and see how the purpose of these practices sound a lot like the teachings of Jesus. Even here in Leviticus, Yahweh’s hope for his people is the same: love God and love your neighbor.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-9:01)
  • Part two (9:01-24:26)
  • Part three (24:26-33:20)
  • Part four (33:20-52:37)

Referenced Resources

  • Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord?: A Biblical Theology of the Book of Leviticus, L. Michael Morales
  • Leviticus: A Book of Ritual and Ethics, Jacob Milgrom
  • The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Educated Fool" by Jackie Hill Perry
  • "Analogs" by GreyFlood
  • Sound design by Dan Gummel

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 13, 2022
What Is Atonement? – Leviticus E2
01:13:15

A God who wants nothing more than to dwell with humanity, a way forward to a repaired relationship between Heaven and Earth, atoning sacrifices meant to communicate grace (not punishment)—you’ll find all of this in Leviticus. While the laws governing Israel’s sacrificial system can be some of the most challenging parts of the Bible to read, they’re an integral part of the unfolding story of the Bible. In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss the surprising beauty of sacrifice and atonement in the opening movement of Leviticus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-8:01)
  • Part two (8:01-17:00)
  • Part three (17:00-46:24)
  • Part four (46:24-1:13:16)

Referenced Resources

  • The Temple: Its Symbolism and Meaning Then and Now, Joshua Berman
  • Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord? A Biblical Theology of the Book of Leviticus, L. Michael Morales
  • Atonement and the Logic of Resurrection in the Epistle to the Hebrews, David M. Moffitt
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Pieces (Instrumental)" by I AM FRESH MUSIC
  • "You Can Save Me" by Beautiful Eulogy
  • "The First Day (Instrumental)" by Hear the Story

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

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Jun 06, 2022
How God Reveals Himself in Leviticus – Leviticus E1
01:04:34

Holiness is a word we frequently associate with the Bible, but what does it mean? As we pick up the story from where we left off in Exodus, we find even Moses unable to enter God’s presence—and a whole bunch of laws about situations many of us have never considered. What is going on in the scroll of Leviticus? And why is it important? In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they dive into the first movement of the Leviticus scroll, where we’ll trace the theme of sacrifice.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-5:30)
  • Part two (05:30-14:45)
  • Part three (14:45-55:30)
  • Part four (55:30-1:04:33)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Synth Groove” by Chase Mackintosh
  • “Two for Joy” by Foxwood
  • “Chilldrone” (Artist Unknown)

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Tyler Bailey. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by MacKenzie Buxman and Ashlyn Heise.

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May 30, 2022
Two Takes on the Test at Mount Sinai –– Feat. Carmen Imes
01:01:21

Did Israel pass or fail God’s test at Mount Sinai? And what did Yahweh mean when he made Israel a “nation of priests”? In this episode, Tim and Jon talk with long-time friend and Hebrew Bible scholar Dr. Carmen Imes. Tim and Carmen share differing interpretive perspectives of the Exodus story, reminding us that the Bible is meant to be meditated upon and studied within a community.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-18:45)
  • Part two (18:45-30:30)
  • Part three (30:30-40:45)
  • Part four (40:45-1:01:20)

Referenced Resources

  • Bearing God's Name: Why Sinai Still Matters, Carmen Joy Imes
  • Baker Commentary on the Old Testament
  • Godly Fear or Ungodly Failure?: Hebrews 12 and the Sinai Theophanies, Michael Kibbe
  • The Pentateuch as Narrative: A Biblical-Theological Commentary, John H. Sailhamer
  • Abraham's Silence: The Binding of Isaac, the Suffering of Job, and How to Talk Back to God, J. Richard Middleton
  • Carmen Joy Imes, “The Lost World of the Exodus: Functional Ontology and the Creation of a Nation,” For Us, but Not to Us: Essays on Creation, Covenant, and Context in Honor of John H. Walton, edited by Miglio, Reeder, Walton, and Way
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Levitate,” “Nostalgia,” and “Nice and Easy” by Junior State

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Podcast annotations for the BibleProject app by Hannah Woo and Ashlyn Heise.

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May 23, 2022
Why Moses Couldn’t Enter the Tabernacle – Exodus E10
00:51:43

In the second movement of Exodus, Moses walks straight into God’s fiery presence on Mount Sinai without fear. But by the end of the scroll, he can’t enter God’s presence. What changed? Right after confirming their covenant with Yahweh, Israel turns around and commits idolatry by making and worshiping a golden calf. It’s a choice that ruptures their relationship with Yahweh and even their connection to Moses. In this episode, join Jon and Tim as they explore the final portion of the third movement of Exodus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-12:00)
  • Part two (12:00-28:45)
  • Part three (28:45-51:42)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “An Open Letter to Whoever’s Listening” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Hello From Portland” by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 16, 2022
Why Does the Tabernacle Furniture Even Matter? – Exodus E9
01:00:30

Why does God seem to care so much about the furniture within the tabernacle? The instructions for the tabernacle furniture are about far more than aesthetics. They were means of dealing with Israel’s moral brokenness, they served as reminders of Eden, and they were designed to form Israel into a people of perpetual surrender. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they continue to trace the theme of the temple in the third movement of Exodus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-16:45)
  • Part two (16:45-39:30)
  • Part three (39:30-48:00)
  • Part four (48:00-1:00:30)

Referenced Resources

  • The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary on Genesis-Malachi, David A. Dorsey
  • Jacob Milgrom
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Midsummer” by Broke In Summer
  • “Day and Night” by Aiguille
  • “Movement” by Felty

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 09, 2022
What’s So Special About the Tabernacle? – Exodus E8
01:16:18

You may have heard that God’s holiness keeps him from getting close to sinful humanity, but in the Bible we see God regularly doing the opposite, drawing near to dwell with human beings. We encounter this reality again and again, including in a surprising place—the tabernacle blueprints. In this episode, join Jon and Tim as they walk through the opening act of the third movement of Exodus and explore the relationship between the tabernacle, the garden of Eden, unconditional love, and eternal life.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-13:00)
  • Part two (13:00-45:45)
  • Part three (45:45-1:03:30)
  • Part four (1:03:30-1:16:12)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Covet” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Beautiful Eulogy” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Come Alive” by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 02, 2022
What Are the Ten Commandments All About? – Exodus E7
01:09:45

We often think of the ten commandments as a list of dos and don’ts—the things you need to know to make God happy. But is that what they’re really about? In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they take a deep dive into the ten commandments, and find out why they’re far less about simulating moral perfection than they are about preserving proper worship of Yahweh and the shared dignity of humans as his image bearers.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-11:00)
  • Part two (11:00-28:50)
  • Part three (28:50-1:02:00)
  • Part four (1:02:00-1:10:11)

Referenced Resources

  • Bearing God's Name: Why Sinai Still Matters, Carmen Joy Imes
  • Cowboy Ten Commandments
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Evening Flight” by Sam Stewart
  • “Long Lost Friend” by Sam Stewart
  • “Unidentified Lights” by Sam Stewart

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Apr 25, 2022
Testing at Mount Sinai – Exodus E6
01:02:38

Mount Sinai is the famous spot where Yahweh gives Moses the ten commandments—and the location where most of Exodus, all of Leviticus, and the first ten chapters of Numbers take place. When Israel first arrives at Sinai, they fail yet another test and try to get Moses to pass it for them. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they explore Yahweh’s fiery presence, the test at Sinai, and the question of Israel’s national identity: will they be the kingdom of priests Yahweh intends?

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-11:30)
  • Part two (11:30-21:30)
  • Part three (21:30-43:00)
  • Part four (43:00-1:02:37)

Referenced Resources

  • The Pentateuch as Narrative: A Biblical-Theological Commentary, John H. Sailhamer
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Intermission” by Sam Stewart
  • “That Happy Scene in Stranger Things” by Sam Stewart
  • “Unidentified Lights” by Sam Stewart

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Apr 18, 2022
Israel Tests Yahweh – Exodus E5
01:11:21

The nation of Israel seems to go from one life-threatening situation to another in the Exodus scroll. From slavery in Egypt to being cornered between a hostile army and a vast body of water, Israel’s God has delivered them from everything so far. Now in the wilderness, they face a series of three tests. Will they trust Yahweh to deliver them again? In this episode, Tim and Jon explore Israel’s testing in the wilderness.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-9:05)
  • Part two (9:05-25:45)
  • Part three (25:45-44:10)
  • Part four (44:10-55:30)
  • Part five (55:30-1:11:21)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Beneath Your Waves by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Apr 11, 2022
God Tests His Chosen Ones – Exodus E4
01:02:36

Nobody likes tests. But the test is a recurring pattern in the biblical story for how God relates to his chosen ones. So are humans just lab rats in a divine experiment, or is there something else going on? Join Tim and Jon as they talk about the theme of the test and the famous account of Israel crossing the Sea of Reeds, as we dive into the second movement of the Exodus scroll.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-14:30)
  • Part two (14:30-20:25)
  • Part three (20:25-33:30)
  • Part four (33:30-49:50)
  • Part five (49:50-1:02:37)

Referenced Resources

  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series), T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker
  • Bernard F. Batto
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Reflection by Swørn

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Apr 04, 2022
Why Are There 10 Plagues? – Exodus E3
01:00:04

The ten plagues––they’re fascinating, they’re famous, and they sometimes seem overly harsh. Where do they fit in the story of the Bible and the process of God revealing his own name and character? In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about the ten plagues, or ten acts of de-creation, in which Yahweh uses his power over creation to undo his own creation in judgment. Listen in as we explore how God’s response to evil reveals another layer of his character.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-11:15)
  • Part two (11:15-24:15)
  • Part three (24:15-44:45)
  • Part four (44:45-01:00:03)

Referenced Resources

  • Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner, M. E. J. Richardson, J. J. Stamm
  • Exodus: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture (Volume 2) (The New American Commentary), Douglas K. Stewart
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "My Room Becomes The Sea" by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Mar 28, 2022
Yahweh and the Exodus – Exodus E2
01:05:46

The story of the Israelites’ exodus from Egypt is famous for good reason—a burning bush, a transforming staff, 10 plagues, and the Passover. The exodus is also the story that defines God’s personal name, Yahweh. What does this narrative show us about Yahweh? And why does God care so much that people know his name? In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about God’s character revealed through his acts of deliverance and judgment.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-12:15)
  • Part two (12:15-39:45)
  • Part three (39:45-50:30)
  • Part four (50:30-1:05:45)

Referenced Resources

  • The Violence of the Biblical God, L. Daniel Hawk
  • The Sentence in Biblical Hebrew, Francis I. Andersen
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Parkbench Epiphany” by Antimidas

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Mar 21, 2022
“God” Is Not a Name – Exodus E1
01:05:28

God is not a name—it’s a title. In fact, the God of the Bible introduces himself by a specific name in one of the most famous stories in the Bible, the exodus event, when he works through Moses and Aaron to deliver Israel from slavery in Egypt. In this episode, Tim and Jon dive into the first movement of the Exodus scroll and explore the theme of God’s name.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-12:15)
  • Part two (12:15-23:45)
  • Part three (23:45-46:30)
  • Part four (46:30-1:05:28)

Referenced Resources

  • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner, and Johann Jakob Stamm
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Field Studies, Vol. 1” by Chillhop Music

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Mar 14, 2022
Why Can’t Jacob and Esau Both Be Blessed? – Genesis Q+R
01:01:18

How is Jesus the first-born of creation and the “second Adam”? Why are the biblical authors so obsessed with the east? And why can’t Jacob and Esau both be blessed? In this episode, Tim and Jon tackle your questions about the Genesis scroll.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Is Jesus Both the First-born and Chosen Second-Born? (1:27)
  • Why Are the Biblical Authors Obsessed with the East? (7:00)
  • Where Did Cain Find a Wife? (15:55)
  • Who Are the Nephilim? (21:14)
  • Does God Test Abraham Because He Banished Ishmael? (33:05)
  • Why Can’t Jacob and Esau Both Be Blessed? (42:30)

Referenced Resources

  • Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither?: Three Views on the Bible’s Earliest Chapters (Counterpoints: Bible and Theology), James K. Hoffmeier, Gordon J. Wenham, Kenton L. Sparks
  • "And You Shall Tell Your Son...": The Concept of the Exodus in the Bible, Yair Zakovitch
  • The Blessing and the Curse, Jeff S. Anderson
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier. Podcast Annotations for the BibleProject app by Ashlyn Heise and Hannah Woo.

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Mar 07, 2022
Joseph the Suffering Servant – Genesis E8
00:44:48

He lays down his life to save a remnant of God’s people, he brings God’s blessing to all nations, he forgives those who tried to kill him, and his name is … Joseph? In this episode, Tim and Jon conclude our study of the Genesis scroll with a final look at the theme of exile. See how Joseph’s story becomes an important part of the Bible’s depiction of the ultimate suffering servant, Jesus the Messiah.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-6:30)
  • Part two (6:30-17:00)
  • Part three (17:00-33:20)
  • Part four (33:20-44:49)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Cocktail Hour” by Strehlow

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Feb 28, 2022
Joseph the Exile – Genesis E7
00:41:50

Joseph is one of the Bible’s most famous characters, and in the Genesis scroll, his story is a climactic moment in the theme of exile that spans the whole book. In this episode, Tim and Jon dive into the fourth and final movement of Genesis, a narrative rich with patterns, repeated words, and the presence of God even in the pit. 

 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-11:30)
  • Part two (11:30-24:45)
  • Part three (24:45-41:51)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Directions” by Blue Wednesday X Shopan

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Feb 21, 2022
Wrestling God for a Blessing – Genesis E6
01:06:00

Throughout the story of the Bible, God singles out different people, like Jacob, to be the conduit of his blessing to all humanity. But from birth, Jacob consistently acts more like the snake from the garden of Eden than a righteous chosen one of God. He lies his way into blessings that God had intended for him all along. So what will God do? In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss the theme of blessing and curse in the life of Jacob.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-17:30)
  • Part two (17:30-28:20)
  • Part three (28:20-45:30)
  • Part four (45:30-1:05:57)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • You can experience the literary themes and movements we’re tracing on the podcast in the BibleProject app, available for Android and iOS.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “The Great Escape” by Blue Wednesday

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Feb 14, 2022
Great Blessing and Great Responsibility – Genesis E5
01:02:43

The word “blessing” brings to mind a variety of images for all of us. But what exactly does it mean when God blesses someone? And where did the curse come from? In this episode, Tim and Jon start exploring the third movement of Genesis, tracing the theme of blessing and curse.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-18:35)
  • Part two (18:35-37:40)
  • Part three (37:40-51:30)
  • Part four (51:30-1:01:42)

Referenced Resources

  • The Blessing and the Curse: Trajectories in the Theology of the Old Testament, Jeff S. Anderson
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Endless Beginnings” by Smile High and Teddy Roxpin

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Feb 07, 2022
We'll Be Back Next Week!
00:01:53

Today would have been our 287th podcast episode. We haven’t missed a single week in seven years! Unfortunately, we won’t be able to release our next episode until a week from now, Monday, February 7th, when we will dive into the third movement of Genesis, focusing on the life of Jacob.

This week take the time to explore our catalogue and listen to an episode you haven’t heard before. You can also listen to the podcast in our new app and check out our new interactive podcast feature. As you listen to podcast episodes on the app, you can access additional content (videos, articles, other podcast episodes, books) that relate to that episode as they pop up in real time. You can download the app for Android and iPhone.

In preparation for the next theme we’re studying on the podcast, check out our series on Generosity, as well as an interview we shared a number of years ago called God and Money. It’s  the story of two Harvard business grads whose understanding of money and generosity was radically transformed by the Bible.

Jan 31, 2022
Trees of Testing and Blessing – Genesis E4
01:05:26

The family of Abraham is chosen by God. But despite God’s promises to them, they continually act out of greed, division, fear, deception, and lack of trust in Yahweh. How does God respond to this? What will he do to make sure his blessing comes to all nations? Join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they continue tracing the theme of the tree of life in the second movement of Genesis.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-13:50)
  • Part two (13:50-27:45)
  • Part three (27:45-36:30)
  • Part four (36:30-53:45)
  • Part five (53:45-1:05:28)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “We Must Believe in Spring” by Psalm Trees & Guillaume Muschalle

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jan 24, 2022
Under the Trees with Yahweh – Genesis E3
00:50:23

Blessing, testing, failure, success, God’s plan for the nations—you’ll find all these themes woven through the story of the Bible, often accompanied by … trees? While it might not seem obvious, trees play an important role in the Bible and, notably, in the life of Abraham. In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they dive into the second movement of Genesis and trace the theme of trees through the story of Abraham.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-08:25)
  • Part two (08:25-20:26)
  • Part three (20:26-27:28)
  • Part four (27:28-38:00)
  • Part five (38:00-50:20)

Referenced Resources

  • The Tabernacle Pre-Figured: Cosmic Mountain Ideology in Genesis and Exodus, L. Michael Morales
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Invisible” by Philanthrope and mommy

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jan 17, 2022
God’s Spirit in the Flood Narrative – Genesis E2
00:59:45

When we think of God’s Spirit, judgment is probably not what comes to mind. But the biblical authors saw God’s Spirit as the one who gave life and took it away—the one who could create, de-create, and recreate. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa follow the theme of God’s Spirit through the second half of the first movement of Genesis.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-10:20)
  • Part two (10:20-29:00)
  • Part three (29:00-35:00)
  • Part four (35:00-43:30)
  • Part five (43:30-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Meraki” by Juan Rios

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jan 10, 2022
God’s Spirit in Creation – Genesis E1
00:56:18

Why does the author of Genesis make a point to name God’s Spirit in Genesis 1 and 2? In this week’s episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa embark on a new journey for the BibleProject podcast—reading the Bible in thematic movements, starting with a close look at the Holy Spirit’s role in the book of Genesis.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-10:00)
  • Part two (10:00-23:00)
  • Part three (23:00-39:00)
  • Part four (39:00-50:00)
  • Part five (50:00-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Wanderlust” by Makzo

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jan 03, 2022
BibleProject in 2021 and Beyond
00:18:35

In the final episode of the year, Tim, Jon, Carissa, and the CEO of BibleProject, Steve, reflect on our journey together in 2021 and look forward to some exciting plans for 2022 and beyond. Thank you to all of our listeners and supporters for your generosity and for joining us as we experience the Bible together.

View full show notes from this episode →

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Dec 27, 2021
Applying the Paradigm: Movements and Links
00:57:23

How do we apply the biblical paradigm to our own Bible reading? It starts with reading the Bible in movements—the thematic patterns in which the biblical authors organized their ideas long before chapters and verse numbers were printed. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa introduce us to biblical movements and walk through how to identify and trace biblical themes on our own.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-14:00)
  • Part two (14:00-19:45)
  • Part three (19:45-29:30)
  • Part four (29:30-37:45)
  • Part five (37:45-48:00)
  • Part six (48:00-57:21)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Into the Past” by CYGN
  • “Me.So” by Mind Your Time
  • “Invisible” by Philanthrope & mommy
  • “Alive” by Ouska

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Dec 20, 2021
Is the Bible Trustworthy? – Paradigm Q+R #2
01:08:29

How do we teach the Bible to our children? How can a book written by humans be divinely authoritative? Is the Bible historically accurate? In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa wrap up the Paradigm series by responding to your questions!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • How Do We Teach the Bible to Our Children? (1:01)
  • Are the Epistles Meditation Literature? (15:54)
  • Can Anyone Understand the Bible? (25:45)
  • How Do We Help Our Churches Learn How to Read the Bible? (32:32)
  • How Can a Book Written by Humans Be Divine? (41:44)
  • Is the Bible Historically Accurate? (51:32)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

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Dec 13, 2021
How (Not) To Read the Bible – Feat. Dan Kimball
00:56:27

What do we do with the passages in the Bible that are really difficult? Violence, slavery, the treatment of women—what the Bible has to say about these topics has, at times, been misinterpreted and misused. Join Tim, Jon, Carissa, and special guest Dan Kimball as they discuss his book, How (Not) to Read the Bible, and explore how any topic in the Bible looks different when we see it as part of a unified story.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-15:20)
  • Part two (15:20-26:40)
  • Part three (26:40-44:00)
  • Part four (44:00-57:14)

Referenced Resources

  • How (Not) to Read the Bible: Making Sense of the Anti-Women, Anti-Science, Pro-Violence, Pro-Slavery, and Other Crazy-Sounding Parts of Scripture, Dan Kimball
  • Gregory Koukl
  • John H. Walton
  • Mere Christianity, C. S. Lewis
  • A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Karen Armstrong
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Cycles” by SwuM

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Dec 06, 2021
The Last Pillar: Communal Literature – Paradigm E11
01:02:26

Are there ways to read the Bible other than a private quiet time? For most of Church history, followers of Jesus read the Bible out loud in groups and passed along its message verbally. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa talk about what it means for the Bible to be communal literature and how knowing that might just change the way we experience it today.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-9:30)
  • Part two (9:30-13:45)
  • Part three (13:45-21:30)
  • Part four (21:30-31:30)
  • Part five (31:30-47:30)
  • Part six (47:30-55:30)
  • Part seven (55:30-1:02:25)

Referenced Resources

  • Early History of the Alphabet, Joseph Naveh
  • The JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy, Jeffrey H. Tigay
  • Scripture and Its Interpretation: A Global, Ecumenical Introduction to the Bible, Michael J. Gorman
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Uncut Gems” by Mezhdunami
  • “Dreams (Instrumental)” by Xander
  • “Like the Sky, or Something Else” by Sleepy Fish
  • “Life” by KV

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Zach McKinley, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Nov 29, 2021
What the Bible’s Authors Took for Granted – Paradigm E10
01:10:38

Have you ever figured out halfway through a conversation that you and another person were on totally different pages? Reading the Bible can feel like this at times. We’re all products of our cultures, families, and environments, and it affects how we understand others. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa prepare us for a cross-cultural conversation with the Bible by discussing the cultural values of the biblical authors.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-13:20)
  • Part two (13:20-25:30)
  • Part three (25:30-41:15)
  • Part four (41:15-48:00)
  • Part five (48:00-59:45)
  • Part six (59:45-1:10:33)

Referenced Resources

  • The Biblical Cosmos: A Pilgrim's Guide to the Weird and Wonderful World of the Bible, Robin A. Parry
  • Apostle of the Crucified Lord: A Theological Introduction to Paul and His Letters, Michael J. Gorman
  • Paul and the Gift, John M.G. Barclay
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Scream” by Moby
  • “Euk’s First Race” by David Gummel
  • “Where Peace and Rest Are Found” by Greyflood
  • “Mood” by Lemmino
  • “A New Year” by Scott Buckley

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, Zach McKinley, and Frank Garza. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Nov 22, 2021
The Bible Wasn’t Written in English – Paradigm E9
00:58:38

What makes the biblical languages so important? Because the Bible was written in another time and culture, we need to honor its ancient historical context and original languages as we read and study it. In this week’s podcast episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa explore why an awareness of the Bible’s culture––and our own––can help us be better interpreters of the Bible.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-15:00)
  • Part two (15:00-20:30)
  • Part three (20:30-33:15)
  • Part four (33:15-44:45)
  • Part five (44:45-58:37)

Referenced Resources

  • The Epic of Eden: A Christian Entry into the Old Testament, Sandra L. Richter
  • Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes: Removing Cultural Blinders to Better Understand the Bible, E. Randolph Richards and Brandon J. O’Brien
  • Misreading Scripture with Individualist Eyes: Patronage, Honor, and Shame in the Biblical World, E. Randolph Richards and Richard James
  • A Theory of Semiotics, Umberto Eco
  • Reading the Bible Intertextually, Richard B. Hays, Stefan Alkier, Leroy A. Huizenga
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish
  • “Smith the Mister” by Ohayo
  • “Two for Joy” by Foxwood
  • “Bloc” by KV

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Nov 15, 2021
Wisdom for Life’s Complexity – Paradigm E8
01:01:49

As followers of Jesus, how can we know we are making the “right” choice in situations the Bible doesn’t address? How can we know the difference between what’s good and bad? In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa talk about the Bible’s purpose as wisdom literature designed to reveal God’s wisdom to humanity––even for complex circumstances it doesn’t explicitly address.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-13:20)
  • Part two (13:20-19:45)
  • Part three (19:45-31:00)
  • Part four (31:00-43:15)
  • Part five (43:15-55:20)
  • Part six (55:20-1:01:50)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Loving Someone You Lost” by The Field Tapes
  • “Vexento” by Yesterday on Repeat
  • “Everything Fades to Blue” by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Nov 08, 2021
Inspiration, Quiet Time, and Slaying Your Giants – Paradigm Q+R #1
01:19:00

How were the books of the Bible selected? What should we do if we have a hard time reading the Bible? How does the Bible apply to daily life? In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa respond to your questions from the Paradigm series so far. Thanks to our audience for all your incredible questions!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Do Christians Need To Have a Daily Quiet Time? (0:38)
  • What’s the Difference Between Inspired and Inerrant? (9:57)
  • What Bible Did Jesus Use? (31:09)
  • Should We Call the Bible the Word of God? (37:14)
  • Should the Apocryphal Books Be in the Protestant Bible? (45:40)
  • What About the JEDP Theory? (55:52)
  • How Should We Apply Scripture to Our Lives? (1:03:30)
  • What Do You Do if the Bible Was Used Against You? (1:09:20)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

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Nov 01, 2021
In the Beginning – John 1
01:01:11

The apostle John is the most poetic of the Gospel storytellers, but what is he really communicating with his beautiful, imagery-laden language? Join Tim, Jon, and Carissa for a closer look at John 1 and discover how John incorporates elements of the Genesis and Exodus narratives to form a portrait of how God responds to rebellious people.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-13:15)
  • Part two (13:15-24:45)
  • Part three (24:45-37:30)
  • Part four (37:30-48:00)
  • Part five (48:00-54:00)
  • Part six (54:00-1:01:17)

Referenced Resources

  • David Andrew Teeter, Hebrew Bible scholar
  • William Arthur Tooman, Hebrew Bible scholar
  • God Dwells with Us: Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel, Mary L. Coloe
  • John (Word Biblical Commentary Volume 36), George R. Beasley-Murray
  • The Jewish Temple: A Non-Biblical Sourcebook, C. T. R. Hayward
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Day and Night” by Aiguille
  • “Movement” by Felty

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Oct 25, 2021
Literature for a Lifetime – Paradigm E6
00:55:11

What’s the ideal way to study the Bible? Is it 20 minutes of reading every morning or larger blocks of time throughout the week? In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they discuss what it means for the Bible to be ancient Jewish meditation literature. The biblical authors never intended for it to be understood in one sitting, but over the course of a lifetime of re-reading.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps

  • Part one (0-19:30)
  • Part two (19-30-32:00)
  • Part three (32:00-46:00)
  • Part four (46:00-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Acedotes” by Makzo

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Oct 18, 2021
Who Is the Bible About? – Paradigm E5
00:55:44

Is the story of the Bible about humans or God? Because the Bible is about the Messiah—the God who became human—it’s about both God and humans. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa discuss how the story of the Bible and all of its main themes come to their fulfillment in Jesus, making it a story that’s personal but not private, a redemption story for all of us.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00 - 16:45)
  • Part two (16:45 - 31:00)
  • Part three (31:00 - 46:30)
  • Part four (46:30 - End)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “On a Walk” by Fantompower

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Oct 11, 2021
How the New Testament Came To Be – Paradigm E4
00:52:39

At first glance, the New Testament can seem wildly different from the Old Testament––but is it? Jesus saw himself as the fulfillment of the Hebrew Scriptures and the climax of the story that began thousands of years before his birth. In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they explore the unity of the New Testament and the intricate yet consistent storyline of the Bible.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-10:40)
  • Part two (10:40-23:30)
  • Part three (23:30-34:50)
  • Part four (34:50-End)

Referenced Resources

  • The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance, Bruce M. Metzger
  • The Question of Canon: Challenging the Status Quo in the New Testament Debate, Michael J. Kruger
  • All Things New: Revelation As Canonical Capstone, Brian J. Tabb
  • The Oxford Handbook of Christology
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Day One” by Deric Torres
  • “Day Two” by Deric Torres
  • “Temple Garden” by BVG

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Oct 04, 2021
The Bible had Editors? – Paradigm E3
00:58:05

How can a collection of ancient manuscripts written by numerous people over thousands of years tell one unified story? In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa dive into how the Bible was written and how such a diverse collection of authors, literary styles, and themes can form one divinely inspired, unified story.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00 - 13:30)
  • Part two (13:30 - 22:00)
  • Part three (22:00 - 36:00)
  • Part four (36:00 - 45:40)
  • Part five (45:40 - end)

Referenced Resources

  • The Shape of the Writings (Siphrut: Literature and Theology of the Hebrew Scriptures), Julius Steinberg and Timothy J. Stone
  • The Journey from Texts to Translations: The Origin and Development of the Bible, Paul D. Wegner
  • Lee Martin McDonald’s collected works
  • Dominion and Dynasty: A Theology of the Hebrew Bible, Stephen G. Dempster
  • The Mission of God: Unlocking the Bible's Grand Narrative, Christopher J. H. Wright
  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • "Aftersome" by Toonorth

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Sep 27, 2021
Who Wrote the Bible? – Paradigm E2
00:52:28

How does God work in the world and communicate with humanity? In this episode, Tim and Jon explore God’s relationship with his creation and the relationship between the Bible’s divine and human origins. They also discuss how God uses human words to communicate his divine word.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-16:30)
  • Part two (16:30-31:30)
  • Part three (31:30-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Birth” by Mr. Käfer
  • “Tending The Garden (feat. Kennebec)” by Stan Forebee 

Show produced by Cooper Peltz. Edited by Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Sep 20, 2021
How Do You Read the Bible? – Paradigm E1
01:04:58

Have you ever read the Bible and felt like you’re not “getting it” or that you’re not connecting with God? In this episode, Tim and Jon take a look at the (often unhelpful) paradigms through which we interact with Scripture. They explore how seeing the Bible as a unified story that leads to Jesus not only gives the Bible space to do what it was created to do, but frees us up to be transformed by the story it’s telling.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-15:00)
  • Part two (15:00-27:00)
  • Part three (27:00-39:00)
  • Part four (39:00-52:00)
  • Part five (52:00-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • A Greek-English Lexicon, Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, edited by Henry Stuart Jones

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Evil Needle” by Sound Escapes

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Sep 13, 2021
Hyperlinks and Patterns in Jonah – Jonah E3
00:54:37

What makes a person worthy to be chosen by God to do his work? In the story of the Bible, some of God’s choices seem obvious, people with lots of merit. Other times, his rationale is less clear to us––as with Jonah, a chosen one who might be worse than the people he was supposed to help. In this episode, listen in as Tim describes the biblical design pattern of the chosen righteous intercessor. This is a sneak peek into our free graduate-level course on Jonah, which will be featured in the new Classroom resource available in 2022.

 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-16:35)
  • Part two (16:35-22:30)
  • Part three (22:30-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Keep an Open Mind” by Olive Musique

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Sep 06, 2021
Jonah's Literary Context – Jonah E2
00:53:49

The Hebrew Bible contains one story of human failure after another, leaving us with no doubt in our minds: humanity desperately needs a leader. In this episode, Tim walks us through the structure of the Hebrew Bible and how it shows us Jonah is an anti-leader, the opposite of what humanity needs, whose failure prepares us for the ultimate leader and Savior, Jesus. This is a sneak peek into our free graduate-level course on Jonah, which will be featured in the new Classroom resource available in 2022.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-19:40)
  • Part two (19:40-27:30)
  • Part three (27:30-42:30)
  • Part four (42:30-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Keep an Open Mind” by Olive Musique

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Aug 30, 2021
Our Assumptions About Jonah – Jonah E1
00:54:05

A stubborn prophet, a wicked nation, a giant fish––the story of Jonah is frequently translated into the popular imagination through TV and movies. But what is it really about? In this episode, learn from Tim about where Jonah fits into the story of the Bible that ultimately points to Jesus. This is a sneak peek into our free graduate-level course on Jonah which will be featured in the new Classroom resource available in 2022.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-18:05)
  • Part two (18:05-28:30)
  • Part three (28:30-37:00)
  • Part four (37:00-44:30)
  • Part five (44:30-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Keep an Open Mind” by Olive Musique

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Aug 23, 2021
The Most Quoted Verse in the Bible — Top 5: Re-Release E5
00:58:03

Does God hold children responsible for their parents’ sins? In the fifth installment of our most-listened-to podcast episodes, join Tim, Jon, and Carissa for a look at the most quoted verse in the Bible, Exodus 34:6-7, and find out why God’s justice and his loyal love go hand in hand as a central part of who he is.

QUOTE

If later generations repeat or persist in the covenant rebellion of their ancestors, they’re going to get the same consequences. But when we talk about these “thousands” that get loyal love, we’re talking about thousands of generations who stay faithful to the covenant. No generation gets a free pass, but no generation will be treated unjustly. Their own behavior matters for how God responds to them.

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Remastering by Jake Trethaway. Show notes by Camden McAfee and Lindsey Ponder. 

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Original episode and show notes are available here.

Aug 16, 2021
What Does the Word "Gospel" Mean — Top 5: Re-Release E4
01:13:02

The word “gospel” has acquired many meanings since the biblical authors first used it. What does it really mean? In the fourth of our five most-listened-to podcasts, Tim and N.T. Wright discuss the meaning of this important word in its original context, and explore what it means for Jesus to take charge as King and for his disciples to build his Kingdom.

QUOTE

When God takes charge, he doesn’t send in the tanks, he sends in the meek and the poor and the hungry-for-justice, the merciful, the peacemaking, etc. And by the time the people with the tanks and the guns have realized what’s going on, the meek and the merciful and the poor in spirit have established schools and orphanages and hospitals, in order to show what it looks like when God becomes King. At Jesus’ final return, all those things will be part of God’s new world because they were already beginning at Jesus’ first coming.

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Original episode and show notes are available here.

Aug 09, 2021
The Restless Craving for Rest––Top 5: Re-Release E3
00:57:46

Earn it, lose it, take it, spend it, save it––we talk about time like currency. The Sabbath can be confusing to talk about, but it is God’s reminder to humanity that time is not a possession. In the third of our five most-listened-to podcasts, join Tim and Jon as they explore why the Sabbath is far less about a weekend or special religious service and far more about rescue and God’s miraculous provision.

QUOTE

To say that the Sabbath belongs to God is to jar you into remembering time doesn’t belong to us. We talk about time like it’s currency––earn it, lose it, take it, spend it, save it. It’s like one of our possessions. Shabbat is a ritual practice that determines reality and helps us renounce our autonomy. The seventh day reminds us of rescue, miraculous provision, and of God coming through for us in a way that we couldn’t do ourselves.

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Original episode and show notes are available here.

Aug 02, 2021
Humans Are...Trees? — Top 5: Re-Release E2
01:08:44

Humans are like trees. While this thought might not have been at the top of your mind this week, it was a key idea for the biblical authors. In the second of our five most popular podcasts, explore the connection between humans and trees with Tim and Jon as we learn why trees are mentioned more times than almost anything else in the Bible. 

QUOTE

If you look at days three and six, you’ll see they both have two creative acts. The second creative act on day three is a fruit tree, and on day six it’s a fruitful human. This is designed in such a way that you now start thinking in the metaphor, “Humans are trees.” … People are like trees, which means the future of humans—their origins and their destinies—are going to be linked in some way. We’re meant to wonder if the future of humans will be bound up with the future of trees.

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Remastering by Jake Trethaway. Show notes by Camden McAfee and Lindsey Ponder. 

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Original episode and show notes are available here.

Jul 26, 2021
Intro to Biblical Law — Top 5: Re-Release E1
00:50:54

God’s law––it can be an intimidating topic. Why are there over 600 laws? What do we do with them? We’re re-releasing our five most popular podcasts, and the episode with the most listens is also the first one we ever recorded. Listen in as Tim and Jon unpack what the laws meant for ancient Israel and what they mean for us today.

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Remastering by Jake Trethaway. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Original episode and show notes are available here.

Jul 19, 2021
Timelines, Dinosaurs, and the Purpose of Creation – Ancient Cosmology Q+R
00:58:51

Are Genesis 1 and 2 literal? What’s up with the differing timelines in those chapters? Where are the dinosaurs in the Bible? How do you know what ancient Hebrew words really meant? In this episode, Tim and Jon tackle your questions from the Ancient Cosmology series. Thanks to our audience for all your incredible questions!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • How Can You Know the Correct Meaning of Ancient Words? (5:52 - 12:06)
  • Can You Understand the Bible Without Other Resources? (12:06 - 21:04)
  • What Is the Purpose of Creation in Genesis 1-2? (21:04 - 28:45)
  • Are Genesis 1 and 2 Literal? (28:45 - 42:14)
  • Where Are Dinosaurs in the Bible? (42:14 - 49:24)
  • How Did Other Biblical Authors Interpret Genesis 1 and 2? (49:24 - 55:30)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • John H. Walton, The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate
  • John H. Walton, The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins Debate
  • Robin A. Parry, The Biblical Cosmos: A Pilgrim's Guide to the Weird and Wonderful World of the Bible
  • Alister McGrath (multiple works on the intersection of Christian and scientific cosmology)
  • John Polkinghorne (multiple works on the intersection of Christian and scientific cosmology)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zach McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

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Jul 12, 2021
The Genealogical Adam and Eve – Feat. Dr. S. Joshua Swamidass
01:10:41

Did humans originate by intelligent design or the process of evolution? This question has been debated by the scientific community and readers of Genesis for almost 200 years. In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and special guest Dr. S. Joshua Swamidass as they discuss human origins and a way to bridge the gap across such a significant debate.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-20:40)
  • Part two (20:40-35:00)
  • Part three (35:00-47:30)
  • Part four (47:30-59:00)
  • Part five (59:00-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • Saint Augustine of Hippo, The Literal Meaning of Genesis
  • Dr. S. Joshua Swamidass, The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry
  • William Lane Craig, In Quest of the Historical Adam: A Biblical and Scientific Exploration
  • David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past
  • Dennis R. Venema and Scot McKnight, Adam and the Genome: Reading Scripture After Genetic Science

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Chillhop Timezones Vol 2 Nostalgia Soviet Jazz Beats

Show produced by Cooper Peltz, Dan Gummel, and Zach McKinley. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jul 05, 2021
Even Chaos Praises God – Psalm 148
01:07:32

It’s easy to recognize the psalms as beautiful poems. But how do we understand their deeper meaning? How psalms are organized (both internally and within the book of Psalms) is just as significant to their meaning as the words themselves. In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and Carissa for a deep dive into Psalm 148, where we see Yahweh as the ideal king who restores order to all creation. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00-8:30)
  • Part two (8:30-16:45)
  • Part three (16:45-26:00)
  • Part four (26:00-37:30)
  • Part five (37:30-46:00)
  • Part six (46:00-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Psalm 148” by Poor Bishop Hooper: 

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

Jun 28, 2021
Genesis 1-2: Origins or Identity? – Feat. Dr. John Walton
00:59:10

How compatible is the Bible with science? And why does the creation story look different between Genesis 1 and 2? In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and special guest Dr. John Walton as they discuss these questions and the necessity of studying ancient culture and cosmology to truly understand our Bibles today.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-14:30)
  • Part two (14:30-25:00)
  • Part three (25:00-35:20)
  • Part four (35:20-48:20)
  • Part five (48:20-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Chillhop Essentials Summer 2021 EP

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jun 21, 2021
Rivers Flowing Upward – Ancient Cosmology E5
00:45:31

What does it mean that the biblical authors expected the return of Eden? The prophets anticipated waters of life from God would do miraculous things like restore the barren Dead Sea region to its former lush state and unite all humanity. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they follow the waters of life from Genesis 1-2 throughout time, in anticipation of the coming Day of the Lord.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-11:15)
  • Part two (11:15-28:30)
  • Part three (28:30-35:45)
  • Part four (35:45-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Solar Cove” by Mama Aiuto
  • Chillhop Essential Summer 2021 EP
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jun 14, 2021
One Creation Story or Two? – Ancient Cosmology E4
00:40:19

Are there two creation stories in Genesis? How do Genesis 1 and 2 fit together and into the rest of the biblical story? In this episode, Tim and Jon explore these questions and the theme of water in the opening chapters of the Bible. Yahweh’s transformation of the chaos waters into waters of life set the stage for his calling upon his people and an important theme that will carry us from Genesis to Revelation.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-9:20)
  • Part two (9:20-13:45)
  • Part three (13:45-26:50)
  • Part four (26:50-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • L. Michael Morales, Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord?: A Biblical Theology of the Book of Leviticus
  • L. Michael Morales, Tabernacle Pre-Figured: Cosmic Mountain Ideology in Genesis and Exodus

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Canary Forest” by Middle School, Aso, Aviino

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zach McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Jun 07, 2021
The Greatest Elohim – Ancient Cosmology E3
01:07:52

The biblical authors often use creation imagery that clearly didn’t come from Genesis 1. Did they borrow from the creation accounts of other cultures? In this episode, join Tim and Jon for a deep dive into Genesis 1:1-2 and discover its similarity to other ancient cosmologies, plus one key difference: Yahweh is infinitely greater than all other gods.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-9:00)
  • Part two (9:00-26:00)
  • Part three (26:00-40:00)
  • Part four (40:00-50:00)
  • Part five (50:00-56:30)
  • Part six (56:30-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • L. Michael Morales, Tabernacle Prefigured: Cosmic Mountain Ideology in Genesis and Exodus
  • George Landes, Creation Traditions in Proverbs 8 and Genesis 1
  • John Sailhamer, Genesis Unbound: A Provocative New Look at the Creation Account

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Synth Groove” by An Awesome Supporter
  • “Feather” by Waywell
  • “Luvtea” by Autumn Keys
  • “Bloc” by kv
  • “Mind Your Time” by me.so

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 31, 2021
Does the Bible Borrow from Other Creation Stories? – Ancient Cosmology E2
01:20:22

What is existence? What existed before humans did? Ancient people groups asked the same questions we do today, with totally different answers. In this episode, Tim and Jon survey the cosmologies of Israel’s neighbors, ancient Egypt, Canaan, and Babylon––people groups the biblical authors shared more in common with than modern readers––to shed light on the Bible’s creation account.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0-6:30)
  • Part two (6:30-19:00)
  • Part three (19:00-39:30)
  • Part four (39:30-50:45)
  • Part five (50:45-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • Hermann Gunkel, Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Eschaton
  • Bernard Batto, In the Beginning: Essays on Creation Motifs in the Ancient Near East and the Bible

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Evil Needle by Sound Escapes
  • Lightness by Anonymous

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 24, 2021
Genesis 1 and the Origins of the Universe – Ancient Cosmology E1
00:34:39

What does the Bible really say about the origins of the universe? The biblical authors had a completely different framework for this question than we do. When we expect the Bible to settle our debates, we close ourselves off from understanding the text as they intended it. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they kick off a new series on Genesis 1-3, beginning with a look at ancient cosmologies.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-8:15)
  • Part two (8:15-12:30)
  • Part three (12:30-20:00)
  • Part four (20:00-27:00)
  • Part five (27:00-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • John H. Walton, Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament
  • William Brown, The Seven Pillars of Creation: The Bible, Science, and the Ecology of Wonder

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Lofi Birds
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish
  • “All Night” by Unwritten Stories

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 17, 2021
In the Beginning with Lady Wisdom – Proverbs 8
01:02:26

Who was at the beginning of the cosmos with God? God’s Spirit? God’s word? Or Lady Wisdom? Rich with creation narrative ties, the book of Proverbs contains important insights for how we understand God’s relationship to his creation and who Jesus is. Join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they explore Proverbs 8.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-8:30)
  • Part two (8:30-21:00)
  • Part three (21:00-36:00)
  • Part four (36:00-52:00)
  • Part five (52:00-end)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Euk's First Race” by David Gummel
  • “Scream Pilots” by Moby
  • “Drug Police” by Moby
  • “Shot in the Back of the Head” by Moby

Show produced by Dan Gummel, Zack McKinley, and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

May 10, 2021
Why Melchizedek Matters—Feat. Dr. Josh Mathews
01:02:20

Of all the people in the Hebrew Bible, why is Melchizedek so crucial for understanding Jesus? In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and special guest Dr. Josh Mathews as they take a deep dive into the Old Testament, the book of Hebrews, and the life of the mysterious priest-king Melchizedek in relationship to the ultimate priest-king, Jesus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-15:30)
  • Part two (15:30-24:00)
  • Part three (24:00-31:30)
  • Part four (31:30-41:00)
  • Part five (41:00-51:00)
  • Part six (51:00-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • Josh Mathews, Melchizedek’s Alternative Priestly Order: A Compositional Analysis of Genesis 14:18-20 and its Echoes Throughout the Tanak

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Aso x Aviino x Middle School” by Canary Forest
  • “Acquired in Heaven” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Blue Wednesday x Shopan” by Directions
  • “Tell Me Yours” by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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May 03, 2021
Jesus, Melchizedek, and the Priestly Line – Feat. the Rev. Dr. Amy Peeler
01:01:22

Jesus is our priest, our atoning sacrifice––and our brother? In this episode, join Tim, Jon, and special guest the Rev. Amy Peeler, Ph.D., as they discuss the book of Hebrews and how the many characteristics of God found in this epistle set him apart as wholly other and also form our identities as his followers.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-13:15)
  • Part two (13:15-28:20)
  • Part three (28:20-38:30)
  • Part four (38:30-51:30)
  • Part five (51:30-end)

Referenced Resources

  • Interested in more? Check out Tim’s library here.
  • Amy L. B. Peeler, You Are My Son: The Family of God in the Epistle to the Hebrews
  • Amy L. B. Peeler and Patrick Gray, Hebrews: An Introduction and Study Guide
  • Madison N. Pierce, Divine Discourse in the Epistle to the Hebrews: The Recontextualization of Spoken Quotations of Scripture

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Into the Past” by CYGN
  • “Cycles” by SwuM
  • “Surrender” by Pilgrim

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

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Apr 26, 2021
Mark of the Priest or Mark of the Beast? – Priest E8 Q+R
00:46:05

Thanks to our audience for all your incredible questions! In this week’s episode, we tackle questions like: How could God break his covenant with the tribe of Levi? What’s the connection between the forehead markings of priests and followers of the beast? And why did offering his own sacrifice cost Saul his kingship? Listen in to hear the team answer your questions.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • What’s the Connection Between Israel’s Priests and Modern Church Leaders? (1:04)
  • Are We Meant to “Shine” as God’s Image? (7:40)
  • Mark of the Priest or Mark of the Beast? (14:10)
  • Why Was David Allowed to Break the Sabbath? (20:20)
  • Did God Break His Promise to the Tribe of Levi? (28:30)
  • What Was Wrong With Saul’s Sacrifice? (36:22)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

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Apr 19, 2021
We Are the Royal Priesthood – Priest E7
00:50:59

After Jesus’ disciples receive the Holy Spirit, they become God’s temple and the physical embodiment of Jesus on earth. This has huge implications for our understanding of what it means to be the church today and live in unity. Dive into this discussion with Tim and Jon as they unpack what it means for followers of Jesus to be the royal priesthood, now and in eternity.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-6:56)
  • Part two (6:56-16:13)
  • Part three (16:13-31:55)
  • Part four (31:55-42:35)
  • Part five (42:35-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Loving Someone You Lost” by The Field Tapes
  • “Friends Circle” by Sitting Duck
  • “Two For Joy” by Foxwood
  • “Fills the Skies” by Pilgrim

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Apr 12, 2021
The Priest of Heaven and Earth – Priest E6
01:01:31

What does it mean for Jesus to be humanity’s cosmic priest? It means he intercedes on behalf of humanity––and so much more! Through Jesus, God has forever included humanity into his own self. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they discuss Jesus’ ascension and the eternal union of heaven and earth.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-18:30)
  • Part two (18:30-23:00)
  • Part three (23:00-31:00)
  • Part four (31:00-43:00)
  • Part five (43:00-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Window” by Phury
  • “Everything Fades to Blue EP” by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Cooper Peltz. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Apr 05, 2021
The High Priest Showdown – Priest E5
00:56:43

Why were the Levitical priests always getting mad at Jesus? Jesus identified himself as another of God’s anointed priests––except he came in his own authority. In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss how Jesus fulfills Moses’ prophet-priest role and the priest-king role we saw in David.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-12:00)
  • Part two (12:00-21:30)
  • Part three (21:30-34:00)
  • Part four (34:00-45:30)
  • Part five (45:30-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • Chillhop Essentials Spring 2021 EP

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Mar 29, 2021
David, the Leaping Priest-King – Priest E4
01:01:06

What will God do with the continually failing Levitical priesthood? God announces that he will elect his own faithful priest from a household that can be counted on. In this episode, join Tim and Jon as they follow the royal priesthood all the way to David, anointed priest-king of Jerusalem, fulfillment of Melchizedek’s role, and foreshadowing of the coming priest-king Jesus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–14:30)
  • Part two (14:30–28:00)
  • Part three (28:00–36:30)
  • Part four (36:30–47:00)
  • Part five (47:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Canary Forest” by Middle School, Aso, and Aviino

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Mar 22, 2021
Doomed to Fail? – Priest E3
00:49:08

The origins of Israel’s royal priesthood are anything but glamorous. From Moses rejecting God five times to Aaron creating an idol while God is instructing Moses about priests, the Levitical priesthood seems doomed from the start. In this episode, discover just how important the failed priesthood is to the story of the Bible.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-15:00)
  • Part two (15:00-24:00)
  • Part three (24:00-35:00)
  • Part four (35:00-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by TENTS
  • “Aarigod” by Forest Lore

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Mar 15, 2021
Who Was Melchizedek? – Priest E2
00:44:05

What do Abraham, Melchizedek, and David all have in common? They’re part of the unfolding theme of the royal priesthood in the Bible. In this week’s episode, join Tim and Jon as they explore how this theme is part of humanity’s quest to get back to the blessings of Eden.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–11:30)
  • Part two (11:30–18:45)
  • Part three (18:45–25:00)
  • Part four (25:00–31:30)
  • Part five (31:30–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “We Must Believe in Spring” by Psalm Trees and Guillaume Muschalle
  • Chillhop Essentials Fall 2020

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Mar 08, 2021
Priests of Eden – Priest E1
01:02:22

In the story of the Bible, all the main players are prophets, priests, or kings. While it might seem foreign to us today, those three roles are intimately connected to what it means to be people created in the image of God. Join Tim and Jon for the first episode of a new series on the royal priesthood!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–19:00)
  • Part two (19:00–29:00)
  • Part three (29:00–34:30)
  • Part four (34:30–50:00)
  • Part five (50:00–end)

Mentioned Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Directions” by Blue Wednesday and Shopan
  • “Prophet Priest King” by Smalltown Poets
  • Discover LP by CYGN

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Mar 01, 2021
Babbling Babies Rule the World
01:05:34

A coming king and a bunch of crying babies? Psalm 8 can seem kind of confusing. But when we look closer and understand its context, we can see that it’s actually a beautiful meditation on the image of God. Join Tim, Jon, and Carissa as they discuss this important poem.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (00:00-10:45)
  • Part two (10:45-26:45)
  • Part three (26:45-46:30)
  • Part four (46:30-54:30)
  • Part five (54:30-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Psalm 8” by Poor Bishop Hooper

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Feb 22, 2021
Does the Church Supercede Israel? – Feat. Andrew Rillera
01:11:58

How can the book of Ephesians contribute to conversations surrounding modern race and justice issues? Tim and Jon interview New Testament scholar Andrew Rillera and discuss Ephesians 2 and the unified, diverse family of God.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one: (0:00–11:00)
  • Part two: (11:00–19:45)
  • Part three: (19:45–30:00)
  • Part four: (30:00–43:30)
  • Part five: (43:30–55:00)
  • Part six: (55:00–61:15)
  • Part seven: (61:15–64:30)
  • Part eight: (64:30–end)

Mentioned Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Feb 15, 2021
Reading While Black – Feat. Dr. Esau McCaulley
00:51:31

From biblical deconstruction to the responsibility of Jesus followers in government and social justice, we’re looking at what the Bible has to say about some of society’s biggest questions today. Join Tim and Jon as they interview New Testament scholar Esau McCaulley, author of Reading While Black: African American Biblical Interpretation as an Exercise in Hope.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00-13:00)
  • Part two (13:00-26:30)
  • Part three (26:30-33:30)
  • Part four (33:30-42:30)
  • Part five (42:30-end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Pablo” by jlsmrl
  • “Skydive” by loxbeats
  • “Wanderlust” by Crastel
  • “Mind Your Time” by Me.So

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Feb 08, 2021
Why Do Cain's Descendants Show Up After the Flood? – Family of God E10 Q+R
01:01:19

Thank you to our audience for your incredible questions. In this week’s episode, we tackle questions like, did Adam represent a male human? Where did Cain’s wife come from? And what is the relationship of the Church to Israel?  Listen in to hear the team answer your questions.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • How Could There Be Descendants of Cain After the Flood? (0:50)
  • Where Did Cain’s Wife Come From? (13:25)
  • Was Adam Male? (19:35)
  • Was the Promised Land Conquest a Case of Sibling Rivalry? (36:28)
  • Does the Church Replace Israel? (52:35)

Referenced Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Feb 01, 2021
One Family Once More – Family of God E9
01:05:10

God’s plan has always been to bring all of humanity into one diverse and connected family. Jesus carried forward this mission in his teachings, calling God’s people to look past societal divisions and be unified in him. Join Tim and Jon in this week’s podcast episode as they look at the theme of unity in the New Testament.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–9:20)
  • Part two (9:20–23:30)
  • Part three (23:30–34:00)
  • Part four (34:00–39:00)
  • Part five (39:00–59:00)
  • Part six (59:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Loving Someone You Lost” by The Field Tapes
  • “Today Feels Like Everyday” by Mama Aiuto

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Jan 25, 2021
The Powerful and Not Powerful – Family of God E8
01:05:52

In the book of Romans, Paul talks about humanity being justified by faith, but what does this have to do with the family of God? In this episode, Tim and Jon look at Paul’s letter to the Romans and unpack what it looks like to unify a diverse group of people into one family.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–26:00)
  • Part two (26:00–29:00)
  • Part three (29:00–37:30)
  • Part four (37:30–53:20)
  • Part five (53:20–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Loving Someone You Lost” by The Field Tapes
  • “Anecdotes” by Makzo

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Jan 18, 2021
Who's In? – Family of God E7
00:51:54

God wants people from all nations to be a part of his family, but Jesus’ mission was focused on Israel. So how did the Gospel message move out from Israel to the rest of the world? Join Tim and Jon as they unpack the arrival of the Spirit and Jesus’ commissioning of his disciples.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–15:30)
  • Part two (15:30–28:30)
  • Part three (28:30–35:50)
  • Part four (35:50–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • Music by Chilldrone
  • “Anecdotes” by Makzo
  • “Cartilage” by Moby

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Jan 11, 2021
Jesus and the Gentiles – Family of God E6
01:02:05

Who did Jesus come for? Throughout the Gospel accounts, Jesus is laser-focused on Israel. Yet his ministry and even his family tree include many non-Israelite people. In this week’s episode, join Tim and Jon for a look at the family of God in the life of Jesus.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–11:00)
  • Part two (11:00–24:30)
  • Part three (24:30–32:15)
  • Part four (32:15–40:15)
  • Part five (40:15–48:00)
  • Part six (48:00–end)

Mentioned Resources

Show Music 

  • “Shot in the Back of the Head” by Moby
  • “Artificial Music” by A Breath of Fresh Air
  • “Scream Pilots” by Moby
  • “Too North” by Lost Love
  • “Feather” by Waywell
  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Jan 04, 2021
BibleProject in 2020: Recap and What's Ahead
00:32:50

In this special year-end episode, Tim and Jon reflect on 2020, share stories from our listeners, and look ahead to exciting projects coming out in 2021. Thanks for being a part of this with us!

Series mentioned in this episode:

Timestamps 

  • Part 1 (0:00–20:00)
  • Part 2 (20:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Clap Cotton” by Vinho Verde
  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Dec 28, 2020
Sibling Rivalry and Biblical Election – Family of God E5
00:56:56

Why do God’s chosen people have just as many moral failings as anyone else in the Bible? In this week’s episode, Tim and Jon take a look at ancient sibling rivalries, divine election, and God’s determination to form a covenant people that will one day embrace and include all nations. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–9:20)
  • Part two (9:20–19:40)
  • Part three (19:40–40:00)
  • Part four (40:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Dec 21, 2020
Abraham, the Immigrant, and Circumcision – Family of God E4
01:06:55

What does divine election have to do with God’s blessing for all nations? In this week’s episode, we’re picking up the story of the family of God with Genesis 12-17, God’s calling of Abraham. Join Tim and Jon to see how God responds to Abraham and Sarah’s bad choices and turns them into something good for all people.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–17:50)
  • Part two (17:50–30:00)
  • Part three (30:00–40:00)
  • Part four (40:00–56:30)
  • Part five (56:30–end)

Show Music 

  • “Serendipity feat. The Field Tapes” by Philanthrope
  • “Foggy Road” by Toonorth
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish
  • “Everything Fades to Blue” by Sleepy Fish
  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Dec 14, 2020
What’s So Bad about Babel? – Family of God E3
01:05:05

What was so bad about the Tower of Babel? In this episode, Tim and Jon examine the cycle of division within the human race in Genesis 1-11, the violence that occurs when humans unite apart from God, and God’s plan to use one family to redeem all families in the end.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part 1 (0:00–16:00)
  • Part 2 (16:00–29:30)
  • Part 3 (29:30–35:00)
  • Part 4 (35:00–46:00)
  • Part 5 (46:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “The Size of Grace” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Acquired in Heaven” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • “Dreams” by xander.

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

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Dec 07, 2020
Our Collective Identity – Family of God E2
00:56:14

What is God’s picture of an ideal humanity? In this podcast episode, Tim and Jon look at Genesis 1-2 and talk about how God makes one humanity, divides them, and purposes for them to be one again. And this oneness that God brings doesn’t erase personal and cultural differences; rather, it completes them. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–7:30)
  • Part two (7:30–37:30)
  • Part three (37:30–49:15)
  • Part four (49:15–end)

Show Music 

  • “Movement” by Felty
  • “Day and Night” by Aiguille
  • “Cocktail Hour” by Strehlow
  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Nov 30, 2020
God’s Global Family – Family of God E1
01:00:51

Jesus unites his followers across cultural and ethnic lines as members of his global family. But that doesn’t mean cultural differences disappear. In fact, Jesus resurrects and glorifies what is unique and beautiful about every culture. In this episode, listen in as Tim and Jon discuss what it means to be part of the family of God.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–22:30)
  • Part two (22:30–32:00)
  • Part three (32:00–43:15)
  • Part four (43:15–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents 
  • “Beneath Your Waves” by Sleepy Fish
  • “Flushing the Stairs” by Leavv

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Nov 23, 2020
Does God Punish Innocent People? – Character of God E14 Q+R #2
00:59:13

Sometimes the Bible seems to contradict itself––God is slow to anger, except for the times he appears to get mad quickly. The biblical authors don’t give us a systematic explanation, but they invite us to wrestle through our deepest questions and encounter a clearer, more nuanced picture of God. Learn more as Tim, Jon, and Carissa respond to your questions!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Is God’s wrath passive? (02:00)
  • Does God punish innocent people? (22:40)
  • Why does Psalm 2 say God is quick to anger? (34:40)
  • What did Jesus accomplish by his substitution? (46:22)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Nov 16, 2020
Biblical Trust Isn't Blind – Character of God E13
01:08:17

Are we called to have blind trust in God? Not exactly. People in the Bible trusted God because he had proven himself trustworthy and reliable again and again. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa explore God’s fifth and final attribute in Exodus 34:6, his trustworthiness.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–16:10)
  • Part two (16:10–26:30)
  • Part three (26:30–37:00)
  • Part four (37:00–44:00)
  • Part five (44:00–54:00)
  • Part six (54:00–61:30)
  • Part seven (61:30–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Mirage” by Nymano
  • “Bloc” by KV
  • “Euk's First Race” by David Gummel
  • Synth Groove by a supporter

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Nov 09, 2020
The Loyal Love of God – Character of God E12
01:08:25

Despite generations of rebellion and sin, God continues to pursue his people with his promise-keeping loyalty and generosity. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa explore the fourth attribute God assigns himself in Exodus 34:6-7, loyal love.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–16:10)
  • Part two (16:10–25:30)
  • Part three (25:30–41:00)
  • Part four (41:00–50:30)
  • Part five (50:30–59:00)
  • Part six (59:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Serendipity” by Philanthrope, feat The Field Tapes
  • “Everything Fades to Blue” by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Nov 02, 2020
Saved from God’s Wrath – Character of God E11
00:56:37

God demonstrates his wrath by handing his people over to the natural consequences of their own destructive decisions, which ultimately leads to death. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa discuss what it means to be saved from God’s wrath by embracing the life of Jesus and a whole new set of natural consequences: lives given over to love and righteousness.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–13:15)
  • Part two (13:15–28:30)
  • Part three (28:30–35:00)
  • Part four (35:00–45:00)
  • Part five (45:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Beneath Your Waves” by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Oct 26, 2020
Two Men Named Jesus – Character of God E10
00:59:42

Jesus saw himself as the one who would drink the cup of God’s wrath, which meant dying in Israel’s place at the hand of Rome. Yet the death of Jesus was about more than just Rome. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa talk about what it meant that Jesus drank the cup.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–15:30)
  • Part two (15:30–20:30)
  • Part three (20:30–45:40)
  • Part four (45:40–54:00)
  • Part five (54:00–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Canary Forest” by Aso x Aviino x Middle School
  • “Friends Circle” by Sitting Duck

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Oct 19, 2020
God’s Wrath in the Teaching of Jesus – Character of God E9
00:43:17

It seems like God gets angry all the time in the Hebrew Bible, but then Jesus arrives on the scene with a message of good news and everything changes! Right? It’s not quite that simple. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa survey the consistency between God’s anger in the Old and New Testament and the restorative promise of God’s anger.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–11:45)
  • Part two (11:45–20:45)
  • Part three (20:45–25:45)
  • Part four (25:45–37:17)
  • Part five (37:15–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Snacks” by No Spirit
  • “Tending the Garden feat. Keenebac” by Stan Forebee
  • “Anywhere But Here feat. Philanthrope” by Dotlights
  • “Better Together Forever” by Team Astro

Show produced by Dan Gummel. Show notes by Lindsey Ponder.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Oct 12, 2020
A Cup of Wrath? – Character of God E8
00:58:14

Noses that burn hot? Turning your face away? Drinking a cup of wrath? These unfamiliar phrases are found in biblical passages about God’s anger, but what do they mean? In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa explore how God’s anger is portrayed in the Hebrew Scriptures toward Israel and the nations.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–15:45)
  • Part two (15:45–37:30)
  • Part three (37:30–43:30)
  • Part four (43:30–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “I Know Your Face Better Than Mine” by Taro
  • “Seafoam feat. Sleepy Fish” by Blue Wednesday and Dylan Witherow
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Oct 05, 2020
The First Time God Gets Angry – Character of God E7
01:02:15

The flood is one of the most well-known stories in the Bible, yet this story of judgment seems to be missing something important: God’s anger. In the Bible, God’s anger and judgment are not always associated. Listen in as Tim, Jon, and Carissa review a familiar story with insight that helps us understand God’s anger and judgment.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–9:30)
  • Part two (9:30–31:00)
  • Part three (31:00–40:00)
  • Part four (40:00–53:20)
  • Part five (53:20–end)

Additional Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender Instrumental” by Tents
  • “Vinho Verde” by Clap Cotton
  • “Imagination” by Montell Fish
  • “So Unnecessary” by Dotlights
  • “Lisbon” by Ason ID

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Sep 28, 2020
God's Hot Nose – Character of God E6
00:59:30

In Exodus 34, God describes himself as “slow to anger,” but many people are uncomfortable with the portrait of God as an angry or emotional being. How does the Bible talk about anger, and how does this help us understand God as slow to anger?

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–13:50)
  • Part two (13:50–20:50)
  • Part three (20:50–31:50)
  • Part four (31:50–40:50)
  • Part five (40:50–52:30)
  • Part six (52:30–end)

Additional Resources

Show Music 

  • Movement Piano: Copyright Free
  • “According to God” by Beautiful Eulogy
  • Soft Dreamy Guitar: Copyright Free
  • “After the Crash” by SavFK
  • “A New Year” by Scott Buckley

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Sep 21, 2020
Does God Curse Generations? – Character of God E5 Q+R
00:53:59

Thank you to our audience for your incredible questions. In this week’s episode, we tackle questions like, “Is God the same in the Old and New Testaments?” “Does the Bible support the idea of generational curses?” “Does Moses convince God to change his mind?” Listen in to hear the team answer your questions.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Is God’s character the same in the Old and New Testaments? (00:49)
  • Does the Bible teach about generational curses? (16:05)
  • Consequences versus punishment (27:20)
  • Why did God change his mind? (42:18)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Sep 14, 2020
The Uniquely Biblical View of Grace – Character of God E4
01:11:45

Grace is such a familiar word that we often miss the depth of its meaning. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa look at how the Hebrew Bible uses the word grace to communicate one of the core attributes of God.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–13:22)
  • Part two (13:22–26:45)
  • Part three (26:45–38:45)
  • Part four (38:45–53:20)
  • Part five (53:20–62:50)
  • Part six (62:50–end)

Additional Resources

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents
  • “Friends Circle” by Sitting Ducks

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Sep 07, 2020
The Womb of God? - Character of God E3
00:59:53

God describes himself as “compassionate,” but what does that mean? The answer might surprise you. The Hebrew word for compassion is closely related to the word for womb, and in this episode Tim, Jon, and Carissa discuss the Bible’s depiction of God’s compassion.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–8:00)
  • Part two (8:00–15:00)
  • Part three (15:00–21:30)
  • Part four (21:30–31:30)
  • Part five (31:30–46:15)
  • Part six (46:15–end)

Show Music 

  • “Defender (Instrumental)” by Tents
  • “My Room Becomes the Sea” by Sleepy FIsh
  • “Ambedo” by Too North
  • “Bloom” by Kyle McEvoy and Stan Forebee
  • “Alive” by Ouska

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 31, 2020
A God of Our Own Making – Character of God E2
01:03:22

The golden calf story from the book of Exodus shows us how all of humanity continually tries to worship God on our own terms. In this episode, Tim, Jon, and Carissa examine the narrative context of Exodus 34:6-7 and discover how this description of God’s character is tied to the story of the golden calf.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–8:40)
  • Part two (8:40–35:00)
  • Part three (35:00–47:50)
  • Part four (47:50–55:20)
  • Part five (55:20–end)

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Reflection by Swørn
  • Cello From Portland by Beautiful Eulogy
  • Feather by Waywell
  • Wanderlust by Crastel

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 24, 2020
The Most Quoted Verse in the Bible - Character of God E1
00:55:54

Who does God say he is? In this first episode of a new series, Tim, Jon, and Carissa look at the most referenced passages in the Old Testament—a description of God’s character by God himself.

View full show notes from this episode →

Explore detailed video notes from BibleProject videos on our website: https://tbp.xyz/podvideonotes

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–17:15)
  • Part two (17:15–25:20)
  • Part three (25:20–40:50)
  • Part four (40:50–end)

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Mid Summer by Broke in Summer
  • You Can Save Me by Beautiful Eulogy
  • Wish You Were Here by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 17, 2020
How Much Context Do We Really Need? - Letters Q+R #2
00:56:08

This week, we finish our How to Read the Bible podcast series with one final Q+R episode where we answer questions like, “How do we know Paul’s letters are authentic?” and “Are morning devotionals still okay?” Tune in to hear your questions answered!

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Is there still a role for devotional reading? (02:12)
  • Did the New Testament authors take the Old Testament out of context? (07:20)
  • How much of the Hebrew Scriptures did Paul expect the Gentiles to know? (15:30)
  • How much context do we need to really understand the letters? (21:37)
  • How was Paul able to write letters while in prison? (30:38)
  • Could the use of scribes explain differences in Paul’s style? (35:38)
  • How do we apply Paul’s words in Romans to our context today? (42:42)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee.  Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 10, 2020
4 Steps to Argument Tracing - Letters E9
01:08:43

The New Testament letters can be difficult to follow, but the right tools can help us unpack their rich meaning. In this episode, Tim and Jon look at 1st century letter templates, Greco-Roman rhetoric, and argument tracing. Learn more in this week’s podcast episode.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–15:50)
  • Part two (15:50–37:30)
  • Part three (37:30–55:45)
  • Part four (55:45–63:40)
  • Part five (63:40–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Day and Night EP by Aiguille

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Aug 03, 2020
Pen, Parchment, and People - Letters E8
01:05:47

Writing a letter in Paul’s day wasn’t as simple as grabbing a pen and paper and placing the finished letter in a mailbox. In this episode, Tim and Jon explore the world of 1st century letter writing, including “cosenders,” letter drafts, the cost of production, and delivery. Listen in on this fascinating conversation.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–19:40)
  • Part two (19:40–29:15)
  • Part three (29:15–44:30)
  • Part four (44:30–57:30)
  • Part five (57:30–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Scream Pilots by Moby
  • Little Spirit by Delayde

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 27, 2020
Which New Testament Commands Should We Obey? Letters Q+R #1
00:56:43

Do we have to follow all the commands in the New Testament? Did Paul know his words were inspired? And why doesn’t the Bible condemn slavery? Tim and Jon respond to these questions and more in this week’s Question and Response episode.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Could it be beneficial to memorize and perform New Testament letters? (00:36)
  • Did Paul craft his letters as meditation literature? (03:17)
  • What was included when Paul said “all Scripture” was God-breathed? (10:11)
  • What about 1 Enoch? (15:54)
  • Did Paul know his letters were inspired? (19:45)
  • Are the letters wisdom or commands? (33:10)
  • Why doesn’t the Bible condemn owning slaves? (39:58)
  • What does it mean to submit to government authorities? (48:20)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. Audience questions collected by Christopher Maier.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 23, 2020
Did Paul Actually Say That? - Letters E6
01:10:04

Did Paul actually say that? In this week’s podcast episode, Tim and Jon talk about how to wisely read the New Testament letters by asking key questions about Paul’s context. This practice, known as mirror reading, can help us read and apply these letters to our lives responsibly.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–14:00)
  • Part two (14:00–25:00)
  • Part three (25:00–39:30)
  • Part four (39:30–59:30)
  • Part five (59:30–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Playa by Mauro Somm
  • Bubble by KV
  • Pale Horses by Moby
  • A Case for Shame by Moby

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 20, 2020
The Drama We Don’t Know - Letters E5
00:58:48

The New Testament letters were written to address specific situations among specific groups of people. In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss how to discern situational context, what to do when information is missing, and how context helps us apply the wisdom of the letters today.

View full show notes from this episode →

Learn more about Classroom at Classroom.bible.

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–11:20)
  • Part two (11:20–24:34)
  • Part three (24:34–32:00)
  • Part four (32:00–40:50)
  • Part five (40:50–54:10)
  • Part six (54:10–end)

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Dreams by Xander
  • Cocktail Hour by Strehlow
  • Acquired in Heaven by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 13, 2020
Honor-Shame Culture and the Gospel - Letters E4
00:52:22

Paul wrote his letters in the shadow of Rome. His words stood in stark contrast to Roman rule and its honor-shame culture. Join Tim and Jon in exploring the cultural context of the New Testament letters and the questions we should consider when reading these texts. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–6:15)
  • Part two (6:15–23:30)
  • Part three (23:30–33:30)
  • Part four (33:30–40:10)
  • Part five (40:10–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Coastal Town by Kupla
  • Clocks by Smith the Mister
  • doing laundry by weird inside
  • Frame by KV

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jul 06, 2020
How to Live Like Jesus is Lord - Letters E3
00:57:51

The New Testament letters all share a core conviction that shapes how the apostles taught followers of Jesus to live in the first century. Listen in as Tim and Jon discuss the focus of the New Testament letters and how they help us live wisely today. 

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–28:45)
  • Part two (28:45–38:00)
  • Part three (38:00–47:30)
  • Part four (47:30–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Far from Home by Toonorth
  • doing laundry by weird inside
  • Frame by KV

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 29, 2020
A Living Sacrifice? - Letters E2
00:59:16

How do the New Testament letters fit with the rest of the biblical story? In this second part of a live recording in Dallas, Texas, Tim and Jon talk about how the apostles saw themselves as fulfilling God’s promise to bring blessing to all nations and how this perspective transforms the way we read the letters. 

View full show notes from this episode → 

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–39:30)
  • Part two (39:30–end)

Additional Resources 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Whispering Wind by Moby

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 22, 2020
Context is Crucial - Letters E1
00:55:14

In this live episode, Tim and Jon interact with an audience in Dallas, Texas for the launch of a new series on how to read the New Testament letters. Letters make up much of the New Testament, and knowing how to view and interpret them is essential for seeing the story of Jesus woven through the New Testament. 

View full show notes from this episode → 

Timestamps 

  • Part one (0:00–35:45) 
  • Part two (35:45–end) 

Show Music 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents 
  • Memory Gospel by Moby 

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee. 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 15, 2020
The Blood Cries Out - Apocalyptic Special Episode
00:52:29

In this special mid-week podcast episode, Tim and Jon address recent events in light of The Revelation. Listen in as they discuss the use of “word and testimony,” the meaning of Babylon, and the exposure of slavery in the book of Revelation.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps

  • Part 1 (0:13:30)
  • Part 2 (13:30-28:30)
  • Part 3 (28:30-39:30)
  • Part 4 (39:30-47:00)
  • Part 5 (47:00-end)

Additional Resources

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • No Spirit: Snacks EP
  • Chillhop Essentials Summer 2020
  • Conquor by Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 10, 2020
Does the Bible Predict the End of the World? - Apocalyptic Q+R
01:03:06

Are these the end times? Why does the Bible use language of fiery judgment? And what is the mark of the beast? In this episode, Tim and Jon answer your questions about how to read apocalyptic literature.

View full show notes from this episode →

Timestamps

  • Does the Bible Predict the End of the World? (1:30)
  • Are There Personal Apocalypses? (16:28)
  • How Can You Tell a True Apocalypse? (24:20)
  • Has Every Follower of Jesus had an Apocalypse? (30:14)
  • Is There a Link Between Apocalyptic and Test Narratives in the Bible? (34:50)
  • How Should We Understand Fiery Judgment in the Bible? (40:10)
  • Bonus: What About the Mark of the Beast? (55:59)

Additional Resources

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 08, 2020
Five Strategies for Reading Revelation - Apocalyptic E6
00:53:54

The book of Revelation is full of symbols and images that are confusing when we remove them from the context of the Hebrew Bible. But if we understand the context, community, and nature of apocalyptic literature, the text can reshape the way we see the world. In this final episode of our series How to Read Apocalyptic Literature, Tim and Jon look at the book of Revelation.

View full show notes from this episode →

Additional Resources

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Snacks EP by No Spirit
  • Fills The Skies by Josh White

Show produced by Dan Gummel and Camden McAfee.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

Jun 01, 2020
A Walking, Talking Apocalypse – Apocalyptic E5
01:04:02

The opening pages of the Bible show us God’s good plan to rule with humanity as his image in heaven and on earth. Later characters in the story experience apocalyptic moments where they glimpse this ideal world and gain perspective to bring comfort and challenge to the world. Listen in as Tim and Jon discuss how this all points us to Jesus.

View full show notes from this episode →

 

Additional Resources

 

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Mind Garden by 
leavv
  • White Oak by dryhope
  • Cinnamon Sugar by Philanthrope x G Mills
May 25, 2020
The Jewish Apocalyptic Imagination - Apocalyptic E4
00:38:19

Our dreams are often filled with strange images. What happens when a prophet, steeped in the Scriptures, receives a dream from God? The resulting imagery is packed with hyperlinks to the Hebrew Bible. In this episode, Tim and Jon begin discussing Revelation and tracing these visions through the rest of the Bible.

View full show notes from this episode →

Additional Resources

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Memories of Spring by Tokyo Music Walker
  • Perilune by Aerohead
  • Jimi? Is that you? by David Gummel

Show produced by Dan Gummel.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

May 18, 2020
Is the Gospel an Apocalypse? Apocalyptic E3
00:39:49

Are the Gospel accounts apocalyptic? In this episode, Tim and Jon break down the use of the word apocalypse in the ancient Jewish world and highlight examples from the Gospel accounts and the life of Paul.

View full show notes from this episode →

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • White Oak by dryhope
  • My Room Becomes the Sea by Sleepy Fish

Show produced by Dan Gummel.

Powered and distributed by Simplecast.

May 11, 2020
Dreams and Visions – Apocalyptic E2
00:53:20

The Bible is filled with key moments that hinge on dreams. How did people in the Bible understand these moments, and what can we learn from them? In this episode, Tim and Jon have a fascinating conversation about the nature of apocalyptic dreams and visions in the Bible.

View full show notes from this episode →

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • After Dark by Sugi.wa
  • My Room Becomes the Sea by Sleepy Fish
  • Cold Weather Kids by Aerocity

Show produced by Dan Gummel

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May 04, 2020
Church at Home by BibleProject
00:06:05

At BibleProject, we want to come alongside small groups, churches, and home churches to help you continue to engage in Scripture with a Bible study newsletter sent weekly right to your inbox. 

To sign up for our Church at Home email Bible study, or to learn more about it, click here: https://tbp.xyz/cahpod

This week's theme focuses on biblical justice and how followers of Jesus should respond to the injustices we see in the world today. Our world looks entirely different than it did a few weeks ago. As we’ve all worked together to curb the spread of this virus, all of our lives have been changed, but not to the same degree. Our most vulnerable neighbors are seeing devastating effects from this unprecedented time. As we look to the Scriptures this week, let’s take the time to sit in that reality. How did God see those forgotten by society? How did Jesus care for the widows, the orphans, and the foreigners?

Show produced by Dan Gummel.

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May 02, 2020
Apocalypse Please – Apocalyptic E1
00:55:23

Is this the apocalypse? Tim and Jon begin a new series, How to Read Apocalyptic Literature. They’ll be talking about the COVID-19 pandemic and how the Bible opens our eyes and changes us in our present moment. 

Want to share how you're experiencing this present crisis as an apocalypse? Send us an email at support@bibleproject.com.

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Additional Resources

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Snacks by No Spirit
  • Yesterday on Repeat by Vexento

Show produced by Dan Gummel

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Apr 27, 2020
Parables in Context – Parables Q+R
00:51:45

Why didn’t Paul use more parables? Is the parable of the four soils about salvation, or something else? In this episode, Tim and Jon answer these and other excellent audience questions on the parables of Jesus.

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  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

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Apr 23, 2020
Finding Meaning in the Parables – Parables E6
01:22:55

How do you determine the meaning of a parable? And how should you apply it to your life? In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss how to identify the meaning and significance of the parables of Jesus.

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  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Ocean Patio bu Philanthrope x Dayle
  • Instrumental by Kaleidoscope
  • Jumping off the Porch by Broke in Summer
  • My Room Becomes The Sea by Sleepy Fish
  • doing laundry by weird inside

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Apr 20, 2020
Decoding the Parables – Parables E5
01:11:12

In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about the first of three questions to help us become wise readers of the parables and gain insight from them. What symbols did Jesus weave in the parables—and which did he not? Join Tim and Jon for this fascinating discussion.

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  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
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Apr 13, 2020
The Crisis of Decision – Parables E4
00:52:37

The parables of Jesus force a choice for his listeners. Will they embrace the upside-down value system of the Kingdom of God, or will they refuse to participate in the party? In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss two additional themes of the parables.

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Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Late Night Driving by Broke In Summer
  • Morning Station by Tokyo Music Walker
  • Collages by Sleepy Fish

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Apr 06, 2020
Parables as Subversive Critique – Parables E3
01:03:48

Jesus often used parables as a means of indirect communication to critique and dismantle his listener’s views of the world in order to show them the true nature of God’s Kingdom. In this episode, Tim and Jon talk about the role of the parables in persuading listeners through subversive critique.

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Show Music

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  • Coniferous by Kupla

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Mar 30, 2020
Jesus and the Parables of the Prophets – Parables E2
01:14:53

Many of Jesus’ parables sound oddly similar to the parables of the prophets. This isn’t coincidence. Jesus saw himself as fulfilling the role of a prophet to Israel’s leaders. In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss the parables as part of Jesus’ prophetic role to Israel.

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Show Music

  • Third Floor by Greyflood
  • Conversation by Broke in Summer
  • Educated Fool by Greyflood
  • Bloom by Kyle McEvoy and Stan Forebee

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Mar 23, 2020
Taking God’s Name in Vain? - feat. Dr. Carmen Imes
00:56:30

In this interview with Dr. Carmen Imes, Tim and Jon discuss the command, “Do not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.” What does this mean? Carmen discusses how many people miss the point of this commandment all about who we are and what we’re called to do.

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This month, we launched Classroom—free online graduate-level courses from BibleProject. Learn more and sign up for the beta at bibleproject.com/learn

Resources 

Show Music: 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Hello from Portland by Beautiful Eulogy
  • Levity by Johnny Grimes
  • Tomorrow’s A New Day by SaintSet

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Mar 19, 2020
The Purpose of Parables – Parables E1
01:11:45

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Resources 

Show Music: 

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • When I Was A Boy by Tokyo Music Walker
  • Oyasumi by Smith the Mister
  • Velocities by Sleepy Fish

Show Produced by Dan Gummel. 

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Mar 16, 2020
Is the Tree of Life Practical? Tree Q+R 2
01:04:40

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Watch our video on the Tree of Life.

Resources:
Dr. Crispin Fletcher-Louis Jewish Apocalyptic and Apocalypticism



Show Music: 
Defender Instrumental: Tents

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Mar 09, 2020
Jesus on the Cursed Tree - Tree of Life E9
01:20:05

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Watch our video on the Tree of Life.

Take our first class for free at classroom.bible

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  • Defender Instrumental: Tents
  • Scream Pilots: Moby
  • Ambedo: Too North
  • Reminiscing: No Spirit
  • Chillhop daydreams 2

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Mar 02, 2020
Back to the Tree of Life – Tree of Life E8
00:52:20

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Watch our Tree of Life video.

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Feb 24, 2020
David, Isaiah, and New Eden – Tree of Life E7
00:53:24

King David sets up a new Eden in Jerusalem, but the people continue to set up false Edens in high places. How will God respond, and when will he raise up the seed who will usher in a new Eden? The book of Isaiah brings these themes together and points us to God’s answer.

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Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Euk's First Race by David Gummel
  • All Night by Unwritten Stories
  • For When It's Warmer by Sleepy Fish

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Feb 17, 2020
Moses, Israel, & The S’neh Tree – Tree of Life E6
01:07:40

The story of Moses repeats key themes from the stories of the garden, Noah, and Abraham. Moses and Israel both face tests before trees on high places, and Moses takes the act of sacrifice one step further. Listen in as Tim and Jon discuss Moses and the s’neh tree.

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Feb 10, 2020
Are Humans Naturally Immortal? Tree of Life Q+R #1 – Tree of Life E5
00:37:00

Why are moments of testing on high places often accompanied by sacrifice in the Bible? Why does the Eden story seem ambiguous about the number of trees in the garden? Were humans mortal when they were placed in the garden? Tim and Jon respond to these questions and more in this question and response episode.

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Feb 03, 2020
Dismantling the Tree - Tree of Life E4
01:08:45

Noah and Abraham both face important tests before a tree on a high place. Their obedience and sacrifice opens the door for mercy and blessing, and their stories point us to a future hope of one who will overcome the tree of knowing good and bad and restore humanity. Listen in as Tim and Jon discuss Noah, Abraham, and their moments of decision at trees on high places.

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Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • FIlls the Skies by Pilgrim
  • Found Memories by Xander
  • Wanderlust by Crastel

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Jan 27, 2020
The Tale of Two Trees - Tree of Life E3
00:50:09

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  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

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Jan 20, 2020
Trees of the Ancients – Tree of Life E2
00:58:08
Jan 13, 2020
Humans are... Trees? - Tree of Life E1
01:07:02

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Resources

Music

  • Greyflood: A Moment, A Memory, A Beginning.
  • John Williams: The Force
  • Kyle McElvoy & Stan Forebee: Bloom
  • KV: Bloc
  • Defender Instrumental by Tents

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Jan 06, 2020
Happy New Year and What's Ahead for The Bible Project
00:17:56

Check out all we're up to in 2020 and beyond at www.thebibleproject.com. View our classroom beta at www.classroom.bible

 

And learn how you can join a growing family of supporters at www.thebibleproject.com/vision

 

Happy New Year!

 

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Show Produced By: 

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Dec 31, 2019
Hebrews: The Quest for Final Rest - 7th Day Rest E14
00:57:36

QUOTE

"The design of the wilderness narratives in the Torah are trying to tell us that the arrival in the promised land is an image of the future seventh day rest that is beyond.”

 

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The book of Hebrews is written to Messianic Jews who are extremely familiar with the Old Testament.
  • Hebrews 3 is built around a long quote from Psalm 95, which is a psalm reflecting on Israel’s failure to enter into the promised land of rest.
  • Israel rebelled seven times against the Lord in the wilderness.
  • The ultimate seventh day rest has been inaugurated by Jesus, but has not seen its complete fulfillment yet.

 

SHOW NOTES:

Welcome to our final episode in our series on the theme of Sabbath and seventh day rest!

In part 1 (0-21:10), Tim and Jon recap their previous conversations. Tim shares a resource called “From Sabbath to Lord’s Day” by D.A. Carson, a collection of essays examining the evolution and relationship of historical Jewish Sabbath celebrations and the celebration of Sunday as “the Lord’s Day.”

In part 2 (21:10-33:00), the guys dive into Hebrews 3.

Hebrews 3:1-19

"Therefore, holy brothers and sisters, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, whom we acknowledge as our apostle and high priest. He was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses was faithful in all God’s house. Jesus has been found worthy of greater honor than Moses, just as the builder of a house has greater honor than the house itself. For every house is built by someone, but God is the builder of everything. “Moses was faithful as a servant in all God’s house,” bearing witness to what would be spoken by God in the future. But Christ is faithful as the Son over God’s house. And we are his house, if indeed we hold firmly to our confidence and the hope in which we glory.

“So, as the Holy Spirit says:

“‘Today, if you hear his voice,

do not harden your hearts

as you did in the rebellion,

during the time of testing in the wilderness,

where your ancestors tested and tried me,

though for forty years they saw what I did.

That is why I was angry with that generation;

I said, “Their hearts are always going astray,

and they have not known my ways.”

So I declared on oath in my anger,

“They shall never enter my rest.”’

“See to it, brothers and sisters, that none of you has a sinful, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God. But encourage one another daily, as long as it is called ‘today,’ so that none of you may be hardened by sin’s deceitfulness. We have come to share in Christ, if indeed we hold our original conviction firmly to the very end. As has just been said:

“‘Today, if you hear his voice,

do not harden your hearts

as you did in the rebellion.’

“Who were they who heard and rebelled? Were they not all those Moses led out of Egypt? And with whom was he angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies perished in the wilderness? And to whom did God swear that they would never enter his rest if not to those who disobeyed? So we see that they were not able to enter, because of their unbelief.”

Tim notes that in verse 7, the writer begins to quote from Psalm 95. Earlier in Psalm 95, Yahweh is referred to as “the rock of rescue.” This name originally comes from a story in Exodus 17.

Exodus 17:5-7

“The Lord answered Moses, ‘Go out in front of the people. Take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. I will stand there before you by the rock at Horeb. Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink.’ So Moses did this in the sight of the elders of Israel. And he called the place Massah and Meribah because the Israelites quarreled and because they tested the Lord saying, ‘Is the Lord among us or not?’”

In Israel’s wilderness journey, there are seven stories of rebellion. Israel chose to doubt God and rebel against Moses seven times. These seven stories exclude them from being able to enter the promised land. Instead, that generation dies in the wilderness.

In part 3 (33:00-40:30), Tim notes that the author of Hebrews then reads the wilderness narratives as a story that still applies to all people today. People can still miss out on the promised land of God’s rest if they harden their hearts and do not listen to Jesus.

God’s rest is something that Christ inaugurated, but it has yet to be completely fulfilled and will be fulfilled in the future.

In part 4 (40:30-end), Tim mentions that Hebrews seems to be written as an oratory speech or a written sermon. Jon says that he feels an urge to have some sort of practice or Sabbath ritual that he can rely on to create a rhythm in his life.

Tim mentions that perhaps the most helpful part of a Sabbath rhythm is that it should be a constant reminder that our time does not belong to us, but is a gift from God.

 

Resources:

D.A. Carson, From Sabbath to Lord’s Day

 

Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Bloc by KV
  • Halfway Through by Broke in Summer
  • I Gave You A Flower by Le Gang

 

Show Produced By:

Dan Gummel

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Dec 30, 2019
Lord of the Sabbath - 7th Day Rest E13
01:10:08

QUOTE

"We're getting into the scandal that Jesus represented—which wasn’t offering an alternative religion; it was saying that he was bringing the whole storyline of the Scriptures to fulfillment."

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Jesus' claim to be "Lord of the Sabbath" was a key part of his understanding of his own identity.
  • Jesus’ resurrection is literally and metaphorically the first dawning of a new week. He was literally raised on the first rays of a new week, and metaphorically, this represented Jesus and all who follow him entering a new age of communion with God.
  • The Sabbath practice and the traditions that surround it has always been a controversial topic. As Gentiles who had no Jewish or Sabbath background fell in love with Jesus, the church began to practice or not practice Sabbath in a variety of ways.

SHOW NOTES:

In part 1 (0-7:15), Tim and Jon review the conversation so far. Jesus is claiming to bring the eternal seventh-day rest into reality.

In part 2 (7:15-21:15), Tim dives into words of Jesus in Matthew. 

Matthew 11:25-30

“At that time Jesus said, ‘I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and intelligent and have revealed them to infants. Yes, Father, for this way was well-pleasing in your sight. All things have been handed over to me by my Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal him.

“‘Come to me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.’”

Tim quotes from Samuele Bacchiocchi.

“The metaphor of the ‘yoke’ was commonly used to express subordination and loyalty to God, especially through obedience to his law. Thus Jeremiah speaks of the leaders of the people who knew ‘the law of their God, but they all alike had broken the yoke, they had burst the bonds’ (5:5; cf. 2:20). In the following chapter, the same prophet says to the people: ‘Find rest for your souls’ by learning anew obedience to God’s law (6:6; cf. Num 25:3). Rabbis often spoke of ‘the yoke of the Torah,’ ‘the yoke of the kingdom of heaven,’ ‘the yoke of the commandments,’ ‘the yoke of God.’ Rabbi Nehunya b. Kanah (ca. 70) is reported to have said: ‘He that takes upon himself the yoke of the Law, from him shall be taken away the yoke of the kingdom and the yoke of worldly care’ (Pirke Aboth 3:5). What this means is that devotion to the law and its interpretation is supposed to free a person from the troubles and cares of this world.”

(Samuele Bacchiocchi, “Matthew 11:28-30: Jesus’ Rest and the Sabbath,” p. 300-303.)

The quote continues:

“Matthew sets forth the ‘yoke’ of Christ, not as commitment to a new Torah, but as dedication to a Person who is the true Interpreter and Fulfiller of the Law and the Prophets. The emphasis on the Person is self-evident in our logion: ‘Come to me . . . take my yoke . . . learn from me ... I will give you rest.’ Moreover, the parallel structure of vss. 28 and 29 indicates that taking the ‘yoke’ of Jesus is equivalent to ‘come to’ and ‘learn from’ him. That is to say, it is to personally accept Jesus as Messiah. Such an acceptance is an ‘easy’ and ‘light’ yoke, not because Jesus weakens the demands of the law (cf. Matt 5:20), but because, as T. W. Manson puts it, ‘Jesus claims to do for men what the Law claimed to do; but in a different way.’ The difference lies in Christ’s claim to offer to his disciples (note the emphatic kago) the rest of Messianic redemption to which the law, and more specifically, the sabbath, had always pointed.”

(Samuele Bacchiocchi, “Matthew 11:28-30: Jesus’ Rest and the Sabbath,” p. 300-303.)

In part 3 (21:15-30:00), Tim moves into the next story in Matthew.

Matthew 12:1-14

“At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and his disciples became hungry and began to pick the heads of grain and eat. But when the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, ‘Look, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath.’ But he said to them, ‘Have you not read what David did when he became hungry, he and his companions, how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone? Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and are innocent? But I say to you that one greater than the temple is here. But if you had known what this means, “I desire compassion, and not a sacrifice,” you would not have condemned the innocent. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.’

“Departing from there, he went into their synagogue. And a man was there whose hand was withered. And they questioned Jesus, asking, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?’—so that they might accuse him. And he said to them, ‘What man is there among you who has a sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it and lift it out? How much more valuable then is a man than a sheep! So then, it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.’ Then he said to the man, ‘Stretch out your hand!’ He stretched it out, and it was restored to normal, like the other.”

Tim says that the controversies caused by Jesus on the Sabbath are not meant to show Jesus as divisive. Rather, when Jesus says he is “Lord of the Sabbath,” he is saying fundamentally the same thing as when he declares, “The Kingdom of God is here.” Both of these phrases are declarations by Jesus that he is beginning the restoration of creation.

In part 4 (30:00-38:00), Tim and Jon have a quick discussion about practicing the Sabbath, taking one day out of seven to rest. Did Jesus value this? Yes! Jesus went to synagogue on Sabbath. But Jesus seems to place a greater importance on the concept of the Sabbath. Jesus is effectually saying that what the Sabbath pointed to—a time of constant communion between God and man—is here because he is here.

In part 5 (38:00-61:30), Tim talks about instances of Sabbath practice in Paul’s writings.

Romans 14:1-12

“As for the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions. One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables. Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains, and let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him. Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand. 

“One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God. For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. For if we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord. So then, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living.

“Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God; for it is written,

“‘As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me,

and every tongue shall confess to God.’

“So then each of us will give an account of himself to God.”

Tim also shares from Paul’s writings in Colossians.

Colossians 2:16-19

“Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath. These are a shadow of the things to come, but the substance belongs to Christ. Let no one disqualify you, insisting on asceticism and worship of angels, going on in detail about visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind, and not holding fast to the Head, from whom the whole body, nourished and knit together through its joints and ligaments, grows with a growth that is from God.”

Tim notes that eating kosher and Sabbath practices were controversial issues in the early Church as they are now. Tim also notes that once the Christian movement became majority non-Jewish, the Christian movement quickly lost respect for its Jewish roots and traditions.

Tim then asks, based on Paul, whether modern Christians should have some sort of Sabbath practice? It seems that Paul was flexible. He always went to synagogue and even fulfilled Jewish vows. But he also stood up for Gentiles who had no history or desire to begin practicing Sabbath law. Instead, Paul was excited to build a Christian community where all experienced equality under the lordship of Jesus.

In part 6 (61:30-end), the guys quickly talk about the resurrection narrative at the end of the Gospel of Mark.

Mark 16:1-3

“When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him. And very early on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen, they went to the tomb And they were saying to one another, ‘Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance of the tomb?’”

Jesus’ resurrection is literally and metaphorically the first dawning of a new week. He was literally raised on the first rays of a new week, and metaphorically, this represented Jesus and all who follow him entering a new age of communion with God.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show Resources:

Samuele Bacchiocchi, “Matthew 11:28-30: Jesus’ Rest and the Sabbath,” p. 300-303.

Show Music:

  • Yesterday on Repeat by Vexento
  • Ohayo by Smith the Mister
  • My room becomes the sea by Sleepy Fish

Show Produced By:

Dan Gummel

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Dec 23, 2019
Hidden Sevens & Practical Sabbath: 7th Day Rest Q&R #2 - 7th Day Rest E12
00:43:42

Tim and Jon Responded to these questions:

 

David from Arizona (2:25)

My question is, does the frequent occurrence of the number seven and the seventh day in Genesis, Exodus, and the rest of the Bible have more to do with the authors creating design patterns within the narrative to make theological claims? Or is it actually how God himself worked in history? Maybe these are synonymous, but I would love to hear your response.

Ashley from Arizona (13:30)

I have a question for you regarding Jesus' words during his miracle at the wedding at Cana. When his mother points out that there is no wine, he takes six water pots used for purification and and then puts water in them and then turns those into wine. There seems to be a connection maybe with the six and bringing the best wine out last. But I'm wondering what the connection is between cups of wine in the seventh day. Is that a thing? Thanks so much for your thoughts and all the work you do.

Jesse from North New Zealand (20:50)

I was wondering about the practical implications of the theological discussion that you've been having. Jews have been practicing Sabbath rest and Sabbath observance for millennia, yet Christians kind of gave up on that a few centuries ago. Should we as Christians go back to Sabbath observance? Is there something more there that I've missed? What are the implications of this Sabbath rest for us as Christians in the world?

Jisca from Rwanda (25:34)

How do we apply the principle of rest in our time as Christians. What do we do with the inclination to rest on the seventh day? How do we live it out on a daily basis? Thank you.

Jon from Malaysia (25:55)

I work in the construction industry here, and it's common for people to work six days a week. This has truly made me appreciate the one day of rest that I get every week. However, a lot of my friends who work a normal five-day week say that working six days in today's world can be way too tiring. Could you share thoughts on the practicality of still working six days and resting one day in a modern world? And on the flip side of that, what are the biblical implications if I do not take a break by continually working seven days a week? Thanks for all you do, guys. I love your podcast. Keep it up.

 

Resources:

To Hell With The Hustle by Jefferson Bethke
 

The Ruthless Elimination of Hurry by John Mark Comer
 

God Dwells with Us: Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel by Mary Coloe
 

The Subversive Sabbath by A.J. Swaboda

 

At Home with God: A Complete Liturgical Guide for the Christian Home by Gavin Long

 

 

Learn more about what we do and join The Bible Project by financially partnering with us:

www.thebibleproject.com/vision

 

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

 

Show Music
Defender Instrumental by Tents

 

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Dec 19, 2019
Jesus and His Jubilee Mission - 7th Day Rest E11
01:15:17

QUOTE

"What Jesus is claiming is that the ultimate jubilee that the prophets pointed to has begun. Here it is. I’m doing it. It’s a massive claim."

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The Sabbath was a big deal to Jesus. He and the Jewish religious leaders often disagreed over what observing the Sabbath should actually mean.
  • Jesus announced his public ministry at a synagogue on the Sabbath by reading from Isaiah 61, which is a prophecy about a future time of jubilee.
  • Jesus claimed that he was fulfilling all that the ritual and symbolism in the Sabbath pointed to. Jesus claimed to usher in a new age of peace and rest.

SHOW NOTES

In part 1 (0-29:15), Tim and Jon review the conversation so far.

Tim shares a quote from Samuele Bacchiocchi and his scholarly work, “Sabbatical Typologies of Messianic Redemption.” His essay examines traits of Genesis 1-2 that are carried forward in Jewish texts of the Second Temple period. One of the things that characterized the giving of the Sabbath laws was man’s relationship to and peace with the animals. Consider this excerpt from the Babylonian Talmud.

“A. A man should not go out with (1) a sword, (2) bow, (3) shield, (4) club, or (5) spear.

“B. And if he went out, he is liable to a sin-offering.

“C. R. Eliezer says, ‘They are ornaments for him.’

“D. And sages say, ‘They are nothing but ugly,

“E. ‘since it is said, “And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more” (Isa. 2:4).’” 

(Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 12a: Jacob Neusner, The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary, vol. 2 [Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2011], 269.)

Tim also shares Bacchiocchi’s findings on the connection between the themes of food, the Sabbath, and material abundance.

Tim shares from 2 Baruch 29:4-6, “the Messiah shall begin to be revealed ... the earth also shall yield its fruit ten thousandfold and on each vine there shall be a thousand branches, and each branch shall produce a thousand clusters, and each cluster produce a thousand grapes and each grape produce a cor of wine.”

Abundance through unending food, Tim says, was one of the signs viewed by the prophets as an indication that the Messiah had come.

Tim also shares from Bacchiocchi’s findings on the theme of what he calls “Joy and Light.” Bacchiocchi cites Rabbi Levi said in the name of Rabbi Zimra.

“‘For the Sabbath day,’ that is, for the day which darkness did not attend. You find that it is written of other days, ‘And there was evening and there was morning, one day.’ But the words, ‘There was evening’ are not written of the Sabbath. And so, the Sabbath light continued thirty-six hours.”

(The Midrash on Psalms, translated by William G. Braude [New Haven, 1959], p. 112. Quoted in Samuele Bacchiocchi, “Sabbatical Typologies of Messianic Redemption,” p. 159.)

In part 2 (29:15-34:00) Tim and Jon dive into Luke 4.

Luke 4:14-21

“Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside. He was teaching in their synagogues, and everyone praised him. He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. He stood up to read, and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written:

“The Spirit of the Lord is on me,

because he has anointed me

to proclaim good news to the poor.

He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners

and recovery of sight for the blind,

to set the oppressed free,

to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.

“Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him. He began by saying to them, ‘Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.’”

In part 3 (34:00-50:45), Tim examines the word “release” or “freedom” in the Isaiah passage (Grk. aphesis, “release,” or Heb. deror, “Jubilee liberation.” See Isaiah 61:1 and Leviticus 25:10). This is the common word for “forgiveness” in Luke (Luke 1:77 and 3:3), but the word’s meaning is broader in this instance. It’s denoting release from burden or bondage. The word in Isaiah 61 is rooted in the Year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25), and it is about release from the social consequences of society’s collective sin—a freedom from debt, slavery, poverty, and oppression.

Tim notes that forgiveness and release are the same word in the New Testament. The guys talk about how Jesus would have viewed “releasing” people from slavery to sin.

In part 4 (50:45-58:30), Tim and Jon talk about the controversy Jesus created around the Sabbath. They note that the conflict was not about whether the Sabbath should be observed but instead about what that observance of the Sabbath entailed in practical terms.

Take for instance this story from Matthew 12.

Matthew 12:9-13 

“Departing from there, he went into their synagogue. And a man was there whose hand was withered. And they questioned Jesus, asking, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?’—so that they might accuse him. And he said to them, ‘What man is there among you who has a sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it and lift it out? How much more valuable then is a man than a sheep! So then, it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.’ Then he said to the man, ‘Stretch out your hand!’ He stretched it out, and it was restored to normal, like the other.”

Tim cites scholar R.T. France on this passage:

“Fundamental to the rabbinic discussion was the agreed list (m.Šabb. 7:2) of 39 categories of activity which were to be classified as ‘work’ for this purpose, some of which are very specific (‘writing two letters, erasing in order to write two letters’) others so broad as to need considerable further specification (‘building, pulling down’), while the last (‘taking anything from one “domain” [normally a private courtyard] to another’) is so open-ended as to cover a vast range of daily activities. The 39 categories of work do not explicitly include traveling, but this too was regarded as ‘work,’ a ‘Sabbath-day’s journey’ being limited to 2,000 cubits, a little over half a mile. These two rules together made Sabbath life potentially so inconvenient that the Pharisees developed an elaborate system of ‘boundary-extensions’ (ʿerubin) to allow more freedom of movement without violating the basic rules. The ʿerub system illustrates an essential element of all this scribal development of Sabbath law: its aim was not simply to make life difficult (though it must often have seemed like that), but to work out a way in which people could cope with the practicalities of life within the limits of their very rigorous understanding of ‘work.’ The elaboration of details is intended to leave nothing to chance, so that no one can inadvertently come anywhere near violating the law itself. Some rabbis spoke about this as ‘putting up a fence around the law.’”

(R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament [Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publication Co., 2007], 455–456.)

In part 5 (58:30-65:30), Tim and Jon discuss how Jesus didn’t really dispute the validity of Sabbath practice. Instead, he insisted that he was fulfilling all the symbolism that the Sabbath pointed to.

Tim notes that one way to characterize the life of Jesus is as one big jubilee announcement tour. Jesus went around and released people from sickness and death.

In part 6 (65:30-end), Tim and Jon note that Western Protestant tradition tends to separate a social gospel from a proclaimed verbal gospel. This is a false dichotomy that didn’t exist in Jesus’ mind. To proclaim a full gospel of release meant release from cosmic sin and death as well as working to release from physical bondages as well.

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Dec 16, 2019
Seventy Times Seven - Prophetic Math - 7th Day Rest E10
01:04:39

QUOTE

“Welcome to a fascinating industry in biblical scholarship. What we know is that every Jewish group that left a literary record, whether it’s the Qumran community, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the early Christians—everyone is is talking about Daniel 9. And you can see why. It sets the clock."

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Daniel 9 and the passage commonly known as "The Seventy Sevens" is one of the most symbolically complex passages in the Bible and also has a wide range of scholarly interpretations surrounding it.
  • Daniel 9 is directly related to Jeremiah 25.
  • The Hebrew prophets like Isaiah in Isaiah 61 began to see the announcement of a jubilee not only as a practice but also as an announcement for a future time when all of humanity would get a restart.

SHOW NOTES

In part 1 (0:00–8:20), Jon briefly recaps the conversation so far. Tim shares a verse from Isaiah, “In repentance and rest is your salvation, in quietness and trust is your strength” (Isaiah 30:15). This verse, Tim says, is at the core of the theological claims behind the theme of seventh-day rest in the Bible.

In part 2 (8:20–27:30), Tim turns to the book of 2 Chronicles.

2 Chronicles 36:20-21

“He carried into exile to Babylon the remnant, who escaped from the sword, and they became servants to him and his successors until the kingdom of Persia came to power. The land enjoyed its sabbath rests; all the time of its desolation it rested, until the seventy years were completed in fulfillment of the word of the Lord spoken by Jeremiah.”

Tim says that the author of this passage would have had two prophecies from Jeremiah in mind when writing this. 

Jeremiah 25:11-14

“This whole country will become a desolate wasteland, and these nations will serve the king of Babylon seventy years. ‘But when the seventy years are fulfilled, I will punish the king of Babylon and his nation, the land of the Babylonians, for their guilt,’ declares the Lord, ‘and will make it desolate forever. I will bring on that land all the things I have spoken against it, all that are written in this book and prophesied by Jeremiah against all the nations. They themselves will be enslaved by many nations and great kings; I will repay them according to their deeds and the work of their hands.’”

Jeremiah 29:10-14

“This is what the Lord says: ‘When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will come to you and fulfill my good promise to bring you back to this place. For I know the plans I have for you,’ declares the Lord, ‘plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. Then you will call on me and come and pray to me, and I will listen to you. You will seek me and find me when you seek me with all your heart. I will be found by you,’ declares the Lord, ‘and will bring you back from captivity. I will gather you from all the nations and places where I have banished you,’ declares the Lord, ‘and will bring you back to the place from which I carried you into exile.’”

Tim notes that this is a very famous verse in the Bible, but many people aren’t aware of its original context—a promise from God that Israel will return from exile.

In part 3 (27:30–46:45), Tim dives into Daniel 9:20, a passage commonly known as “the seventy sevens.”

Daniel 9:20-27

“While I was speaking and praying, confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and making my request to the Lord my God for his holy hill—while I was still in prayer, Gabriel, the man I had seen in the earlier vision, came to me in swift flight about the time of the evening sacrifice. He instructed me and said to me, ‘Daniel, I have now come to give you insight and understanding. As soon as you began to pray, a word went out, which I have come to tell you, for you are highly esteemed. Therefore, consider the word and understand the vision: Seventy “sevens” are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the Most Holy Place.’

“‘Know and understand this: from the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven sevens, and sixty-two sevens. It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble. After the sixty-two sevens, the Anointed One will be put to death and will have nothing. The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come like a flood: war will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed. He will confirm a covenant with many for one seven. In the middle of the seven he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.’”

This passage, Tim says, maps directly onto the two Jeremiah prophecies.

Tim notes that Daniel would have been heartbroken because he was hoping that this would have been a proclamation of good news that Israel would return from exile. Instead, the message is that Israel has a long way to go in its exile.

There are many ways to read and interpret the 490 years (seventy sevens) in Daniel 9. Tim shares about a study from scholar Roger Beckwith, who has done an enormous study on the various interpretations of Daniel 9 in his paper, “Daniel 9 and the Date of Messiah’s Coming in Essene, Hellenistic, Pharisaic, Zealot and Early Christian Computation” (see show resources for link).

In part 4 (46:45–end), Tim and Jon cover an important prophecy in Isaiah about a coming jubilee.

Isaiah 61:1-3

“The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me,

because the Lord has anointed me

to proclaim good news to the poor.

He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,

to proclaim freedom for the captives

and release from darkness for the prisoners,

to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor

and the day of vengeance of our God,

to comfort all who mourn,

and provide for those who grieve in Zion—

to bestow on them a crown of beauty

instead of ashes,

the oil of joy

instead of mourning,

and a garment of praise

instead of a spirit of despair.

They will be called oaks of righteousness,

a planting of the Lord

for the display of his splendor.”

Tim shares a quote from scholar Bradley Gregory in his essay on Isaiah 61, called “The Post Exilic Exile in Isaiah.”

“In Isaiah 40-55, the Babylonian exile is understood as an image of the Egyptian captivity. In the last ten chapters of Isaiah (56-66), the oppressive situation in Jerusalem after the exile has become another symbol. One gets the impression that the author doesn’t see the situation after the exile as any better than the situation in Babylon or enslaved in ancient Egypt. In all cases Israel is shackled because of sin, awaiting deliverance by Yahweh. The prescriptions for the jubilee have been eschatologized—the jubilee is now a metaphor and an image for a future hope. Isaiah has moved the concept for jubilee from a law to a concept of future deliverance.”

 

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  • Mind your Time by Me.So
  • Excellent by Beautiful Eulogy
  • Good Grief by Beautiful Eulogy

 

Produced by Dan Gummel.

 

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Dec 09, 2019
Rest for the Land - 7th Day Rest E9
00:43:52

KEY TAKEAWAYS 

  • The land is entitled to a Sabbath rest as a part of the Torah commandments.
  • If Israel disobeys the Torah and does not allow the land to rest, they will be punished by God, including being sent into exile.
  • Romans 8 is similar to Leviticus 26. The land (creation) is waiting for its release from bondage, which will occur when humans attain their release from their bondage.

QUOTE


“What we call the natural world in the biblical story is an existence with humans living at odds with our real nature and our environment. (The Land) is not ours to do what we want with.”

SHOW NOTES

In part 1 (0-18:35), Tim and Jon review the conversation so far and quickly go over the Jewish festival calendar year to recap how it reflects the theme of seventh-day rest. They also discuss the Year of Jubilee.

In part 2 (18:35-32:40), Tim shares from Leviticus 26 and talks about the “covenant curses” that God pronounces. If Israel disobeys the commands, they will be exiled. Their exile is portrayed an inverted jubilee. Covenant loyalty will result in Eden blessing, freedom, abundance, and security, much like the jubilee.

Leviticus 26:3-13

“If you walk in my statutes and keep my commandments so as to carry them out, then I shall give you rains in their season, so that the land will yield its produce and the trees of the field will bear their fruit. Indeed, your threshing will last for you until grape gathering, and grape gathering will last until sowing time. You will thus eat your food to the full (Heb. שבע, seven) and live securely in your land.

“I shall also grant peace in the land, so that you may lie down with no one making you tremble. I shall also eliminate harmful beasts from the land, and no sword will pass through your land…

“So I will turn toward you and make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will confirm my covenant with you. You will eat the old supply and clear out the old because of the new. Moreover, I will make my dwelling among you, and my soul will not reject you. I will also walk among you (cf.  Genesis 3:8) and be your God, and you shall be my people. I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt so that you would not be their slaves, and I broke the bars of your yoke and made you walk erect.”

Tim says the takeaway from this passage is that covenant violation will result in seven anti-jubilee curses, slavery, poverty, and oppression, which is also portrayed with symbolic seven imagery.

Leviticus 26:14-18, 21, 23-24, 27-28, 33-35

“But if you will not listen to me and carry out all these commands, and if you reject my decrees and abhor my laws and fail to carry out all my commands and so violate my covenant, then I will do this to you: I will bring on you sudden terror, wasting diseases and fever that will destroy your sight and sap your strength. You will plant seed in vain, because your enemies will eat it. I will set my face against you so that you will be defeated by your enemies; those who hate you will rule over you, and you will flee even when no one is pursuing you.

“If after all this you will not listen to me, I will discipline you for your sins seven times over.

“If you remain hostile toward me and refuse to listen to me, I will multiply your afflictions seven times over, as your sins deserve.

“If in spite of these things you do not accept my correction but continue to be hostile toward me, I myself will be hostile toward you and will afflict you for your sins seven times over.

“If in spite of this you still do not listen to me but continue to be hostile toward me, then in my anger I will be hostile toward you, and I myself will discipline you for your sins seven times over.

“I will scatter you among the nations and will draw out my sword and pursue you. Your land will be laid waste, and your cities will lie in ruins. Then the land will enjoy its sabbath years all the time that it lies desolate and you are in the country of your enemies; then the land will rest and enjoy its sabbaths. All the time that it lies desolate, the land will have the rest it did not have during the sabbaths you lived in it.”

Jon notes that Western culture allows us to think that we own land. However, owning land in ancient Israel wasn’t reality. Instead, the land would return to the family originally entrusted with it every fifty years. God considers the land to be his, and Israel is tenants upon it.

In part 3 (32:40-end), Tim finishes Leviticus 26.

Leviticus 26:40-45

“If they confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their forefathers, in their unfaithfulness which they committed against me, and also in their acting with hostility against me… or if their uncircumcised heart becomes humbled so that they then make amends for their iniquity, then I will remember my covenant with Jacob, and I will remember also my covenant with Isaac, and my covenant with Abraham as well, and I will remember the land. For the land will be abandoned by them, and will make up for its sabbaths while it is made desolate without them.

“Yet in spite of this, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not reject them, nor will I so abhor them as to destroy them, breaking my covenant with them; for I am the Lord their God. But I will remember for them the covenant with their ancestors, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations, that I might be their God. I am the Lord.”

Tim notes that the same logic that gives the land rest in Leviticus 26 also appears in the New Testament, when Paul writes in Romans 8.

Romans 8:19-23

“For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the children of God; for the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and will obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. We know that the whole creation has been groaning in labor pains until now; and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.”

Creation will be liberated from its bondage when humans are liberated from theirs.

 

Show Resources:

Hittite King Suppiluliuma (Wikipedia)

 

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  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Always Home by Ian Ewing
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Dec 02, 2019
Jubilee: The Radical Year of Release - 7th Day Rest E8
00:57:57

QUOTE

“Since it occurred usually only once a lifetime, an impoverished Israelite would spend most of his life anticipating this event of restoration. So when we get to Jesus and the Jesus movement, it was a jubilee movement. Jesus started his mission by reading from Isaiah 61. He said it’s the favorable year of the Lord, the year of release.”

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The Year of Jubilee in Leviticus 25 is one of the most radical ideas in the Bible. Every 50 years, every Israelite was supposed to return to their original piece of allotted land.
  • The jubilee would have effectively prevented cycles of intergenerational poverty and create a social and economic parity that would make Israel unique among all nations.
  • Jesus announced that he was enacting the Year of Jubilee when he launched his public ministry.

SHOW NOTES

In part 1 (0-7:30), the guys quickly review the conversation so far.

In part 2 (7:30-21:30), Tim dives into Leviticus 24.

Leviticus 24:1-4

“The Lord said to Moses, ‘Command the Israelites to bring you clear oil of pressed olives for the light so that the lamps may be kept burning continually. Outside the curtain that shields the ark of the covenant law in the tent of meeting, Aaron is to tend the lamps before the Lord from evening till morning, continually. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. The lamps on the pure gold lampstand before the Lord must be tended continually.’”

Tim shares a quote from Jacob Milgrom.

“There are three kinds of oil. The first when the olives are pounded in order and put into a basket, and the oil oozes out. Rabbi Judah says, ‘Around the basket and around the sides, the oil that runs out of the basket, this gives the first oil…. The first oil is fit for lampstands.’”

Tim and Jon observe that the first oil would be the safest, least likely to smoke. This would keep the soot for accumulating in the rooms where it is burning.

Tim makes several observations about the lamp from Leviticus 24.

  • The lamp (מאור / ma’or) is attended to every evening so that its light burns perpetually (“from evening to evening,” borrowing language from Genesis 1).
  • The lamp is described with the vocabulary of the sun, moon, and stars in Genesis 1. They are symbols of the divine glory and markers “for signs and for seasons”—that is, for the appointed feasts (Gen. 1:14-16).
  • The lamp is a symbol of the divine light that perpetually shines upon Israel, who is represented by the bread. Numbers 8:1-4 tells us that the light of the menorah “will give light in the front of the lampstand” (v. 2), shining in the direction of the bread.
  • Leviticus 24:5-9 says that the bread is to be placed directly across from the light. Just as new bread is baked every Sabbath, so Israel is “recreated” every Sabbath. This bread is called “an eternal covenant” (Lev. 24:8), meaning it’s a symbol of the eternal relationship between God and Israel.

Tim shares this quote from Michael Morales:

“The menorah lampstand contains the same seven-fold structure, symbolizing the entire seven-part structure of time provided by the heavenly lights…. Just as the cosmos was created for humanity’s Sabbath communion and fellowship with God, so too tabernacle was established for Israel’s Sabbath communion and fellowship with God “every day of the Sabbath” (Lev 24:8). This ritual drama of the lights and the bread, symbolizes the ideal Sabbath, the tribes of Israel basking in the divine light, being renewed in God’s presence Sabbath by Sabbath.”

(Michael Morales, Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord, 189-190 [with embedded quote by Vern Poythress].)

In part 3 (21:30-36:00), Tim dives into Leviticus 25 and the practice of jubilee.

Leviticus 25:1-55

“The Lord said to Moses at Mount Sinai, ‘Speak to the Israelites and say to them: “When you enter the land I am going to give you, the land itself must observe a sabbath to the Lord. For six years sow your fields, and for six years prune your vineyards and gather their crops. But in the seventh year the land is to have a year of sabbath rest, a sabbath to the Lord. Do not sow your fields or prune your vineyards. Do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the grapes of your untended vines. The land is to have a year of rest. Whatever the land yields during the sabbath year will be food for you—for yourself, your male and female servants, and the hired worker and temporary resident who live among you, as well as for your livestock and the wild animals in your land. Whatever the land produces may be eaten.

‘“Count off seven sabbath years—seven times seven years—so that the seven sabbath years amount to a period of forty-nine years. Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet throughout your land. Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you; each of you is to return to your family property and to your own clan. The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines. For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat only what is taken directly from the fields.

‘“In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to their own property. If you sell land to any of your own people or buy land from them, do not take advantage of each other. You are to buy from your own people on the basis of the number of years since the Jubilee. And they are to sell to you on the basis of the number of years left for harvesting crops. When the years are many, you are to increase the price, and when the years are few, you are to decrease the price, because what is really being sold to you is the number of crops. Do not take advantage of each other, but fear your God. I am the Lord your God.

‘“Follow my decrees and be careful to obey my laws, and you will live safely in the land. Then the land will yield its fruit, and you will eat your fill and live there in safety. You may ask, ‘What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not plant or harvest our crops?’ I will send you such a blessing in the sixth year that the land will yield enough for three years. While you plant during the eighth year, you will eat from the old crop and will continue to eat from it until the harvest of the ninth year comes in.

‘“The land must not be sold permanently, because the land is mine and you reside in my land as foreigners and strangers. Throughout the land that you hold as a possession, you must provide for the redemption of the land.

‘“If one of your fellow Israelites becomes poor and sells some of their property, their nearest relative is to come and redeem what they have sold. If, however, there is no one to redeem it for them but later on they prosper and acquire sufficient means to redeem it themselves, they are to determine the value for the years since they sold it and refund the balance to the one to whom they sold it; they can then go back to their own property. But if they do not acquire the means to repay, what was sold will remain in the possession of the buyer until the Year of Jubilee. It will be returned in the Jubilee, and they can then go back to their property.

‘“Anyone who sells a house in a walled city retains the right of redemption a full year after its sale. During that time the seller may redeem it. If it is not redeemed before a full year has passed, the house in the walled city shall belong permanently to the buyer and the buyer’s descendants. It is not to be returned in the Jubilee. But houses in villages without walls around them are to be considered as belonging to the open country. They can be redeemed, and they are to be returned in the Jubilee.

‘“The Levites always have the right to redeem their houses in the Levitical towns, which they possess. So the property of the Levites is redeemable—that is, a house sold in any town they hold—and is to be returned in the Jubilee, because the houses in the towns of the Levites are their property among the Israelites. But the pastureland belonging to their towns must not be sold; it is their permanent possession.

‘“If any of your fellow Israelites become poor and are unable to support themselves among you, help them as you would a foreigner and stranger, so they can continue to live among you. Do not take interest or any profit from them, but fear your God, so that they may continue to live among you. You must not lend them money at interest or sell them food at a profit. I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan and to be your God.

‘“If any of your fellow Israelites become poor and sell themselves to you, do not make them work as slaves. They are to be treated as hired workers or temporary residents among you; they are to work for you until the Year of Jubilee. Then they and their children are to be released, and they will go back to their own clans and to the property of their ancestors. Because the Israelites are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt, they must not be sold as slaves. Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God.

‘“Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. You may also buy some of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in your country, and they will become your property. You can bequeath them to your children as inherited property and can make them slaves for life, but you must not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly.

‘“If a foreigner residing among you becomes rich and any of your fellow Israelites become poor and sell themselves to the foreigner or to a member of the foreigner’s clan, they retain the right of redemption after they have sold themselves. One of their relatives may redeem them: An uncle or a cousin or any blood relative in their clan may redeem them. Or if they prosper, they may redeem themselves. They and their buyer are to count the time from the year they sold themselves up to the Year of Jubilee. The price for their release is to be based on the rate paid to a hired worker for that number of years. If many years remain, they must pay for their redemption a larger share of the price paid for them. If only a few years remain until the Year of Jubilee, they are to compute that and pay for their redemption accordingly. They are to be treated as workers hired from year to year; you must see to it that those to whom they owe service do not rule over them ruthlessly.

‘“Even if someone is not redeemed in any of these ways, they and their children are to be released in the Year of Jubilee, for the Israelites belong to me as servants. They are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.”’”

Tim makes a few observations about the practice of jubilee and the Year of Jubilee. Giving people back their ancestral land would prevent the formation of monopolies and land owner dynasties. It would be a consistent (about once a lifetime) check to level the economic playing field of ancient Israel.

Tim also notes that there are no narrative stories about Israel actually observing this Year of Jubilee. This causes some scholars to wonder whether the jubilee ever happened, or whether it was set up as an ideal to aspire to.

Tim says that jubilee anticipates a future restoration. He shares a quote from scholar John Bergsma.

“There is something inherently ‘eschatological’ about the jubilee, long before it was seen as a symbol of the eschaton by later writers. Since it recurred usually only once in a lifetime, the impoverished Israelite—or at least the one projected by the text—would spend most of his life in anticipation of this event of restoration. Also, from the perspective of the entire Pentateuch, the conquest and settlement of Canaan was a kind of ‘realized eschatology’—the fulfillment of the promise of the land of Canaan originally made to Abraham. Leviticus 25—in its present position in the Pentateuch—looks forward to the time when the ‘eschatological’ condition of Israel dwelling within her own land will be realized, and enacts measures to ensure that periodically this utopian, ‘eschatological’ state of Israel will be renewed and restored.”

(John Bergsma, The Jubilee from Leviticus to Qumran: A History of Interpretation, 81)

In part 4 (36:00-end), Tim and Jon talk about how the jubilee crosses into social, economic, and political views. Tim notes that Jesus launched his movement by declaring that the Year of Jubilee had arrived.

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Nov 25, 2019
7th Day Rest Q&R #1 - 7th Day Rest E7
00:53:51

7th Day Q+R 1

Sam from Ohio (1:55): “I've heard you use the phrase that the Hebrew authors are in conversation with their Canaanite neighbors. In the creation narratives, when the Hebrew authors use the word avodah—for slave labor or work—are they saying something significant to their Canaanite neighbors, who in some of their creation accounts claim that the gods created humans to be their slaves? Is the word avodah tied to a unique claim that the Hebrew authors are trying to make about the relationship between God, work, and rest?”

Laura from Missouri (11:46): “As you were talking about sacred time built into the fabric of creation—particularly how the sun, moon, and stars are indented to mark the days and times for seasons and feasts—would these things still have been the case if the fall did not occur? Were these intended to be part of the people of God regardless of the fall? And if so, what would they be looking back to or forward to?”

Mike from South Africa (22:20): “Is the number seven a divine construct imported into the Israelite thinking? Or is it (or was it) an already established cultural idea that God just adopted to teach something that they would have understood if you spoke in their language?”

Brianna from Wisconsin (32:35): “I have a question about the flood narrative, and what’s going on there with all the uses of time and sevens that keep getting repeated. I’m wondering if all the references to time are supposed to get mapped onto Israel’s calendar and the feast days? And if so, does that somehow tie into Noah and his name meaning “rest?” What are we meant to see there with all the reference to time and sevens and the idea that Noah is rest and bringing rest into the world.”

John from Virginia (43:27): “You mention that the Exodus story participates with days one, two, and three of the creation account. I was wondering if there was anything following that that maps onto days four, five, and six that maps onto the new Eden.”

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Defender Instrumental by Tents

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Nov 21, 2019
The Seven Festivals - 7th Day Rest E6
01:07:23

QUOTE

“The Holy One, blessed be He, created seven ages, and of them all He chose the seventh age only, the six ages are for the going in and coming out (of God’s creatures) for war and peace. The seventh age is entirely Sabbath and rest in the life everlasting.” – Rabbi Eliezer

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The seven festivals or feasts in the Jewish sacred calendar are integral to understanding the theme of the seventh-day rest in the Bible.
  • These feasts have symbolic meaning connecting back to the creation account in Genesis and the story of the Exodus. They are meant to act as a way to remember and teach.

SHOW NOTES

In part 1 (0-16:10), Tim and Jon recap the conversation so far, including the story of God giving Moses the Ten Commandments and instructions for the tabernacle. Interestingly, Tim notes that he isn’t pointing out all the layers of seven in the Bible, just highlighting some of the significant ones. For example, Moses goes up and down the mountain to commune with God seven times in the whole story of the TaNaK.

Tim moves into the next part of the story. God is now dwelling in the tabernacle, also known as the tent of meeting. Unfortunately, God’s presence is so intense that no one can go in.

In part 2 (16:10-25:00), Tim expands on the theme of Sabbath in Exodus.

Exodus 23:9-12 

Do not oppress a foreigner; you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners, because you were foreigners in Egypt. For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the crops, but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and unused. Then the poor among your people may get food from it, and the wild animals may eat what is left. Do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.

Six days do your work, but on the seventh day do not work, so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and so that the slave born in your household and the foreigner living among you may be refreshed.

Tim observes that Sabbath rest isn’t just for the Jews. It’s also rest for the servants, the land, and the animals. All of creation is called to participate in seventh-day rest.

In part 3 (25:00-35:00), Tim looks at a passage from Deuteronomy 15. 

Deuteronomy 15:1-6

At the end of every seven years you must cancel debts. This is how it is to be done: Every creditor shall cancel any loan they have made to a fellow Israelite. They shall not require payment from anyone among their own people, because the Lord’s time for canceling debts has been proclaimed. You may require payment from a foreigner, but you must cancel any debt your fellow Israelite owes you. However, there need be no poor people among you, for in the land the Lord your God is giving you to possess as your inheritance, he will richly bless you, if only you fully obey the Lord your God and are careful to follow all these commands I am giving you today. For the Lord your God will bless you as he has promised, and you will lend to many nations but will borrow from none. You will rule over many nations but none will rule over you.

Cancelling debts would sometimes happen in the ancient world when a new ruler came into power as an act of political and social favor. What’s unique about the Jewish idea in Deuteronomy, Tim notes, is that this release from debts is meant to be observed independently of any kingship or political system.

In part 4 (35:00-44:00), Tim goes back to Leviticus to trace out the appointed feasts.

Leviticus 23:2-4

The Lord said to Moses, “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘These are my appointed festivals, the appointed festivals of the Lord, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies. 

There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a day of sabbath rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a sabbath to the Lord.

These are the Lord’s appointed festivals, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times.’”

Here’s a simple way to lay out the sabbath and the appointed festivals.

1. Sabbath

The seventh day of each week.

Duration: one day

Restrictions: no work

2. Passover & Unleavened Bread

The first feast of the year.

Duration: one day plus seven days

Restrictions: no work on the first and seventh days

3. Firstfruits

Held the day after the seventh day of Passover

Duration: one day

4. The Feast of Weeks (Pentecost)

Seven times seven and one days after Passover

Duration: one day

Restrictions: no work

5. Trumpets

First day of the seventh month

Duration: one day

Restrictions: no work

6. Day of Atonement

Tenth day of the seventh month

Duration: one day

Restrictions: no work

7. Tabernacles

Middle of the seventh month (7/15-7/21)

Duration: seven days

Restrictions: no work on the first and seventh days

(Numbers 5-7 are commonly known as "The Days of Awe")

The Sabbath represented a burst of Eden rest into ordinary time. These seven feasts all participate and develop aspects of the meaning of the original Sabbath.

  • Passover and Unleavened Bread: redemption from death (new creation) and commitment to simplicity and trust in God’s power to provide food in the wilderness
  • Firstfruits and Weeks: celebrating the gift of produce from the land
  • Trumpets: announcing the sabbatical (seventh) month
  • Day of Atonement: God’s renewing the holiness of his Eden presence among his compromised people
  • Tabernacles: provision for God’s people on their way to the Promised Land. They are to act like they are living in God’s tent for a Sabbath cycle. “And you will take the fruit of the beautiful tree, the branches of a palm, and branches of a tree of leaf and of poplar trees by a river, and you shall rejoice before Yahweh for seven days” (Leviticus 23:40). Israel is called to rest in a mini-Eden tent made of the fruit of a beautiful tree for a Sabbath cycle!

The dates of these feasts float independently of the perpetual seventh-day cycle. Occasionally, when a feast falls on the Sabbath, it becomes extra special. For example, passover falls on the Sabbath during Jesus’ week of passion when he is crucified.

In part 5 (44:00-47:45), Tim moves on and discusses the Feast of Firstfruits and the Feast of Weeks / Pentecost.

In part 6 (47:45-end), Tim covers the last three festivals: the Festival of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles.

Tim notes that there are lots of overlapping calendars in the Hebrew Bible, and it can be difficult to keep them all straight. In modern times we have calendars like “the school year,” “the financial year,” “the sports year,” etc. All of these years and calendars overlay on our actual year in a different way. This is true of feasts in the Bible as well.

These last few feasts are commonly regarded as “the days of awe and wonder” in modern Jewish life. The Festival of Trumpets is now known as Rosh Hashanah. This is would have been considered the Jewish New Year. The Day of Atonement is the next holiday where a symbolic goat takes Israel’s sins out of the camp. The Feast of Tabernacles is last. This feast is meant to reenact the Israelite wandering and journey in the wilderness. Israelites are expected to not work for seven days and camp out.

Tim quotes from Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.

“The Holy One, blessed be He, created seven ages, and of them all He chose the seventh age only, the six ages are for the going in and coming out (of God’s creatures) for war and peace. The seventh age is entirely Sabbath and rest in the life everlasting.”

Thank you to all our supporters! Have a question for us? Send it to info@jointhebibleproject.com.

We love reading your reviews of our show!

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Lost Love by Too North
  • For When It’s Warmer by Sleepy Fish
  • Ambedo by Too North
  • Shot in the Back of the Head by Moby
  • Shine by Moby

Show Resources:

  • Michael Morales, Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord, A biblical theology of the book of Leviticus.
  • Quote from Rabbi Eliezer can be found in Samuel Bacchiochi, “Matthew 11:28-30: Jesus’ Rest and the Sabbath,” pp. 297-99.

 

Show Produced by:

 

Dan Gummel

 

Powered and Distributed by Simplecast.

Nov 18, 2019
The Cathedral in Time - 7th Day Rest E5
00:57:08

QUOTE

"The Sabbath is to time what the tabernacle and temple are to space: a cathedral in time. On the seventh day, we experience in time what the temple and tabernacle represented in spaces, which is eternal life with God in a complete creation."

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The building of the tabernacle in Exodus 40 has deep connections with the theme of seventh-day rest and the creation account in Genesis.
  • The tabernacle is presented as a mini cosmos, brought into being by the seven acts of divine speech by God. When Moses builds this symbolic mini cosmos, seven times over he obeys the divine command.

SHOW NOTES:

In part 1 (0-8:30), Tim and Jon recap their conversation so far. They go over the story of the Passover and review how it reflects the creation account in Genesis.

In part 2 (8:30-22:30), Tim transitions to the story of Israel collecting manna in the wilderness in Exodus 16.

Exodus 16:4-35

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Behold, I am about to rain bread from heaven for you, and the people shall go out and gather a day's portion every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in my law or not. On the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it will be twice as much as they gather daily.” So Moses and Aaron said to all the people of Israel, “At evening you shall know that it was the Lord who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and in the morning you shall see the glory of the Lord, because he has heard your grumbling against the Lord. For what are we, that you grumble against us?” And Moses said, “When the Lord gives you in the evening meat to eat and in the morning bread to the full, because the Lord has heard your grumbling that you grumble against him—what are we? Your grumbling is not against us but against the Lord.”

Then Moses said to Aaron, “Say to the whole congregation of the people of Israel, ‘Come near before the Lord, for he has heard your grumbling.’” And as soon as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the people of Israel, they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud. And the Lord said to Moses, “I have heard the grumbling of the people of Israel. Say to them, ‘At twilight you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread. Then you shall know that I am the Lord your God.’”

In the evening quail came up and covered the camp, and in the morning dew lay around the camp. And when the dew had gone up, there was on the face of the wilderness a fine, flake-like thing, fine as frost on the ground. When the people of Israel saw it, they said to one another, “What is it? For they did not know what it was. And Moses said to them, “It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat. This is what the Lord has commanded: ‘Gather of it, each one of you, as much as he can eat. You shall each take an omer, according to the number of the persons that each of you has in his tent.’” And the people of Israel did so. They gathered, some more, some less. But when they measured it with an omer, whoever gathered much had nothing left over, and whoever gathered little had no lack. Each of them gathered as much as he could eat. And Moses said to them, “Let no one leave any of it over till the morning.” But they did not listen to Moses. Some left part of it till the morning, and it bred worms and stank. And Moses was angry with them. Morning by morning they gathered it, each as much as he could eat; but when the sun grew hot, it melted.

On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers each. And when all the leaders of the congregation came and told Moses, he said to them, “This is what the Lord has commanded: ‘Tomorrow is a day of solemn rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord; bake what you will bake and boil what you will boil, and all that is left over lay aside to be kept till the morning.’” So they laid it aside till the morning, as Moses commanded them, and it did not stink, and there were no worms in it. Moses said, “Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the field. Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day, which is a Sabbath, there will be none.”

On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather, but they found none. And the Lord said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws? See! The Lord has given you the Sabbath; therefore on the sixth day he gives you bread for two days. Remain each of you in his place; let no one go out of his place on the seventh day.” So the people rested on the seventh day.

Now the house of Israel called its name manna. It was like coriander seed, white, and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey. Moses said, “This is what the Lord has commanded: ‘Let an omer of it be kept throughout your generations, so that they may see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you out of the land of Egypt.’” And Moses said to Aaron, “Take a jar, and put an omer of manna in it, and place it before the Lord to be kept throughout your generations.” As the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron placed it before the testimony to be kept. The people of Israel ate the manna forty years, till they came to a habitable land. They ate the manna till they came to the border of the land of Canaan.

Tim notes that manna was supposed to be a little taste of the new creation. Manna was a new work of creation that violated normal creation while also fitting within God’s ideal purpose for creation (i.e., within the seven-day scheme). Manna was a divine gift that came from proximity to the divine glory (Ex 16:9-10). This miraculous provision didn’t behave like normal food, and there was more than enough each day, no matter how much was gathered.

Tim also shares that the rhythms of gathering and not gathering on the Sabbath is an imitation of God’s own patterns of work and rest in Genesis 1. Similarly, God announced “good” days one through six and “very good” on day seven. This parallels with Israel collecting manna on days one through six and “double manna” on day seven. Furthermore, on the seventh day God “rested” (took up residence in his temple), and on the seventh day Israel “rests” and Moses “rested” a perpetual sample of manna “before Yahweh” and “before the testimony.”

Tim cites scholar Stephen Geller:

“... manna is presented as a new work of creation that disrupts the established order of creation. In fact, there is a clear parallelism between the creation account in Gen 1-2:4 and Exod 16. In both passages there is a dichotomy between the first six days and the seventh day. In Gen 1, the work of each day is stated by God to be "good," a term that marks its completion. But on the sixth day the phrase "very good" marks the completion not just of the acts of creation on that day, but of the first six days as a whole. Genesis 2:1 states explicitly that "the heaven and earth were completed." Yet, to the perplex­ity of exegesis, the very next verse says that "God completed on the seventh day the work he did and ceased on the seventh day all work he did." The second of these two statements must be viewed as an explanation of the first: God completed his work by ceasing.”

(Stephen Geller, “Exodus 16: A Literary and Theological Reading,” Interpretation vol. (2005), p. 13.)

In part 3 (22:30-36:30), the guys dive into the actual Sabbath command as part of the Ten Commandments, which is given in seven Hebrew sentences. The Sabbath command in Exodus 20:8-11 is expressed in seven statements arranged in a chiastic symmetry. Tim says this is another fascinating layer of the theme of seventh-day rest in the Bible.

Exodus 20:8-11

A – Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

B – Six days you will labor

C – and do all your work,

D – but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God;

C’ – you shall not do any work,

you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant,

or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you.

B’ – For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth,

the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day;

A’ – therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.

Tim cites scholar Leigh Trevaskis to make his point:

“The sabbatical rest seems to remind Israel of her covenant obligations as YHWH’s new creation. Though this rest is more immediately connected to the exodus in these chapters, it has its roots in the creation story (Gen 2:1-3; cf. Exod 20:11) and by connecting Israel’s remembrance of her redemption from Egypt with the sabbatical rest, the exodus becomes infused with further theological significance: just as Gods seventh day rest in the creation story marks the emergence of his new creation, so does Israel’s sabbatical rest attest to her emergence as YHWH’s new creation through his act of redemption. And since her identity as a new creation is tied up with the covenant (cf. Exod 15:1-19; 19:4-5), Israel’s sabbatical rests… presumably recall her obligation to remain faithful to this covenant, encouraging her to live according to the Creators will.” (Leigh Trevaskis, “The Purpose of Leviticus 24 within its Literary Context,” 298-299.)

Tim then walks through Exodus 24, which is the start of God giving the tabernacle instructions to Moses. This story is a crucial layer to understanding how the building of the tabernacle (the “tent of meeting”) weaves into the theme of seventh-day rest.

Exodus 24:1-11

Then he said to Moses, “Come up to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and worship from afar. Moses alone shall come near to the Lord, but the others shall not come near, and the people shall not come up with him.”

Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord and all the rules. And all the people answered with one voice and said, “All the words that the Lord has spoken we will do.” And Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. He rose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men of the people of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord. And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he threw against the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient.” And Moses took the blood and threw it on the people and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up, and they saw the God of Israel. There was under his feet as it were a pavement of sapphire stone, like the very heaven for clearness. And he did not lay his hand on the chief men of the people of Israel; they beheld God, and ate and drank.

In part 4 (36:30-49:50), Tim continues the story in Exodus 24.

Exodus 24:12-18

The Lord said to Moses, “Come up to me on the mountain and wait there, that I may give you the tablets of stone, with the law and the commandment, which I have written for their instruction.” So Moses rose with his assistant Joshua, and Moses went up into the mountain of God. And he said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we return to you. And behold, Aaron and Hur are with you. Whoever has a dispute, let him go to them.” Then Moses went up on the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. The glory of the Lord dwelt on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day he called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. Now the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the sight of the people of Israel. Moses entered the cloud and went up on the mountain. And Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

Tim notes that the theme of sixth and seventh day is now clearly established. God appears to Moses on the seventh day.

Here in Exodus 25-31, God presents Moses with the plans for the tabernacle. These plans are dispensed in seven speeches by God.

[1] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 25:1]

[2] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 30:11]

[3] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 30:17]

[4] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 30:22]

[5] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 30:34]

[6] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 31:1]

[7] “And YHWH spoke to Moses, saying…” [Exodus 31:12]

The seventh and final act of speech covers the Sabbath.

After this, in Exodus 40, the completion of the tabernacle is given with seven statements of Moses completing the work God commanded him.

Exodus 40:17-18a

And it came about in the beginning month, in the second year, on the first of the month, the tabernacle was set up (הוקם), and Moses set up (ותקם) the tabernacle…

[1] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:19]

[2] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:21]

[3] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:23]

[4] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:25]

[5] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:27]

[6] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:29]

[7] “…just as Yahweh commanded Moses” [Exodus 40:32]

“And Moses completed (ויכל) the work (המלאכה)” [Exodus 40:33b]

Tim cites scholar Howard Wallace to make the following point:

“The structuring of the narrative in Exodus 25-40 binds the Sabbath observance closely with the construction of the sanctuary. Both are tightly connected with the question of the presence of Yahweh with his people…. The Sabbath is a significant element in the celebration of the presence of Yahweh with his people. Just as the tabernacle was built along lines specified by divine decree, so too in the sequence is the human sabbath institution modeled on the divine pattern. Since the tabernacle, which is patterned on the divine plan, reveals the presence and shares in the role of the heavenly temple to proclaim the sovereignty of Israel’s God, so the Sabbath shares in the proclamation of the sovereignty of Yahweh.”

(Howard Wallace, “Creation and Sabbath in Genesis 2:1-3,” 246.)

Tim also shares a quote from Rabbi Abraham Heschel.

“The sabbath is to time what the temple and tabernacle are to space. The sabbath is a cathedral in time. On the seventh day we experience in time what the tabernacle and temple represented as spaces which is eternal life, God in the complete creation.”

(The Sabbath, Abraham Joshua Heschel)

In part 5 (49:50-end), the guys finish up their conversation. Tim notes that the cliffhanger at the end of Exodus is that Moses and all of Israel have successfully built the tabernacle (or the tent of meeting) and God then comes to dwell in it, to meet with Israel. But when he does, his presence is too intense, and Moses is unable to go in. So what will happen? Find out next week when we turn to Numbers and Leviticus.

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Show Music:

  • The Hymn of the Cherubim by Tchaikovsky
  • Nature by KV
  • Feather by Waywell
  • Solace by Nomyn

 

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

 

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Nov 11, 2019
Sacred Time & The Feast of Flight - 7th Day Rest E4
01:07:26

QUOTE

"Another layer of Genesis is that the first, the middle, and last day are all designed to show God creating structures of time. In the timing of the middle fourth day, God appoints the sun, moon and stars to rule over day and night, and they are to mark the moadim, the sacred feasts, the annual sacred feasts. So the whole sacred calendar of Israel that you’ll meet in Exodus and Leviticus is already baked into the story at the beginning of Genesis. (This is) sacred time."

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The Jewish sacred feasts are an integral and overlooked theme in the Bible. They are built into the fabric of the original creation story in Genesis 1:14.
  • Passover is considered to be the most important Jewish holiday. Many biblical themes flow into and out of the idea of the Passover.

SHOW NOTES

Welcome to our fourth episode discussing the theme of the seventh-day rest in the Bible. In this episode, Tim and Jon look at the Passover and Exodus stories and talk about their importance to the development of this theme.

In part 1 (0-12:30), the guys quickly go over the conversation so far. Tim briefly covers the days of creation and notes how God sets up structures of time on days one, four, and seven. These structures are reflected in the Hebrew calendar.

In part 2 (12:30-19:30), Tim begins to share broadly about the Hebrew sacred calendar. Tim notes that the Jewish calendar is designed to heavily reflect symbolic “seven” imagery.

In part 3 (19:30-37:30), Tim briefly recaps the calling of Abraham that was discussed in the previous episode. Tim notes that Abraham believed that God would bring about an ultimate seventh day. A brief conversation follows about fasting in Christianity as well as a brief discussion on the differences between “hope” and “optimism.” Tim cites scholar Cornel West about the differences between optimism and Christian hope.

In part 4 (37:30-43:00), Tim starts to talk about Passover, which originates in the book of Exodus. Tim says that Passover is the most important feast on the Jewish calendar. The Exodus story is presented in cosmic terms on analogy with the Creation story of Genesis 1.

In part 5 (43:00-56:20), Tim explains the story of the Exodus and how it maps onto the Genesis story. The powers of evil destroy Israel (i.e. new humanity) through slavery (lit. “working” in Hebrew, עבדה), and through the waters of death. But God acts and rescues Israel. The famous story of the ten plagues are inversions of the ten creative words of God in Genesis 1. All of the plagues “de-create” Egypt back into chaotic darkness.

Consider these examples:

The Plague of Darkness


Genesis 1:2-3 

…and darkness (חשך) was over the surface of the deep…. Then God said, “let there be light (יהי אור)….”

Exodus 10:21, 23 

…that there may be darkness (ויהי חשך) over the land of Egypt… but for all the sons of Israel, there was light (היה אור) in their dwellings.

The Plague of Frogs

Exodus 7:28

And the Nile will swarm (ושרץ) with frogs…

Genesis 1:20 

…let the waters swarm (שרץ) with every swarming (שרץ) creature…

The Plague of Locusts

Exodus 10:5 

[the locusts] will eat every tree (עץ) which sprouts (צמח) for you from the field (השדה).

Exodus 10:15 

…fruit of the tree…all vegetation in the tree and green thing (ירק) in the field…

Genesis 1:29-30 

I have given to you for food all vegetation… all the tree which has the fruit of the tree… every green thing (ירק)….

Genesis 2:9 

…and Yahweh sprouted (צמח) from the ground every tree (עץ)


Pharaoh sends Israel out of Egypt at night (Exod 12:29, 31, 42) and Israel flees to the edge of the Reed Sea where Pharaoh’s army chases them for a night showdown (Exod 14:20). It’s at night that God parts the waters (Exod 14:21), and during the last watch of the night (Exod 14:24), the Egyptians falter in the midst of the sea, and at sunrise (Exod 14:27) the waters destroy the Egyptians while the Israelites flourish on dry land.

Tim says that this story maps directly onto the creation narrative. The passage through the Reed Sea is all days 1-3 together in Genesis.

In part 6 (56:20-end), Tim goes to Exodus 15 to discuss the first “worship song” in the Bible.

Exodus 15:10-13, 17-18

You blew with your wind, the sea covered them;


They sank like lead in the mighty waters.


Who is like you among the gods, O Lord?


Who is like you, majestic in holiness,


Awesome in praises, working wonders?


You stretched out your right hand,


The earth swallowed them.


In your lovingkindness you have led the people whom you have redeemed;


In your strength you have guided them to your holy habitation.

You will bring them and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance,


The place of your dwelling (שבתך / shibteka / Sabbath!), which you have made,


The sanctuary, O Lord, which your hands have established.


The Lord shall reign forever and ever.

Tim notes that the English word “dwelling” in verse 17 is a wordplay on the word “sabbath,” because it is composed of the same letters.

Tim then discusses more details about the Passover and why its importance in the Bible. The Passover is on the 14th (2 x 7) and is followed by a seven day festival of unleavened bread (15th – 21st), that begins and ends with a “super sabbath” rest.

In Exodus 12:1-2, the new beginning given by God as he says, “beginning of the months, the beginning it is for you,” parallels with Genesis 1:1, “In the beginning….” Passover is compared to creation as a seven-day ritual the restarts the calendar, like a new creation.

Tim then dives back into Exodus 12:14-16, 34, 39.

Now this day will be a memorial to you, and you shall celebrate it as a feast to the Lord; throughout your generations you are to celebrate it as a permanent ordinance. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, but on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses; for whoever eats anything leavened from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. On the first day you shall have a holy assembly, and another holy assembly on the seventh day; no work at all shall be done on them, except what must be eaten by every person, that alone may be prepared by you.

So the people took their dough before it was leavened, with their kneading bowls bound up in the clothes on their shoulders.

They baked the dough which they had brought out of Egypt into cakes of unleavened bread. For it had not become leavened, since they were driven out of Egypt and could not delay, nor had they prepared any provisions for themselves.

Tim makes the following observations:

  • 12:15 – “For seven days you are to put to rest (תשביתו) all leaven (שאר) from your houses.” For the resonance of “leaven” שאר with “remnant” שאר, continue reading for the comparison of Passover and the flood.
  • 12:16 – “on the first day it is a holy convocation, and on the seventh day it is a holy convocation… all work should not be done on them.” This parallels Genesis 2:1-4. The seventh day is holy, for God finished his work.
  • 13:6-7 – “Seven days you will eat unleavened bread (מצת) and on the seventh day it is a feast for YHWH; unleavened bread will be eaten (יאכל) for seven days, and leaven will not be seen for you for seven days.” This parallels with Genesis 1-3: There is a certain food provided (מן כל העך), and a certain food that is forbidden (the tree of knowing good and bad).

Here's a quote Tim cites in his notes for this verse: 

“But why require eating unleavened bread as the special focus of the exodus memorial meal, the Passover? The answer is that unleavened bread was the unique food of the original exodus, the event God wanted his people to be sure not to forget. People everywhere normally eat leavened bread. It tastes better, is more pleasant to eat, is more filling. Leavened bread was the normal choice of the Israelites in Egypt too. But on the night they ran, there was no time for the usual niceties—a fast meal had to be eaten, and hastily made bread had to be consumed. The fact that a lamb or goat kid was roasted for the meat portion of the meal or that bitter herbs were eaten as a side dish was not nearly so special or unusual as the fact that the bread was unleavened, thus essentially forming sheets of cracker. Eating it at the memorial feast intentionally recalled the original departure in haste. Eating it for a solid week tended to fix the idea in one’s consciousness.” (Douglas K. Stuart, Exodus, vol. 2, The New American Commentary, 283)

Consider these points:

  • Passover is coordinated with the “wonder” of the parting of the waters and deliverance onto dry land (Exod 14), which parallels Genesis 1 when God parts the waters so that dry land can emerge.
  • Passover is about Israel’s liberation from “slavery” (עבדה/עב׳׳ד), which parallels Genesis 1-2 about the creation of humanity as God’s co-rulers who “work” (עב׳׳ד) the land.
  • Passover is a reversal of humanity’s exile when Israel is “banished” (גרשו, Ex 12:39) from Egypt, which parallels Genesis 3:22-24 when humanity is banished from Eden into the wilderness.

Tim concludes by saying that Passover and the Exodus are a kind of “new creation” as enslaved humanity is liberated from the realm of exile, death, and darkness and led through the waters of death into the new Eden of the promised land, marked by the celebration of a seven-day ritual (in the month of Abib on the 14th-21st). The liberation brought about at Passover is a new creation. The liberation requires that humans not try to provide their own security or provision (bread) but eat only what God allows and provides. This is clearly in preparation for the manna.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Have a question? Record your question and send it to info@jointhebibleproject.com. Tell us your name and where you’re from. And try to keep the question under 20-30 seconds. Thanks!

Show Music

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Where Peace and Rest are Found by Beautiful Eulogy
  • All Night by Unwritten Stories
  • Moon by LeMMino
  • Supporter Synth Groove
  • The Pilgrim by Greyflood

Show Resources:

Show Produced by: 

Dan Gummel

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Nov 04, 2019
Two Kinds of Work - 7th Day Rest E3
01:00:58

QUOTE

“So once [the fall] happened, we go to Genesis 3, and all of a sudden the ground that was the source of humanity’s life as a gift from God—‘cursed is the ground because of you.’ So all of a sudden, we’ve lost the seventh-day ideal and not attained it.”

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • After the fall, there was a change in the fundamental nature of humanity’s work. Before the fall, it was enjoyable by default. After the fall, work becomes a task done for survival.
  • God calls Abraham in Genesis 12 with a seven line poem. This is a symbolic use of the number seven and meant to tie in with the Genesis creation narrative.
  • In Genesis 2:15 a keyword is introduced to the story. That word is nuakh, “rested him” (וינחהו / nuakh) and it is meant to portray an act of full abiding residence. Humanity was meant to be fully present and abide in the garden that God created.

SHOW NOTES

Welcome to episode three in our series on the theme of the seventh-day rest in the Bible.

In part 1 (0-21:45), Tim comments on Genesis 2:15.

Genesis 2:15

Then the Lord God took the human and ‘rested him’ (וינחהו / nuakh) into the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.

God “rests” the human in the garden so that he can “work” it. Tim notes that this is the first appearance of the Hebrew word nuakh in the Bible. This becomes an important word in the theme of seventh-day rest. Tim says that this word can be understood as “to dwell,” or “to abide and rest in.” Humanity is to be fully present in the garden (Heb. nuakh = “to take up residence”).

Tim also says that this abiding rest is conditional. Will humans obey God and not take of the tree of the knowledge of good and bad? Answer: no. So what happens? Humanity rebels and is exiled from the heaven and earth Eden mountain, sent to “work/labor” the ground.

Genesis 3:17-19

Cursed is the ground because of you;

through painful toil you will eat food from it

all the days of your life.

It will produce thorns and thistles for you,

and you will eat the plants of the field.

By the sweat of your brow

you will eat your food

until you return to the ground,

since from it you were taken;

for dust you are

and to dust you will return.

Tim says that this is a change in the nature of our work. The work is no longer enjoyable by default; instead, work becomes a task done for survival.

In part 2 (21:45-33:20), Jon asks how this idea fits with God’s call for humanity to tend and maintain the garden. Wouldn’t ruling and subduing creation take work?

Tim responds by talking about two different types of work. Humanity was created to work, but the original work they were destined for was fundamentally different from the post-fall, post-eden work. Tim quotes from Abraham Joshua Heschel, a famous 20th century Jewish rabbi and his book The Sabbath.

“We are all infatuated with the splendor of space and the grandeur of the things of space. Thing is a category that lays heavy on our mind, tyrannizing all our thoughts. In our daily lives we attend primarily to that which are senses are spelling out for us. Reality to us is thinghood, consisting of substances that occupy space. Even God is perceived by most of us as a thing. The result of our thinginess is a blindness to all realities that fail to identify itself as a thing. This is obvious in our understanding of time, which being thingless and unsubstantial appears to us as having no reality. Indeed we know what to do with space but do not know what to do with time, except to make it subservient to space. Most of us seem to labor for the sake of things of space. As a result we suffer from a deeply rooted dread of time and stand aghast when compelled to look into its face. Time to us is sarcasm. A slick treacherous monster with a jaw like a furnace incinerating every moment of our lives. Shrinking therefore from facing time, we escape for shelter to things of space.” (Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Sabbath, prologue)

In part 3 (33:20-40:45), Tim focuses on Psalm 90.

Lord, you have been our dwelling place

in all generations.

Before the mountains were brought forth,

or ever you had formed the earth and the world,

from everlasting to everlasting you are God.

You return man to dust

and say, “Return, O children of man!”

For a thousand years in your sight

are but as yesterday when it is past,

or as a watch in the night.

You sweep them away as with a flood; they are like a dream,

like grass that is renewed in the morning:

in the morning it flourishes and is renewed;

in the evening it fades and withers.

For we are brought to an end by your anger;

by your wrath we are dismayed.

You have set our iniquities before you,

our secret sins in the light of your presence.

For all our days pass away under your wrath;

we bring our years to an end like a sigh.

The years of our life are seventy,

or even by reason of strength eighty;

yet their span is but toil and trouble;

they are soon gone, and we fly away.

Who considers the power of your anger,

and your wrath according to the fear of you?

So teach us to number our days

that we may get a heart of wisdom.

Return, O Lord! How long?

Have pity on your servants!

Satisfy us in the morning with your steadfast love,

that we may rejoice and be glad all our days.

Make us glad for as many days as you have afflicted us,

and for as many years as we have seen evil.

Let your work be shown to your servants,

and your glorious power to their children.

Let the favor of the Lord our God be upon us,

and establish the work of our hands upon us;

yes, establish the work of our hands!

Tim notes that in verse 14, the English word “satisfy” is the Hebrew word for seven. So the writer is asking God for a completeness that only he can give.

In part 4 (40:45-49:30), Tim looks at the calling of Abraham in Genesis 12. Tim says that this is a seven-lined poem, and there are five promises of blessing which match the five curses earlier in Genesis 3-11. Jon notes that the conversation is actually looking at new creation through the lens of the sabbath and seventh-day rest.

In part 5 (49:30-55:45), Tim dives into a story about Abraham in Genesis 21.

Genesis 21:22-34

Now it came about at that time that Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of his army, spoke to Abraham, saying, “God is with you in all that you do; now therefore, swear to me here by God that you will not deal falsely with me or with my offspring or with my posterity, but according to the kindness that I have shown to you, you shall show to me and to the land in which you have sojourned.” Abraham said, “I swear it.”

But Abraham complained to Abimelech because of the well of water which the servants of Abimelech had seized. And Abimelech said, “I do not know who has done this thing; you did not tell me, nor did I hear of it until today.” Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech, and the two of them made a covenant. Then Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves. Abimelech said to Abraham, “What do these seven ewe lambs mean, which you have set by themselves?” He said, “You shall take these seven ewe lambs from my hand so that it may be a witness to me, that I dug this well.” Therefore he called that place Beersheba, because there the two of them took an oath. So they made a covenant at Beersheba; and Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of his army, arose and returned to the land of the Philistines. Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God. And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines for many days.

Tim notes that this story is symbolic on many levels. Tim notes that the Hebrew word sheba can be translated as both “seven” and “oath.” So the story represents Abraham making a “seven” oath with Abimelech, who symbolically represents the nations. This oath results in peace and abundance for all people involved. Tim and Jon both agree that once you start to look for it, the themes of seven, completeness, and seventh-day rest are all over the Bible.

In part 6 (44:45-end), Tim and Jon recap the episode and preview the next part of the story, which is Israel’s enslavement in Egypt and the Exodus story.

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Ocean by KV
  • Blue VHS by Lofi Type Beat
  • Levitating by Invention
  • Mind Your Time by Me.So
  • The Truth About Flight, Love and BB Guns by Foreknown

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

Show Resources:

Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Sabbath

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Oct 28, 2019
The Significance of 7 - 7th Day Rest E2
01:05:09

QUOTE

“Genesis 1 isn’t just telling you about what type of world you’re living in; it’s showing you, as a Israelite reader, that your life of worship rhythms are woven into the fabric of the universe.”

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The idea of resting and the number seven are intimately connected in the Bible.
  • In Genesis 1, the word or number "seven" has two key symbolic meanings: seven represents a full and complete world, and getting to seven is a linear journey from one to seven.
  • The rhythm of practicing sabbath or resting every seventh day is one way that humans can imitate God and act like they are participating in the new creation.

SHOW NOTES

Welcome to our second episode tracing the theme of seventh-day rest in the Bible!

In part 1 (0-18:30), Tim shares some of the numeric symbolism in Genesis 1. The opening line of Genesis 1 has seven words, and the central word, untranslated in English, is two Hebrew letters, the first and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet: aleph and taw.

When one isolates the theme of time in Genesis 1, another design pattern emerges that provides a foundation for all of Israel’s rituals of sacred time.

Tim points out that there are many other ways the number seven is symbolic in the Genesis narrative: there are seven words in Genesis 1:1, and fourteen words in Genesis 1:2. There are seven paragraphs in Genesis 1:1-2:3 marked by “evening and morning.” The concluding seventh paragraph in Genesis 2:1-3 begins three lines which have seven words each (Gen 2:2-3a).

In part 2 (18:30-28:30), Tim summarizes a series of details about the literary design of Genesis ch. 1 from Umberto Cassuto's commentary on Genesis:

"In view of the importance ascribed to the number seven generally, and particularly in the story of Creation, this number occurs again and again in the structure of our section. The following details are deserving of note:

(a). After the introductory verse (1:1), the section is divided into seven paragraphs, each of which appertains to one of the seven days. An obvious indication of this division is to be seen in the recurring sentence, And there was evening and there was morning, such-and-such a day. Hence the Masoretes were right in placing an open paragraph [i.e. one that begins on a new line] after each of these verses. Other ways of dividing the section suggested by some modern scholars are unsatisfactory.

(b–d). Each of the three nouns that occur in the first verse and express the basic concepts of the section, viz God [אֱלֹהִים ʾElōhīm] heavens [שָׁמַיִם šāmayim], earth [אֶרֶץ ʾereṣ], are repeated in the section a given number of times that is a multiple of seven: thus the name of God occurs thirty-five times, that is, five times seven (on the fact that the Divine Name, in one of its forms, occurs seventy times in the first four chapters, see below); earth is found twenty-one times, that is, three times seven; similarly heavens (or firmament, רָקִיעַ rāqīaʿ) appears twenty-one times.

(e). The ten sayings with which, according to the Talmud, the world was created (Aboth v 1; in B. Rosh Hashana 32a and B. Megilla 21b only nine of them are enumerated, the one in 1:29, apparently, being omitted)—that is, the ten utterances of God beginning with the words, andsaid—are clearly divisible into two groups: the first group contains seven Divine fiats enjoining the creation of the creatures, to wit, ‛Let there be light’, ‘Let there be a firmament’, ‘Let the waters be gathered together’, ‘Let the earth put forth vegetation’, ‘Let there be lights’, ‘Let the waters bring forth swarms’, ‘Let the earth bring forth’; the second group comprises three pronouncements that emphasize God’s concern for man’s welfare (three being the number of emphasis), namely, ‘Let us make man’ (not a command but an expression of the will to create man), ‘Be fruitful and multiply’, ‘Behold I have given unto you every plant yielding seed’. Thus we have here, too, a series of seven corresponding dicta.

(f). The terms light and day are found, in all, seven times in the first paragraph, and there are seven references to light in the fourth paragraph.

(g). Water is mentioned seven times in the course of paragraphs two and three.

(h). In the fifth and sixth paragraphs forms of the word חַיָּה ḥayyā [rendered ‘living’ or ‘beasts’] occur seven times.

(i). The expression it was good appears seven times (the seventh time—very good).

(j). The first verse has seven words.

(k). The second verse contains fourteen words—twice seven.

(l). In the seventh paragraph, which deals with the seventh day, there occur the following three consecutive sentences (three for emphasis), each of which consists of seven words and contains in the middle the expression the seventh day:

And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which

He had done.

So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it.

(m). The words in the seventh paragraph total thirty-five—five times seven.

To suppose that all this is a mere coincidence is not possible.

§ 6. This numerical symmetry is, as it were, the golden thread that binds together all the parts of the section and serves as a convincing proof of its unity against the view of those—and they comprise the majority of modern commentators—who consider that our section is not a unity but was formed by the fusion of two different accounts, or as the result of the adaptation and elaboration of a shorter earlier version."

U. Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Genesis: Part I, From Adam to Noah (Genesis I–VI 8), trans. Israel Abrahams (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1998), pages 13–15.

Tim says all of this numerical symbolism is completely intentional. The authors want us to learn that seven represents both a whole completed creation and a journey to that completeness.

In part 3 (28:30-41:00), Jon asks why the number seven became so symbolic in ancient Hebrew culture. Tim says the origins of the number seven being associated with completeness is likely tied to the lunar calendar of moon cycles. The biblical Hebrew word for “month” is “moon” (חדש). Each month consisted of 29.5 days, and each month consisted of four 7.3-day cycles, making a “complete” cycle of time. However, the sabbath cycle is independent of the moon cycle, and sabbaths do not coincide with the new moon. It is patterned after creation, and stands outside of any natural cycle of time.

Tim then makes an important note on Hebrew word play. Seven was symbolic in ancient near eastern and Israelite culture and literature. It communicated a sense of “fullness” or “completeness” (שבע “seven” is spelled with the same consonants as the word שבע “complete/full”). This makes sense of the pervasive appearance of “seven” patterns in the Bible. For more information on this, Tim cites Maurice H. Farbridge’s book, Studies in Biblical and Semitic Symbolism, 134-37.

In part 4 (41:00-52:30), Jon asks what it means for God to rest?

In response, Tim says there are two separate but related Hebrew concepts and words for rest.

The Hebrew word shabat means “to cease from.” God ceases from his work because “it is finished” (Gen 2:1). Compare with Joshua 5:12, “The manna ceased (shabat) on that day….”

The Hebrew word nuakh means “to take up residence.” Compare with Exodus 10:14, “The locusts came up over the land of Egypt and rested (nuakh) in all the land.” When God or people nuakh, it always involves settling into a place that is safe, secure, and stable. 2 Samuel 7:1 says, “Now when King David dwelt in his house, for Yahweh had provided rest from his enemies….”

The drama of the story, Tim notes, is the question as to whether humans and God will nuakh together? All of this sets a foundation for later biblical stories of Israel entering in the Promised Land, a land of rest.

In part 5 (52:30-end), Tim asks what it means that God blessed the seventh day?

Tim cites scholar Mathilde Frey:

“Set apart from all other days, the blessing of the seventh day establishes the seventh part of created time as a day when God grants his presence in the created world. It is then his presence that provides the blessing and the sanctification. The seventh day is blessed and established as the part of time that assures fruitfulness, future-orientation, continuity, and permanence for every aspect of life within the dimension of time. The seventh day is blessed by God’s presence for the sake of the created world, for all nature, and for all living beings.” (Mathilde Frey, The Sabbath in the Pentateuch, 45)

Tim says in Genesis 1, the symbolism of seven is a view that the “seventh day” is the culmination of all history. Tim cites scholar Samuel H. Balentine.

“Unlike the previous days, the seventh day is simply announced. There is no mention of evening or morning, no mention of a beginning or ending. The suggestion is that the primordial seventh day exists in perpetuity, a sacred day that cannot be abrogated by the limitations common to the rest of the created order.” (Samuel H. Balentine, The Torah’s Vision of Worship, 93)

Tim also cites scholar Robert Lowry: “The seventh-day account does not end with the expected formula, “there was evening and morning,” that concluded days one through six. Breaking the pattern in this way emphasizes the uniqueness of the seventh day and opens the door to an eschatological interpretation. Literarily, the sun has not yet set on God’s Sabbath.” (Richard H. Lowery, Sabbath and Jubilee, 90)

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Optimistic by Lo Fi Type Beat
  • Kame House by Lofi Hip Hop Instrumental
  • It’s Ok to Not Be Ok by Highkey Beats
  • Hometown by nymano x Pandress

Resources:

Show Produced By:

Dan Gummel

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Oct 21, 2019
The Restless Craving for Rest - 7th Day Rest E1
00:56:37

SHOW DESCRIPTION

The sabbath. Talking about it can be complicated and confusing, yet the biblical authors wrote about it a lot. So what’s it all about? The sabbath is more than an antiquated law. It’s about the design of time and the human quest for rest. The sabbath and seventh-day rest is one of the key themes that starts on page one of the Bible and weaves beautifully all the way through to the end.

FAVORITE QUOTE

“The seventh day is like a multifaceted gem. One of the main facets is the fabric of creation as leading toward a great goal where humans imitate God and join him in ceasing from work and labor. But there’s going to be another facet that’s all about being a slave to our labor. And so the seventh day is a time to celebrate our liberation from slavery so that we can rest with God.”

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • The theme of the sabbath or seventh-day rest is a key theme in the Bible that starts on page one and goes all the way through to the end.
  • The word sabbath comes from the Hebrew word shabot, which means most simply “to stop” or “to cease from.”
  • Keeping/observing/remembering the sabbath is one of the Ten Commandments. It sticks out as being a uniquely Jewish practice at the time in history when the commandments were given.

SHOW NOTES

Welcome to the first episode in our series on understanding seventh-day rest in the Bible!

In part 1 (0-6:35), Tim outlines the theme in general. He says the seventh-day rest is actually a huge theme in the Bible, even more prominent in the Scriptures than other TBP videos. Tim calls it an “organizing main theme in the Bible.”

In part 2 (6:35-23:45), Tim recounts a story from when he and Jon visited Jerusalem. They were both able to share a Sabbath meal with practicing Jews in Jerusalem. Tim shares that the Sabbath tradition is one of the longest running traditions in any culture in the world. Even the word shabat’s most basic meaning is “to stop.”

In part 3 (23:45-33:00), Tim says this series isn’t really going to be about the practice of sabbath but about the theme and symbolism of sabbath and seventh-day rest in the Bible. This theme is rich and complex, woven from start to finish in the Scriptures. The practice of the Sabbath itself is only one piece of the underlying message the authors are trying to communicate.

In part 4 (33:00-45:30), Tim and Jon discuss “keeping, observing, or remembering” the sabbath in the Ten Commandments. This command sticks out as a unique Jewish practice. The Jews are told to keep the sabbath for two different reasons according to two different passages:

Exodus 20:8-11

Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested (Heb. shabat) on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.

Deuteronomy 5:12-15

Keep the sabbath day to keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant or your ox or your donkey or any of your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you, so that your male servant and your female servant may rest (Heb. nuakh) as well as you. You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out of there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the Lord your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day.

Tim notes that in the first passage, Jews are told to keep the sabbath because it is an act of participation in God’s presence and rule over creation. But in the second passage, keeping the sabbath is an act of implementing God’s presence and rule by the liberation from slavery. Tim says these two ways of viewing the practice of the sabbath are two of the core ways to think about the seventh-day rest theme in the bible.

In part 5 (45:30-end), Tim cites scholar Matitiahu Tsevat about the biblical phrase “it is a sabbath of Yahweh” (שבת ליהוה), literally, “a sabbath that belongs to Yahweh.”

“This phrase is so important, it’s easy to miss its centrality... Just as in the 7th year of release man desists from utilizing the land for his own business and benefit, so on the sabbath day he desists from using that day for his own affairs. And just äs the intervals in regard to the release year and the jubilee years are determined by the number seven, so too is the number seven determinative for that recurring day when man refrains from his own pursuits and sets it aside for God. In regular succession he breaks the natural flow of time, proclaiming, and that the break is made for the sake of the Lord. This meaning which we have ascertained from the laws finds support Isaiah 58: “If you restrain your foot on the sabbath so äs not to pursue your own affairs on My holy day…” Man normally is master of his time. He is free to dispose of it as he sees fit or as necessity bids him. The Israelite is duty-bound, however, once every seven days to assert by word and deed that God is the master of time. … one day out of seven the Israelite is to renounce dominion over his own time and recognize God's dominion over it. Simply: Every seventh day the Israelite renounces his autonomy and affirms God's dominion over him in the conclusion that every seventh day the Israelite is to renounce dominion over time, thereby renounce autonomy, and recognize God's dominion over time and thus over himself. Keeping the sabbath is acceptance of the kingdom and sovereignty of God.” (Matitiahu Tsevat, The Basic Meaning of the Biblical Sabbath, 453-455.)

Tim says the structure of the sabbath is meant to be inconvenient. God is the master of all time, and he holds all the time that we think actually belongs to us.

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Royalty Free Middle Eastern Music
  • Shabot Songs:
    • Psalm 121 (Lai Lai Lai) by Joshua Aaron
    • L'maancha by Eitan Katz

Resources:

  • http://joshua-aaron.com/
  • http://www.eitankatz.com/
  • Matitiahu Tsevat, The Basic Meaning of the Biblical Sabbath

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

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Oct 14, 2019
Can I Get a Witness?
01:04:19

The word witness is a key word in the bible, and the theme of “witnessing” is a key theme in the bible that can be used to understand the whole story of the bible.

Key Takeaways

  • The word witness is a key word in the bible, and the theme of “witnessing” is a key theme in the bible that can be used to understand the whole story of the bible.
  • The greek word μάρτυς (mártus) is used in the New Testament as the word for “witness” it is also the root word for ”martyr:”
  • The word witness is used in a variety of different ways throughout the Bible. For example, God is described as being a witness. Israel is called to be a witness to the nations and Jesus says he is a witness about himself.

Favorite Quotes

“It’s weird how simple and how big of a responsibility being a witness is. God wants a group of witnesses who experience him and then talk about it.”

Show Notes

In part 1, (0-7:45) Tim and Jon introduce the topic and also introduce Carissa Quinn a biblical scholar on staff with the bible project. Carisa is responsible for researching and writing the script for the upcoming video on witness. The group talks about the popular usages of the word witness. Jon toes that in a Christian context, “witness” is often meant to be an activity that someone will do to try and logically convince or debate somebody (a non believer) about Jesus and the truth of the bible.

The group also notes that oftentimes ‘witness’ is best understood in a modern legal context.

In part 2, (7:45-16:50) Carissa says the word witness occurs over 400 hundred times in the bible in a variety of forms. In hebrew the word ‘witness’ is basically (1) someone who sees something amazing or important--in Hebrew, this person is an עֵד (eid) and in Greek, a μάρτυς (mártus). And (2) if this person begins to share what they’ve seen, we call this ‘bearing witness’: in Hebrew עוּד (uwd) and in Greek μαρτυρέω (marturéo).

Carissa shares the story of Ruth in Ruth 4:9, when Boaz buys land from Naomi’s family, he calls together witnesses to see the transaction, so that if there’s a later dispute about the land, they can bear witness about what they saw. Tim notes that this passage is somewhat related to Deut 25:9 a law about sandals and witnessing being used as a form of legal documentation.

The group briefly discusses the role of a public notary in modern culture. They act as official witnesses to legal signings.

In part 3, (16:50-24:50) Carissa goes to Psalm 27 and the theme of “false witnesses”. Carissa notes that God is referred to as a witness throughout the bible. For example in Genesis 31:49 ... “May the Lord watch between you and me when we are absent one from the other. 50 If you mistreat my daughters, or if you take wives besides my daughters, although no man is with us, see, God is witness between you and me.”

In the New Testament God the Father is said to bear witness to the identity of Jesus. Jesus also says he bears witness to himself in John 8:17-18 “In your Law it is written that the testimony of two people is true. 18 I am the one who bears witness about myself, and the Father who sent me bears witness about me.”

Carissa then notes that many times Paul uses a phrase like “God is my witness” for example in Romans 1:9 “For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I mention you 10 always in my prayers, asking that somehow by God's will I may now at last succeed in coming to you.”

In part 4 (24:50-42:45)

Carissa continues the conversation by bringing up the fact that an object can be a witness in the bible. For example in Joshua 24: 27 And Joshua said to all the people, “Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us, for it has heard all the words of the Lord that he spoke to us. Therefore it shall be a witness against you, lest you deal falsely with your God.”

Carissa then notes that the word “witness” in the bible can be used to trace the whole story of the bible. Tim says that the word “witness” is an interesting way to think about the image of god. People are created in God’s image to “witness” god and his creation to the rest of the world.

Carissa says that israel is called to be a witness to the other nations in Exodus 19:4-6 “ ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to myself. 5 Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; 6 and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”

Carissa says that later in the bible the torah is referred to as a “witness” and is often called “the laws of the testimony”. Meaning the laws are testifying or witnessing the relationship between god and israel. Additionally, Moses writes a song in Deuteronomy 32 to bear witness to Israel about God.

Carissa points out that in John 5, Jesus says the Torah points to him in John 5:39 “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is they that bear witness about me.”

In part 5 (42:45-49:20)

Carissa notes the theme of the word witness in the prophets. For example 2 Chronicles 24:19 "Yet he sent prophets among them to bring them back to the Lord. These testified (witnessed) against them, but they would not pay attention.

Carissa notes that to testify against or to witness against was one of the primary roles of prophets in the Old Testament. They were warning/ witnessing to Israel about what would happen to them if they didn’t follow god.

Carissa also notes that Isiah 43:10-12 is a crucial passage to understand the role that the whole nation of Israel was to have in acting as God's witnesses.

Isaiah 42:10 ““You are my witnesses,” declares the Lord, and my servant whom I have chosen,
that you may know and believe me
and understand that I am he.
Before me no god was formed,
nor shall there be any after me.
11
I, I am the Lord,
and besides me there is no savior.
12
I declared and saved and proclaimed,
when there was no strange god among you;
and you are my witnesses,” declares the Lord, “and I am God.

In the last part, (49:20-end)
Carissa talks about Jesus. Jesus claims to be the “chief witness” from Isaiah 61. He was sent to open the eyes of Israel who are the blind witnesses to God and his creation. Tim notes how ironic it is that Jesus is the ultimate witness bearing witness to God's kingdom that gets him killed. Carissa note that the word “μάρτυς (mártus).” is the greek word for witness which is also the root word for martyr. So Jesus was a martus, and a martyr by staking his life on what he believes in.
In Acts followers of Jesus are called to be “witnesses”. But often times in the New Testament being a witness is directly connected to verifying or believing in the resurrection of Jesus from the dead.
Jon notes that witness in modern context is usually more about debating ore rationalizing Jesus and Christianity to a secular world. Carissa notes that to “bear witness” is a sign of someone's character. Jon then notes that thinking about being a witness in life is actually a really important calling or job. A witness has an important role to play and “bearing witness” is what we are called to do as christians. Not to debate or convince people about the truth of Jesus but to share are own powerful moments of God in our lives.

Show Resources:
Walter Kaiser, Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations

Show Music
 

Discover by C Y G N

Fills the Skies: Josh White
Blue Skies: Unwritten Stories
Analogs: Moby
The Truth About Flight Love and BB Guns: Beautiful Eulogy

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

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Oct 07, 2019
The Obvious & Extravagant Claim of the Gospel - Gospel E4
00:52:16

Key Takeaways:

  • All the gospels are essentially saying the same thing. Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and his life, death, and resurrection fulfills the Hebrew Scriptures.
  • All four gospels climax with a detailed recounting of Jesus' death and resurrection. While this may seem like an obvious point to modern readers, this is not necessarily true for ancient readers when the Scriptures were formed.
  • Modern readers of the gospels should make an effort to familiarize themselves with how ancient Greco-Roman biography and literature worked. The four gospels are not modern texts; therefore, readers should be sympathetic and strive to view them not through a modern lens, but in light of their historic context.

Quotes: 

“The main mode that many Christians, especially Protestants, read the Bible in is the ‘lessons for my life’ approach to the Bible. The deeply held assumption is, ‘the Bible is a moral handbook and each story is giving me a life application lesson that I can apply to my life.’ And I don’t think that’s what the Gospel authors are trying to do.”

"(The gospels are) tying in Jesus’ story as the fulfillment of the Hebrew Scripture storyline which is the story of Israel and all humanity. And then all of them are saying the story leads up to the moment of a Jewish wonder-worker’s execution. It’s a simple point. But that is their main point."

In part 1 (0-11:30), Tim and Jon briefly recap the series so far. They discuss the earlier tips for reading the gospels more effectively and deeply. Tim says readers should always remember that the gospels are meant to be stories about Jesus, but they have been specifically selected to be persuasive stories about Jesus. The Gospel authors want the reader to believe that Jesus is the Messiah. Sometimes they make this intent obvious and explicit, but other times, they make the claims indirectly. Tim says this method of indirect communication and indirect claims about Jesus is the primary way that Gospel authors design their portraits of Jesus.

In part 2 (11:30-22:00), Tim notes that many of the stories about Jesus, including the stories of miracles, sound unbelievable to many modern Western audiences. Whereas in other cultures, healings and miracles and those who performed them were considered an integral part of life and evidence of God or the gods’ work. Tim shares a helpful resource called The Lost Letters of Pergamum, which is a short historical novel set in ancient Roman culture during the early days of Christianity. The novel helps readers more accurately picture what the original claims of the gospel would have meant to the first followers of Christ.

Tim then says most Western Protestants read these accounts through asking, “What’s the application of this gospel story to my life and how will it improve my life?” Tim says he doesn’t think this is the best way to read the gospels. Instead, readers should learn to read the gospels as intricate and complete portraits of Jesus Christ of Nazareth that are claiming that Jesus is the promised Jewish Messiah.

In part 3 (22:00-32:00), Tim notes that every Gospel climaxes with Jesus’ death and resurrection. Tim then contrasts this with the Gospel of Thomas, which does not include Jesus’ death and resurrection narrative. To the gnostics who used the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus was a wise, divine teacher who dispensed knowledge to humanity to help them learn to be wise.

Tim then says that a good example of the gospels climaxing with Jesus’ death and resurrection would be the Gospel of Mark. Most of the book highlights the final week of Jesus’ life and does a fast fly-by of Jesus’ earlier life leading up to the week of the Passover and crucifixion.

Most stories, Tim observes, end with the good guy defeating the bad guy, thereby using force and violence to triumph. The Jesus story claims that Jesus triumphed by allowing himself to be killed by his enemies. He then was raised from the dead and gives his enemies an opportunity to enter into new life by believing in him.

In part 5 (32:00-end), Tim and Jon discuss the differences between the gospels. Tim says that some of the variances between the stories in the gospels used to bother him. Why couldn’t all the stories be the same? Aren’t the discrepancies evidence that these stories and authors might be unreliable?

However, Tim continues by sharing that over time, his perspective has changed. Now, he realizes that the Gospel authors are advancing a claim about Jesus, not recounting security camera footage of his life. The authors want the reader to understand that Jesus had a totally different way of seeing the world, so they highlight this in their own style. Tim says he would actually be highly suspicious if all the gospels’ stories are exactly identical. That would imply that the Jesus story was not authentic. It also should be taken into consideration that what many modern Christians may perceive to be untruths or discrepancies in the Bible were much more accepted by early Christians. Modern readers should attempt to understand the context and culture of how the gospels were formed instead of importing our own modern view of a biography onto an ancient text.

Show Music:

  • “Defender” instrumental by Tents
  • “Nostalgic” by junior state
  • “lacuna” by leavv
  • “Beautiful Eulogy” by Beautiful Eulogy

Show Resources:

The Lost Letters of Pergamum: A Story from the New Testament World by Bruce Longenecker

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

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Sep 30, 2019
Why are there four accounts of the Gospel? - Gospel E3
01:08:45

Key takeaways:

  • The four gospels all tell a unique perspective of the same story. They all claim Jesus is the Jewish Messiah who fulfills the Hebrew Scriptures.
  • Mark is widely considered to be the oldest Gospel.
  • The genealogies at the start of Matthew have hidden design patterns in them that unify the Old and New Testaments.
  • The story of Zacharias and Elizabeth at the start of Luke is meant to layer onto the story of Abraham and Sarah in the Old Testament. This is a key design pattern of Luke. Luke likes to create the characters in his book based off Old Testament figures.

Quote: “(The gospels) are constantly and from the first moment tying the Jesus story back into Hebrew scriptures. There isn’t a story or teaching about Jesus that isn’t packed with Old Testament allusion.”

 

In part 1 (0-5:00), Tim and Jon briefly recap the last episode. Tim says he’s going to unpack four ways that readers can better understand and uncover themes in the gospels.

In part 2 (5:00-14:00), Tim dives into advanced ways to read these accounts. One way to take your reading of the gospels to the next level is to get a Bible that shows when a Gospel is citing or quoting an Old Testament passage. For example, Tim focuses on the book of Mark. Most scholars view Mark as the oldest of the gospels.

Mark 1 shares links to both Isaiah 40:3 and Malachi 4:5-6 in the first verses.

Mark 1:1-3

The beginning of the good news about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, as it is written in Isaiah the prophet:

“I will send my messenger ahead of you,

who will prepare your way”—

“a voice of one calling in the wilderness,

‘Prepare the way for the Lord,

make straight paths for him.’”

Tim says that this should alert the reader to the fact that Mark is heavily influenced by the Old Testament. Mark is reading the Old Testament, and his Gospel is structured around and informed by the Hebrew Scriptures.

In part 3 (14:00-22:30), Tim then looks at the start of Matthew. The book begins with a genealogy. This genealogy is broken into three movements of fourteen generations: fourteen from Abraham to David, fourteen from David to the exile, and fourteen from the exile to Jesus.

In order to stick to this pattern, Tim notes, generations would have been left out. So why would Matthew use this pattern?

There are several thoughts. One is that the number fourteen is the numerical value of the name “David.” So Matthew is disguising his claim that Jesus is a new and better David in this genealogy.

Tim also mentions that four women are mentioned in this genealogy. Each of them are non-Jewish women. Again, why does Matthew do this? He wants you to know that Gentile women in the Old Testament played a crucial role in carrying on—and in some cases rescuing—the messianic seed.

In part 4 (22:30-32:30), Tim dives into the opening of the Gospel of Luke. The story of Elizabeth and Zacharias is meant to map onto the story of Abraham and Sarah. Both couples are old and have no children or heirs. Luke then moves onto the introduction of Mary. Mary’s response to the angel’s proclamation is different than Zacharias’ response. So Luke uses a lot of character design to overlap Old Testament and New Testament characters in order to show a new act of God.

In part 5 (32:30-47:30), Tim dives into the opening in the Gospel of John. There are themes of Genesis 1 (“In the beginning”) and Lady Wisdom from Proverbs 8 in the opening lines of John. Many modern Western readers find John's writing style to be the most approachable and easy to understand. John's links and callbacks to earlier Hebrew Scriptures are more obvious to the untrained eye than in the other gospels.

In part 6 (47:30-end), Tim and Jon dive into Mathew 11.

Matthew 11:2-6

When John, who was in prison, heard about the deeds of the Messiah, he sent his disciples to ask him, “Are you the one who is to come, or should we expect someone else?”

Jesus replied, “Go back and report to John what you hear and see: The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is proclaimed to the poor. Blessed is anyone who does not stumble on account of me.”

Tim says that this passage is heavily influenced by Isaiah 35 because Jesus quotes from this passage to answer John's question about whether he is the Messiah or not.

Isaiah 35:1-7

The desert and the parched land will be glad;

the wilderness will rejoice and blossom.

Like the crocus, it will burst into bloom;

it will rejoice greatly and shout for joy.

The glory of Lebanon will be given to it,

the splendor of Carmel and Sharon;

they will see the glory of the Lord,

the splendor of our God.

Strengthen the feeble hands,

steady the knees that give way;

say to those with fearful hearts,

“Be strong, do not fear;

your God will come,

he will come with vengeance;

with divine retribution

he will come to save you.”

Then will the eyes of the blind be opened

and the ears of the deaf unstopped.

Then will the lame leap like a deer,

and the mute tongue shout for joy.

Water will gush forth in the wilderness

and streams in the desert.

The burning sand will become a pool,

the thirsty ground bubbling springs.

In the haunts where jackals once lay,

grass and reeds and papyrus will grow.

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Mind Your Time by Me.So
  • Subtle Break by Ghostrifter Official
  • Serenity by JayJen
  • Acquired in Heaven by Beautiful Eulogy
  • For When It’s Warmer by Sleepyfish
  • Euk's First Race by David Gummel

Show Resources:

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

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Sep 23, 2019
The Gospel is More Than You Think - Gospel E2
00:55:08

In part 1 (0-19:00), Tim and Jon give a brief historical overview of Israel at the time Jesus was born. Israel had been under hundreds of years of military occupation by different empires. At the time of Jesus, that empire is Rome. Tim notes that the entire Jewish people would have had a sense of expectation. The Hebrew Scriptures taught them that the glory of the Jewish kingdom would return and a messiah would rescue them. This mindset—though difficult for us to imagine—was that of an ancient Jew under Roman rule at the time when the gospels were written.

In part 2 (19:00-25:00), Tim notes that for one to declare or be declared as “messiah” while under Roman rule would have been viewed as an act of politcal insurrrection and revolution.

In part 3 (25:00-38:45), Tim outlines the history of the word gospel, which comes from the old English word “godspel” or *good tidings*. This word in Greek is εὐαγγέλιον and Tim notes that “the euangelion” is what Jesus is said to proclaim in the beginning of Mark. Mark 1:1 *The beginning of the good news about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God.* Tim then notes how Paul uses the same word at the start of Romans. Romans 1:2-4 *the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.* Tim also shared 1 Corinthians 15:1-8. *Now, brothers and sisters, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand. By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise, you have believed in vain. For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas,and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born.* Tim notes that Paul doesn’t have a stock phrase or answer for “what is the gospel.” Instead he tweaks the message in both of these books and offers two complimentary answers. This example from Paul should make us cautious of trying to boil down the gospel to a simple formula. If Paul didn’t really do it that way, why should we? Instead we should try to learn how to articulate the whole story of the Jewish Scriptures and distill the gospel through that lens.

In part 4 (38:45-44:45), Tim also brings up Paul’s speech to the Athenians in Acts 17: Acts 17:22-34 *Paul then stood up in the meeting of the Areopagus and said: “People of Athens! I see that in every way you are very religious. For as I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription: to an unknown god. So you are ignorant of the very thing you worship—and this is what I am going to proclaim to you.* *“The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by human hands. And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything. Rather, he himself gives everyone life and breath and everything else. From one man he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands. God did this so that they would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from any one of us. ‘For in him we live and move and have our being.’ As some of your own poets have said, ‘We are his offspring.’* *“Therefore since we are God’s offspring, we should not think that the divine being is like gold or silver or stone—an image made by human design and skill. In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent. For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to everyone by raising him from the dead.”* *When they heard about the resurrection of the dead, some of them sneered, but others said, “We want to hear you again on this subject.” At that, Paul left the Council. Some of the people became followers of Paul and believed. Among them was Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, also a woman named Damaris, and a number of others.* Tim notes that also in this presentation, Paul does not bring up Christ’s atoning death explictly. The atoning death of Christ is part of the gospel, but it is not the whole. The larger story of the gospel is portrayed in the four books known as the Gospels. What is the larger story? It is about Jesus inaugurating the kingdom of God.

In part 5 (44:45-end), Tim gives his own definitions of the four books known as "the Gospels." "The gospels are carefully designed theological biographies of Jesus of Nazareth. They focus on his announcement of the euangelion. They are not merely historical records. They are designed to advance a claim that will challenge the readers thinking and behavior, and you are going to be forced to make a decision about Jesus after reading the book. And what is the claim? That the crucified and risen Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah of Israel and true Lord of the world." Tim closes with an insight from scholars Loveday Alexander and Richard Burridge, as well as a book called *Reading the Gospels Wisely* by Jonathan Pennington.

 

Show Resources:

* Richard Burridge: [*What are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco Roman Biography*](https://amzn.to/32DhKWK).

* Loveday Alexander: [*The Preface to Luke’s Gospel*](https://amzn.to/2Lz4lcI).

* Jonathan Pennington: [*Reading the Gospels Wisely*](http://amzn.to/2wOuw9n).

* [A brief overview of Jewish history pre-Christ and during Roman rule.](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_history#The_Hasmonean_Kingdom_(110%E2%80%9363_BCE))

 

Show Music:

* Defender Instrumental by Tents

* Hello from Portland by Beautiful Euology

* For When It’s Warmer by Sleepy Fish

* Instrumentals of Mercy by Beautiful Eulogy

* Chilldrone: Copyright free

 

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel

 

Powered and distributed by Simplecast. 
 

Sep 16, 2019
What Does the Word "Gospel" Mean? Feat. N.T. Wright - Gospel E1
01:11:18

Welcome to a special episode that kicks off our series of How to Read the Gospels. In this episode, Tim sits down with Dr. N.T. Wright to discuss the historical meaning of the word “gospel.”

In part 1 (0-21:20), Dr. Wright notes that word studies are great, but it’s important to understand how words derive their meaning and live in a narrative context. Alternaitve “gospels,” including the Gospel of Thomas, typically are a collection of good advice or wise sayings from Jesus about how to live a good life, whereas the whole “gospel” or good news is the story of Jesus being crowned king and Israel being used by God to bless all the nations.

Tim shares an interesting historical ancedote: a birthday announcement from a historical source called the Calendar of Priene. It’s an old royal announcement from the Roman emporer Augustus Caesar, and it uses the Greek word for “gospel,” εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news."

"Since Providence, which has ordered all things and is deeply interested in our life, has set in most perfect order by giving us Augustus, whom she filled with virtue that he might benefit humankind, sending him as a savior, both for us and for our descendants, that he might end war and arrange all things, and since he, Caesar, by his appearance (excelled even our anticipations), surpassing all previous benefactors, and not even leaving to posterity any hope of surpassing what he has done, and since the birthday of the god Augustus was the beginning of the good tidings for the world that came by reason of him.” (The Calendar of Priene, Caesar Birthday announcement)

Dr. Wright says this historical announcement reveals a very interesting historical narrative. The Roman emporers continually decreed that they had brought peace and justice to the world through violent and political power. These emporers used the same language and vocubulary as the gospel authors when they proclaim Jesus of Nazareth as the one who brings true peace and justice to the world.

In part 2 (21:20-27:10), Tim and Dr. Wright discuss that “news” is an ineffective modern word to describe the gospel. A better alternative in our day would be “announcement” or “proclamation.” Today, the word “news” is used most often to describe everyday occurences, whereas the historical word εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, was far less common and treated with importance.

In part 3 (27:10-42:45), Tim and Dr. Wright dive into the Gospel of Mark and Matthew.

Dr. Wright focuses on the Beatitudes in Matthew. Instead of it being just an ethical to-do list, the Beatitudes are meant to model what God’s kingdom actually looks like. They represent the corporate moral ethic of God’s kingdom, showing what a world looks like when God becomes king and showing how God's kingdom spreads throughout the world.

Tim and Dr. Wright both cite Isaiah 53, one of the key bridges between the Old and New Testament in the Suffering Servant. They move on to discuss a book by Dr. Richard Hayes called, “Echoes of Scripture in the Gospels” and discuss the royal enactment portrayls in the gospels. Tim and Dr. Wright note that these are very obvious themes. Jesus is given a purple robe and crowned with a crown of thorns. These themes are meant to be picked up by the reader as evidence of the upside down nature of the kingdom that Jesus was enacting. He became king through suffering.

In part 4 (42:45-56:00), Tim and Dr. Wright talk about Paul and his perspective of εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion. Tim reads from Romans 1:1-6:

"Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name among all the nations, including you who are called to belong to Jesus Christ."

Tim also shares 1 Corinthians 15:1-11:

“Now I would remind you, brothers, of the gospel I preached to you, which you received, in which you stand, and by which you are being saved, if you hold fast to the word I preached to you—unless you believed in vain.

"For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. For I am the least of the apostles, unworthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them, though it was not I, but the grace of God that is with me. Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed.”

Tim thinks this 1 Corinthians passage may be over-dominant in Western Christianity’s understanding in defining the gospel. Dr. Wright notes a historical view stemming from German and Lutheran interpretation that wants to see “the gospel” only as a salvation by faith that Christ died for our sins on the cross.

This view, Dr. Wright asserts, shortchanges the story of the Hebrew Scriptures. While this is part of the meaning of the word “gospel,” the whole story of the Hebrew Scriptures involves the signficance of Jesus being the new and exalted human, the new Adam, through whom humanity can now realize their orginal destiny that was laid out for them in the Garden of Eden.

In part 5 (56:00-end), Tim and Dr. Wright wrap up their time together by discussing how word studies are important but need to be tied into an informed understanding of the whole narrative of the Hebrew Bible.

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show Music:

  • Defender Instrumental by Tents
  • Daydreams 2 by Chillhop
  • Fills the Skies by Josh White
  • Yesterday on Repeat by Vexento

Show Resources:

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Sep 09, 2019
Generosity Q&R: Overpopulation, Cain's Sacrifice & Manna Hoarding - Generosity E5
01:01:52

Welcome to our Q+R for our series on Generosity. Tim and Jon respond on this episode to six questions. Thank you to everyone who submitted questions!

Below are the questions with corresponding timestamps.

Raphael from Austria (1:36):
My question is, in this modern age with trending topics like overpopulation, climate change, and running out of resources in many parts of the Earth, how can we understand or apply the mindset of abundance and that God in a generous host? Thanks for everything you do and for helping me reshape my biblical paradigms so that I may now understand the biblical story in a whole new way.

Nadia from the UK (11:27):
My question is with Cain and Abel: isn't it because the Lord looked on Abel's offering more favorably because he brought the best, the fattened part of his flock and the firstborn of his flock? In comparison to what Cain brought, which was just some of the fruit; it doesn’t say it was the first fruits or the best of, it was just some, and therefore, God looked more favorably on Abel’s, which is why Cain’s was rejected. Thanks!

Seth from Cincinnati (12:03):
You guys have discussed the reasons for why God favored Abel over Cain. The author of Hebrews says, "By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain, through which he was commended as righteous, God commending him by accepting his gifts. And through his faith, though he died, he still speaks" (Hebrews 11:4). ...We can infer that by contrast that Cain's must not have been offered by faith. What do you think of this interpretation?

Lauren from Indiana (30:00):
I love the parable you have going and that we make choices based on fear that abundance will stop, and we need to hoard. That immediately took me to Exodus 16 and the manna that Moses told them to not leave any until morning. Of course, some people did anyway, and it was spoiled. To me, that's a really obvious example of your parable, but are we supposed to be mapping that onto Genesis specifically, or was that just a happy piece of serendipity?

Nathaniel from New Orleans (35:56):
You've focused on how the human self-protective instinct and greed will ruin the party for everyone. But I was curious as to how natural disasters in Scripture—whether they're portrayed as a time of punishment for the wicked or time of testing of the righteous, or or both—how those interact with the image of God as generous host. Thank you very much, and God bless.

Secret from Wisconsin (48:00):
My question was: is there a specific context that we should have in mind when Jesus tells the Young Rich Ruler to go sell all his possessions, and give them away? Just because I know that in some cases it's not very wise to give away all you have because then you become dependent upon other people to help you, and you can't really help people yourself in the way you could if you had those resources. Thank you guys so much.

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show Resources:
Christopher J.H. Wright, Old Testament Ethics for the People of God

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Sep 02, 2019
Jesus as the Ultimate Gift - Generosity E4
00:56:57

In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss the story of Jesus and how it relates to the theme of generosity.

In part 1 (0-16:40), Tim notes that God’s gifts to humans, and specifically his gift of the Promised Land to Israel, are unconditioned, but not unconditional. The gift of the land places an obligation upon Israel: the gift is unconditioned (unmerited), but not unconditional (non-reciprocal). It is not given to Israel based on an evaluation of their worthiness, but it is given with a clear expectation of obligated response.

Then Tim dives into Matthew 5:43-48 to make the point that the fundamental depiction of God in the New Testament is that of a generous gift giver whose generosity should effect a transformation of our lives.

Matthew 5:43-48

“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for he causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.
 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same?
 Therefore you are to be complete, as your heavenly Father is complete.”

In part 2 (16:40-33:40), Tim dives into more passages in the New Testament that build on this theme.

John 3:16
God so love the world, that he gave his one and only Son, so that whoever believes in him would not perish but have eternal life.

1 John 3:1
See how great a love the Father has given on us, that we would be called children of God; and that is what we are.

1 John 5:11

And the testimony is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.

Romans 8:31-32

What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who is against us? He who did not spare his own Son but gave him over for us all, how will he not also with him freely gift us all things?

James 1:17
Every good thing given and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shifting shadow.

Tim says that the generosity Jesus dispenses exposes the heart of humanity, which is bent toward selfishness. Being generous in the way that Jesus is generous creates a different kind of security than economic security. It’s a security based on a community that truly loves each other, sharing freely with each other.

In part 3 (33:40-45:15), Tim dives into 2 Corinthians 8.

2 Corinthians 8:1-11

Now, brethren, we wish to make known to you the grace of God which has been given in the churches of Macedonia, that in a great ordeal of affliction their abundance of joy and their deep poverty overflowed in the wealth of their liberality.
 For I testify that according to their ability, and beyond their ability, they gave of their own accord, begging us with much urging for the grace of participation (Greek: koinonia) in the service of the saints, and this, not as we had expected, but they first gave themselves to the Lord and to us by the will of God.
 So we urged Titus that as he had previously made a beginning, so he would also complete in you this grace as well. But just as you abound in everything, in faith and utterance and knowledge and in all earnestness and in the love we inspired in you, see that you abound in this grace also.
 I am not speaking this as a command, but as proving through the earnestness of others the sincerity of your love also.
 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you through his poverty might become rich.
 I give my opinion in this matter, for this is to your advantage, who were the first to begin a year ago not only to do this, but also to desire to do it.
 But now finish doing it also, so that just as there was the readiness to desire it, so there may be also the completion of it by your ability.

Tim notes that the word for grace is the same word for gift in Greek (charis, noun: “grace, gift” and charizomai, verb: “to give a gift, forgive”).

In part 4 (45:15-end), the guys wrap up their conversation. Tim notes that the themes of scarcity and abundance or selfishness and generosity are woven from start to finish in the Bible. Why? Because it’s a fundamental part of our human existence.

Thank you to all our supporters!


Have a question for us? Send an audio file with your question around 20 seconds to info@jointhebibleproject.com.

Check out all our resources at www.thebibleproject.com

Additional Resources:
Paul and the Gift by John Barclay: https://amzn.to/2Znueja

Show Music:

Defender Instrumental by Tents

Migration by goosetaf

Murmuration by Blue Weds (feat. Shopan)

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel

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Aug 26, 2019
The Abraham Experiment - Generosity E3
01:04:05

In this episode, Tim and Jon trace this theme through the Old Testament.

In part 1 (0-19:45), the guys briefly recap their discussion so far. Tim notes that Eve’s reaction in Hebrew between the birth of Cain and the birth of Seth are decidedly different. Tim says that Eve takes an arrogant stance by naming Cain, seeming to place herself alongside God. However, she takes a humble stance when she names Seth, seeing that God has granted her a son. Tim quotes scholar Umberto Cassuto:

“The first woman in her joy at giving birth to her first son, boasts of her generative power, which in her estimation approximates the divine creative power. The Lord formed the first man, and I have formed the second man. Literally, ‘I have created a man with the Lord,’ by which she means, ‘I stand together equally with the Creator in the rank of creators.’”
(Umberto Cassuto, Commentary on the Book of Genesis: Part I - From Adam to Noah)

Tim notes that in the Bible, there are many stories of parents who abuse the gifts that God gives them in the ability to reproduce and have children, or they take undue parental pride in the gift of children.

In part 2 (19:45-25:45), Tim and Jon discuss the theme of God choosing one over another. Tim points out that God’s choosing of one over another is actually a desire to bless all through the exaltation of the one. God says Cain will be exalted if he only obeys. Instead, Cain chooses to bow to his sinful desires.

In part 3 (25:45-32:30), Tim moves onto the story of the Tower of Babel. Humans were called to spread out and rule the earth. Instead of embracing that gift, the humans decide to build a towering city.

In part 4 (32:30-44:15), Tim dives into the story of Abraham. God chooses one family, the family of Abraham. Tim says that the Promised Land is God’s “gift” to Abraham’s family:

Genesis 12:1-3

Now the Lord said to Abram,

“Go forth from your country,
And from your family

And from your father’s house,

To the land which I will show you;

And I will make you a great nation,

And I will bless you,

And make your name great;

And you shall be a blessing;

And I will bless those who bless you,

And the one who treats you as cursed, I will curse.

And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.”

Genesis 12:7
“To your seed I will give this land.” So he built an altar there to Yahweh who appeared to him.”

Jon points out that sometimes famines come along. Sometimes, there isn’t enough. This tension does exist in the Bible, Tim notes, between God’s abundance and the existence of chaos. God didn’t create a perfectly safe world. He created a world where humans were to learn to co-rule with him, creating order from chaos.

In part 5 (44:15-end), Tim notes that God keeps giving the Promised Land to Israel, and they keep misusing the gift. He cites two passages from Deuteronomy.

Deuteronomy 11:8-14
“You all shall therefore keep every commandment which I am commanding you today, so that you may be strong and go in and possess the land... so that you may prolong your days on the land which the Lord swore to your fathers to give to them and to their descendants, a land flowing with milk and honey. For the land, into which you are entering to possess it, is not like the land of Egypt from which you came, where you used to sow your seed and water it with your foot like a vegetable garden. But the land into which you are about to cross to possess it, a land of hills and valleys, drinks water from the rain of heaven, a land for which the Lord your God cares; the eyes of the Lord your God are always on it, from the beginning even to the end of the year.


“It shall come about, if you listen obediently to my commandments which I am commanding you today, to love the Lord your God and to serve him with all your heart and all your soul, that he will give the rain for your land in its season, the barley and late rain, that you may gather in your grain and your new wine and your oil.”

Tim then cites scholar Joshua Berman, saying that Israel’s economy was an “Exodus-style” economy:

“A key theological claim at work in these laws is that of God’s identity as the liberator of slaves. He forms a people out of those who were deemed to be people of no standing at all by the political and economic leaders who oppressed them. The egalitarian streak within Pentateuchal law codes accords with the portrayal of the Exodus as the prime experience of Israel’s self-understanding. Indeed, no Israelite can lay claim to any greater status than another, because all emanate from the Exodus—a common seminal, liberating, and equalizing event… This notion of God’s sovereignty as creator and liberator animated the biblical laws aimed at preventing Israelites from descending into the cycle of poverty and debt.”
(Joshua Berman, Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought, 88)

Deuteronomy 24:19-22
“When you are harvesting in your field and you overlook a sheaf, do not go back to get it. Leave it for the immigrant, the fatherless and the widow, so that the Lord your God may bless you in all the work of your hands. When you beat the olives from your trees, do not go over the branches a second time. Leave what remains for the immigrant, the fatherless and the widow. When you harvest the grapes in your vineyard, do not go over the vines again. Leave what remains for the foreigner, the fatherless and the widow. Remember that you were slaves in Egypt. That is why I command you to do this.”

Thank you to all our supporters!

Have a question for us? Send an audio recording around 30 seconds to our team at info@jointhebibleproject.com.

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental by Tents
Quietly by blnkspc_
Mind Your Time by Me.So
The Pilgrim by Greyflood

Show Resources:
Umberto Cassuto, Commentary on the Book of Genesis: Part I - From Adam to Noah
Joshua Berman, Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

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Aug 19, 2019
God as the Generous Host - Generosity E2
00:39:54

In part 1 (0-15:00), Tim presents God as an amazing and generous host to humanity. Tim then dives into Genesis and re-examines the stories through the lens of generosity. The biblical portrait of evil, Tim shares, begins with a desire for what is not rightly mine and then taking it for oneself.

Genesis 3:1-6
Now the snake was more shrewd than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from any tree of the garden’?”

The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; but from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die.’ ”

The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die! For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable for making wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.

Beginning in verse 1, Tim notes, “You shall not eat from any tree of the garden” is an act of subtly undermining God’s generosity. Again this subtlety is seen in verses 4-5: “You will not die. For God knows that in the day you eat from it, your eyes will be opened and you will be like elohim, knowing good and evil.” In other words, the serpent is portraying God as holding out on humanity, withholding knowledge and good things. Finally, in verse 6, the word “desirable” (Heb. nekhmad, “the object of covetous desire”) combines with the action “take.” Humans become aware that there is something they can desire and take, presumably for their own benefit.

Tim and Jon hypothesize that the tree is placed in the middle of the garden to represent that the human choice to do what is wrong is always in the center of our lives. We are always only one or two decisions away from ruining our lives and the lives of many others.

In part 2 (15:00-26:45), Tim notes that humans don’t know what to do with abundance. We bend abundance to hoard and act selfishly. Tim then pivots to the story of Cain and Abel. Jon explains that he feels God is more generous with Abel than with Cain. Tim says this seems to be an intentionally ambiguous gap in the narrative. Tim says he thinks Genesis is developing a theme of the ‘mystery of election.’ God does seem to choose or favor one person over another, but that doesn’t mean it’s at the complete expense of the other person.

In Genesis 4, Cain’s jealous anger at his brother compels him to take life instead of give. The narrative tells us in 4:2 that Cain was “a worker of the ground” but denies his role as a “keeper of his brother.” This is why murder is such a heinous crime in the Scriptures: to take life gratuitously is to act as if it is yours to “take,” rather than recognizing that your role as a human is to “give” life and participate in its flourishing.

In part 3 (26:45-end), Tim and Jon continue to discuss the Cain and Abel story and how the traits of “taking” continues in the following stories in Genesis. In Genesis 6, the sons of elohim “see” the daughters of humanity are “good” and they “take” what they want. Then in Genesis 11 in the story of Babylon, the people say, “let us build for ourselves a city and a tower, and it’s head will be in the skies, and we will make a name for ourselves.”

In the story of Cain and Abel, Tim notes, God tells Cain that if he does good, he too will be exalted. Instead, Cain chooses to take his brother’s life, rejecting God’s generosity and claiming the life of his brother.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Find all our resources at www.thebibleproject.com

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Tim Mackie

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental by Tents
Spiral by KV
Twin Moon by Ashley Shadow

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Aug 12, 2019
Abundance or Scarcity - Generosity E1
01:08:50

In this series, Tim and Jon trace the theme of generosity and abundance through the Scriptures.

In part 1 (0-7:45), the guys quickly introduce the conversation. Tim explains that generosity is both a theme and a concept that is found throughout the Scriptures.

In part 2 (7:45-32:10), Tim shares from a famous passage in the gospel accounts.


Luke 12:22-34

"And He said to His disciples, 'For this reason I tell you, don’t be anxious about your life, what you will eat; and don’t be anxious about your body, what clothes you put on. For life is more than food, and the body more than clothing. Ponder the ravens, for they don’t sow seed or reap a harvest; they have no storerooms or barns, and yet God feeds them; how much more valuable you are than the birds! And which of you by worrying can add an hour to his life’s span? And if you cannot do even a very little thing, why do you worry about other matters? Ponder the lilies, how they grow: they don’t toil or spin clothes; but I tell you, not even Solomon in all his glory clothed himself like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass in the field, which is here today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, how much more will He clothe you? You who trust God so little! And do not seek what you will eat and what you will drink, and don’t foster your anxiety. For all these things the nations of the world eagerly seek; and your Father knows that you need these things. But seek His kingdom, and these things will be granted to you. Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom. Sell your possessions and give to the poor; make yourselves money belts which do not wear out, an unfailing treasure in heaven, where no thief comes near nor moth destroys. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.'"

Tim points out that freedom from anxiety is rooted in a conception of the universe, like a safe place where I’m welcomed by a generous host. The same overabundance we see in nature comes from a Creator who shows that same generosity towards us. This mindset frees us from a scarcity mentality, releasing us to freely give resources to others. Jesus observed this not primarily as a religious principle but as one written on the DNA of the universe. Jesus sees the birds and flowers and grass and notices God’s generosity and overabundant love.


The words of Jesus sound almost irresponsible to Type A, hardworking people. Yet with these words, Jesus articulates a way of seeing the world rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures and their depiction of God’s generosity. Tim notes that often we’re the ones who need our eyes opened to see God’s generosity in creation.

In part 3 (32:10-36:30), Tim points out Jesus’ view of creation, that God created a good world that always produces enough, as long as humans live in accordance with the image of God.

In part 4 (36:30-53:20), Tim asks: What kind of tradition and culture did Jesus grown up in that allowed him to have this mindset? One passage Tim offers is Psalm 104:10-17 and 24-28:

He sends forth springs in the valleys;
They flow between the mountains;
They give drink to every beast of the field;
The wild donkeys quench their thirst.
Beside them the birds of the heavens dwell;
They lift up their voices among the branches.
He waters the mountains from His upper chambers;
The earth is satisfied with the fruit of His works.
He causes the grass to grow for the cattle,
And vegetation for the labor of man,
So that he may bring forth food from the earth,
And wine which makes man’s heart glad,
So that he may make his face glisten with oil,
And food which sustains man’s heart.
The trees of the Lord drink their fill,
The cedars of Lebanon which He planted,
Where the birds build their nests,
And the stork, whose home is the fir trees.

O Lord, how many are Your works!
In wisdom You have made them all;
The earth is full of Your possessions.
There is the sea, great and broad,
In which are swarms without number,
Animals both small and great.
There the ships move along,
And Leviathan, which You have formed to sport in it.
They all wait for You
To give them their food in due season.
You give to them, they gather it up;
You open Your hand, they are satisfied with good.


Tim points out that this is a Psalm Jesus would have grown up hearing in synagogue. Jesus believed creation is an expression of the generous, creative love of God. Genesis 1-2 shows us that God brings order out of chaos (Gen. 1) and a garden out of a wasteland (Gen. 2). These God gives as a gift to humanity.

One way of thinking of the biblical storyline, Tim points out, is as a story of giving and taking. Yahweh God creates a wonderful world, full of potential, and he gives it to humanity to rule with him through wisdom. Humanity then desires to rule on their own terms and takes creation for themselves.

In part 5 (53:20-end), Tim points out the human problem, not only on a societal level, but on a heart level. By default, we act to benefit ourselves. In the midst of this, Tim notes, the Bible’s view on wealth is complex. Jesus talks about wealth and money more than most topics—a top-three subject of conversation. Scripture is suspicious about wealth, knowing how affluence and abundance can make humans indulgent and arrogant.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Find our resources at www.thebibleproject.com

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Tim Mackie

Show Music:
• Defender Instrumental by Tents
• Conquer by Beautiful Eulogy
• Shot in the Back of the Head by Moby
• Scream Pilots by Moby
• Analogs by Moby

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Aug 05, 2019
Wisdom Q&R - Wisdom E7
01:12:49

Wisdom Q+R

Welcome to our Q+R on the Wisdom Literature in the Bible!

In this episode, Tim and Jon respond to seven questions. You can read those questions with their timestamps below.

Toonna from Canada (1:55):
Hi, Tim and Jon. My name is Toonna and I am calling from Canada. I'm Nigerian, but I currently live in Canada. I just got done listening to the podcast of the tree of knowing good and bad. Towards the end of the podcast, I was really interested in the conversation around the fear of the Lord and wisdom, how Adam and Eve were afraid of God after they ate of the fruit of the tree of good and bad but not afraid before, enough to not eat of the fruit. So I was curious if you have any thoughts on how we as Christians today can be possessed or consumed by the fear of the Lord enough to not commit sin today. Thank you very much.

Jan from Texas (21:10):
I was especially interested in your commentary on the role of the woman as the 'ezer, implying that she's someone provided for the adam to address the "not good" situation of his being alone and which then allows him to fulfill his mission "as designed" (so to speak). I'm curious, though, about how to reconcile this with Paul's statements in 1 Corinthians 7 regarding his wish that church members would remain unmarried (as he is). Typically, I've been taught that Paul was better able to fulfill his mission because of his single status, which seems a little at odds with the ideas discussed in these recent podcasts. So my question is: What's the best/most accurate way to handle Paul's teachings, especially viewed through the lens of the wisdom literature in particular? I feel like there's probably something my 21st-century Western mind is missing.

Wesley from California (45:45):
Hi, Tim and Jon, this is Wesley from Chowchilla, California. In your video on the Books of Solomon, you mentioned that Ecclesiastes is like Solomon as an old man reflecting on his life. In 1 Kings 11, Solomon dies apostate as king. I've been reading Tremper Longman's New International Commentary on Ecclesiastes, and in it he argues that Solomon did not write Ecclesiastes but that Collette is taking on Solomon's persona to make his point. And he seems to abandon this persona after three chapters. Can I get your thoughts on this idea? Also, I just want to say that I love The Bible Project. Thank you for everything you guys do.

Taylor from Tennessee (49:23):
Hey guys, this is Taylor from Knoxville, Tennessee. I'm trying to gain a better understanding of wisdom, and it appears that the opposite of wisdom is doing what is right in your own eyes. It seems that that's the underlying theme of the book of Judges, and I was curious to see if there was any correlation or relationship that the authors try to make there with wisdom.

Brad from Wisconsin (53:10):
My question came up about midway through the series, and it has to do with David. Does he play any role in the Wisdom Literature of the Bible, or is the major theme of wisdom attributed to Solomon exclusively? I see Solomon's portrayal of wisdom to be a piece of what it means to be an image bearer. Does King David share a similar motif?

Micah from Oregon (56:35):
Hi, my name is Micah Sharp. I'm from Newberg, Oregon. Here's my question. If we're switching from the wisdom literature to the classification of the books of Solomon, where does the book of Job now fit in the wider Hebrew Bible? Thank you.

Kayleigh from South Africa (1:02:47):
My question is about the Song of Songs. I was wondering if there's a connection between the two lovers in the Song of Songs who never get to fully consummate their love for each other and the New Jerusalem as a bride of the Lamb in Revelation? Could this be, in a sense, when the two lovers get to completely unite with each other in Revelation? I'd love to hear your thoughts on this.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Find out more at www.thebibleproject.com

Show Resources:
Our video on How to Read the Books of Solomon: https://youtu.be/WJgt1vRkPbI
An Obituary for Wisdom Literature by Will Kynes

Show Music: Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel

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Jul 29, 2019
Did Jesus Really Think He Was God? - Feat. Dr. Crispin Fletcher-Louis
01:07:43

Crispin points out that in modern academia, it is often assumed that Christ didn’t
consider himself divine. Instead, academics consider that Christ’s divinity was
later imposed on him by the early church.
Crispin points to some weaknesses in this argument and offers some refreshing
critiques.
Included in his points are:
• The high priest is a new Adam.
• The high priest as “God’s image” is tied to the idea of the temple as a
microcosm.
• The high priest is, in a sense, “Israel.”
• Because the high priest is a representative of Israel, he is also a royal figure,
because one of the tribes of Israel is the royal line (the tribe of Judah).
• The high priest is an office, not a person.
About Dr. Fletcher-Louis:
Dr. Crispin Fletcher-Louis is a biblical scholar and teacher. He studied at Keble
College, Oxford as an undergraduate when E.P. Sanders and N.T. Wright were
University lecturers, and for his doctorate, under Chris Rowland (on angelology in
Luke’s Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles). He then taught in the Theology and
Religious Studies departments of King’s College, London, Durham University, and
Nottingham University. From 2004–2006 he served as Resident Theologian at St
Mary’s Bryanston Sq., a thriving church in Central London. With growing demand
for deeper theological teaching across the region, in 2006 he spearheaded the
creation of Westminster Theological Centre (WTC).
In July 2012 Crispin stepped down as Principal of WTC and is now engaged in
research, writing, and the development of new teaching material. He continues to
provide informal teaching to local churches and consultancy to businesses
interested in the optimization of material and spiritual value creation. His research
and teaching focuses on the overarching shape of the biblical story (its key
themes and theological questions). In particular, he writes about the nature of our
human identity and purpose, temple worship and spirituality, apocalyptic and
Jewish mysticism, Jesus’ identity (Christology) and the Gospel accounts of his life.
Crispin is currently engaged in a four-volume book writing project on Jesus and
the origins of the earliest beliefs about him (Jesus Monotheism). The first volume
(Jesus Monotheism. Volume 1. Christological Origins: The Emerging Consensus
and Beyond) (hard copy: Eugene, Or: Wipf & Stock; digital copy: Whymanity)
appeared in 2015.

There is a blog dedicated to the Jesus Monotheism project. For more on
Crispin’s academic work you can visit his webpage at academia.edu.
Crispin is married to Mary and has two children, Emily and Reuben.

Resources:
• http://www.whymanity.com/
• http://www.crispinfl.com
• http://jesusmonotheism.com/usd/
• https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Monotheism-Christological-Emerging-Consensus/dp/1620328895

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel

Show music:
• Defender Instrumental by Tents
• Acquired in Heaven by Beautiful Eulogy

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Jul 22, 2019
Solomon the Cynic & the Job You Never Knew - Wisdom E6
01:05:26

In part 1 (0-24:15), Tim and Jon discuss the book of Ecclesiastes. This book can most easily be
described as a portrait of “foolish Solomon,” who looks back at his accomplishments as failure
and hevel.

Tim points out that the start of the book begins by creating a “Solomon-like” persona.
Ecclesiastes 1:1
“The words of the preacher son of David, king in Jerusalem...” (NASB, ESV, KJV) “The words
of the teacher, son of David, king in Jerusalem...” (NIV, NRSV)
However, there is a translation problem: This word does not mean “teacher” in the original
Hebrew. Hebrew noun (קהלת (qoheleth, from the verb qahal (קהל ,(meaning “to assemble,
convene.”

The Hebrew word is Qoheleth—the one who holds or convenes an assembly, i.e. the “leader of
the assembly” (Heb. qahal). So this word is best understood as an assembler or convener. The
word is also used in 1 Kings 8:1, “Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel and all the
heads of the tribes... to bring up the ark of the covenant of the Lord from the city of David, which
is Zion. All the men of Israel assembled themselves to King Solomon at the feast.”
Tim’s point is that there are multiple leaders who assemble or convene Israel in the Bible.
Who holds assemblies in Israel’s story?
• Moses (Exod 35:1; Lev 8:1-3)
• David (1 Chron 13:5; 15:3; 28:1)
• Solomon (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Chron 5:2-3)
• Rehoboam (Solomon’s son, 1 Kings 12:21; 2 Chron 11:1)
• Asa (2 Chron 15:9-10)
• Jehoshaphat (2 Chron 20:3-5)
• Hezekiah (2 Chron 30:12-13)

Tim cites scholar Jennie Barbour for additional clarification:
“The name Qoheleth ‘the one who convenes the assembly’ is a label with royal associations—
after Moses, only kings summon all-Israelite assemblies, and those associations take in more
kings than just Solomon. Qoheleth’s name casts him as a royal archetype, not an ‘everyman’ so
much as an ‘everyking.’” (Jenny Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth, p. 25-26)
Any generation of Jerusalem’s kings could be called “son of David,” and the author tips his hat
in Ecclesiastes 2:9, “I increased more than all who preceded me in Jerusalem.” (And the only
person who reigned before him in Jerusalem was his father David.)
Tim explains that the jaded king-author of Ecclesiastes brings a realism in light of Genesis 3,
framing the world as life “under the sun,” or life outside of Eden. This king is realizing the curse
of Genesis 3: painful toil and dust to dust.

Tim further points out that Ecclesiastes offers a Solomon-like profile of the wealthy sons of
David, who discovered that riches, honor, power, and women do not bring the life of Eden.
Further, while many people assume that the descriptions solely describe the life of Solomon,
Tim points out that they also map very closely onto the life of Hezekiah.
Take a look at these two passages:

Ecclesiastes 2:4-8 I made great my works: I built houses for myself, I planted vineyards for
myself; I made gardens and parks for myself and I planted in them all kinds of fruit trees; I made
ponds of water for myself from which to irrigate a forest of growing trees. I bought male and
female slaves and I had homeborn slaves. Also I possessed flocks and herds more abundant
than all who preceded me in Jerusalem. Also, I collected for myself silver and gold and the
treasure of kings and provinces. I provided for myself male and female singers and the
pleasures of men—many concubines.

Hezekiah in 2 Chronicles 32:27-30 Now Hezekiah had immense riches and honor; and he
made for himself treasuries for silver, gold, precious stones, spices, shields and all kinds of
valuable articles, collection-houses also for the produce of grain, wine and oil, pens for all kinds
of cattle and sheepfolds for the flocks. He made cities for himself and acquired flocks and herds
in abundance, for God had given him very great wealth. It was Hezekiah who stopped the upper
outlet of the waters of Gihon and directed them to the west side of the city of David. And
Hezekiah prospered in all his works.

Tim cites Jennie Barbour again:
“In all of these ways [building projects, riches, royal treasuries, pools, singers] the royal boast
in Eccles. 2:4-10 displays a king’s achievements in terms that show an author of the Second
Temple period reading an interpreting the earlier stories of Israel’s kings...the writer has pulled
together texts and motifs from Israel’s histories...to show that the paradigm king, Solomon, set
the mould that was continually replicated through the rest of Israel’s monarchy down to the
exile.” (Jennie Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth, 23-24)
In part 2 (24:15- 31:45), Jon asks how the narrative frame of Ecclesiastes being about all of
Israel’s kings—not just about Solomon—affects someone’s reading? Tim says he thinks it
makes the story more universal. All rulers and all humans struggle with the same things that
Solomon and other rulers have felt throughout history.

In part 3 (31:45-50:15), Tim and Jon turn their attention to the book of Job. Tim notes that he’s
recently learned of some new and fascinating layers to the book. Tim notes that Job is
positioned as a new type of Adam. He actually is portrayed as being righteous and upright. So
he’s an ideal wise person who has prospered during his life. Tim focuses on the beginning and
end of the book. Specifically the ending of the book, Tim finds new insights to ponder.
Tim notes that Job is portrayed as the righteous sufferer. Everything that has happened to him
is unfair. Then Tim dives into Job 42:7-10:
“And it came about after Yahweh had spoken these words to Job, and Yahweh said to Eliphaz
the Temanite, “My anger is kindled against you and against your two friends, because you
have not spoken of Me what is right as My servant Job has. “And now, take for yourselves
seven bulls and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up a burnt offering for
yourselves, and My servant Job will pray for you. For I will lift up his face so that I may not
commit an outrage with you, because you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant
Job has.” So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went
and they did as Yahweh told them; and the Lord lifted the face of Job. And Yahweh restored
the fortunes of Job while he prayed on behalf of his companions, and Yahweh added to
everything that belonged to Job, two-fold.”

The operative phrase Tim focuses on is “while he prayed.” Tim says this is a better translation of
the original Hebrew phrase. Tim notes that it’s as if Job’s righteous suffering has uniquely
positioned him to intercede on behalf of his friends to God.
In part 4, (50:15-60:00) Tim shares a few quotes from scholar David Clines regarding Job’s
intercession in 42:10.

“[W]e must remember that Job has not yet been restored when the friends bring their request
to him for his prayer. He is presumably still on the ash-heap. He has no inkling that Yahweh

intends to reverse his fortunes. All he knows is that he is still suffering at Yahweh’s hand, and, if
it is difficult for the friends to acknowledge the divine judgment against them, it must be no less
difficult for Job to accept this second-hand instruction to offer prayer for people he must be
totally disenchanted with; he certainly owes them nothing... Is this yet another ‘test’ that Job
must undergo before he is restored?
“The wording of Job 42:10 makes it seem as if Job’s restoration is dependent on his prayer on their behalf, as if his last trial of all will be to take his stand on the side of his ‘torturer-
comforters.’ It is true that this prayer is the first selfless act that Job has performed since his misfortunes overtook him—not that we much begrudge him the self-centeredness that has
dominated his speech throughout the book. Perhaps his renewed orientation to the needs of
others is the first sign that he has abandoned his inward-looking mourning and is ready to
accept consolation. In any case, in the very act of offering his prayer on the friends’ behalf his
own restoration is said to take effect: the Hebrew says, “Yahweh restored the fortunes of Job
while he was praying for his friends” (not, as most versions, “when (or after) he had prayed for
his friends”).” David J. A. Clines, Job 38–42, vol. 18B, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2011), 1235.

Tim notes that the point of the story of Job is that he suffers unfairly, but the righteous sufferer is
someone that God elevates to a place of authority, someone who God listens to when they
intercede for others.

In part 5 (60:00-end), Tim and Jon briefly recap the series as a whole.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Send us your questions for our Wisdom Q+R! You can email your audio question to
info@jointhebibleproject.com.

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Tim Mackie

Show music:

Defender Instrumental by Tents
Sunshine by Seneca B Surf Report by
Cloudchord
Soul Food Horns levitating by intention_ In Your Heart by Distant.Io

Show Resources:

Jennie Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth.
David J. A. Clines, Job 38–42, vol. 18B, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,
2011).

The Bible Project video: How to Read the Wisdom Books of the Bible (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJgt1vRkPbI)

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Jul 15, 2019
Destined for Glory - Feat. Dr. Haley Jacob
00:57:31

Welcome to this special episode of The Bible Project podcast! In this episode, Tim and Jon sit down with theologian and scholar Dr. Haley Goranson Jacob and discuss her book, Conformed to the Image of His Son: Reconsidering Paul's Theology of Glory in Romans.

Haley is an assistant professor of Theology at Whitworth University in Spokane, Washington.

The guys and Haley discuss different lenses used to understand Paul’s theology around the word “glory” and different ideas of what it means to become Christlike.

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Resources:
Haley's book:
https://www.ivpress.com/conformed-to-the-image-of-his-son
Haley’s bio: https://www.whitworth.edu/cms/academics/theology/newsletter/profiles/haley-goranson/

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents

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Jul 11, 2019
Song of Songs: Semi-Erotic Love Poetry - Wisdom E5
01:04:39

In part 1(0-15:50), the guys discuss the first major question about this book: Is Song of Songs truly wisdom literature?

Tim notes that there are multiple levels of interpretation. The most obvious one views Song of Songs as semi-erotic love poetry. While this isn’t wrong, Tim notes that a deeper reading can metaphorically map the man and woman’s sexual love for one another onto the human pursuit and quest for wisdom.

Jon says that this view of interpreting Song of Songs is new to him. The reason, Tim notes, is because modern biblical scholarship often tends to see only what it wants to see. Tim adds that multiple historical scholars note the double and triple meanings throughout the book.

In part 2 (15:50-33:30), the guys dive into the book. Tim outlines a few basic facts about the book: 

•	The poems go back and forth between a man and woman: The man is called “king” (1:4, 12) and “shepherd” (1:7).
•	The name “Solomon” is never marked as a speaker, and the main question is whether the lover (“my beloved”), who is called “king” and “shepherd,” is Solomon or a distinct figure. Notice the word “beloved” (dod, דוד), spelled with the same letters as “David” (דוד), who was both a king and shepherd (whereas Solomon was only a king).
•	The woman is called “whom I love” and “the Shulamite” (which is the feminine of Solomon’s name. It would be similar in English to “Daniel” and “Danielle”).

Tim cites Roland Murphy:

“On one level, the [Song of Songs] is a collection of love songs. However, as edited [to be part of the Hebrew Bible], do these poems have a wisdom-character on another level of understanding? First, there is the fact that ancient Jewish tradition...attributed this work to Solomon (Song 1:1)... it was mean to be read as a work in the Solomonic wisdom tradition… [T]here is an affinity between wisdom and eros in the wisdom literature. The quest for wisdom is a quest for the beloved…. The language and imagery used to describe the pursuit of Lady Wisdom [in Proverbs 1-9] are drawn from the experience of love. The Song of Songs speaks of love between a man and a woman...it is by that very fact open to a wisdom interpretation. Wisdom is to be “found” (Prov 3:13; 8:17, 35), just as one “finds” a good wife (Prov 18:22; 31:10).... [Both] Wisdom and a wife are called “favor from the Lord” (Prov 8:35 and 18:22). The sage advises the youth to “obtain Wisdom,” to love and embrace her (Prov 4:6-8). The youth is to say, “Wisdom, you are my sister” (Prov 7:4), just as the beloved in the Song of Songs is called “my sister (Song 4:9-5:1)... It is precisely the link between eros and wisdom that opens the Song of Songs to another level of understanding. While it is not ‘wisdom literature,’ its echoes reach beyond human sexual love to remind one of the love of Lady Wisdom…” (Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature, pp. 106-107.)

In part 3 (33:30-47:00), Jon notes with this interpretation that the female character is the “divine” character. In most popular interpretations, Solomon is closer to the Christ figure, and the woman is as the Church—making the male the “divine” character.

Tim then dives into the literary design of the book. The Song is designed as a symmetry (see the work of Cheryl Exum and William Shea).

The Literary Macrostructure of Song of Songs:

1:2-2:7 Mutual Love
B. 2:8-17 Coming and Going
C. 3:1-5 Dream 1: Lost and Found
D. 3:6-11 Praise of Groom 1
E. 4:1-7 Praise of Bride 1
F. 4:8-15 Praise of Bride 2
G. 4:16 Invitation by Bride
G. Acceptance and Invitation by Groom and Divine Approbation
C. 5:2-8 Dream 2: Found and Lost
D. 5:9-6:3 Praise of Groom 2
E. 6:4-12 Praise of Bride 3
F. 7:1 Praise of Bride 4
B. 7:11-8:2 Going and Coming
8:3-14 Mutual Love

(Chart by Richard M. Davidson)

Tim points out that the first half explores the engagement, passion, and constant desire and pursuit of the lovers, though their embrace is cut short multiple times. The second half mirrors the first, but this time it depicts the royal wedding of Solomon and his Solomon-ess bride. The beloved is described in precisely the language of Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 1-9, the God-given wife in Proverbs 5, and the woman of valor in Proverbs 31 (see Claudia Camp, Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs).

Verses like this can show how the corresponding language maps onto each other.

Lady Wisdom in Proverbs

Proverbs 4:5-9
“Acquire wisdom! Acquire understanding!
Do not forget nor turn away from the words of my mouth.
Do not forsake her, and she will guard you;
Love her, and she will watch over you.
The beginning of wisdom is: Acquire wisdom;
And with all your acquiring, get understanding.
Prize her, and she will exalt you;
She will honor you if you embrace her.
She will place on your head a garland of grace;
She will present you with a crown of beauty.”

The Beloved in Song of Songs
Song 2:3-4, 6
“Like an apple tree among the trees of the forest,
So is my beloved among the young men.
In his shade I took great delight and sat down,
And his fruit was sweet to my taste.
He has brought me to his banquet hall,
And his banner over me is love….
Let his left hand be under my head
And his right hand embrace me.”

Song 3:11
“Go forth, O daughters of Zion,
And gaze on King Solomon with the crown
With which his mother has crowned him
On the day of his wedding,
And on the day of his gladness of heart.”

Tim notes that conversely, the beloved is also described in the language of the wayward woman in Proverbs 1-9.

Wayward woman of Proverbs 1-9

Proverbs 5:3
“For the lips of the strange woman drip with honey (נפת תטפנה שפתי זרה), and her mouth (חך) is smoother than oil.”

Proverbs 7:6, 8
“The strange woman... the foreign woman whose words are smooth… A man passes through the street (שוק), and takes the way (דרך) to her house.

Proverbs 7:13, 15, 17
“She grabs him and kisses him… ‘Therefore I have come out to meet you, to seek your presence earnestly, and I have found you…. I have sprinkled my bed with myrrh, aloe, and cinnamon.’”

Compare those verses with the beloved in Song of Songs.

Song 4:11
“O bride, your lips drip with honey (נפת תטפנה שפתותיך), honey and fat are under your tongue…”

Song 3:2
“I arose and went around in the city, in the streets and squares, I sought the one my being loves…”

Songs 3:1, 4
“On my bed at night, I sought the one my being loves, I sought him but could not find him… No sooner did I pass by them, then I found the one my being loves, and grabbed him and I did not let go….”

Songs 1:16
“Behold, your beauty my companion...behold your beauty my beloved, so lovely, indeed our couch is luxuriant.”

What is the point? It’s as if the beloved represented the healing of the wayward woman into one ultimate lover. The ideal Solomon is converted from a lover of many women into a lover of one, reversing the fall of Adam and Eve, Yahweh and Israel, Solomon and his many wives. Lady Wisdom (who we met in Proverbs) is finally embraced by the son of David. She is constantly searching for her lover (as Lady Wisdom searches in Prov. 1-9).

In part 4 (47:00-52:30), Jon comments that to him, the human sexual drive is confusing, especially when viewed in a Christian lens. How do you map a biological longing for sex onto a book like Song of Songs?

Tim says that the desire is sexual, but it’s also more than sexual. It’s a desire to know and be known., to become one with something and someone. It’s a desire for unity. Humanity’s desire for sex, Tim compares, is analogous to our desire for wisdom and unity.

In part 5 (52:30-end), Tim cites scholar Peter Leithart as a helpful resource to learn more about Song of Songs. Tim closes the episode with a quote from scholar Ellen Davis:

“Loss of intimacy is exactly what happened in Eden. Eden was the place where God was most intimate with humanity. Witness God “taking a walk in the garden in the breezy part of the day” (Gen. 3:8), obviously expecting to have the humans for company, and calling out—“Where are you?”—when they do not appear. There is good reason to imagine that God intended to impart wisdom to humanity on those walks, little by little. But when Eve and Adam disregarded God and tried the direct route to “knowledge of good and evil,” the immediate result was not literal death. Rather, it was distrust breaking into the relationship between God and humanity. It was blame erupting between man and woman (Gen. 3:12) and the onset of a long-term imbalance of power between them (Gen. 3:16). It was a curse on the fertile soil and enmity between the woman’s seed and the snake’s (Gen. 3:15, 17).... The exile from Eden represents the loss of intimacy in three primary spheres of relationship: between God and humanity, between woman and man, and between human and nonhuman creation. Correspondingly, the Song uses language to evoke a vision of healing in all three areas. More accurately, it reuses language from other parts of Scripture; verbal echoes explicitly connect the garden of the lovers with the two earlier gardens, that of Eden and of Israel’s temple.” (Ellen Davis, “Reading the Song of Songs Iconographically,” pg. 179)

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show Resources: 
• Peter Leithart Podcasts on Song of Songs (https://www.theopolispodcast.com/episodes)
• Ellen Davis, “Reading the Song of Songs Iconographically”
• Claudia Camp, Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs
• Cheryl Exum, Song of Songs: A Commentary
• Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature

Show Music: 
• Defender Instrumental by Tents
• Identity by B-Side
• albatros by plusma
• faces by knowmadic
• Aerocity by Cold Weather Kids
• Some music brought to you by the generous folks at chillhop music. Chillhop.com

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

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Jul 08, 2019
Proverbs: Lady Wisdom & Lady Folly - Wisdom E4
00:45:44

In part 1 (start-17:45), the guys briefly recap the series so far. Jon summarizes by saying that the overarching theme is the human calling to rule, as outlined in the Genesis and garden of Eden narrative. The question is, will humans rule wisely or foolishly?

In part 2 (17:45-27:00), Tim and Jon discuss how Proverbs lays out two paths, which are the same two paths outlined in Genesis. A person can either choose to live wisely, depicted as listening to “Lady Wisdom,” or a person can choose to live foolishly, depicted as listening to “Lady Folly.”

Early in Proverbs, the “Solomon” narrator warns the “seed of David” about how to live in the fear of Yahweh and discover true wisdom. The wise and righteous man embraces Lady Wisdom (Proverbs 1, 3, 8, 9).

The goal of finding “a woman of valor” (Prov. 5, 31) avoids the wicked and violent man, avoids Lady Folly (Prov. 9), and avoids the “wayward woman” (characterized as an adulteress).

Tim notes that there are four speeches each that talk about Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly, for a total of eight speeches. The components of these speeches are designed to mirror each other.

In part 3 (27:00-39:00), Tim outlines Proverbs 9, which is an example of the two women mirroring each other.

Proverbs 9:1-6
"Wisdom has built her house,
She has hewn out her seven pillars;
She has prepared her food, she has mixed her wine;
She has also set her table;
She has sent out her maidens, she calls
From the tops of the high places of the city:
‘Whoever is naive, let him turn in here!’
To him who lacks understanding she says,
‘Come, eat of my bread
And drink of the wine I have mixed.
‘Forsake your folly and live,
And proceed in the way of understanding.’”

Proverbs 9:13-18
“The woman of folly is boisterous,
She is naive and knows nothing.
She sits at the doorway of her house,
On a seat by the high places of the city,
Calling to those who pass by,
Who are making their paths straight:
‘Whoever is naive, let him turn in here,’
And to him who lacks understanding she says,
‘Stolen water is sweet;
And bread eaten in secret is pleasant.’
But he does not know that the dead are there,
That her guests are in the depths of Sheol.”

Tim notes that accepting divine wisdom is the way to discover the blessings of Eden. Consider Proverbs 3:

Proverbs 3:1-8, 13-18
“My son, do not forget my teaching,
But let your heart keep my commandments;
For length of days and years of life
And peace they will add to you.
Do not let kindness and truth leave you;
Bind them around your neck,
Write them on the tablet of your heart.
So you will find favor and good repute
In the sight of God and man.
Trust in the Lord with all your heart
And do not lean on your own understanding.
In all your ways acknowledge Him,
And He will make your paths straight.
Do not be wise in your own eyes;
Fear the Lord and turn away from ra’.
It will be healing to your body
And refreshment to your bones.”

“How blessed is the man who finds wisdom
And the man who gains understanding.
For her profit is better than the profit of silver
And her gain better than fine gold.
She is more precious than jewels;
And nothing you desire compares with her.
Long life is in her right hand;
In her left hand are riches and honor.
Her ways are pleasant ways
And all her paths are peace.
She is a tree of life to those who take hold of her,
And happy are all who hold her fast."

Tim cites Proverbs 3 because he notes that the wise woman metaphorically becomes the tree of life. This maps onto the Garden of Eden narrative. Tim says that the book of Proverbs is designed to be a reflection on Genesis 1-3.

In part 4 (39:00-end), Tim outlines Proverbs 31. Tim notes that the woman outlined here could be said to be a sort of real-life version of the metaphoric “Lady Wisdom” depicted earlier in the book. Tim notes that while Proverbs views the pursuit of wisdom from a male perspective of choosing between two metaphorical women, the next book, Song of Songs, flips it, and views the pursuit of wisdom from a female perspective.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Send us your questions for our upcoming Q+R on the Wisdom books in the Bible! Please include an audio recording of your question (about 20 seconds or so) and make sure to include your name and where you're from. Email questions with attached audio files to info@jointhebibleproject.com

Show Resources:
www.thebibleproject.com

Show Music:
• Defender Instrumental by Tents
• Hideout by Tesk
• Sandalwood by J. Roosevelt
• Mind Your Time by Me.So
Some music brought you by the generosity of Chillhop Music.

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

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Jul 01, 2019
Solomon: The Wisest of the Fools - Wisdom E3
01:00:51

Welcome to our third episode discussing the theme of Wisdom in the bible.

In this episode, Tim and Jon zoom in on the character Solomon. Was Solomon really the wisest person who ever lived?

In part 1 (0-8:30), Tim and Jon quickly recap the conversation so far. Tim explains how the English word “help” is inadequate when used to describe Eve’s or woman’s role in relationship to Adam. Instead of an unnecessary addition, it’s more of an essential completion, even a “saving” role that the woman fills. Tim also explains that the tree of the knowledge of good and evil isn’t the perfect translation in the Hebrew. More accurately, it’s “the knowledge of the tree of good and bad.”

In part 2 (8:30-19:20), Tim begins to trace the human story after Adam and Eve, through Abraham and arriving at Solomon. Tim says that God promises to restore the blessing of Eden to all humanity through the family of Abraham.

Here is God’s promise to Abraham:

Genesis 12:1-3
“And I will make of you a great nation,
and I will bless you,
and make your name great,
so that you will be a blessing.
I will bless those who bless you,
and him who curses you I will curse;
and in you will be blessed all the families of the earth.”

Genesis 12:7
“The Lord appeared to Abram and said, ‘To your seed I will give this land.’ So he built an altar there to the Lord who had appeared to him.”

In Genesis 16, God promises Abraham and Sarah seed and land to be a blessing to the nations. But when they’re unable to have a child, they turn to their own wisdom and power. This is a clear design pattern from the fall narrative of Genesis 3. See below the breakdown of this passage and it’s reflection of the the Eden story.

Genesis 16:1-2 tells us, “Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. But she had an Egyptian slave named Hagar.” So Sarai says to Abram, “Go now into my female servant, perhaps I will be built up from her.”

(This language of being “built” from Hagar suspiciously reminds us of Genesis 2:22, “and Yahweh God built the side which he took from the human into a woman, and he brought her to the man.”)

Genesis 16:2b
“…and Abram listened to the voice of Sarai.”

(In Genesis 3:17, God says to Adam, “Because you listened to the voice of your wife…”)

Genesis 16:3-4
“Sarai, the wife of Abram, took Hagar the Egyptian her female slave… and she gave her to Abram her husband as a wife (Gen. 3:6, “and she gave also to her husband with her”). And he went into her and she became pregnant and she saw that (ותרא כי) she was pregnant, and her mistress became less in her eyes” (Gen. 3:6, “When the woman saw that [ותרא] the tree was good…”).

Genesis 16:6
“And Abram said to Sarai, ‘Look, your female slave is in your hand. Do to her what is good in your eyes (טוב בעיניך).’

(Gen. 3:6, “When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes…”).

Genesis 16:6b-7
“So Sarah oppressed her, and Hagar fled from before her. And the angel of Yahweh found her by a spring of waters in the wilderness.”

(Gen. 3:24, “So [God] drove the man out….”)

In Genesis 22, when God provides a son from Sarah, God demands his life. God does not take lightly to the oppression of Egyptian slaves (the entire Exodus slavery is an inverted consequence for this sin). Also because of this sin, Ishmael is cast out from Abraham’s family, which grieves God, so he demands that Abraham give Isaac back to him.

God is looking for people who will trust Yahweh’s word and command over their own wisdom, that will reverse the folly and fear of Adam and Eve. The first character to demonstrate this Abraham in Genesis 22:4-6:

“And Abraham lifted his eyes (עיניו) and he saw (וירא)… and he took (ויקח) in his hand the fire and the knife/eater(מאכלת), and the two of them (שניהם) walked on together (יחדו).”

This releases the blessing of Eden through Abraham’s fear of Yahweh out into the nations.

Genesis 22:15-18
"Then the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, “By Myself I have sworn, declares the Lord, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son, indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies. In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have listened My voice.”

The point is this: When humans don’t live by their own wisdom regarding good and bad, but instead trust God’s wisdom and obey his commands (the fear of the Lord), it leads to blessing and life. This is true wisdom: to live in the fear of the Lord.

In part 3 (19:20-36:45), Tim begins to outline the story of Solomon.

Tim says Solomon is presented as a new Adam. He has an opportunity to rule the world, and he actually asks God to give him wisdom to rule. Solomon is a complex character, depicted as both a new, ideal Adam—but also as a failed, foolish Adam. In one narrative thread, he is depicted as a new Adam/Abraham, meeting God in a new high-place, and living by God’s wisdom/Torah.

1 Kings 3:3-15
“Now Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of his father David... The king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there, for that was the great high place; Solomon offered a thousand burnt offerings on that altar. In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream at night; and God said, ‘Ask what you wish me to give you.’

“Then Solomon said, ‘You have shown great covenant love to Your servant David my father...You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day. Now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king in place of my father David, yet I am but a little child; I do not know to go out or come in.

“‘Your servant is in the midst of Your people which You have chosen, a great people who are too many to be numbered or counted. So give Your servant a heart that listens in order to govern Your people, in order to discern between good (Heb. tov) and bad (Heb. ra’). For who is able to govern this great people of Yours?’”

“It was good (tov) in the eyes of the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing. God said to him, ‘Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life, nor have asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked for the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself discernment to hear justice, behold, I have done according to your words. Behold, I have given you a heart of wisdom and discernment, so that there has been no one like you before you, nor shall one like you arise after you. I have also given you what you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there will not be any among the kings like you all your days. If you walk in My ways, keeping My statutes and commandments, as your father David walked, then I will prolong your days.’ Then Solomon awoke, and behold, it was a dream.”

Tim shows how Solomon was blessed after he began to walk in the fear of the lord.

1 Kings 4:20-21, 25, 29-34
“Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand that is on the seashore in abundance; they were eating and drinking and rejoicing. Now Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the River to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt; they brought tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life….”

“So Judah and Israel lived in safety, every man under his vine and his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon.”

“Now God gave Solomon wisdom and very great discernment and breadth of mind, like the sand that is on the seashore. Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the sons of the east and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations. He also spoke 3,000 proverbs, and his songs were 1,005. He spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon even to the hyssop that grows on the wall; he spoke also of beasts and birds and creepers and fish (do you hear Genesis 1 in there?). Men came from all peoples to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all the kings of the earth who had heard of his wisdom."

Solomon is portrayed as a new Adam, wisely ruling a garden with trees for everyone, fruitful and multiplying, boundaries expanded to Eden-like proportions. He knows the plants, beasts, birds, and creepers. He is more wise than “all the sons of the East” (link to the book of Job). He spoke thousands of proverbs (link to the book of Proverbs). He wrote over a thousand songs (link to Song of Songs).

Tim’s point is that Solomon is beginning to to fulfill the original call of mankind to rule wisely. However, Solomon’s story has another side as well.

In part 4 (36:45-52:50), Tim outlines the foolish side of Solomon’s life. Solomon enslaved people to help him build Jerusalem up. He imported and exported arms, chariots and horses to other countries. He had hundreds of wives and concubines. Solomon demonstrates wisdom but isn’t fully committed to following the laws of Yahweh.

1 Kings 5:13-17
“Now King Solomon levied forced laborers from all Israel; and the forced laborers numbered 30,000 men. He sent them to Lebanon, 10,000 a month in relays; they were in Lebanon a month and two months at home. And Adoniram was over the forced laborers. Now Solomon had 70,000 transporters, and 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountains, besides Solomon’s 3,300 chief deputies who were over the project and who ruled over the people who were doing the work. Then the king commanded, and they quarried great stones, costly stones, to lay the foundation of the house with cut stones.”

1 Kings 9:17, 19
“So Solomon rebuilt Gezer and the lower Beth-horon... and all the storage cities which Solomon had, even the cities for his chariots and the cities for his horsemen….”

Solomon, for all his wisdom, implemented policies which directly violated the laws of the king as outlined in the Torah.

Deuteronomy 17:15-20
“you shall surely set a king over you whom Yahweh your God chooses, one from among your countrymen you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your countryman. Moreover, he shall not multiply horses for himself, nor shall he cause the people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, since Yahweh has said to you, ‘You shall never again return that way.’ He shall not multiply wives for himself, or else his heart will turn away; nor shall he greatly increase silver and gold for himself.

“Now it shall come about when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself a copy of this Torah on a scroll in the presence of the Levitical priests. It shall be with him and he shall read it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear Yahweh his God, by carefully observing all the words of this law and these statutes, that his heart may not be lifted up above his brothers and that he may not turn aside from the commandment, to the right or the left, so that he and his sons may continue long in his kingdom in the midst of Israel.

Tim has found scholar Daniel Hays to be helpful here:

“We as readers are given a tour of a fantastic, spectacular and opulent mansion, the house of Solomon. Everywhere we look we see wealth and abundance. However, without changing the inflection of his voice the tour guide also points out places where the façade has cracked, revealing a very different structure. Continuing with the standard speech which glorifies the building, the guide nonetheless makes frequent side comments (forced labor, store cities, horses from Egypt, foreign marriages) that make clear that his glowing praise for the structure is not really his honest opinion of the facility, and he wants us also to see the truth. Finally, at the end of the tour in chapters 11, he can restrain himself no more, and he tells us plainly that the building is basically a fraud, covered with a thin veneer of glitz and hoopla, and soon will collapse under its own weight. This is the manner in which the narrator of 1 Kings leads us on a tour of the House of Solomon.” (Daniel Hays, “Narrative Subtlety in 1 Kings 1-11: Does the narrative praise or bury Solomon?”)

Tim points out that Solomon violates every rule that Israel’s king was supposed to follow. A Bible reader should ask why the narrator is giving us a dual portrait of Solomon?

In the New Testament, Jesus says, “something greater than Solomon is here.” (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). Jesus positioned himself as the true example of the ideal human who learns wisdom correctly by learning from Yahweh God.

In part 5 (52:50-end), the guys discuss the seeming asymmetry of male and female portrayals in the Bible. Why is it that a woman is portrayed as a “wise and foolish woman” in Proverbs? Why are women often portrayed with seductive and illicit behavior?

Tim points out that throughout history, men have been the ones translating the Bible, so they have default and built-in blind spots to understanding and accurately portraying a better view of man and woman’s portrayal in the original Hebrew context.

Tim notes that women have been making great strides in contributing to and furthering academic and scholastic work on biblical texts and that their voices need to be heard.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show Resources: 
• www.thebibleproject.com
• J. Daniel Hays, “Narrative Subtlety in 1 Kings 1-11: Does the narrative praise or bury Solomon?”

Show Music:
• Roads by LiQwyd
• Yesterday on Repeat by Vexento
• Moon by LeMMino
• self reflection by less.people
• Defender Instrumental by Tents
Some music for this episode brought to you by the generosity of Chill Hop Music.

Show Produced by: 
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

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Jun 24, 2019
The Jesus Creed - Feat. Dr. Scot McKnight
01:08:43

In part one (0:00-12:00), the guys discuss Scot’s academic background and writing habits.

In part two (12:00-27:10), Tim shares how important Scot’s book, Interpreting The Synoptic Gospels, has been to him.

In part three (27:10-39:30), the guys talk about Scot's most well-known book, Jesus Creed.

In part four (39:30-54:10), Tim shares his thoughts on Scot’s book, A Community Called Atonement.

In part five (54:10-end), Tim shares how impactful Scott's book, A Fellowship of Differents, has been to him

Show Resources:

Scot's Wikipedia page with links to all his books:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scot_McKnight
Scot's bio:
https://www.seminary.edu/faculty/scot-mcknight/
Scot's podcast, Kingdom Roots:
https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/kingdom-roots-with-scot-mcknight/id1078739516

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
The Truth about Flight, Love, and BB Guns, Foreknown
Bird in Hand, Foreknown
Excellent, Beautiful Eulogy
Scream Pilots, Moby

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Jun 20, 2019
The Tree of Knowing Good & Bad - Wisdom E2
00:48:52

In part 1 (0-19:15), Tim and Jon quickly review the last episode. Tim says the entire scriptural
canon is to be viewed as “wisdom literature,” but the books that specifically pertain to Solomon,
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Job are considered to be the classic wisdom
books.
Then they dive into examining the trees in the garden of Eden. Specifically the “Tree of the
Knowledge of Good and Evil.” Tim notes that the Hebrew word ra doesn’t necessarily imply “evil;” it only means “bad.” Tim shares some other examples of the Hebrew word ra in the Bible.
Good/Bad condition or quality:
Jeremiah 24:1-2
the Lord showed me two baskets of figs placed in front of the temple of the Lord. One basket
had very tov figs, like those that ripen early; the other basket had very ra’ figs, so ra’ they could
not be eaten.
Proverbs 25:19
a ra’ tooth and an unsteady foot, is confidence in a faithless man in time of trouble.
Pleasant/unpleasant, beneficial/harmful:
1 Kings 5:4
But now the Lord my God has given me rest on every side, and there is no enemy or ra’.
Judges 16:25
It so happened when they were tov of heart, that they said, “Call for Samson, that he may
amuse us.” So they called for Samson from the prison, and he entertained them. And they made
him stand between the pillars.
Ecclesiastes: 2:16-17
For the wise, like the fool, will not be long remembered; the days have already come when both
have been forgotten. Like the fool, the wise too must die! So I hated life, because the work that
is done under the sun was ra’ to me.
Tim’s point is that to use the English word “evil” loads in too many ideas about moral issues
between good and evil. Because of this, a more accurate translation would be “the tree of the
knowledge of good and bad.”
In part 2 (19:15-30:00), Tim notes that Adam and Eve are depicted as being in their moral
infancy in the garden. They don’t know what is right and wrong. They need God to teach them
how to be wise and how to choose what is right from wrong. Here are some other passages that
use the Hebrew phrase “tov and ra’” or “good and bad” to illustrate this moral infancy in the
Bible.
“Knowing tov and ra’” is a sign of maturity. The phrase appears elsewhere to describe children:
Deuteronomy 1:39
“...your little ones... and your sons, who today do not know good or evil, shall enter there, and I
will give it to them and they shall possess it.
1 Kings 3:7-9
“Now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king in place of my father David, yet I am

but a little child; I do not know how to go out or come in. So give Your servant a heart that
listens, to judge Your people, to discern between good and evil. For who is able to judge this
great people of Yours?”
Isaiah 7:15-16
“[Immanuel] will eat curds and honey at the time He knows to refuse evil and choose good. For
before the boy will know to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread
will be forsaken.
The narrative in Genesis 1-2 has shown that God knows what is “pleasant/beneficial,” and he
will provide tov (the woman) when something is not tov (man being alone), that is, ra’. So the
tree represents a choice: Will they live with God, allowing him to know/define tov and ra’?
Presumably they need this knowledge as they mature, but the question is who will teach it to
them? Will they learn from watching God’s knowledge at work?
Adam and Eve are portrayed as “children.” The tree of knowing tov and ra’ represents two
options or modes for how to know and experience tov and ra’: Will they “take” this knowledge for
themselves, so that they “become like elohim,” knowing what is tov and ra’? Or instead, will they
allow God to teach them wisdom? The gift of God to the man and woman became the means of
the downfall. Instead of waiting for God to teach them “knowing good and bad,” they chose to
take it for themselves, in their own time and way.
Genesis 3:6
When the woman saw that the tree [of knowing good and bad] was good for food, and that it
was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise (Heb. śekel), she
took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.
“Wisdom” = śekel (להשכיל:(
“śekel refers to a kind of wisdom. Its core meaning is “insight,” the ability to grasp the meanings
or implications of a situation or message. Śekel is consequently discernment or prudence, the
ability to understand practical matters and interpersonal relations and make beneficial decisions.
It later comes to include intellectual understanding and unusual expertise.” (Michael V. Fox,
Proverbs 1–9: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, vol. 18A, Anchor Yale
Bible [New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008], 36.)
In part 3 (30:00-39:45), Tim and Jon discuss the fallout of Adam and Eve’s decision to eat from
the tree of the knowledge of good and bad. When God holds “trial” with Adam and Eve, their
response is to “fear” Yahweh, but in a way that drive them away from him.
Genesis 3:8-10
They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man
and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden.
Then the Lord God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you?” He said, “I heard the
sound of You in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid myself.”
Then they blame each other: man and woman, united in their rebellion and divided by the
fallout.
Genesis 3:16
“Yet your desire will be for your husband,
And he will rule over you.”
This is the opposite of the ideal vision in Genesis 1:26-28 where man and woman rule together.
The two are no longer one, but rather two, trying to gain leverage over one another.
In part 4 (39:45-end), the guys discuss how God acts mercifully after Adam and Eve eat of the
tree. Tim then starts to look forward to the stories of Solomon and how it hyperlinks back to the story of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show Resources:
Michael V. Fox, Proverbs 1–9: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, vol.
18A, Anchor Yale Bible (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008), 36.

Show Music:
• Defender Instrumental
• The Size of Sin by Beautiful Eulogy
• Come Alive by Beautiful Eulogy
• The Size of Grace by Beautiful Eulogy

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Powered and distributed by SimpleCast.

Jun 17, 2019
The Quest for Wisdom - Wisdom E1
00:46:04

In part one (0:00-15:20), Tim goes over what books are considered wisdom literature: Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs.

Tim says there are different ways to classify the books in the Bible, but the books are primarily grouped into two categories.

Wisdom of King Solomon
-Proverbs
-Ecclesiastes
-Song of Songs

The themes of wisdom, the "good life," and the fear of the Lord
-Proverbs
-Ecclesiastes
-Job

In part two (15:20-31:50), Tim clarifies exactly what wisdom literature is. In short: the entire Hebrew Bible. Tim uses Psalm 119:98-99 and 2 Timothy 3:15 to illustrate this point.

Psalm 119:98-99:
"Your instructions make me wiser than my enemies,
For they are ever mine. I have more insight than all my teachers,
For Your testimonies are my meditation."

2 Timothy 3:15:
“From childhood you have known the sacred writings which are able to give you wisdom that leads to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.”

Tim points out that the entire Bible can be used to gain wisdom. Jon says that there are many different lenses to view the Bible through. Seeing it as a book of wisdom is perhaps a very universal one.

The guys discuss how messy life is, just like the book of Genesis is messy. Humans in their desire to live are constantly faced with difficult choices.

Tim shares a quote from Rolan Murphy:
“Within the Hebrew Bible, the wisdom literature is exciting, because it deals directly with life. The sages of Israel were concerned with the present, how to cope with the challenges provoked by one’s immediate experience… The choice between life and death which Moses dramatically places before Israel in Deuteronomy 30:15-30 is re-echoed in the sages emphasis on wisdom that leads to life. The life-death situation is expressed in the image of the “tree of life.” Proverbs 3:18: “Wisdom is a tree of life to those who grasp her; how fortunate are those who embrace her.” This image is well-known from its appearance in Genesis: the first dwellers in the garden were kept from that tree lest they live forever (Genesis 2:9, 3:22-24). In a vivid turn of metaphor, wisdom in Proverbs has become the tree of life and is personified as a woman: “Long life is in her right hand, in her left, wealth and honor. She boasts that the one who finds find life (Prov 8:35) and the one who fails is ultimately in love with death (Prov 8:36)... One must hear wisdom obediently, but one must also pray for the gift that she is…. Embracing the gift of wisdom is precarious, however, because, according to the sages, we are easily deceived: “There is more hope for a fool, than for those who are wise in their own eyes” (Prov 26:12)” -- Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature, pp. Ix-x.

In part three (31:50-40:20), Tim dives into Genesis 1-3 and discusses the human quest for wisdom.

Tim notes that you can trace the thread of God discerning what is “good and bad” in the creation narrative:

God is the provider with all knowledge of “good and bad” (tov and ra in Hebrew). God the creator provides all that is “good” (Heb. tov). Seven times in Genesis 1 "God saw that it was tov.” God is the first one to identify something as “not good:” a lonely human in the garden. God sees the problem and asks how humanity can “be fruitful and multiply and fill the land and rule the creatures” alone, and sees the need for human companionship.

In part four (40:20-end), the guys continue the conversation. What does God do? He "splits the adam" and creates man and woman.

Genesis 2:21-25:
"So Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the human, and he slept; then He took one of his sides and closed the flesh at that place. And the Yahweh God built the side which He had taken from the human into a woman, and brought her to the man. The human said,
'This is now bone of my bones,
And flesh of my flesh;
She shall be called Woman [issah]
Because she was taken out of [ish].'
For this reason, a ish shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his isshah; and they shall become one flesh. And the two of them were naked, the adam and his wife and were not ashamed."

Tim notes that God provides humans with what they cannot give themselves: blessing, fruitfulness, and dominion over the land (Gen 1:26-28). God divides the human in half (the word means "side" in Hebrew) and makes two humans who are unique and yet designed to become one. This relationship of man and woman becoming one, with no shame, no powerplays, no oppression, to know and be known in pure naked vulnerability before God and before one another, nothing hidden, everything revealed and loved, this is Eden. And Eden is where humans become kings and queens of creation.

Show Resources:
Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature, pp. Ix-x.
Derick Kidner, The Wisdom of Proverbs, Job & Ecclesiastes
William P. Brown, Wisdom's Wonder: Character, Creation, and Crisis in the Bible's Wisdom Literature

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Drug Police, Moby
Heal My Sorrows, Beautiful Eulogy
Where Peace and Rest are Found, Beautiful Eulogy

Show produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Jun 10, 2019
Law Q&R - Law E6
00:56:32

Tim and Jon respond to several questions, listed below.

Isaiah from Georgia (1:40):
Hey Jon and Tim! My name is Isaiah and I am from Lawrenceville, Georgia. I have a question concerning biblical law and God's nature. I've talked to some friends on this issue for some time, and their view is that God's nature was not fully revealed in the Old Testament. So God's will was not fully revealed. They believe this is why the Israelites thought they had to live under the law. They use Paul's writings to back that up. They also believe that the New Testament is the full revelation of God and his nature. And so we can see his full intent was to have a personal relationship instead of a list of rules to follow. What would you say to this worldview and why it should be changed?

Rich from New York (13:10):
I'm a pastor in upstate New York. Your series on the law is just outstanding. And yet I have a question. As you folks talked about the common law understanding of law that existed until the last few centuries, I found myself wondering about the understanding of law among the Pharisees of the first century, for example. It seems that their understanding wasn't just that the mosaic law was a snapshot in time but that it described how the law needed to be lived out in any age, whatever possible, more like statutory law. Or am I wrong about that?

Victoria from Tennessee (21:45):
Hey Tim and Jon, this is Victoria in Chattanooga, Tennessee. I've been really inspired by this conversation about the law, particularly the relationships of the New Testament to the Old Testament. I'm sure you're getting here, but I wanted to ask how we’re asked to understand our broad call to obedience when Jesus says something like in Matthew 5, “therefore anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands and teaches others accordingly will be called least in the kingdom of heaven.” What commands is he referring to, and is the spirit of the law or commands a filter for interpretation, or is there a place where we need to draw a line in the sand? Thanks.

Joe from Cleveland (22:15):
What I’m still at tension with are Jesus’ words in Matthew 5:18-19 where he states not a dot or iota will pass away from the law, and those who relax the least of these will be least in heaven. It seems we had agreed the Hebrew Torah showed itself to be flexible and not necessarily the final word in judicial cases. I interpret Jesus “dot and iota” statement as a more literal or explicit command to the letter of the law so to speak. Does Jesus’ statement raise that tension for you or is there another way of understanding it?

Petra from the Netherlands (39:30):

Hi Tim and Jon my name is Petra, I'm from the Netherlands. A lot of people consider the law as a guidance to obey God and to eternal life. As I have listened to your podcast, I get the assumption that you do not agree with that way of seeing the law, which I understand. What are your thoughts about a practical way to obey God through the Holy Spirit, by the Law, what are your thoughts about that? Thank you, bye!

Laura from Iowa: (47:20)

Is it important to differentiate between passages that are referring to the 611 laws, the Torah, the whole Old Testament, or the entirety of Scripture? And if that's important, how can an average Bible reader go about this?

Show Music: Defender Instrumental by Tents

Show Produced by: Dan Gummel

Check out all our resources at www.thebibleproject.com
Our video on how to read biblical law: https://youtu.be/Sew1kBIe-W0

Jun 03, 2019
Jesus Fulfills the Law - Law E5
00:48:26

In part one (0:00-25:30), the guys discuss the series so far, and Tim dives into the final two perspectives to keep in mind when reading biblical law. The fifth perspective is that the purpose of the covenant laws is fulfilled in Jesus and the Spirit.

The dual role of the laws––to condemn and to point the way to true life––is fulfilled in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus and in the coming of the Spirit to Jesus’ new covenant people. Jesus was the first obedient human and the faithful Israelite who fulfilled the law yet bore the curse of humanity's punishment so that others could have life and the status of covenant righteousness. Tim references Matthew 5:17-20:

“Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.”

Tim notes that Jesus is the embodiment of the point of the law, the ideal person who doesn’t need the law because they are abiding with Yahweh by nature.

In part two (25:30-35:00), Tim asks who or what is being punished on the cross. Tim references Romans 8:3:

“For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.”

Tim notes that Paul doesn’t mean that God hated humanity and punished Jesus instead of punishing humanity. Instead, God loved humanity in its weakness and failure and punished sin and condemned sin through Jesus dying on the cross.

Tim notes that Paul thinks of sin as a cosmic tyrant. It's not just an individual problem, but a problem of essential mode existence for the world. The law, or divine command, was supposed to be an opportunity for humans to realize their true calling of acting in God’s image voluntarily. Instead, we chose and choose to disobey and now live “enslaved” to our decision(s).

In part three (35:00-end), Tim discusses the last perspective: The laws are a source of wisdom for all generations.

The Torah is viewed as a source of wisdom within the Hebrew Bible

The tree of knowing good and evil is the pathway to the tree of life. In Proverbs, learning wisdom is the pathway to the tree of life. Tim uses the following proverbs to illustrate his point.
Proverbs 1:7:
"The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowing;
Fools despise wisdom and instruction."

Proverbs 3:13, 18:
"How blessed is the man who finds wisdom
And the man who gains understanding.
She is a tree of life to those who take hold of her,
And happy are all who hold her fast."

Proverbs 15:3-4:
"The eyes of the Lord are in every place,
Watching the evil and the good.
A soothing tongue is a tree of life,
But perversion in it crushes the spirit.
Tim notes that Wisdom is the way to fulfill the Shema."

Proverbs 6:20-23:
"My son, keep the commandment of your father
And do not forsake the instruction of your mother;
Bind them continually on your heart;
Tie them around your neck.
When you walk about, they will guide you;
When you sleep, they will watch over you;
And when you awake, they will talk to you."

Time compares the preceding passage with Deuteronomy 6:4-8:
“Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one!
You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.
These words, which I am commanding you today, shall be on your heart.
You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up.
You shall bind them as a sign on your hand and they shall be as frontals on your forehead.
You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates."

Tim notes that these two passages mirror each other, as they teach that acting wisely fulfills the law.

Tim then discusses the apostle Paul to show how he continued to use the laws as wisdom literature.
1 Corinthians 9:9-12:
"For it is written in the Law of Moses, 'You shall not muzzle the ox while he is threshing.' God is not concerned about oxen, is He? Or is He speaking altogether for our sake? Yes, for our sake it was written, because the plowman ought to plow in hope, and the thresher to thresh in hope of sharing the crops. If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it too much if we reap material things from you? If others share the right over you, do we not more? Nevertheless, we did not use this right, but we endure all things so that we will cause no hindrance to the gospel of Christ."

Tim quotes Richard B. Hays to understand Paul's continuation of Jewish law.

“This is often cited as an example of arbitrary prooftexting on Paul’s part, but closer observation demonstrates a more complex hermeneutical strategy at play here. First of all, Paul is operating with an explicitly stated hermeneutical principle that God is really concerned about human beings, not oxen, and that the text should be read accordingly (vv. 9–10). Second, a careful look at the context of Deuteronomy 25:4 lends some credence to Paul’s claim about this particular text. The surrounding laws in Deuteronomy 24 and 25 (especially Deut. 24:6–7, 10–22; 25:1–3) almost all serve to promote dignity and justice for human beings; the one verse about the threshing ox sits oddly in this context. It is not surprising that Paul would have read this verse also as suggesting something about justice in human economic affairs.” -- Richard B. Hays, First Corinthians, Interpretation, a Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville, KY: John Knox Press, 1997), 151.

So to summarize our series on reading biblical law:

Read each law (1) within its immediate literary context, and (2) within the larger narrative strategy of Torah and Prophets.

Read the laws in their ancient cultural context in conversation with their law codes.

Study related laws as expressions of a larger symbolic worldview.

Discern the “wisdom principle” underneath the laws that can be applied in other contexts.

Refract every law through Jesus’ summary of God’s will: love God and love people.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Email us your questions for our Q+R at info@jointhebibleproject.com

Show Music:

Defender Instrumental, Tents
Psalm Trees x Guillaume Muschalle, Clocks Forward. Chillhop.com. Used with permission.
Toonorth, Effervescent. Chillhop.com. Used with permission.

Show produced by:

Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

May 27, 2019
God's Wisdom in the Law - Law E4
00:51:45

In part 1 (0-17:00), The guys quickly recap their conversation so far. Tim then dives into a third perspective on the Hebrew laws in the Old Testament.

The third perspective is that the laws embody and revolutionize ancient Eastern conceptions of justice. The laws are formulated in the language and categories of ancient Near Eastern law, so that Israel’s law was comprehensible to their neighbors while also representing an irreversible cultural revolution.

Tim notes that in all the other ancient covenant documents (Hittite, Assyrian) only one is between a king and a people, while dozens of others are between one king and another king. Covenants are agreements between kings. But the Biblical story depicts the laws as stipulations between God and all the Israelites: “I will be their God and they will be my people.” This is the same kind of language we find in the Song of Solomon, “I am my beloved’s and he is mine” (Song of Solomon 6:3). This is marriage covenant language.

Tim uses some quotes from Joshua Berman to make his points.

“In the ancient near east, various gods had consorts and goddess wives, while the common man was subject, a slave and servant of the king and the tribute-imposing class. For these cultures to conceive of the marriage between a god and a group of humans, would have been as unthinkable as for us to imagine the marital union of a human and a cat… The Bible’s most revolutionary idea… is the idea of God as a personality who seeks a relationship of mutuality with human agents. In the neighboring cultures of the ancient Near East, humans were merely slaves of the king. In the Bible, they are transformed into a servant king who is married to a generous sovereign, a wife in relation to her benefactor husband. When God seeks “love” from Israel, it involves both the political sense of loyalty between parties to a treaty as well as the kind of intimacy known in a faithful, intimate relationship between a man and woman.” (Berman, Created Equal, 46)

This concept of a human family married to God is founded on the concept of humanity in Genesis 1-2. All humanity, male and female, is the divine royal image over all creation. And while the Davidic king could be called the “son of God,” it was only as the representative of all Israel who is the “son of God” (Exodus 4:22). The king and all the Israelites are themselves equals under their “divine king” Yahweh. Tim again cites Joshua Berman:

“While in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the bridge figure between the divine and human was the king, deified (as in Egypt) or more of a demi-god (Mesopotamia). He was the top of the socio-religious structure with the economic elite, and this was mirrored by the hierarchy of the gods. NOT SO in biblical Israel. God’s covenant was with the entirety of Israel, focused on the “common man.” I maintain that it is in the covenant, properly conceived in in ancient Near Eastern setting, that we may discern a radically new understanding of the cosmic role of the common man within the thought systems of the ancient Near East, one that constituted the basis of an egalitarian order.” (Berman, Created Equal, 29)

In part 2 (17:00-25:15), Tim explains why Israel’s law codes consistently downgrades the role of the king in contrast to their neighbors. The king is not the sole, chief, divine authority; rather, Yahweh is king, and the human king is subservient to the Scriptures (Deuteronomy 17) and to prophets who speak on Yahweh’s behalf. He is a leader in war, but he is not the chief. He can participate in the temple, but he is not the high priest. He is subservient to the law, but he is not the lawgiver. This is all in contrast to Egypt and Babylon.

Tim also explains that the laws allowed Israel’s economy to be oriented toward landed families, which were called to include the immigrant, poor, and orphans. It is the first ancient example of “welfare society.” You can see examples of laws about not maximizing profit to allow work in the fields in Ruth chapters 2-3.

Other examples include laws about the seven year debt release, Jubilee land and debt release, not charging interest on loans for the poor, giving a tithe for local loans for failing farmers.

Tim again cites Berman:

“The biblical laws about land and assets introduce a reformation of the ancient worldview aimed at achieving a social equality, but of a very specific king. It is not the egalitarianism developed since the French Revolution with its emphasis on the individual and inalienable human rights… Rather, it takes the form of an economic system that seeks equality by granting sacred value to the extended family household, where people assist one another in farming labor and in granting relief to other households in need. Ancient Israel was a tribal association of free farmers and ranchers, living in a single and equal social class with common ownership of the means of production. This system was a rejection of statism (= the nations state owns all land) and feudalism (= military lords own all land), demonstrated by the fact that it was free of tribute to any human king, and their tribute was a shared burden of funding the temple. Israel defined itself in opposition to the empire of oppression embodied by Egyptian slavery, and also in opposition to the centralized monarchies that surrounded and took up residence in Israel.” (Berman, Created Equal, 87)

Tim points out that a scholar named David Bentley Hart has influenced his thinking on this subject. Tim says that the Judeo-Christian heritage is the most beautiful thing about Western civilization.

In part 3 (25:15-30:00), Tim teaches through a specific law that is usually very disturbing to modern readers.

Deuteronomy 21:10-14
10 When you go to war against your enemies and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands and you take captives, 11 if you notice among the captives a beautiful woman and are attracted to her, you may take her as your wife. 12 Bring her into your home and have her shave her head, trim her nails 13 and put aside the clothes she was wearing when captured. After she has lived in your house and mourned her father and mother for a full month, then you may go to her and be her husband and she shall be your wife. 14 If you are not pleased with her, let her go wherever she wishes. You must not sell her or treat her as a slave, since you have dishonored her.

Tim points out that this law does not promote the practice it seems to promote. Instead, it creates boundaries for a common cultural practice, which are eventually designed to obliterate the practice all together. This law is in reaction to other ancient cultures that didn’t have any rules or give any thought to how soldiers should treat their captives.

In part 4 (30:00-43:10), Tim brings up an important point to keep in mind when reading biblical law: The laws play an important but ultimately subordinate role in the plot of the larger biblical storyline that leads to Jesus. Humanity’s failure to obey the divine command is part of the plot conflict that prevents them from being God’s image-partners in ruling creation. The laws illustrate the divine ideal while also intensifying that conflict, creating the need for a new human and a new covenant.

Tim notes that the first divine command is in the garden of Eden:

Genesis 2:16-17
16 The Lord God commanded the man, saying, “From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17 but from the tree of knowing good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die.”

Tim says the failure to “listen to the voice of God” (breaking the divine command) results in exile from the Eden-mountain, leading to death.

Genesis 3:17, 24
17 Then to Adam He said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat from it’;
24 So He banished the human; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life.

In part 5, (43:10-end) Tim notes that this theme of listening or not listening to the divine command continues through the Bible.

Exodus 19:4-6
4 ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings, and brought you to Myself. 5 ‘Now then, if you will listen listen to My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; 6 and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel.”

Tim notes that the story immediately after this story is the story of the golden calf, which shows Israel’s obvious failure to listen.

Tim points out that Israel’s covenant choice is the same as Adam and Eve and all humanity.

Deuteronomy 30:15-20
15 “See, I have set before you today life and good, and death and evil; 16 in that I command you today to love the Lord your God, to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments, that you may have life and multiply, and that the Lord your God may bless you in the land where you are entering to possess it. 17 “But if your heart turns away and you will not obey, but are drawn away and worship other gods and serve them, 18 I declare to you today that you shall surely perish. You will not prolong your days in the land where you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess it. 19 “I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, 20 by loving the Lord your God, by listening to His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them.”

Tim notes that Israel’s inability to “listen to the voice” of God, leading to death and exile, traps humanity in the power of death, which necessitates the messianic age and the new covenant.

Jeremiah 31:31-34
31 “Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord. 33 “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord, “I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 “They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the Lord, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

Ezekiel 36:26-28
26 “Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 “I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances. 28 “You will live in the land that I gave to your forefathers; so you will be My people, and I will be your God.

Tim concludes by sharing that the law isn't about an "Old Covenant or New Covenant" question. Instead, the law illuminates and explores the portrait of humanity repeatedly failing to listen to the divine voice.

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins.

Show Music:
“Defender Instrumental” by Tents
“Cartilage” by Moby
“All Night” by Unwritten Stories
“Good Morning” by Unwritten Stories
The Pilgrim


Show Resources:

Our video on the law: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sew1kBIe-W0

Joshua Berman: Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought


May 20, 2019
The Emergence of Sin with Dr. Matt Croasmun
01:01:28

In this show, Tim and Jon sit down with Dr. Matthew Croasmun. Dr. Croasmun is Associate Research Scholar and Director of the Life Worth Living Program at the Yale Center for Faith & Culture as well as Lecturer of Divinity and Humanities at Yale University. He completed his Ph.D. in Religious Studies (New Testament) at Yale in 2014 and was a recipient of the 2015 Manfred Lautenschläger Award for Theological Promise for his dissertation, "The Body of Sin: An Emergent Account of Sin as a Cosmic Power in Romans 5-8."

He discusses his new book, The Emergence of Sin. It was a resource that Tim drew on heavily as he wrote and prepared for The Bible Project’s Spiritual Beings video series.

Part 1 of the episode (0-53:15) is the interview with Dr. Croasmun. Dr. Croasmun discusses some of the highlights of scientific research, theology, and philosophy, pointing out how they overlap. Dr. Croasmun also discusses dualism and reductionism. Tim and Dr. Croasmun briefly touch on the nature of reality.

Then they dive into a discussion on the nature of sin. What is the exact nature of sin or of evil? Dr. Croasmun uses a few examples from nature, including the example of a bee and beehive. He posits the idea of sin or evil as a “super organism.” That is to say, not only do humans “sin” individually, but we are members of larger sin structures and systems. These are systems that create death and pain in the world.

Dr. Croasmun shares Romans 6:6 (New American Standard Bible):
“knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him, in order that our body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin.”

Dr. Croasmun asks what Paul means by this phrase, “the body of sin.” Or does Paul have multiple meanings in mind?

Tim notes that C.S. Lewis and other writers have spoken of sin as a “parasite on the good,” meaning that sin does not exist on its own but always exists as a distortion of the good.

Instead of people having total autonomy over their lives, Dr. Croasmun notes, they are always in service to something. We are either in service to systems of sin or to systems under Christ.

The systems of sin would be examples of rampant, violent nationalism, racism, or discrimination against vulnerable people, animals, and nature.

Dr. Croasmun shares that it’s important to think of sin on three levels: an individual level, a large, super-organism and corporate level, and on a cosmic, supernatural level. All three ways will help a person to more fully understand these issues.

In part 2 (53:15-end), Tim and Jon recap their conversation with Dr. Croasmun. Tim says that all theologians are in a constant state of forming and reforming their ideas. He adds that sometimes, in our quest to simplify things, we actually do reality a disservice. Reality is complex, and so are the ideas surrounding God, man, nature, good, and evil.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show Resources:
Dr. Croasmun’s book: The Emergence of Sin

Show Music:
“Excellent Instrumental” by Propaganda
“Defender Instrumental” by Tents

Show produced by:
Dan Gummel

May 16, 2019
The Law as a Revolution - Law E3
01:02:15

In part 1 (0-21:30), the guys recap their conversation so far. Jon says that often the law is the first place people go who look to take issue with the Bible, saying it’s archaic or barbaric. Tim points out that too often, we don’t understand how cross-cultural it is to read the Bible. Instead, we often impose our own cultural mindset on the Bible.

Jon recalls from their discussion that the ancient law code of Israel was not the supreme authority, but instead illustrative of the relationships between the parties involved.

In part 2 (21:30-26:30), Tim talks about the wisdom of the laws in the Hebrew Scriptures. Tim shares this quote:

“The Hebrew Bible strongly suggests that the earliest forms of disputes… were resolved… by intuitions of justice against a background of custom, rather than appeal to formulated rules. The biblical sources which talk about the establishment of the judicial system in Israel give no indication that judges were to use written sources. Rather, judges are urged to avoid partiality and corruption and to ‘do justice.’ But what was the source of such justice? The version attributed to king Jehoshaphat is the most explicit, ‘God is with you in giving judgment’ (2 Chronicles 19:6). Divine inspiration is also attributed to the king in rendering judgment: Proverbs 16:10, ‘Inspired decisions are on the lips of a king; his mouth does not sin in judgment.’ Solomon’s judgment (1 Kings 3:16-28) is presented as an example of just such a process…. This is not to say that judges were expected to go into some kind of trance or function as an oracle. Rather, they were called to operate by combining local custom with divinely guided intuitions of justice…relying on the ‘practical wisdom’ that existed within the social consciousness of the people as a whole.” (Bernard Jackson, Wisdom Laws, 30-31)

In part 3 (26:30-40:30), Tim says the laws embody a set of ideals. Laws related to similar topics work together as a symbolic ritual system. They embody a set of ethical, social, and theological ideals for God’s ancient covenant people, “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” living out the Garden-of-Eden ideal in the world. He shares five ideal “buckets” or categories to help readers understand different laws:

Ritual Calendar: The 7-day Sabbath cycle is all about the anticipation and re-enactment of new creation (note the literary design of the days in Genesis 1: There is no end to the seventh day).
Ritual sacrifices: sacrifices involved offering the life of a blameless representative who would “ascend” to the heavenly mountain on behalf of the offerer (Leviticus 1 begins with the “‘olah” or “ascent” offering)
Ritual holiness: symbolic purity boundaries embodied the conviction that God’s presence is the source of all life, and health is separate from the mortal and immoral
Civil law: creating a new-creation community structured to carry the poor and prevent injustice toward the vulnerable
Criminal law: zero tolerance for those who corrupt the holy covenant family: no blood feuds, theft, idolatry, or sexual behavior that disrupts the social web

In part 4 (40:30-end), Tim goes over the sacrifices in the “ritual sacrifices” bucket. He cites a book by Michael Morales called Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord? A biblical theology of Leviticus. Tim also goes over civil and criminal laws in ancient Israel. Jon asks Tim for a few specific examples. Tim goes to these passages:

Deuteronomy 24:21-22
“21 When you harvest the grapes in your vineyard, do not go over the vines again. Leave what remains for the foreigner, the fatherless and the widow. 22 Remember that you were slaves in Egypt. That is why I command you to do this.”

Deuteronomy 25:1-4
“1 When people have a dispute, they are to take it to court and the judges will decide the case, acquitting the innocent and condemning the guilty. 2 If the guilty person deserves to be beaten, the judge shall make them lie down and have them flogged in his presence with the number of lashes the crime deserves, 3 but the judge must not impose more than forty lashes. If the guilty party is flogged more than that, your fellow Israelite will be degraded in your eyes
4 Do not muzzle an ox while it is treading out the grain.”

Deuteronomy 25:11-15
“11 If two men are fighting and the wife of one of them comes to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she reaches out and seizes him by his private parts, 12 you shall cut off her hand. Show her no pity.”

“13 Do not have two differing weights in your bag—one heavy, one light. 14 Do not have two differing measures in your house—one large, one small. 15 You must have accurate and honest weights and measures, so that you may live long in the land the Lord your God is giving you. 16 For the Lord your God detests anyone who does these things, anyone who deals dishonestly.”

Tim admits that these laws are very hard to understand. He points out that there are no narratives of these laws actually being put into practice. Regarding verses 11-12, Tim points out that the woman would have been endangering the entire family and bloodline by seizing a man’s genitals. Tim also notes that the differing weights are about not counterfeiting money.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:

“Defender Inst” by Tents
“Good Morning” by Amine Maxine
“I don’t need you to say anything” by Le Gang
“Shipwrecked” by Moby


Show Resources:

Bernard Jackson, Wisdom Laws
Michael Morales, Who Shall Ascend the Mountain of the Lord? A biblical theology of Leviticus


May 13, 2019
The Law as a Covenantal Partnership - Law E2
01:13:13

In part 1 (0-21:00), Tim points out that the laws are not a “law code” but terms of a covenant relationship. The laws are not a “constitutional code” (i.e. a divine behavior manual) dropped from heaven. Rather, they illustrate the official terms of the covenant relationship between Yahweh and the people of ancient Israel. The 613 laws all fall within the ceremony of God’s covenant with Israel in Exodus 19-24.

Tim asks the question: If these laws aren’t a judicial code, then what are they?

The laws are the shared agreement between God and Israel that was put forth in their covenant ceremony. We witness this relationship between Israel and Yahweh, Tim shares, as outsiders. People today were not at Mt. Sinai when the covenant was ratified. Instead, the law is used as “torah” for us, or “instruction,” meaning they reveal more about ourselves and God and the human condition. The Torah, Tim says, is a narrative about a covenant relationship, not a law code. He points out that there would have inevitably been more rules and laws governing ancient Israel than the 613 laws included in the Bible.

In part 2 (21:00-26:00), Tim expresses how the law served as “relational authority” between Israel and God. The laws served as a witness to Israel’s difference from other kingdoms, that they were a “kingdom of priests” who all had a relationship with God.

Ancient Law: Examples from History

In part 3, (26:00-41:30) Tim explains that to best understand the ancient laws of Israel, one should also understand how other ancient laws worked. Tim brings up the Code of Hammurabi, the most well known ancient law code. Tim shares the start of the law code of Hammurabi:

“When lofty Anum, king of the Anunnaki and Enlil, lord of heaven and earth, the determiner of the destinies of the land, determined for Marduk, the first-born of Enki, 6 the Enlil supreme powers over all mankind, made him great among the Igigi, called Babylon by its exalted name, He made it supreme in the world, established for him in its midst an enduring kingship, whose foundations are as firm as heaven and earth—

“at that time Anum and Enlil named me to promote the welfare of the people, me, Hammurabi, the devout, god-fearing prince, to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, that the strong might not oppress the weak, to rise like the sun over humankind, and to light up the land.

“Hammurabi, the shepherd, called by Enlil, am I; the one who makes affluence and plenty abound; the one who relaid the foundations of Sippar; who decked with green the chapels of Aya; the designer of the temple of Ebabbar, which is like a heavenly dwelling.

“When the god Marduk commanded me to provide just ways for the people of the land (in order to attain) appropriate behavior, I established truth and justice as the declaration of the land, I enhanced the well-being of the people.”

The Epilogue and Prologue to the Law Code [From Martha Tobi Roth, Harry A. Hoffner, and Piotr Michalowski, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor]

Here are a few laws in the code of Hammurabi:

#196: "If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye. If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone. If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one gold mina. If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one-half his price."

#250 (xliv 44–51) “If an ox gores to death a man while it is passing through the streets, that case has no basis for a claim.”

#251 (xliv 52–65) “If a man’s ox is a known gorer, and the authorities of his city quarter notify him that it is a known gorer, but he does not blunt(?) its horns or control his ox, and that ox gores to death a member of the awīlu-class, he (the owner) shall give 30 shekels of silver.”

Here is the epilogue of the law:

“May any king who will appear in the land in the future, at any time, observe the pronouncements of justice that I inscribed upon my stela. May he not alter the judgments that I rendered and the verdicts that I gave, nor remove my engraved image. If that man has discernment, and is capable of providing just ways for his land, may he heed the pronouncements I have inscribed upon my stela.”

The Epilogue and Prologue to the Law Code [From Martha Tobi Roth, Harry A. Hoffner, and Piotr Michalowski, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor]

Tim brings up some interesting observations, puzzles and problems that ancient laws present.

This code is one of the most frequently copied texts from the ancient world, copies ranging over 1500yrs, and yet, as he quotes:

“Of the many thousands of Mesopotamian legal documents in our possession, not one of them cites the Code of Hammurabi, or any other ‘code’ as a source of authority. This in spite of the fact that the code of Hammurabi was esteemed and recopied for more than a millennium. All of this suggests that ancient near eastern law codes were of a literary, educational, and monumental nature, rather than legal and juridical.” (Joshua Berman, Created Equal: 84)

The code of Hammurabi was copied and recopied for over a thousand years. But across the centuries, none of the dozens of monetary fines were changed (which they would have if consulted and used for legal purposes). The code is nowhere near comprehensive—you won’t find any laws concerning inheritances, one of the most important features of landed-agricultural life in Babylon. Copies of the Code of Hammurabi have been found in royal archives but never in the sites of local courts, and never with caches of legal documents (receipts, divorce certificates, etc.).

Additionally, there are no ancient legal texts that ever cite or even refer to the Code as a source of law. In the thousands of ancient legal texts that do exist and address the same topics as the code, they are usually at odds with the sentences and fines given within it.

So, if these compositions were not legal codes, (1) where could the law of the land be found? And if they were not legal codes, (2) what was their purpose?

Tim shares this quote:

“Archaeologists have unearthed thousands of law-practice documents from the ancient near East, documents such as land transfers, financial contracts, and court rulings where law was applied to actual situations (divorces, civil disputes). There have also been discovered dozens of ancient law codes (Hammurabi, Ur-Namma, Lipit-Ishtar, Eshnunna). A curious problem emerges when these practice documents are compared with the law collections. The law as practiced in those cultures often differed from, even contradicted, the laws as stated in the collections. Penalties found in court decisions are repeatedly inconsistent with the penalties inscribed in the collections. Prices established in contracts don’t match those given in the law codes. This has raised important questions about the purpose of these collections. Whatever their purposes were, they do not appear to have dictated actual legal practice. Scholars have come to see that these law codes as academic and monumental collections, but not the source of law in these societies.” (Michael Lefebvre, Collections, Codes, and Torah, 1)

Two Kinds of Law

In part 4, (41:30-49:30) Tim explains that the ancient world would have been known as a common or customary law society, whereas our modern world is largely known as a statutory law society. He shares more quotes:

“The scholarly consensus is that law in Mesopotamia was customary/common law. A judge would determine the law at the moment of adjudication by drawing on an extensive reservoir of custom, accepted norms, and principles from the legal texts with which he was educated. The law would vary from place to place, and neither the Code of Hammurabi nor any other text was ‘the final word’ on what law should be applied. Indeed, the association of “law” with a written collection of statutes and rules is a modern anachronistic imposition from our own culture. It is no surprise, therefore, that neither Mesopotamia, Egyptian, or Hittite culture has any word for ‘written law,’ that we find in later Greek as thesmos, or nomos.” (Joshua Berman, Inconsistency in the Torah, 112-113)

“The law collections, instead, are anthologies of judgments from times past, snapshots of decisions and customs rendered by judges or even by a king. The collections were a model of justice meant to educate and inspire…. They were records of precedent, but not of legislation….they instilled in later generations of scribes a unified legal vision.” (Ibid.)

Tim says this has helped him understand three main purposes of the law:

Judicial Education texts: Collections of the most common representative decisions from a culture, compiled to train the moral-instincts of leaders, not to legislate actual practice.
Monumental Propaganda: Like the Code of Hammurabi, the code praises the king’s wisdom and justice and claims that his decisions are in fact divinely inspired.
Educational texts: These are compilations for training the scribal class, introducing them to a literary tradition of justice. 


In part 5 (49:30-63:00), Tim further delineates the differences between common law and statutory law:

Statutory Law
The law itself is contained in a codified text, whose authority combines two elements: (a) the law emanates from a sovereign (a king or legislative body, etc.), (b) the law is a finite and complete legal system, so that only what is written in the code is the law. The law code supersedes all other sources of law that precede the formulation of the code. Where the code lacks explicit legislation, judges must adjudicate with the code as their primary guide.

Common Law
With common law, the law is not found in a written code that serves as a judge’s point of reference or limits what they can decide. Rather, the judges make decisions based on the mores and spirit of the community and its customs. Law develops through the distillation and continual restatement of legal doctrine through the decision of courts. Previous legal decisions are consulted but not binding, and importantly, a judge’s decision does not create a binding law, because no particular formulation of the law is binding. The common law is consciously and inherently incomplete, fluid, and vague. Under common law, legal codes are not the source of law, but rather a resource for later judges to consult.

Tim shares a helpful metaphor from Sir Matthew Hale (“the greatest British common-law judge of the 17th century”): The common law can change and yet still be considered part of the same legal “system” just as a ship can return home after a long voyage and still be considered the “same” ship, even though it returns with many repairs, new materials, and old materials discarded and replaced. In the same saw, law collections create a system of legal reasoning that a judge accesses to apply in new and unanticipated circumstances.

A Helpful Illustration from History

Common law traditions flourished for most of human history, because they require a homogeneous community where a common story and common values are assumed and perpetuated by all members of a society. 19th century German legal theorist Carl von Savigny called this the Volksgeist, “the collective spirit and conscience of a people.” Where social cohesion breaks down, it becomes more difficult to anchor the law in a collective set of values, and this is what happened in 19th century Europe with the rise of immigration, urbanization, and the modern nation-state.

Nineteenth-century Germany faced transition from a historically tribal state into a modern state (Otto von Bismarck and Carl Savigny continued to advocate the common law tradition of their past). One of his most famous students was Jacob Grimm (1785-1863), best known for his collaboration with his brother Wilhelm. These brothers did exhaustive research into their cultural folklore and produced comprehensive editions of Germany’s moral heritage in their anthology called “Kinder und Hausmarchen” = “Children’s and Household Tales” (2 volumes in 1812 and 1815), including the classic tales of Cinderella, Hansel and Gretel, Rapunzel, Rumpelstiltskin, Sleeping Beauty, and the Frog Prince.

The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812-15 and the seventh and final edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200. In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of linguistic and literary scholarship. Together in 1838, they began work on a massive historical German dictionary (Deutsches Wörterbuch), which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht, 'fruit'.

Tim points out that the Grimm brothers bridged the gap between folklore and common law in German society into a society of more statutory law in Germany. In many ways, Tim says, this is how Israel came to treat the law. The stories surrounding the laws allowed Israel to illustrate what happens when the rules are or are not followed.

Examples of Law Implementation in Scripture

In part 6 (63:00-end), Tim points out that many times in the Bible, the actual implementation of the laws are totally different from the given or written laws. There are many cases where narratives about legal decisions either differ from the statements of practice in the biblical law codes, or the decision is offered without any recourse to a law code.

For example, in 2 Samuel 14, David gives a ruling contrary to every law and principle in the biblical law codes concerning murder. David simply excuses his son Absalom (who murdered Amnon) with no appeal or defense of his actions and no mention of a law code.

Another example is found in Jeremiah 26, the most detailed description of a trial in the Old Testament. Jeremiah is accused of treason for announcing the temple’s destruction. His defense is that another prophet before him, Micah, announced the same message and he was never imprisoned. This is an argument from precedent, not from a law code. The arguments advanced against him are offered on theological grounds (“he speaks in the name of Yahweh”) and political grounds (“he prophesied against our city”). No law codes are ever consulted to defend or accuse him.

A third example is Solomon’s famous “decision” about the two women in 1 Kings 3. Solomon listens to the witnesses (the two women), and uses his intuition (which is divinely inspired according to the previous narrative) to make a decision. The concluding statement shows the real source of legal authority: “When all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had decided, they revered the king, for they saw the wisdom of God in him to do justice.” (1 Kings 3:28)

Here is a helpful quote to understand why the implementation may have been different.

“The Hebrew Bible strongly suggests that the earliest forms of disputes… were resolved… by intuitions of justice against a background of custom, rather than appeal to formulated rules. The biblical sources which talk about the establishment of the judicial system in Israel give no indication that judges were to use written sources. Rather, judges are urged to avoid partiality and corruption and to ‘do justice.’ But what was the source of such justice? The version attributed to king Jehoshaphat is the most explicit, ‘God is with you in giving judgment’ (2 Chronicles 19:6). Divine inspiration is also attributed to the king in rendering judgment: Proverbs 16:10, ‘Inspired decisions are on the lips of a king; his mouth does not sin in judgment.’ Solomon’s judgment (1 Kings 3:16-28) is presented as an example of just such a process…. This is not to say that judges were expected to go into some kind of trance or function as an oracle. Rather, they were called to operate by combining local custom with divinely guided intuitions of justice…relying on the ‘practical wisdom’ that existed within the social consciousness of the people as a whole.” (Bernard Jackson, Wisdom Laws, 30-31)

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:
“Defender Inst.” by Tents
“Shot in the back of the head” by Moby
Synth Groove
“Scream Pilots” by Moby
“Shine” by Moby
Third Floor 


Show Resources:
Joshua Berman, Inconsistency in the Torah
Bernard Jackson, Wisdom Laws
Martha Tobi Roth, Harry A. Hoffner, and Piotr Michalowski, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor
Michael Lefebvre, Collections, Codes, and Torah

Thank you to all our supporters!

May 06, 2019
The Purpose of The Law - Law E1
01:02:48

Welcome to our first episode looking at laws in the Bible!
In part 1 (0-4:00), Tim explains how this set of conversations will be different than the previous podcast episodes that looked at biblical law (the first two episodes of this podcast).
In parts 2 and 3 (4:00-17:45 and 17:45-35:00), Tim and Jon discuss ancient law vs. modern law. They talk about the importance of biblical law, but how these laws often cause hang-ups for modern readers. Tim notes that for centuries, interpreting biblical law has been a major point of debate among Christians, Jews, and everyone else.
In part 4 (35:00-end), Tim explains a debate over the number of laws in the Old Testament Torah. Some say there are 611 commands; others say 613. So which is it?
This is one small but significant example that illustrates how important interpreting the law was in Israel. Here’s a glimpse into the debate to give you a fuller picture.
A few centuries after Jesus, rabbis still firmly held to both views. The main disagreement came down to two passages where a commandment could be implicitly read. Consider:
Exodus 20:1, “I am Yahweh your God” = Believe that Yahweh exists.
Deuteronomy 6:5, “Yahweh your God, Yahweh is one” = Believe that Yahweh is one.
Yet even though the number of laws in the Torah can be debated, early rabbis recognized the ability to “reduce” many laws to just a handful that fully captured the spirit of the law. A famous passage illustrates this in the Babylonian Talmud (one of the primary sources for interpreting Jewish religious law and theology). It states:
Six hundred and thirteen commandments were given to Moses.
David reduced those commandments to eleven. (Psalm 15)
Isaiah reduced them to six. (Isaiah 33:15-16)
Micah the prophet reduced them to three. (Micah 6:8)
Isaiah again reduced them to two. (Isaiah 56:1)
Amos reduced them to one. (Amos 5:4)
Habakkuk further reduces to say, “But the righteous shall live by his faith.” (Habakkuk 2:4)
Throughout the episode, Tim highlights differences in the law. For example, Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 (both presenting the Ten Commandments) talk about the Sabbath in slightly different ways.
Or consider another instance, where Moses gives two different commands about how to prepare the Passover. Should you roast it or boil it? According to Exodus 12:8-9, you should roast it and not boil it. But in Deuteronomy 16:6-7, Moses tells the people to boil it.
These problems we see in the law are more than just ancient interpretation. To modern readers, some of the laws seem noble and inspiring, while others seem odd, primitive, or even barbaric.
We encounter all three of these examples in two adjacent chapters in the Torah:
In Leviticus 19, we read about God’s command to leave the extra gleanings of the harvest for the needy and stranger. God shows his care for the least of these.
A few verses later, we find laws about tattoos and beard etiquette. Weird!
One chapter later, we read the command that “a medium or a spiritist shall surely be put to death.” (Leviticus 20:27)
Now these laws leave us feeling a tension around how to understand the idea of “biblical authority.” What does obedience to the laws of the Torah mean? Do we obey all of them, some of them, or none of them?
This issue has caused many conflicts in both Jewish and Christian history. For example, what is a Jew supposed to do about sacrificial ritual laws when the temple is destroyed in 586 B.C.? Or for a follower of Jesus, how do these laws relate to us as the messianic new covenant family?
We see that Jesus said, “Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill.” (Matthew 5:17) So what can Paul mean when he says, “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.” (Romans 10:4) Yet Paul still quotes from the Ten Commandments in places like Ephesians 6:1-3.
Overall, Tim makes the case that the law presented to us in the Old Testament is not a “code” in the same way modern readers often think of a law code. Instead, we see how Moses, the prophets, Paul, and even Jesus handled the laws. Each held a deep respect for the underlying meaning and ideals presented by the law to the people of God. Though times and customs changed, God’s law served as a bedrock of guiding ideals to help the people of God (both then and now) live in such a way as to love God and love neighbor.

Thank you to all our supporters!
Visit our website: thebibleproject.com
Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel
Show Music:
Defender Instrumental: Tents
Pilgrim Instrumental
Roads by LiQWYD
Skydive Loxbeats
Show Resources:
Jacob Neusner, The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary, vol. 17a (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2011), 120–122.

Apr 29, 2019
Prophets as Provokers - Prophets E2
00:56:22

Welcome to Episode 2 in our series on How to Read the Prophets.

In the introduction, Tim says that the books of the prophets can be set up in different ways, but in most cases they are anthologies. These are the greatest hits or most important points of the prophets.

There are five parts to this episode where Tim outlines several buckets or themes that are important to understand when reading the prophets.
(6:00-25:00) Introduction
(25:00-33:00) Bucket 1: Accusations
(33:00-37:00) Bucket 2: Repentance
(37:00-52:00) Bucket 3: Day of the Lord Announcements
(52:00-end) Conclusion

Biblical prophecy frequently deals with the following themes:

Accusations that Israel and the nations have rebelled against Yahweh.
Israel/Judah has (1) broken the covenant, (2) worshiped other gods, (3) allowed social injustice, and (4) made alliances with the foreign nations. The covenant lawsuit is the key rhetorical device. And the key metaphor is idolatry as adultery. So the nations are accused of injustice, cruelty, and arrogance.

A second bucket or theme is the calls for repentance and admonition to turn from wicked ways and return to faithful obedience to Yahweh. The prophets call for religious devotion to Yahweh alone and no other gods. They also call for social justice and care for the most vulnerable (widow, orphan, immigrant).

The third theme is the announcements of the Day of the Lord that will address injustice and rebellion. This refers to historical events that God will use to judge evil and vindicate the righteous, all leading up to the great future day when God will do this for all creation—a cosmic “house-cleaning.”

The bad news the prophets deliver is that Yahweh will bring his justice against human rebellion. Because of human hard-heartedness, future punishment becomes inevitable. The punishment will be upon Israel and Judah, resulting in disaster, defeat, and exile upon individual nations (especially Assyrian, Babylon, Egypt) and upon all nations.

The good news is that Yahweh will bring about the restoration of his covenant people on the other side of exile. This is a hope for a righteous remnant. The prophets say that God will preserve a faithful remnant, an important minority who remain faithful. There is hope for restoration from exile (captivity), and God will restore their “fortunes.” Finally, there is hope for a new covenant. Yahweh will renew his covenant with his people.

The prophets say that the Kingdom of God will appear and Yahweh will establish his peaceful, universal Kingdom over all nations, ruled by the future messianic King.

They use the imagery of a new temple, new Eden, and new Jerusalem to represent God’s personal presence that will permeate his people in a new cosmic temple.

Helpful tips: How to Read the Prophets

Look at the first sentence of the book to see when the prophet lived, then go read the corresponding section of 1-2 Kings to get the context of the prophet’s day.

Pay attention to the three main themes and how they connect to the book’s design. Some prophets put all their poems of accusation together (as in Ezekiel 3-24), while others weave poems of accusation and of future hope together (see Isaiah 1-2).

These books are mostly poetry, so read slowly and thoughtfully. They use tons of metaphors, so pay attention to repeated words and images.
Isaiah uses metaphors from the plant world more than any other prophet (vines, trees, branches, stumps, flowers, grass) and often in creative ways to make different points (See Isaiah 11).

Key Insights from the prophets:
God loves justice. Israel had been called to a higher level of justice than the nations around them, especially in the treatment of their land and the poor (See Isaiah 1:10-20).

God gets angry at evil. The prophets give a lot of space to God’s exposure of evil among Israel and the nations. It’s intense, but it reveals how much God cares about the goodness of his world (see Hosea 13).

God has hope for our world. He refuses to let Israel’s sin get the last word, and so all the prophetic books contain profound images of future hope and restoration for God’s people and for the entire world (see Isaiah 11:1-9).

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Moonlight Sonata, Beethoven
Look, KV
Ocean, KV
Saturdays, Lakey Inspired
Yesterday on Repeat, Vexento

Resources:
Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Prophets by J. Gordon McConville
The Prophets by Abraham Heschel
The NIV Compact Bible Commentary by John Sailhamer
Read the Bible for a Change by Ray Lubeck

Apr 22, 2019
What Prophecy is For - Prophets E1
00:58:04

The books of the prophets are often the most difficult and misunderstood books in the Bible.

In part one (0:00-10:00), Tim and Jon briefly go over a few reasons why reading the prophets can be so challenging. Tim shares quotes from Martin Luther and fJohn Bright:

The challenge of reading the prophetic books:
“The prophets have an odd way of talking, like people who, instead of proceeding in an orderly manner, ramble off from one thing to the next, so that you cannot make head or tail of them or see what they are getting at.”
Martin Luther, quoted in Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol. 2 (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 33.

“What makes the prophetic books particularly, and one might say needlessly, difficult is the very manner of their arrangement — or, to be more accurate, their apparent lack of arrangement… All seems confusion… The impression that the reader gains is one of extreme disarray; one can scarcely blame him for concluding that he is reading a hopeless hodgepodge thrown together without any discernible principle of arrangement at all.” — John Bright, Jeremiah (Anchor Bible Commentary, 1965), p. lvi.

In part two (10:00-18:40), Tim asks Jon what he thinks a modern definition of prophets and prophecy is. Jon says he believes it has to do with fortune telling. A prophet is someone who can look into the future and predict an event.

Tim explains that while this is part of the role of a prophet, it is not the central focus, and predicting future events only occurs occasionally in the Bible.

Tim explains that the definition of a prophet in the Old Testament is actually very simple. A prophet is simply a messenger or a herald giving a message to people on God’s behalf.

Tim says that most people understand the term prophecy as the prediction of future events. This definition is inadequate and does not account for the huge amounts of the material in the prophetic books. While there are certain passages within the prophets which do contain predictive elements, most of these poems and narratives don’t present themselves as predictive prophecy.

In the Bible, a prophecy is a message that God speaks to his people through a human prophet. So prophecies often contain the quoted speech of God himself.
Jeremiah 2:1-2:
Now the word of the Lord came to me saying,
“Go and proclaim in the ears of Jerusalem, saying,
‘Thus says the Lord: “I remember concerning you the devotion of your youth…”

In part three (18:40-33:30), Tim outlines the character of Moses. Moses is portrayed as the archetypal prophet. He’s the first divine spokesmen sent to Israel and the nations (Exodus 3). He’s the first figure to mediate between Yahweh and Israel and establish his covenant with the people (Exodus 19-24, the Sinai narrative). He’s the only figure allowed to enter the divine presence directly (Exodus 19-20, 33-34). He’s the key intercessor for Israel when they have violated the covenant (Exodus 32-34). He suffers because of Israel’s failures (Numbers 11-21) and accuses them of present and ongoing rebellion against Yahweh that will result in exile (Deuteronomy 28-32).
And his death is marked as the end of an era. “Since that time no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face…” (Deuteronomy 34:10).

Tim says that Moses fails as a prophet. But in the Pentateuch, he is cast
as the ideal prophet, someone whom all other Jewish prophets should follow after.

In part four (33:30-end), Tim says the prophets are best understood as “covenant watchdogs.” They assume the larger covenant story of Yahweh, creation, and Israel. Yahweh is the creator and King, and his image-bearing stewards have rebelled and corrupted his good world (Genesis 1–11).

In the covenant he makes with Abraham, Yahweh says he will use Abraham’s family to restore his divine blessing to all nations (Genesis 12).

In the covenant with Israel (the Sinai or Mosaic covenant), Israel is called to become a kingdom of priests to the nations by adhering to the laws of the covenant. Obedience will result in covenant blessing, and rebellion will bring covenant curses (Exod 19, Lev 26, Deut 28–30).

In the covenant with Israel’s priesthood, Yahweh promises to provide a perpetual priesthood through the line of Aaron to intercede on Israel’s behalf and atone for their covenant failures (Numbers 25).

The covenant with Israel’s monarchy states that Yahweh will raise up a king from the line of David who will bring God’s Kingdom and blessing to all the nations (2 Samuel 7, Psalms 2, 72, 89, 132).

Israel was unable to fulfill its side of the Sinai covenant and was sent into exile. But in the new covenant, Yahweh will transform their hearts so they can truly love and obey their God (Deuteronomy 30, Jeremiah 31, Ezekiel 36).

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Mind Your Time, Me.So
Morning, LiQwyd
Erhrling, Typhoon

Show Resources:

Martin Luther, quoted in Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol. 2 (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 33.

John Bright, Jeremiah (Anchor Bible Commentary, 1965), p. Lvi.
Our Video on How to Read the Prophets: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edcqUu_BtN0

Apr 15, 2019
N.T. Wright Interview #2: Paul and the Powers
01:03:55

Welcome to a special episode of our podcast. In this episode, Tim and Jon interview the prolific theologian N.T. (Tom) Wright. They discuss Paul’s perspectives of spiritual evil and spiritual powers.

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Mind Your Time, Me.So

Show Resources:
www.ntwrightonline.org
www.thebibleproject.com

Apr 08, 2019
To the Ends of the Earth - Acts E7
00:35:45

In part 1, (0-11:40) Tim notes the ways that Luke has mapped the story of Paul on top of the story of Jesus. He quotes from Charles Talbert.

“In Luke-Acts we find an architectural pattern of correspondences between the career of Jesus and the life of the apostles. In this way, Luke portrays the deeds and teachings of Jesus as the pattern for the acts and instruction of the apostolic church in the book of Acts. It is near impossible to avoid the conclusion that these correspondences between Jesus and his followers serve this purpose: Jesus is the master and the source of the Christian way of life that is imitated by his disciples.” — Charles Talbert, Literary Patterns and Theological Themes in Luke-Acts.

Tim points out several interesting symbolic ways that Luke and Acts are similar. For example, when Jesus and Paul initially go to Jerusalem. They are both greeted warmly, and they both immediately go to the temple. Both Jesus and Paul stand before someone named Herod. In both cases a Roman centurion is given a positive portrait.

In part 2 (11:40-21:30)
Jon asks why would Luke be so interested in comparing Paul and Jesus together? Tim says that the parallelism isn’t meant to lessen Christ’s status, but instead to show that Christ’s work is continuing in regular humans who are now being grafted in, being created new as a new humanity following in Christ’s example and life.

Tim shares a quote from scholar Michael Goulder:
“Luke is writing a typological history, the life of Jesus providing the template for the life of the church. It is the Pauline doctrine of the body of Christ which is finding here a literary expression in the patterns and cycles of Luke’s narrative. Christ is alive and continuing his own life through his body, that is, his church.” — Michael Goulder, Type and History in Acts, 61-62.

In part 3, (21:30-end)

The guys discuss how the book of acts concludes. To many modern readers it is an abrupt ending.

Tim shares a scholar Ben Witherington: “The ending of the book of Acts makes it clear that Luke’s purpose wasn’t simply to chronicle not the life and death of Paul, but rather the rise and spread of the gospel and of the social and religious movement to which it gave birth. Luke has provided a theological history that traces the spread of the good news from Jerusalem to Rome, from the eastern edge of the Roman Empire into its very heart. Rome was not seen in Luke’s day as the edge of the known world, and so the reader would know very well that Jesus’ mission to spread the gospel to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8) was still ongoing in his own day. However, for Luke it was critical and symbolic that the message reach the heart and hub of the Empire, as a challenge to Caesar and a gateway into to the ends of the earth.

The open-endedness that the modern reader senses in the ending of Acts is intentional. Luke is chronicling not the life and times of Paul (or any other early Christian leader), which would have a definite conclusion, but rather a phenomenon and movement that was continuing and alive and well in his own day. For Luke, Paul’s story is really… about the unstoppable word of god, which no obstacle, no shipwreck, no snake-bite, and no Roman authorities could hinder from reaching the heart of the empire and the hearts of those who lived there. -- Adapted from Ben Witherington III, The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998), 809.

Thank you to all our supporters!

Show produced by:
Dan Gummel

Show Resources:
Ben Witherington III, The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998), 809.
Michael Goulder, Type and History in Acts
Charles Talbert, Literary Patterns and Theological Themes in Luke-Acts.

Show Music:

Defender Instrumental: Tents
Where Peace and Rest Are Found
Polaroid: Extenz

Apr 01, 2019
Paul in Prison - Acts E6
00:51:43

In part one (0:00-13:30), Tim and Jon discuss the motives Paul had for putting himself in harm's way. Tim says that Paul's priority was to show a unified world between Jew and Gentile through belief in Jesus.

Tim then outlines Paul's time in Jerusalem and his arrest. Tim points out that there are six cycles that begin with Paul being arrested, then Paul is given a platform to speak, then the authority figure saying that Paul doesn't deserve death, but he is never released.

Tim says Luke is portraying Paul as a model for how Christians should relate to the powers and cultural structures of the world. Christianity is not a movement that is political, or social, or anything else, but it does encompass those things. It is an entirely different movement of an entirely different nature.

In part two (13:30-30:00), Tim continues to outline Paul's trials.
Tim quotes from Kavin Rowe: "The Christians are not out to establish Christendom. A new culture, yes, a new political movement, no." Tim points out that Paul submitted to the Roman authorities despite the flaws. It's a stance of loyalty and subversion.

Tim points out that Luke is laying Paul's story on top of Jesus' story of also being on trial by the Jewish and Roman authorities.

Luke wants the reader to think intelligently about how Christians should relate to the government. God's Kingdom is not a human kingdom; it is a vision of a new and better humanity. There is no such thing as being a Christian in private in the ancient world, nor should there be that option today.

In part three (30:00-35:00), Jon points out that Christianity is a movement that doesn't need the same type of power that the Romans had. It's a groundswell, not a top-down approach. Tim says that Luke is trying to communicate that the Jesus movement is its own thing that doesn't fit any other type of movement in human history.

In part four (35:00-end), Tim points out that Paul always seemed to interact with corrupt Roman politicians. But when he did, Paul encouraged that official to follow the road of high integrity that they aspire to.

Show Resources:
World Upside Down: Reading Acts in the Graeco Roman Age by Kavin Rowe
https://www.amazon.com/World-Upside-Down-Reading-Graeco-Roman/dp/0199767610/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=kavin+rowe&qid=1551724935&s=gateway&sr=8-2

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Mar 25, 2019
Paul's Journey to Jerusalem - Acts E5
00:52:39

In part one (0:00-13:20), Tim and Jon briefly recap the series so far. They discuss Paul’s complex background. Paul was a Jew but was living primarily among Gentiles in different cities in the Roman Empire. Tim points out that because of his background, Paul’s reputation as a controversial figure continues to grow. He doesn’t fit into the normal social categories of the day.

In part two (13:20-33:00), Tim dives into Acts 11:27-30:
“During this time some prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. One of them, named Agabus, stood up and through the Spirit predicted that a severe famine would spread over the entire Roman world. (This happened during the reign of Claudius.) The disciples, as each one was able, decided to provide help for the brothers and sisters living in Judea. This they did, sending their gift to the elders by Barnabas and Saul.”

Tim says that this is hugely symbolic. Paul is arriving back in Jerusalem with a group of international Christians bearing a gift of money to help give relief to the Jerusalem famine.

Jon points out that it's really remarkable that Paul was able to raise these funds, before the days of Kickstarter. Tim says that for Paul, the gift was a symbol of the unity of the Church. There was no class system and no division across racial, ethnic, or economic lines. The gift was a representation of all that Paul believed was possible in the communities of Christians.

In part three (33:00-end), Tim shares a passage from Ephesians:
"Remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. For he himself is our peace, who has made the two groups one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, by setting aside in his flesh the law with its commands and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new humanity out of the two, thus making peace.” – Ephesians 2:12-15.

Tim says that this passage is more evidence that Paul really wanted Jews and Gentiles to be united as one Church.

Then in reference to Ephesians 3, Tim says that for Paul, the creation of the new humanity through Christ is the way that God also chooses to demonstrate his wisdom to the divine council.
“Although I am less than the least of all the Lord’s people, this grace was given me: to preach to the Gentiles the boundless riches of Christ, and to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things. His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms.” – Ephesians 3:8-10.

Tim says that Paul believed he was participating in a cosmic story and that working to unify Jews with all other ethnicities through Jesus was what Jesus was praying for in John 17:21: “I pray that they will all be one, just as you and I are one—as you are in me, Father, and I am in you. And may they be in us so that the world will believe you sent me.”

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Resources:

World Upside Down: Reading Acts in the Graeco Roman Age by Kavin Rowe

Show Produced by:

Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:

Defender Instrumental, Tents
Carelessness
Acquired in Heaven, Beautiful Eulogy

Mar 18, 2019
Q+R: Son of Man - Son of Man E9
00:57:06

Show Notes:

Welcome to our Q+R on the Son of Man! Thank you to everyone who sent in questions. Here are the questions we responded to:

Matt from Australia: (0:55)
I've got a question about humans and animals. It seems like animals get a really bad rap. You've been talking about when humans don't pass the test or live as they're made to live, they're not truly the image of God, they act less than human or to be true, they act like animals. And I'm wondering what about animals is so bad or so wrong? Or are you trying to communicate about a different reality than an animal? Thanks!

Petra from the Netherlands: (6:20)
In the podcast (The Empty Throne), Tim refers to the Empty Throne in Daniel 7, but if I read Daniel 7 in different translations, vs 9 says "thrones" and vs 10 "the court place." So I get the conclusion that thrones are set for the court. In Matthew 19:28, Jesus tells his disciples that they will sit on the 12 thrones and judge the 12 tribes of Israel. I don't assume that's specific because in Revelation it says 24. My question is, where do you get the conclusion that the empty throne refers to the Son of Man because I come to the conclusion that it refers to the court. Thank you!

Rachel from Delaware: (12:35)
This is a question I've always had: where is Daniel in Daniel 3?

Stephanie from Virginia: (21:05)
My question is, why is Daniel portrayed as a new human, a new Adam, when he is not THE new human, the Messiah to come?

John from North Wales: (21:20)
I've found this series on the Son of Man really exciting. I have a question about Daniel. I was struck when you were taking us through those first chapters in the book of Daniel that Daniel himself actually seems to be a flawless human being. My working paradigm was that there are no heroes in the Old Testament except for God himself, but Daniel does actually seems to pass the test (or at least to not really fail the test at any particular point). So how do you interpret the figure of Daniel? Thanks!

Sam from Ohio: (26:04)
In Daniel 7:18, 22, 27, it speaks of the saints being given the dominion and kingdom to possess forever. Verse 27 ends by saying, "All dominions shall serve and obey them." But the ESV footnote says it might end by saying, "All dominions shall serve and obey him." Is it a possible interpretation to view the Son of Man as a figurative representation of all the saints of the Most High rather than a specific individual? Or what is the connection between the individual and the collective groups of saints? Thanks!

Douglas from Rwanda: (40:15)
I was curious about the use of the word "son of man" in other Old Testament books such as Ezekiel. Ezekiel appears to be written before Daniel and they use the exact same word "son of man." I wonder if you know if it has a different meaning, and if not, how is it related to Daniel's use of "son of man?" Thank you!

Ivan from El Salvador: (43:20)
I love the conversation about the Son of God and how he's someone God gave that title. How, with that definition, do we read John 1:12 that whoever receives him will be called a son of God? How do we understand that, or does John have a different definition in mind?

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Find more resources at www.thebibleproject.com

Show produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Theme music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents

Mar 11, 2019
Thieves by the Throne - Son of Man E8
01:07:58

In part one (0:00-13:15), Tim and Jon briefly recap the series so far. Then Tim says that there are three different nuances that Jesus uses when describing himself as the Son of Man.

The first nuance is Jesus calling himself the Son of Man when saying that he has divine authority. Here’s an example from Mark 2:8-12:
"Immediately Jesus, aware in His spirit that they were reasoning that way within themselves, said to them, “Why are you reasoning about these things in your hearts? “Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven’; or to say, ‘Get up, and pick up your pallet and walk’? “But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins”—He said to the paralytic, “I say to you, get up, pick up your pallet and go home.” And he got up and immediately picked up the pallet and went out in the sight of everyone, so that they were all amazed and were glorifying God, saying, “We have never seen anything like this.”

Tim says that when Jesus says, “The son of man has authority on earth,” it is recalling Adam/humanity's forfeited authority over the land/earth in Genesis 1.
In the story, Jesus steps in as an Adam figure and also a high priest figure. The major part of the priests' job is to intercede for sinners and offer sacrifices of atonement for them. Jesus picks up the Adam-priest mantle in this story.

Tim quotes from scholar Joel Marcus: “Adam was created to be the terrestrial representative of the heavenly king, to rule on earth as God rules in heaven… Jesus here emphasizes that his authority to forgive sin on earth derives its ultimate authority from God’s prerogative to forgive sins in heaven… The first Adam is associated with both royal rule and with sin and death, and so here Jesus is portrayed as the royal human who has power over both sin and death.” -- Joel Marcus, Son of Man as Son of Adam, 372-373.

In part two (13:15-26:30), the guys dive into another example from Mark 2:23-28:
"And it happened that He was passing through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and His disciples began to make their way along while picking the heads of grain. The Pharisees were saying to Him, “Look, why are they doing what is not lawful on the Sabbath?” And He *said to them, “Have you never read what David did when he was in need and he and his companions became hungry; how he entered the house of God in the time of Abiathar the high priest, and ate the consecrated bread, which is not lawful for anyone to eat except the priests, and he also gave it to those who were with him?” Jesus said to them, “The Sabbath was made because of the human, and not the human because of the Sabbath. So the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”

Tim observes that the Sabbath in Genesis 1 is an ideal of new creation that the first Adam never fully attained, and so it remained to be attained by a future son of man. Jesus is claiming to be that one. Tim quotes from Joel Marcus again: “From Genesis itself, to be sure, one might get the impression that the Sabbath was not created “because of the human,” but “for/because of God.” God rested on the seventh day from the labor of the preceding six, and therefore hallowed the seventh day in perpetuity… However, in Jewish tradition, scholars went to great pains to make clear that God wasn’t tired...but that the purpose of the Sabbath was for humanity, to provide rest for them… A similar line of thought is found here in Mark 2, the Sabbath was created for Adam’s sake and for the humanity he represents, not the other way around. The Sabbath was built into the structure of the world that was made subject to Adam. Therefore, Adam’s final son (the son of man), who has recovered dominion that his great forefather had forfeited, is the Lord not only of the world in general, but of the Sabbath in particular.” -- Joel Marcus, The Son of Man as the Son of Adam, 375-376.

In part three (26:30-36:00), Tim talks about the second nuance that Jesus uses when referring to himself as the Son of Man; he describes himself as suffering. The guys examine Mark 10:35-45:
"James and John, the two sons of Zebedee, *came up to Jesus, saying, “Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask of You.” And He said to them, “What do you want Me to do for you?” They said to Him, “Grant that we may sit, one on Your right and one on Your left, in Your glory.” But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?” They said to Him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you shall drink; and you shall be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized. “But to sit on My right or on My left, this is not Mine to give; but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.”

“Hearing this, the ten began to feel indignant with James and John. Calling them to Himself, Jesus *said to them, “You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. “But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

Tim cites Joel Marcus again saying that Mark 10:45 may be paraphrased as such: “Like his great ancestor Adam before the fall, the Son of Adam had the right and authority to be served, as ruler of all creatures on earth. But instead of exercising this right, the Son of Man has become the slave of all humanity, even to the point of dying for them. In so doing, he has reversed the effect of Adam’s sin, the death which he passed onto his offspring; the one Son of Adam has given his life as a ransom for the many children of Adam who were deprived of their life by the transgression of “the human.” -- Joel Marcus, Son of God as Son of Adam.

In part four (36:00-43:15), Tim continues examining this story by Jesus. Jesus believes that he, as the Son of Man is going to rule by serving and suffering. Tim says that this idea becomes significant when thinking about the Christian tradition of baptism. It is a symbolic representation of following Christ through the veil of death to be resurrected to new, real, eternal life after.

In part five (43:15-59:50), Tim points out the third nuance that Jesus uses to show himself as the Son of Man: the Son of Man will be vindicated after death. Jon notes that understanding these nuances really helps to fill in a lot of the blanks that round out Jesus' identity and actions.

In part six (59:50-end), Tim and Jon recap the whole series. Tim shares a final quote from Joel Marcus:
“The Son of Man” is an apocalyptic symbolic figure. It the Son of Man is a new Adam, then the Jesus of the Gospels presents himself as the founder of a new humanity. This is why the Gospel authors depict Jesus as carrying out his ministry in the “last days”, as the recapitulation and perfection of “the beginning.” In this context, the good news of Jesus’ opening message in Mark 1:15 (“The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near!”) is not simply that time of waiting for a new event to happen is over. Rather, he means that the old universe is dying and a new creation is being born.” -- Joel Marcus, Son of Man as Son of Adam, 385.

Thank you to all of our supporters!
Have a question? Send it to info@jointhebibleproject.com

Show Produced By:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins, Tim Mackie

Show Music:

Defender Instrumental, Tents

Royalty Free Spanish Guitar

Amber, The Loyalist

Heal My Sorrows

Where Peace and Rest are Found

Moon, Lemmino

Show Resources:

Brandon Crowe, The Last Adam: A Theology of the Obedient Life of Jesus in the Gospels

Joel Marcus, The Son of Man as the Son of Adam

Our video on the Son of Man: https://bit.ly/2D3wD9o

Mar 04, 2019
Jesus With Wild Beasts - Son of Man E7
00:54:21

In part one (0:00-19:00), the guys introduce Jesus and the Gospels into the conversation. Tim remarks that there is a whole field of scholarship dedicated to studying how Christ is portrayed as a new Adam or a new Son of Man.

Tim focuses on Jesus in the Gospel of Mark.
Mark 1:12-13:
“Immediately the Spirit cast out into the wilderness. And He was in the wilderness forty days being tested by the Satan; and He was with the wild beasts, and the angels were ministering to Him.”

Tim notes that the phrase “cast out” (Grk. εκβαλλω) is first used in the Old Testament account of Adam and Eve’s explusion from the garden of Eden (Gen 3:24). He also says that both of these stories are meant to be analagous to each other. Jesus is in the wilderness (garden) with the wild animals (Adam and Eve) in the presence of the angels (cherubim and cosmic mountain).

Tim cites a quote by biblical scholar Brandon Crowe: “Whereas Adam failed the temptation in the garden and was cast out, Jesus is led by the Spirit into the wilderness, a setting associated with Israel’s testing and failure. Unlike Adam, Jesus does not fail the test, and in both stories of Adam and Jesus “expulsion” the same Greek word ekballo is employed. In the wilderness, Jesus is with the wild animals, but remains unharmed [T.M. like Daniel], which is supposed to strike the reader as unusual. Jesus’ peaceful coexistence with the wild animals signifies his authority over them, and recalls Adam’s original dominion over the animals in the garden. Like Adam, Jesus has been granted the worldwide dominion, becoming the instrument of God’s dominion over the world.” -- Brandon Crowe, The Last Adam: A Theology of the Obedient Life of Jesus in the Gospels, 24

Tim points out that the temptation of Jesus in Mark, specifically the details of the angels serving him and him being with the wild beasts, is meant to show that Jesus is the new Adam, the perfect Adam who can coexist peacefully with animals in the wild.

Further, Tim points out that Jesus is portrayed as having authority over the other spiritual beings (angels) to show that Jesus is the ideal Son of Man figure.

In part two (19:00-18:30), Tim and Jon take a side tour and discuss how in Hebrew there are places where the Hebrew word adam can refer to either a specific character, Adam, or to humanity as a whole. The guys also discuss the nuances between the terms Son of Man and Son of God. Tim notes that Psalm 2 is a key passage for understanding how both of these terms link together.
To be called the image of God as humanity means to be the creatures where heaven and earth are bound together.
Psalm 2: “Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth rise up and the rulers band together against the Lord and against his anointed, saying, ‘Let us break their chains and throw off their shackles.’ The One enthroned in heaven laughs, the Lord scoffs at them. He rebukes them in his anger and terrifies them in his wrath, saying, ‘I have installed my king on Zion, my holy mountain.’ I will proclaim the Lord’s decree: He said to me, ‘You are my son; today I have become your father.
Ask me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession.’”

In part three (18:30-end), Jon asks why heaven and earth are supposed to be ideally imaged in humanity. Tim replies that humanity is meant to be related to the elohim. We are not elohim, but we are to share in a similar status of having a divine ability to rule.

Tim and Jon then dive into the temptation of Jesus portrayed in Matthew 4:8-11:
“Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory; and he said to Him, “All these things I will give You, if You fall down and worship me.”
Then Jesus said to him, “Go, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’ ” Then the devil left Him; and behold, angels came and began to minister to Him.”

Tim notes that there is only one other time in the New Testament where Jesus utters the phrase, “Get behind me Satan” or “Go, Satan” (in the NIV). It’s in Matthew 16:23: “Jesus turned and said to Peter, "Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; you do not have in mind the concerns of God, but merely human concerns."

Tim notes that Jesus obviously sees that a satanic mindset is one where the mindset is human-focused and set on how a beast would rule the world, one of power and strength not of sacrifice.

Tim points out that after these temptations, you are supposed to see Jesus as a new Adam. He peacefully coexists with animals. He’s a new Daniel; he doesn’t bow down to the rulers. He’s a new David because he rules righteously. Jesus is the full package.

Thank you to all of our supporters!
Have a question? Send it to info@jointhebibleproject.com

Show Produced by:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins, Tim Mackie

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Yesterday on Repeat, Vexento
Morning, LIQWYD

Show Resources:
Exodus 4:22
Matthew 4:8-11
Psalm 2
Brandon Crowe, The Last Adam: A Theology of the Obedient Life of Jesus in the Gospels
Joel Marcus, “The Son of Man as the Son of Adam”
Our video on the Son of Man: https://bit.ly/2URk3BH

Feb 25, 2019
The True Human - Son of Man E6
01:04:04

In part one (0:00-12:00), the guys quickly recap the biblical story leading up to Daniel 7. There are many models of the Son of Man in the Old Testament: Noah, Moses, David, Joshua. They all get close, but they ultimately fail and are not able to be the perfect “seed of the woman” that will crush the snake and fulfill the prophecy given in Genesis after the fall.

In part two (12:00-29:30), the guys dive into Daniel 7:
In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel had a dream, and visions passed through his mind as he was lying in bed. He wrote down the substance of his dream.
Daniel said: “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me were the four winds of heaven churning up the great sea. Four great beasts, each different from the others, came up out of the sea. “The first was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted from the ground so that it stood on two feet like a human being, and the mind of a human was given to it. “And there before me was a second beast, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up and eat your fill of flesh!’ “After that, I looked, and there before me was another beast, one that looked like a leopard. And on its back it had four wings like those of a bird. This beast had four heads, and it was given authority to rule.

After that, in my vision at night I looked, and there before me was a fourth beast—terrifying and frightening and very powerful. It had large iron teeth; it crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the former beasts, and it had ten horns. “While I was thinking about the horns, there before me was another horn, a little one, which came up among them; and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. This horn had eyes like the eyes of a human being and a mouth that spoke boastfully.
As I looked,
thrones were set in place,
and the Ancient of Days took his seat.
His clothing was as white as snow;
the hair of his head was white like wool.
His throne was flaming with fire,
and its wheels were all ablaze.
A river of fire was flowing,
coming out from before him.
Thousands upon thousands attended him;
ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.
The court was seated,
and the books were opened.

Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire. (The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but were allowed to live for a period of time.)

In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.

Tim makes the following observations: The animals are like an anti-creation. They are extremely non-kosher animals. They are mutants, and they come out of chaotic, watery darkness. They are chaos creatures. Daniel sees the same throne room (v 9) that Ezekiel saw in his vision in Ezekiel 1. What Nebuchadnezzar had wanted, to be praised and worshiped by everyone, happens to the Son of Man when God exalts him.

In parts three and four (29:30-52:00), Tim and Jon cover the interpretation of the dream in v15-27:
I, Daniel, was troubled in spirit, and the visions that passed through my mind disturbed me. I approached one of those standing there and asked him the meaning of all this.
So he told me and gave me the interpretation of these things: ‘The four great beasts are four kings that will rise from the earth. But the holy people of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will possess it forever—yes, for ever and ever.’
Then I wanted to know the meaning of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others and most terrifying, with its iron teeth and bronze claws—the beast that crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. I also wanted to know about the ten horns on its head and about the other horn that came up, before which three of them fell—the horn that looked more imposing than the others and that had eyes and a mouth that spoke boastfully. As I watched, this horn was waging war against the holy people and defeating them, until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the holy people of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom.
He gave me this explanation: ‘The fourth beast is a fourth kingdom that will appear on earth. It will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it. The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom. After them another king will arise, different from the earlier ones; he will subdue three kings. He will speak against the Most High and oppress his holy people and try to change the set times and the laws. The holy people will be delivered into his hands for a time, times and half a time.
‘But the court will sit, and his power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever. Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the holy people of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him.'

Tim makes the following observations: The “holy ones” has a double meaning. It represents both the “holy” sons of God/elohim, that is celestial beings in the divine council, and it represents a true human race who are “holy” to God and fulfills their calling by following the true Son of Man.
Daniel 7 is a symbolic and cosmic depiction of a real, historical conflict (Antiochus’ attack on Jerusalem and defilement of the temple in 167 B.C.), that is part of an ancient pattern going all the way back to Genesis 1-3.

In part five (52:00-end), Tim observes that somewhere in Daniel 7 is a storyline that was crucial to Jesus and how he thought of his identity. So if someone wants to understand more about Jesus, they should invest the time to learn more about the Son of Man storyline in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Thank you to of all our supporters!
Have a question for the upcoming Q+R? Send it to us!
info@jointhebibleproject.com

Show Produced By:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Pilgrim, Instrumental
Going Up, Lakey Inspired
Model Planes, Hands of a Craftsman
Show Resources:

Our video on the Son of Man: https://bit.ly/2URk3BH

Morna Hooker, "The Son of Man in Mark."

John Goldingay, "Daniel" (Word Biblical Commentary)

Crispin Fletcher-Louis, "The King, the Messiah, and the Ruler Cult" (ch. 6 of "Jesus Monotheism")

Michael S. Heiser, Ch. 30 of "The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible."

Feb 18, 2019
The Beastly King - Son of Man E5
00:59:53

In part one (0:00-6:30), the guys briefly go over the previous conversations from the Son of Man series. Tim explains that in order to fully understand the Son of Man imagery in Daniel 7, Daniel 1-6 needs to first be unpacked. Daniel 7 is significant because it’s a culminating vision of the whole Hebrew Bible imagery told in one very dense chapter.

In part two (6:30-25:50), the guys go over the history of the Babylonian Empire and King Nebuchadnezzar. He was a king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, a sort of resurgence of the previous Babylonian rule. Babylon had long been dormant while Assyria was the world superpower, but Babylon had a brief rise to prominence again under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar. He dominated Jerusalem and took their promising youth with him to Babylon. Daniel was in this group.

Tim points out a few hyperlinks to other parts of the Hebrew Bible at the beginning of the book of Daniel. Daniel is the "royal seed" carried away to Babylon who replays the test of Adam and Eve and succeeds!

Daniel 1:3-4: "And the king of Babylon told his officers to bring from the sons of Israel and from the royal seed… youths...who were good of sight and wise with all wisdom, and knowing knowledge, and understanding knowledge…"
Dan 1:5-7: "And the king assigned for them a daily ration of the king’s choice food and his wine, to raise them for three years so they could stand in his service. Among them were sons of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah...but Daniel set it upon his heart to not defile himself with the king’s choice food or his wine…"
Dan 1:12: "Daniel said, 'Let there be given to us from the seeds, and we will eat, and water, and we will drink.'"

Daniel is depicted as a new Adam, who is brought into Babylon already having great knowledge. He refuses the forbidden food (Daniel ch. 1) and only increases in wisdom! Instead, he adopts an Eden-diet of veggies and water and is elevated to serve in the king’s court.

Tim’s point is that Daniel is the forbidden fruit that the king of Babylon has just taken. Daniel has an opportunity to eat the forbidden food of the king and break his kosher diet. He refuses the forbidden food and therefore passes the test.

In part three (25:50-end), Tim and Jon go over the two dreams that Nebuchadnezzar has leading up to Daniel 7. In Daniel 2, the king has a dream. Once Daniel gives the interpretation, the king worships Daniel.

Daniel 2:46-49:
"Then King Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face and worshipped (sagid) Daniel, and gave orders to present to him an offering and incense.
Then the king promoted Daniel and gave him many great gifts, and he made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon and chief prefect over all the wise men of Babylon.
And Daniel made request of the king, and he appointed Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego over the administration of the province of Babylon, while Daniel was at the king’s court."

Then Daniel 3 is an inversion of Daniel 2. The king wants everyone to worship an image of him. This is the story of the blazing furnace.

Daniel 3:10-12:
“You, O king, have made a decree that every man who hears the sound of the horn, flute, lyre, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe and all kinds of music, is to fall down and worship the image of gold.
“But whoever does not fall down and worship shall be cast into the midst of a furnace of blazing fire. “There are certain Jews whom you have appointed over the administration of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego. These men, O king, have disregarded you; they do not serve (palakh) your gods or worship the golden image which you have set up.”

So Daniel 2 and 3 are inversions of each other, and then in Daniel 4, the king has another dream. In the dream, a "watcher” appears. Tim notes that this is the only time that specific word appears in the Hebrew Bible. However, it also appears in the book of Enoch, a Jewish book written in the same time period.

The king calls Daniel again to interpret the dream.

Daniel 4:20-25:
"The tree that you saw, which became large and grew strong, whose height reached to the sky and was visible to all the earth and whose foliage was beautiful and its fruit abundant, and in which was food for all, under which the beasts of the field dwelt and in whose branches the birds of the sky lodged— it is you, O king; for you have become great and grown strong, and your majesty has become great and reached to the sky and your dominion to the end of the earth. ‘In that the king saw a watcher, a holy one, descending from heaven and saying, “Chop down the tree and destroy it; yet leave the stump with its roots in the ground, but with a band of iron and bronze in the new grass of the field, and let him be drenched with the dew of heaven, and let him share with the beasts of the field until seven periods of time pass over him,” this is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king: that you be driven away from mankind and your dwelling place be with the beasts of the field, and you be given grass to eat like cattle and be drenched with the dew of heaven; and seven periods of time will pass over you, until you recognize that the Most High is ruler over the realm of mankind and bestows it on whomever He wishes."

Tim notes that when the Babylons of this world acknowledge that God is truly the wise sovereign, then they can become the true human rulers they’re intended to be. But when they do not, when they turn their national power and glory into an idol (as in Daniel chs. 2 and 3), God shows them what they are: beasts.

The narrative contrasts the beastly Babylon with the human Daniel who submits to God’s rule and is elevated to rule by God’s wisdom.

So to sum up the episode: The king of Babylon’s worship of the divine image of Daniel in Daniel 2 is ironically reversed in Daniel 3, where his friends are forced to worship the false image of Babylon. These twin stories set up the tension of the book: What humanity will be exalted as the divinely appointed ruler of the world? Babylon or the “royal seed” represented by Daniel and his friends? The king’s worship of Daniel becomes a narrative image of the worship of the son of man in Daniel 7. And Daniel 7 is a symbolic and cosmic depiction of a real, historical conflict (Antiochus’ attack on Jerusalem and defilement of the temple in 167 B.C.) that has been depicted as part of an ancient pattern going all the way back to Genesis 1-3.

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Produced By:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Bloc, KV

Show Resources:

Our video on the Son of Man: https://bit.ly/2URk3BH

  • B. Mastin, "Daniel 2:46 in the Hellenistic World," in Zeitschrift für alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, volume 85 (1973), pages 80-93.

  • Crispin Fletcher-Louis, "Jesus Monotheism" chapter 6, "High Priestly and Royal Messianism,"

Feb 11, 2019
Power Over the Snake - Son of Man E4
01:02:41

In part one (0:00-13:10), Tim recaps the series so far. He says the Son of Man title is Christ’s favorite title to use to describe himself, and it originally comes from a dream in Daniel 7. Tim then recaps Genesis 1 and 2. Humans are created after the animals but are then called to rule over the animals. So the creation and power order is inverted. Humans are overcome by the animals when they listen to the serpent, and humans embrace an animal-like state. Tim emphasizes that flowing out of Genesis are two lineages: a human lineage, the seed of the woman, and an animal lineage, the seed of the serpent. And at some point, a Son of Man will deliver the seed of the woman from the seed of the serpent.

In part two (13:10-18:30), Tim and Jon dive into the imagery of animals in the Bible. Jon asks what is the proper relationship with animals for people to have. Tim speculates that animals are meant to be in a peaceful relationship with humans. And a peaceful connection with the animals is an image the prophets use to describe a new creation. (Lions, lambs etc. )

In part three (18:30-33:50), Tim dives further into Genesis. He examines the inverted first born/second born relationships in the book. Abraham has two children, Isaac and Ishmael. Ishmael is the firstborn but is not chosen by God. Instead, God chooses Isaac. Then later in the story, Isaac has two sons, Jacob and Esau. Jacob is the second born and is chosen by God. Tim points out that the pattern is intentional.

In part four (33:50-end), Tim then moves into the account of the Exodus. Pharaoh says he wants to deal “shrewdly” with the Hebrews. This is a synonym of the snake saying it is the “crafty” beast. Pharaoh is now embracing an animal-like tendency and seeking to harm the Hebrews.

Then Tim dives into the story of the burning bush. God tells Moses to turn his staff into a snake ( snake (נחש) ). Many western readers see this story as some sort of magic trick that God is telling Moses to do. That's far from what's happening. Tim says the story is actually meant to portray Moses as a successful “son of man” who has power over the snake. This point is further emphasized when Moses and his brother Aaron go before Pharaoh to demand the release of the Hebrews. Aaron throws down his staff and it becomes, in Hebrew, a sea serpent. This is a different word than the previous word used for snake.

Exodus 7:8-13:
"Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, “When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Perform a sign,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a sea serpent (תנין).’" So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and thus they did just as the Lord had commanded; and Aaron threw his staff down before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a sea serpent (תנין).
Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers, and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same with their secret arts. For each one threw down his staff and they turned into sea serpents (תנין). But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. Yet Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, as the Lord had said."

Tim says the point is Moses and Aaron becoming associated characters. They are humans who have power over the snake. Literally. They grab snakes and symbolically they prevail over Pharaoh. This theme is picked up by later biblical authors who see the symbolism and use the same word, “sea serpent,” to describe Israel’s enemies.

Isaiah 51:9-11:
"Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Lord; [// the arm of Moses with the staff]
Awake as in the days of old, the generations of long ago.
Was it not You who cut Rahab in pieces, [= Israelite name for the god of Egypt]
Who pierced the sea-monster (תנין/tanin)
Was it not You who dried up the sea,
The waters of the great deep;
Who made the depths of the sea a pathway
For the redeemed to cross over?
So the ransomed of the Lord will return
And come with joyful shouting to Zion"

Ezekiel 32:2:
“Son of man, take up a lamentation over Pharaoh king of Egypt and say to him,
‘You compared yourself to a young lion of the nations,
Yet you are like the monster (tanin) in the seas."

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Have a question about the Son of Man? Send it to us as we begin preparing for an upcoming Q+R episode.

Show Produced By:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Where Peace and Rest are Found, Beautiful Eulogy
Conquer, Beautiful Eulogy
Mind Your Time, Me. So.

Show Resources:
Son of Man Video: https://bit.ly/2D3wD9o
Gerhard von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary
Crispin Fletcher-Louis, Jesus Monotheism
Richard Bauckham, Living with Other Creatures

Feb 04, 2019
The Snake in the Throne Room - Son of Man E3
00:48:30

Welcome to episode 3 of our series on the Son of Man! In this episode, Tim and Jon dive deep into the history, the story, and the ideas surrounding one of the most famous figures in the Bible: the Serpent.

In part one (0:00-8:00), Tim and Jon briefly recap the previous episode. Humanity is supposed to live in peaceful coexistence and be responsible for the animals.

Tim says that Daniel’s vision in Daniel chapter 7 of the Son of Man shows us that humans are meant to be over the animals, but instead they end up behaving like animals.

In part two (8:00-24:30), Tim dives into Genesis 3 and begins examining the serpent. The snake is presented as crafty. This is the Hebrew word "arum.” In other cases in the Bible, this word has a positive connotation, but in this context, it means a negative use of intelligence. Gen 3:1:
"Now the serpent was more arum than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made."
In the following Proverbs, arum is used to demonstrate a positive character trait.
Proverbs 14:15: "The naive believes everything, but the sensible man considers his steps."
Proverbs 27:12: "The prudent see danger and take refuge, but the simple keep going and pay the penalty."

So in Genesis 3, arum is translated as “crafty.” This is the only time it's translated with a negative sense, but usually arum means sharp, quick thinker, problem solver etc.

Tim also briefly says that in other ancient religions, especially in Egypt, snakes were symbolically significant. Tim says the snake is presented as a creature alongside the humans. It uses its divine blessing (wisdom) to twist the divine command by telling the humans that they can be like-God (or “like gods”). But the humans already are God-like, having been made in God’s image.

Tim observes that after Adam and Eve take the serpent's advice, eat the fruit, and are expelled from the Garden, the very next story is one where Cain also listens to “sin” that is described as “crouching” at his door. Both of these narratives portray humans being ruled by beasts, instead of ruling over them. Death is the result. Once humans choose to redefine good and evil, they become beastly.

In part three (24:30-28:00), Tim quickly goes over the Messianic promise that God gives in Genesis 3:15:
“And I will set hostility
Between you [serpent] and the woman,
And between your [serpent] seed and her seed;
He [seed of woman] shall strike you [serpent] on the head,
And you [serpent] shall strike him [seed of woman] on the heel.”

Tim says that this sets up the main plot conflict for the biblical story. Humans must recover their ability to rule over the beasts, and this will be done by the true Son of Man who strikes the serpent.

In part four (28:00-end), Tim overviews the whole biblical fall narrative. Tim says that the story of Noah is significant, as it represents a failed restart of creation. Noah was set up to save the animals from the flood. He did so, and seemed to act as a true son of man. Noah gets off the boat, and God recommissions Noah to “be fruitful and multiply” and fill the earth. Then God pivots and gives humanity a new diet:
“The fear of you and the terror of you will be on every beast of the earth and on every bird of the sky; with everything that creeps on the ground, and all the fish of the sea, into your hand they are given.
Every moving thing that is alive shall be food for you; I give all to you, as I gave the green plant.
Only you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood" (Genesis 9:1-4).

Noah eventually falls away from following God’s blessing. And one of his son’s (Ham) descendants Nimrod is mentioned as being the first “hunter” in the Bible. Nimrod was also the founder of Babylon. Why are we told both of these details about Nimrod’s life? Because it represents an archetype that is developing. Humanity is now choosing to become part of a cycle of acting like beasts, creating a violent, killing culture.

Since humanity has chosen this path, they now must be saved by the true Son of Man. He will be the seed of the woman, but instead of giving in to the violence of humanity, he will choose to overcome it.

Thank you to all of our supporters!

Show Produced By:
Dan Gummel, Jon Collins

Show Music:
Defender Instrumental, Tents
Pilgrim, Instrumentals
The Size of Grace, Beautiful Eulogy

Show Resources:
Our video on the Son of Man: INSERT LINK
Gerhard von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary
Crispin Fletcher-Louis, Jesus Monotheism
Richard Bauckham, Living with Other Creatures
James Hamilton, With the Clouds of Heaven: The Book of Daniel in Biblical Theology
Brandon Crowe, The Last Adam: A Theology of the Obedient Life of Jesus in the Gospels

Jan 28, 2019
Humans & Animals - Son of Man E2
01:00:33

Welcome to episode two of our series discussing the biblical theme of the Son of Man. In this episode, Tim and Jon discuss humanity's role in relation to other parts of creation, specifically animals.

In part one (0:00-30:15), the guys briefly recap the first episode and quickly go over Daniel’s dream in Daniel 7, where he has a vision of the Son of Man appearing.

Tim then dives into the language and ideas presented in Genesis 1 and specifically focuses on the order of creation and how the days are paired.
Genesis 1:1-2:
In the beginning God created the skies and the land
and the land was wild and waste, and darkness was over the face of the watery deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

Wild (tohu) = unordered
Waste (vohu) = uninhabited
Day 1 - Light: Separated from dark, day and night.
Day 4 - Lights appointed to rule the day and night.
Day 2 - Waters above separated from waters below.
Day 5 - Creatures in waters below, creatures in waters above.
“And God created the great sea monsters..." (1:21)
“And God blessed them, saying be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters…” (1:22)
Day 3 - Water separated from dry land.
“Let the land bring forth (ותוצא) plants and vegetation and seed-producing plants and trees producing fruit.” (1:12)
Day 6 - Creatures on the land.
“Let the land bring forth (ותוצא) living beasts by their kinds.” (1:25)

“Let us create the human (ha-adam) in our image and as our likeness…
And God blessed them, and said, (1) be fruitful and multiply and fill the land and subdue it, and rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and the beasts on the land.” (1:26-28)

Gen 2:1-3: God rests on the seventh day, which does not end.

Tim then focuses on humanity's relationship with animals. Tim notices that humans are the “second comers” to creation, who are given the responsibility to rule over the animals who came first. This is a pattern that shows itself many times in Genesis. (Think about Joseph’s sons later in the story.)

Tim then asks what it means for humans to be called to rule over the animals. Tim cites Richard Bauckham’s book Living with Other Creatures,

“It is not often well enough noticed that the command God gives to humanity refers to two rather different matters. It refers first to the relationship of humans to the earth, secondly to their relationship to other living creatures...and they are not the same thing. Humans are not alone in being told to be fruitful and to multiply and to fill, the first and birds were given the same blessing on day 5. Only humans are told to fill and to subdue the land. In the narrative this refers clearly to agriculture, taking possession of the soil and working it in order to make it yield more food for humans than it would otherwise do.

But what about all the other land animals? How does humanity’s role of subduing land relate to God’s blessing of the animals to fill the land? Notice God’s next words to the humans:
See, I have given you (humans) every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food. (Gen 1: 29– 30)

Why does God tell humans that he has given every plant for food for the other living creatures? Surely, the reason is that it is the humans who need to know that the produce of the earth is not intended to feed them alone, but also all the living species of the earth. The clear implication is that the earth can provide enough food for all creatures. Humans are not to fill the earth and subdue it in a way that leaves no room and no sustenance for the other creatures who share the earth with them. God has given them too the right to live from the soil. So the human right to make use of the earth, to live from it, is far from unlimited. It must respect the existence of other creatures.

The biblical portrait of human dominion over the animals must be filled out by the Bible’s vision of “royal rule.” Since Genesis depicts the image of God as a kind of royal function, the rule of a king over others, it is worth recalling the only passage in the law of Moses that refers to the role of the king in Israel (Deut. 17: 14– 20). There it is emphasized that the king is one among his brothers and sisters, his fellow-Israelites, and should not forget it. He should not accumulate wealth or arms or indulge in any of the ways kings usually exalt themselves above their subjects. Only if they remember their fundamental solidarity with their people will kings be able to rule truly for the benefit of their people. Similarly, only when humans remember their fundamental solidarity with their fellow-creatures will they be able to exercise their distinctive authority within creation for the benefit of other creatures.” (pp. 226-228)

In part two (30:15-41:30), Jon asks about carnivorous animals like lions. Tim says that life survives at the expense of other lives right now, but apparently, in the new creation, that will fundamentally change.

Tim says that humans bear responsibility for animal’s destiny; that’s why we are called to rule them. This is humanity acting in their identity of the divine image.

Tim shares this quote:
“The close relation of the term for God’s image with that for the commission to exercise dominion emerges quite clearly when we have understood selem as a plastic image. Just as powerful earthly kings, to indicate their claim to dominion, erect an image of themselves in the provinces of their empire where they do not personally appear, so man is placed upon earth in God’s image as God’s sovereign emblem. He is really only God’s representative, summoned to maintain and enforce God’s claim to dominion over the earth.”
Gerhard von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary, ed. Peter Ackroyd et al., trans. John H. Marks, Revised Edition., The Old Testament Library (Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1972), 59–60.

Tim says that a human making an idol is an oxymoron. Humans are the image of God, so why would they make one?

Tim then posits that in Genesis 3, an animal (the snake) is the one who deceives Adam and Eve. Humans end up getting ruled by the animals instead of ruling them.

In part three (41:30-53:00), the guys discuss Psalm 8:

O Lord, our Lord,
How majestic is Your name in all the earth,
Who have shown Your splendor above the heavens!
….When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers,
The moon and the stars, which You have ordained;
What is human that You take thought of him,
And the son of man (human) that You care for him?
Yet You have made him a little lower than elohim (God or angelic beings),
And You crown him with glory and majesty! [kavod va-hadar ‘divine attributes’]
You make him to rule [mashal] over the works of Your hands;
You have put all things under his feet,
All sheep and oxen,
And also the beasts of the field,
The birds of the heavens and the fish of the sea,
Whatever passes through the paths of the seas.
O Lord, our Lord,
How majestic is Your name in all the earth!
Notice how God’s exaltation and glorification of humans is set within an inclusion frame about God’s own majesty and reputat