Huberman Lab

By Scicomm Media

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Category: Health & Fitness

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Subscribers: 3822
Reviews: 12

 Apr 13, 2022

 Mar 14, 2022

 Jan 5, 2022
One of the best out there. Dr. Huberman is a genius that can explain things well enough for a layman to grasp. If you listen and apply even a fraction of what you learn your life will improve. for free. hard to beat that.

 Aug 17, 2021

 Aug 11, 2021
So depth though he explains so well


The Huberman Lab Podcast discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body control our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.

Episode Date
The Science & Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) | Episode 78
In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): Thesis: Eight Sleep: Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, Eight Sleep (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder? (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity (00:15:10) Categories of OCD (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 27, 2022
Ido Portal: The Science & Practice of Movement | Huberman Lab Episode 77
My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): ROKA: - code "huberman" Helix Sleep: Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:07:49) What is Movement? (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming” (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement (01:52:43) Walking Gaits (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 20, 2022
Improve Flexibility with Research-Supported Stretching Protocols | Episode 76
In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: InsideTracker: Eight Sleep: Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching (00:02:57) Thesis, InsideTracker, Eight Sleep (00:07:22) Innate Flexibility (00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion (00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms (00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging (00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice (00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation (00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion (00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises (00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) (00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration (01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency (01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol (01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching (01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits (01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition (01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch (01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching” (01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises? (01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease (01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga (02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols (02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 13, 2022
Dr. Paul Conti: Therapy, Treating Trauma & Other Life Challenges | Episode 75
My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information. Thank you to our sponsors ROKA: InsideTracker: Blinkist: Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery  (00:02:30) ROKA, InsideTracker, Blinkist (00:07:00) Defining Trauma  (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion  (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal  (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist? (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies  (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling  (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences  (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist  (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity   (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs (00:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals  (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues   (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs  (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs  (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery     (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals   (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery  (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses) (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions  (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself” (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 06, 2022
The Science & Process of Healing from Grief | Episode 74
This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives. We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed. Thank you to our sponsors Eight Sleep: InsideTracker: ROKA: Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement  (00:03:44) Eight Sleep, InsideTracker, ROKA   (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief  (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving  (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping  (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments  (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory  (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence  (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles  (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine) (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects   (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity  (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery  (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving  (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery  (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 30, 2022
Dr. Wendy Suzuki: Boost Attention & Memory with Science-Based Tools | Episode 73
My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): InsideTracker: Blinkist: Our Patreon page Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory (00:02:50) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Blinkist   (00:07:27) How Memories Form  (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination  (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance  (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a “Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus”  (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)  (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory  (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol  (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise  (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition  (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors   (01:17:09) “Every Drop of Sweat Counts” – Exercise & Cognitive Function  (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood  (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance  (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention  (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 23, 2022
Understand & Improve Memory Using Science-Based Tools | Episode 72
This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking “mental snapshots.” I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu. Thank you to our sponsors Eight Sleep: Thesis: InsideTracker: Our Patreon page Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory   (00:02:45) Eight Sleep, Thesis, InsideTracker  (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory  (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation  (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory  (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation   (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus  (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement  (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline  (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol   (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline  (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation  (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory  (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle  (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis  (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability  (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement (01:37:29) Photographic Memory (01:38:49) “Super Recognizers,” Facial Recognition    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement (01:49:12) Déjà Vu (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory  (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 16, 2022
Understanding & Controlling Aggression | Episode 71
This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones—estrogen and testosterone—in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ‘prime’ an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): ROKA: -- code: huberman Helix Sleep: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Our Patreon page Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression (00:03:33) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, “Hydraulic Pressure Model”  (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)  (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression  (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression  (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression  (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors  (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood  (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort  (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity  (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression  (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior  (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the “Hydraulic Pressure Model” of Aggression  (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships  (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 09, 2022
Dr. Rhonda Patrick: Micronutrients for Health & Longevity | Episode 70
My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): Thesis: InsideTracker: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Momentous For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick – Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure  (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements (00:04:27) The Brain-Body Contract  (00:05:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed  (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination)  (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges  (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2  (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation  (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression  (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements?  (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy  (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s  (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s  (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure  (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation  (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation  (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D  (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate  (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ‘Browning’, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle  (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna  (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood  (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk  (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)  (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity  (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility  (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin  (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 02, 2022
The Science & Health Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure | Episode 69
I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat. Thank you to our sponsors LMNT: InsideTracker: ROKA - - code "huberman" See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Momentous I am pleased to announce that the Huberman Lab Podcast is now partnered with Momentous. Momentous supplements are of the very highest quality; each is third-party tested for purity and accuracy of dosage. To learn more about the Huberman Lab Podcast-Momentous partnership, the supplements I that take, and stay up-to-date with future product announcements, visit: For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Heat & Health (00:03:37) Momentous Supplements (00:04:52) The Brain-Body Contract (00:05:46) LMNT, InsideTracker, ROKA (00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature (00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia (00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA) (00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health (00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation (00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3 (00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism (00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure (01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure (01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna (01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood (01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool (01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism (01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure (01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure (01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 25, 2022
Using Light (Sunlight, Blue Light & Red Light) to Optimize Health | Episode 68
I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): Thesis: LMNT: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health (00:04:31) The Brain-Body Contract (00:05:17) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, LMNT (00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy (00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light (00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues (00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals (00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin (00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects (00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels (00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen (00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone (01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone (01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance (01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain (01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) (01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function (01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months (01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure (01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light (01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization (01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing (01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) (01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss (01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure (02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work (02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection (02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health (02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Brain-Body Contract Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 18, 2022
Dr. Kyle Gillett: How to Optimize Your Hormones for Health & Vitality | Episode 67
My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: InsideTracker: ROKA: - use code "huberman" See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization    (00:03:10) The Brain-Body Contract  (00:04:10) Thesis, InsideTracker, ROKA (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health  (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health  (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone  (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1 (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss  (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto  (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility  (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer  (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein   (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil  (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM  (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats  (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels  (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage  (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P) (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic)  (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency  (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin  (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan  (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health  (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones  (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Brain-Body Contract Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 11, 2022
Using Deliberate Cold Exposure for Health and Performance | Episode 66
I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): ROKA: - use code "huberman" Helix Sleep: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work (00:10:47) The Brain-Body Contract (00:11:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be? (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold – The Søberg Principle, Shivering (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer: The Huberman Lab Podcast is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user's own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.
Apr 04, 2022
Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Strength, Muscle Size & Endurance | Episode 65
My guest is Dr. Andy Galpin, Professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, and one of the foremost experts in the world on the science and application of methods to increase strength, hypertrophy and endurance performance. We discuss fundamental principles of strength and hypertrophy training and building endurance, the mechanisms underlying them and we review specific protocols to optimize training and recovery. We also discuss hydration, sleep, nutrition, supplements, and mental tools that can be leveraged to accelerate adaptations leading to enhanced strength, muscle growth and/or endurance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): Thesis: InsideTracker: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin, Strength & Endurance Training   (00:03:08) The Brain-Body Contract  (00:03:55) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker (00:08:20) Adaptations of Exercise, Progressive Overload  (00:14:40) Modifiable Variables, One-Rep Max, Muscle Soreness (00:27:30) Modifiable Variables of Strength Training, Supersets   (00:43:50) How to Select Training Frequency: Strength vs. Hypertrophy  (00:58:45) Hypertrophy Training, Repetition Ranges, Blood Flow Restriction  (01:08:50) Tools: Protocols for Strength Training, the 3 by 5 Concept  (01:10:48) Mind-Muscle Connection  (01:16:16) Mental Awareness  (01:27:57) Breathing Tools for Resistance Training & Post-Training  (01:37:25) Endurance Training & Combining with Strength (01:51:20) Tools: Protocols for Endurance Training (02:08:15) Muscular Endurance, Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle  (02:16:35) Hydration & the Galpin Equation, Sodium, Fasting    (02:35:57) Cold Exposure & Training   (02:43:15) Heat Exposure & Training  (02:53:47) Recovery   (03:04:02) Tool: Sodium Bicarbonate (03:17:26) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate (03:20:08) Absolute Rest (03:29:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 28, 2022
Controlling Sugar Cravings & Metabolism with Science-Based Tools | Episode 64
I explain how to blunt sugar cravings through fundamental knowledge of how sugar is sensed, metabolized, and utilized within the body. I explain how sugar is processed through the digestive tract and nervous system and how both the taste and nutritive components of sugar can lead to specific appetite changes and cravings. I discuss the connection between sugar, dopamine, and cravings and outline many tools to curb sugar cravings, specifically craving highly processed refined sugars. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: AG1 (Athletic Greens): InsideTracker: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Sugar & Physiology (00:02:25) The Brain-Body Contract (00:03:13) Thesis, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker (00:07:40) Sugar & the Brain (00:10:06) Appetite & Hormones: Ghrelin & Insulin (00:14:17) Glucose & Brain Function (00:24:19) Glucose & Physical Activity (00:26:16) Fructose vs. Glucose (00:32:41) When to Eat High-Sugar Foods? (00:35:01) Sugar’s Taste vs. Nutritive Pathways, Sugar Cravings (00:41:46) Tool: Sugar & the Dopamine, Pleasure – Pain Dichotomy (00:48:43) Subconscious Sugar Circuits, Hidden Sugars in Food (00:58:03) Glucose Metabolism in the Brain (01:03:00) Tool: Glycemic Index, Blunting Sugar Cravings (01:12:08) Sugary Drinks, Highly Refined Sugars (01:14:33) Artificial Sweeteners (01:22:36) ADHD, Omega-3s (01:30:18) Tools: Reduce Sugar Cravings with EPA Omega-3s & Glutamine (01:35:15) Tool: Blunt Sugar Peaks & Craving with Lemon Juice (01:43:09) Tool: Reduce Sugar Cravings & Spikes with Cinnamon (01:45:10) Berberine, Sustained Low Blood Glucose Levels (01:51:24) Tool: Sleep & Sugar Cravings (01:56:33) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 21, 2022
Using Salt to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance | Episode 63
I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual’s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ‘hidden’ sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt’s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body’s performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): LMNT: InsideTracker: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Role of Salt  (00:02:18) The Brain-Body Contract  (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ‘Hidden’ Cravings  (00:10:57) AG1 (Athletic Greens), LMNT, InsideTracker  (00:15:06) Salt Regulation  (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst  (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst  (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination  (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need?  (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake?  (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt  (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety  (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium  (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine  (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake  (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods  (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials  (01:53:13) Dehydration  (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You?  (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 14, 2022
Dr. Justin Sonnenburg: How to Build, Maintain & Repair Gut Health | Episode 62
My guest this episode is Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Sonnenburg’s research focuses on how microbes in our gut impact our mental and physical health and how diet and your environment shape your gut microbiome. We discuss the architecture of the gut microbiome and microbiota variability in different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and how these can change in response to diet, environment or genetics. We explore the early establishment of your microbiome and how your mode of delivery into the world (C-section or not) shapes your gut. We also discuss lifestyle factors that can alter your microbiome and the integral role the gut microbiome plays in communicating to other organs, including your brain. Dr. Sonnenburg details his recent clinical study, which found that diets rich in fermented foods (but not fiber) increase microbiota diversity and reduce signals of inflammation. Additionally, we examine how foods typical in Western Diets (e.g., high fat, low fiber, processed foods) can negatively impact the gut microbiome. Throughout the episode, we discuss actionable tools from peer-reviewed clinical findings that anyone can implement, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their gut microbiome and health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): ROKA: - code "huberman" Helix Sleep: See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR - code: ‘huberman’ Pre-sale tickets go on sale on Tuesday, March 8th at 10 AM PT Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Gut Microbiome (00:02:55) The Brain Body Contract (00:04:16) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:08:30) What is the Gut Microbiome? (00:12:49) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract & Microbiota Variability (00:16:00) Breast Feeding, C-Sections & Pets (00:21:56) The Human Microbiome Project at Stanford (00:26:30) Traditional vs. Industrialized Populations (00:28:58) Resilience of the Microbiome (00:35:10) Regional Differences Along Your GI Tract (00:42:04) Fasting, Cleanses & Gut Health (00:51:19) Dietary Differences (01:01:24) Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates, Processed Foods (01:07:03) Artificial & Plant-based Sweeteners (01:12:44) Cleanses: Useful? Harmful? (01:14:50) Your Microbiome & Your Immune System (01:20:17) Dietary Fiber & Fermented Foods (01:32:13) High-Fiber vs. High-Fermented Diet; Inflammation (01:41:33) Ripple Effects of a Healthy Diet (01:45:00) Does a High-Fiber Diet Make Inflammation Worse? (01:47:22) Over Sterilized Environments (01:50:15) The Gut Microbiome’s Effect on Physiology (01:56:45) Gut-Brain Connection (01:59:30) Probiotics: Benefits & Risks (02:04:20) Prebiotics: Essential? (02:07:00) Tools for Enhancing Your Gut Microbiota (02:11:12) Dr. Sonnenburg’s Research, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 07, 2022
How to Enhance Your Gut Microbiome for Brain & Overall Health | Episode 61
In this episode, I discuss the profound effect the gut has on the nervous system. I cover the structure and function of the gut-brain axis and the role of the gut microbiome in the brain and overall health. I describe how the gut controls hunger or satiety by affecting neurons in our brain. I also contrast the many pathways by which the gut influences the brain: direct vs. indirect pathways, chemical vs. mechanical, and fast vs. slow signaling. Additionally, I discuss what defines a healthy microbiome and how your lifestyle impacts the gut microbiome, including the effects of stress, fasting, antibiotics, pets, environment, prebiotics and probiotics. I address how different foods shape the gut microbiome, in particular, the emerging data that fermented foods can increase the diversity of healthy gut microbiota. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed and textbook findings that reveal the critical role of the gut microbiome in supporting mental and physical health and I outline simple tools that anyone can use in order to enhance their gut microbiome health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): LMNT: InsideTracker: Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Social & Website YouTube Instagram Twitter Facebook Website Newsletter Article Links "The Emerging Biology of Gut-Brain Sensory Transduction" "Mechanisms Underlying Microbial-Mediated Changes in Social Behavior in Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder" "Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory Study" "Emotional well-being and gut microbiome profiles by enterotype" "Brain fogginess, gas and bloating: a link between SIBO, probiotics and metabolic acidosis" "Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status" "The preference for sugar over sweetener depends on a gut sensor cell" Book Links "The 4-Hour Chef: The Simple Path to Cooking Like a Pro, Learning Anything and Living the Good Life" Timestamps (00:00:00) Gut Microbiome  (00:03:02) AG1 (Athletic Greens), LMNT, InsideTracker  (00:06:55) Your Gut-Brain Axis  (00:09:44) Gut-Brain Anatomy (00:15:32) Microbiota vs. Gut Microbiome  (00:20:01) Roles of Gut Microbiome  (00:23:03) Neuropod Cells: (Subconscious) Tasting with Your Stomach  (00:34:13) Ghrelin: Slow Modulation of Your Brain in Hunger (00:38:02) Glucagon Like Peptide 1; GLP-1  (00:42:22) Tools: ‘Free Will’ & Food Cravings  (00:44:46) Mechanical Cues from Gut to Brain (00:49:05) Dopamines, Vomiting  (00:52:06) Indirect Signals from Gut Microbiota (00:59:30) Gut Microbiome “Critical Periods”  (01:03:08) How Gut Health Controls Overall Health  (01:12:25) What is a Healthy Gut Microbiome? (01:15:00) Tools: Enhance Your Gut Microbiome (01:23:49) Foods to Enhance Microbiota Diversity; Fermented Foods  (01:37:07) High-Fiber Diets & Inflammation (01:40:58) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners  (01:44:27) Structure & Function of Gut-Brain Axis  (01:49:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 28, 2022
Dr. David Spiegel: Using Hypnosis to Enhance Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 60
My guest is Dr. David Spiegel MD, Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health and Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience with hypnosis, stress physiology, and psychotherapy. In this episode, we examine the role of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of trauma, chronic pain, anxiety and more. Dr. Spiegel explains how to determine your level of ‘hypnotizability’ and provides case studies of incredible successes with hypnosis to treat a variety of ailments. We also discuss how breathing, vision and directed mental focus can modulate internal states and enhance performance. Additionally, we discuss how the adoption of self-hypnosis techniques can reduce stress and enhance sleep in anyone. Dr. Spiegel teaches us how hypnosis works at the neural circuit level to enhance cognitive flexibility. Throughout the episode, Dr. Spiegel summarizes key clinical trials and peer-reviewed findings and resources to work with a trained clinical professional or to do guided self-hypnosis.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): Thesis: ROKA - - code "huberman" Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Huberman Lab Social & Website YouTube Instagram Twitter Facebook Website Newsletter Dr. David Spiegel Links Stanford Center for Stress and Health Support Dr. Spiegel’s Research at Stanford (tax-deductible) Dr. Spiegel’s Published Work Email: Article Links Posthypnotic Amnesia in Hypnotizability Assessment: Validation of a New Scoring System for the Hypnotic Induction Profile Post-traumatic stress disorder and cancer Association between Anterior Cingulate Neurochemical Concentration and Individual Differences in Hypnotizability Hypnosis reduces distress and duration of an invasive medical procedure for children Other Links Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis American Society for Clinical Hypnosis Watch Andrew’s Hypnosis Session with Dr. Spiegel Reveri website Reveri app (iOS) Join the Waitlist for Reveri for Android Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Spiegel MD, Hypnosis (00:04:16) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, ROKA (00:09:09) Clinical Hypnosis (00:16:45) Stage Hypnosis (00:20:25) Neurobiology of Hypnosis (00:26:04) ADHD (00:28:22) Hypnosis for Stress & Sleep (00:32:12) Hypnosis to Strengthen Neural Connections (00:37:19) Restructuring Trauma Narratives (00:45:14) Ketamine Therapy (00:50:07) Self-directed Hypnosis, Reveri (00:56:53) Eliminating Obsessive Thoughts, Superstitions (01:01:50) ‘Hypnotizability’, the Spiegel Eye-roll Test (01:15:36) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) (01:21:43) Confronting Stress & Trauma (01:27:56) The Mind-Body Connection (01:31:35) Dealing with Grief (01:35:45) Hypnosis in Children & Groups (01:40:06) Drug Therapies & Hypnosis (01:42:39) Breathing Patterns, Peak Performance (01:50:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 21, 2022
The Science of Love, Desire and Attachment | Episode 59
In this episode, I discuss the psychology and biology of desire, love and attachment. I explain how childhood attachment types are thought to inform adult attachment styles to romantic partners, and I describe some of the major theories of human mate selection, relationships and infidelity. Additionally, I explore the neurobiology and proposed subconscious processing underlying desire, love and attachment, including the roles of empathy and “positive delusion." I outline how self-awareness can shift one’s relationship attachment style towards securely bonded partnerships. Finally, I describe specific tools and supplements that have been researched to increase libido and sex drive. Throughout the episode, I explain the science and key mechanisms underlying romantic love and outline tools for those seeking to find a strong, healthy relationship, or for those wanting to strengthen an existing relationship.  Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: AG1 (Athletic Greens): InsideTracker: Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Social & Website YouTube - Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Newsletter - Article Links Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice Relationship-specific Encoding of Social Touch in Somatosensory and Insular Cortice Investigating real-life emotions in romantic couples: a mobile EEG study Brain Knows Who Is on the Same Wavelength: Resting-State Connectivity Can Predict Compatibility of a Female–Male Relationship Manipulation of Self-Expansion Alters Responses to Attractive Alternative Partners Randomized Clinical Trial on the Use of PHYSTA Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well-Being in Men For additional links and resources on Maca, Tongkat Ali and Tribulus, also see links in “Human Effect Matrix” at Book Links Attached: The New Science of Adult Attachment and How It Can Help You Find and Keep Love Right Brain Psychotherapy The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work: A Practical Guide from the Country’s Foremost Relationship Expert Other Links The Gottman Institute Love Lab: A Research-Based Approach to Relationships New York Times - The 36 Questions that Lead to Love (1/9/2015) Timestamps (00:00:00) Desire, Love & Attachment  (00:02:59) Odor, Perceived Attractiveness & Birth Control (00:08:04) Thesis, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker  (00:14:13) Romance: Balancing Love & Desire (00:19:00) Animal Studies, Vasopressin & Monogamy  (00:22:06) Strange Situation Task, Childhood Attachment Styles (00:32:52) Adult Attachment Styles (00:38:50) Secure Attachment  (00:41:23) Autonomic Arousal: The “See-Saw” (00:50:39) Tool: Self-Awareness, Healthy Interdependence (00:53:11) Neurobiology of Desire, Love & Attachment   (00:58:02) Empathy & Mating & the Autonomic Nervous System (01:10:02) Positive Delusion, Touch (01:15:20) Relationship Stability  (01:21:22) Selecting Mates, Recognition of Autonomic Tone (01:38:28) Neural Mechanisms of Romantic Attachment  (01:47:43) Autonomic Coordination in Relationships  (01:56:13) Infidelity & Cheating (02:08:56) “Chemistry”, Subconscious Processes (02:12:44) Tools: Libido & Sex Drive  (02:20:20) Maca (Maca root)   (02:25:58) Tongkat Ali (Longjack)  (02:28:56) Tribulus terrestris  (02:33:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify/Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 14, 2022
Using Play to Rewire & Improve Your Brain | Episode 58
In this episode, I discuss the transformative nature of play—how it changes our feelings, thoughts and actions and indeed, how it can rewire our brain to function better in all contexts. I explain the role of play in childhood, as well as adulthood in skill and social development and describe key characteristics of the mind and body during play. Additionally, I explore how play allows the brain to test contingencies in different roles/environments. Throughout, I discuss the underlying neurobiology of play. I also describe how low-stakes play, and tinkering can broaden and shape your future capabilities. Finally, I discuss how our childhood ‘personal play identity’ informs our adult personality. Throughout the episode, I use the science of play to outline recommendations for using play as a means to enhance neuroplasticity and explore novel situations, regardless of age. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens) - ROKA - - code "huberman" Helix Sleep: Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne: Social & Website Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Newsletter - Article Links Reading on a smartphone affects sigh generation, brain activity, and comprehension In search of the neurobiological substrates for social playfulness in mammalian brains Is chess just a game, or is it a mirror that reflects the child's inner world? A new structural model for the study of adult playfulness: Assessment and exploration of an understudied individual differences variable 5MinuteConsult Journal Club Book Links Personal play identity and the fundamental elements in its development process Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain Play It Away: A Workaholic’s Cure for Anxiety Timestamps (00:00:00) The Power of Play (00:02:23) Tool: Reading on Smart Phones, Sighing & Learning (00:09:14) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Roka, Helix Sleep (00:13:57) Homeostatic Regulation of Play (00:23:53) Childhood Play & Mindsets (00:29:21) Contingency Testing (00:32:17) The (Power of) Playful Mindset (00:36:13) Body Postures (00:44:03) Rule Testing & Breaking (00:48:24) Role Play (00:50:39) Neurobiology of Low-stakes Play (00:54:22) Expanding Capabilities through Tinkering (01:00:03) Play Is THE Portal to Neuroplasticity (01:04:44) Adulthood Play (01:10:14) Fire Together, Wire Together (01:18:03) Trauma & Play Deficits & Recovery (01:23:25) Competition & Dynamic Movement (01:27:36) Chess, Mental Roles, Novelty (01:32:52) Personal Play Identity (01:37:24) Play Transforms Your Future Self (01:40:55) Recommendations for Play (01:44:25) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify/Apple Reviews, YouTube, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 07, 2022
Optimizing Workspace for Productivity, Focus, & Creativity | Episode 57
In this episode, I discuss ways to set up your workspace to optimize productivity, focus and creativity. I discuss how to adjust light, physically arrange your work environment, and leverage body posture to enhance productivity. Additionally, I explore how to shift your work environment for particular types of tasks. Moreover, I review the role of body movement in the workspace. I also discuss sound-based tools that can either enhance or diminish cognitive functioning (the ability to focus on deep work). I describe a particular frequency of binaural beats that studies show can be used to enhance memory and recall. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed findings practical tools anyone can use, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their workspace to achieve heightened levels of productivity, increased alertness and focus, and creativity. Thank you to our sponsors LMNT: AG1 (Athletic Greens): Theragun: Our Patreon Supplements from Thorne Social & Website Instagram Twitter Facebook Website Newsletter Links The Influence of Ceiling Height Heating, Ventilation, & AC Noise During Mental Work Office Noise & Employee Concentration Effects of a Workplace Sit-Stand Desk Intervention on Health & Productivity Effects of Binaural & Monaural Beats on Attention 40-Hz Binaural Beats Enhance Training to Mitigate the Attentional Blink Timestamps (00:00:00) Arranging Environment for Focus (00:02:40) LMNT, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Theragun (00:07:55) How to Increase Focus (00:10:02) Lighting Your Work in Phase 1 (00:16:00) Lighting Your Work in Phase 2 (00:19:45) Lighting Your Work in Phase 3 (00:24:17) Where to Look While You Work (00:28:02) Arranging Your Environment (00:31:24) Body Posture (00:34:22) How Long to Do Deep Work (00:36:50) Set the Right Visual Window Size (00:42:15) 45 min / 5 min Rule (00:44:23) The Cathedral Effect: Analytic vs Creative Work (00:55:50) Leveraging Background Noise (01:02:20) Binaural Beats for Work (01:06:38) The Best Binaural Frequency for Work (01:11:17) How Binaural Beats Increase Focus (01:13:56) Minimizing Interruptions (01:20:01) Sit or Stand, or Both? (01:25:18) Movement in the Workspace (01:31:00) Summary & Shifting Work Environments (01:39:36) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 31, 2022
Dr. Alia Crum: Science of Mindsets for Health & Performance | Episode 56
My guest is Dr. Alia Crum, Associate (tenured) Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and Director of the Stanford Mind & Body Lab. Dr. Crum is a world expert on mindsets and beliefs and how they shape our responses to stress, exercise, and even to the foods we eat. We discuss how our mindset about the nutritional content of food changes whether it is satisfying to us at a physiological (hormonal and metabolic) level. She also tells how mindsets about exercise can dramatically alter the effects of exercise on weight loss, blood pressure, and other health metrics. Dr. Crum teaches us how to think about stress in ways that allow stress to grow us and bring out our best rather than diminish our health and performance. Throughout the episode, Dr. Crum provides descriptions of high-quality peer-reviewed scientific findings that we can all leverage toward better health and performance in our lives. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis - ROKA - - code "huberman" InsideTracker - Dr. Alia Crum Links Twitter Stanford Mind & Body Lab  Support Dr. Crum’s research at Stanford (tax-deductible) Dr. Crum’s published work  Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne: Huberman Lab Social Instagram Twitter Facebook Website Newsletter Links Toolkit for changing stress mindsets  Publication on mindsets & side effects Changing patient mindsets about non-life-threatening symptoms during oral immunotherapy Stress, mindsets, and success in Navy SEALs special warfare training Nutritional analysis of foods and beverages depicted in top-grossing US movies, 1994-2018 Nutritional Analysis of Foods and Beverages Posted in Instagram Accounts of Highly Followed Celebrities Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Alia Crum from Stanford University (00:03:15) Thesis, ROKA, Inside Tracker (00:08:26) What Is a Mindset & What Does It Do?  (00:14:45) Mindsets Change Our Biological Responses to Food (00:22:28) Beliefs About Our Food Matter (00:25:57) Placebo vs Beliefs vs Nocebo Effects (00:28:57) Mindset (Dramatically) Impacts the Effects of Exercise (00:33:44) Motivational Messaging & Mindset About Fitness (00:39:30) The Power of a ‘Potency & Indulgence’ Mindset (00:42:03) Mindsets About Sleep, Tracking Sleep  (00:45:00) Making Stress Work For (or Against) You (01:01:50) Mindsets Link Our Conscious & Subconscious (01:04:50) 3 Best Ways to Leverage Stress (01:10:40) 4 Things That Shape Mindsets, Influencers & Mindsets (01:19:40) Mindsets About Medicines & Side Effects (01:26:25) How to Teach Mindsets (01:31:47) Dr. Crum’s Research, Clinical & Athletic Backgrounds (01:36:20) The Stanford Mind & Body Lab, Resources for Stress (01:38:30) Synthesis, Participating in Research (01:39:04) Subscribe, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 24, 2022
The Science of Setting & Achieving Goals | Episode 55
In this episode, I discuss the science of setting, assessing, and pursuing goals. I explain the neural (brain) circuits that underlie goal setting and pursuit. Then I describe nine science-supported tools anyone can apply toward their goals. I explain when and how to use goal visualization, when to use multitasking and how to use specific rewards to improve the likelihood of reaching your goals. I also explain why envisioning failures and their consequences are effective and how to set goals of the appropriate level of challenge. I also explain how the molecule dopamine is used to gauge our progress toward milestones and long-term overarching goals and how to leverage dopamine for goal pursuit. Finally, I explain a unique tool called 'space-time bridging' that can be used to support all aspects of goal setting, assessment, and pursuit. This episode ought to be useful for anyone seeking to improve their performance in work, school, exercise, athletics, or personal development. Thank you to our sponsors: LMNT -  Athletic Greens -  ROKA - - code "huberman"   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: The 85% Rule for Optimal Learning Effects of Narrowing Visual Attention on Goal Pursuit Behavior   Timestamps: (00:00:00) The Neuroscience of Goals (00:01:56) Tool 1: Learn Fast(er) by the 85% Rule  (00:06:04) LMNT, Athletic Greens, ROKA (00:13:55) Brain Circuits for Setting & Pursuing Goals (00:21:52) Determining the Value of Goals  (00:24:33) Psychology of Goal Setting: Assessing Value, Action Steps (00:30:29) Peripersonal Space vs. Extrapersonal Space (00:35:39) Visually Focusing on a Goal Line Improves Performance (00:43:50) How Vision Improves Performance: Blood Pressure (00:51:55) Tool 2: Use Focal Vision to Initiate Goal Pursuit (00:54:40) Tool 3: Use Aged Self-Images to Self-Motivate  (00:59:33) Tool 4: Visualization of Goals is Only Helpful at the Start  (01:02:05) Tool 5: Visualizing Failure is the Best Ongoing Motivator (01:07:26) Tool 6: Make Goals Moderately Lofty  (01:13:05) Tool 7: Avoid Goal Distraction; Focus on 1-2 Major Goals Per Year (01:15:57) Tool 8: Ensure Specificity of Goals, Weekly Assessment (01:19:57) Dopamine, Motivation & Pleasure in Seeking Goals (01:22:43) Dopamine Reward Prediction Error, Controlling Dopamine (01:34:26) How Dopamine Influences Vision & Vice Versa (01:38:10) Interim Summary of Goal-Pursuit Steps (01:39:50) Tool 9: Space-Time Bridging  (01:49:59) Summary (01:51:50) Subscribe, Sponsors, Patreon, Supplements: Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Newsletter
Jan 17, 2022
Dr. Jack Feldman: Breathing for Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 54
This episode my guest is Dr. Jack Feldman, Distinguished Professor of Neurobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles and a pioneering world expert in the science of respiration (breathing). We discuss how and why humans breathe the way we do, the function of the diaphragm and how it serves to increase oxygenation of the brain and body. We discuss how breathing influences mental state, fear, memory, reaction time, and more. And we discuss specific breathing protocols such as box-breathing, cyclic hyperventilation (similar to Wim Hof breathing), nasal versus mouth breathing, unilateral breathing, and how these each affect the brain and body. We discuss physiological sighs, peptides expressed by specific neurons controlling breathing, and magnesium compounds that can improve cognitive ability and how they work. This conversation serves as a sort of "Master Class" on the science of breathing and breathing-related tools for health and performance.   Thank you to our sponsors: Thesis -  Athletic Greens -  Headspace -    Our Breath Collective:    Dr. Jack Feldman Links: UCLA website - Wikipedia - Twitter - Instagram -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Jack Feldman 00:03:05 Sponsors: Thesis, Athletic Greens, Headspace, Our Breath Collective 00:10:35 Why We Breathe  00:14:35 Neural Control of Breathing: “Pre-Botzinger Complex” 00:16:20 Nose vs Mouth Breathing 00:18:18 Skeletal vs. Smooth Muscles: Diaphragm, Intracostals & Airway Muscles 00:20:11 Two Breathing Oscillators: Pre-Botzinger Complex & Parafacial Nucleus 00:26:20 How We Breathe Is Special (Compared to Non-Mammals) 00:33:40 Stomach & Chest Movements During Breathing 00:36:23 Physiological Sighs, Alveoli Re-Filling, Bombesin 00:49:39 If We Don’t Sigh, Our Lung (& General) Health Suffers 01:00:42 Breathing, Brain States & Emotions  01:05:34 Meditating Mice, Eliminating Fear  01:11:00 Brain States, Amygdala, Locked-In Syndrome, Laughing 01:16:25 Facial Expressions 01:19:00 Locus Coeruleus & Alertness 01:29:40 Breath Holds, Apnea, Episodic Hypoxia, Hypercapnia 01:35:22 Stroke, Muscle Strength, TBI 01:38:08 Cyclic Hyperventilation 01:39:50 Hyperbaric Chambers 01:40:41 Nasal Breathing, Memory, Right vs. Left Nostril 01:44:50 Breathing Coordinates Everything: Reaction Time, Fear, etc. 01:57:13 Dr. Feldman’s Breathwork Protocols, Post-Lunch  02:02:05 Deliberately Variable Breathwork: The Feldman Protocol 02:06:29 Magnesium Threonate & Cognition & Memory  02:18:27 Gratitude for Dr. Feldman’s Highly Impactful Work 02:20:53 Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 10, 2022
LIFESPAN: The Science Behind Why We Age | Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair | Episode 1
I am honored to share the first episode of the new podcast, Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair.  Dr. Sinclair is a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. He is also the co-director of Harvard Medical School's Paul F. Glenn Center for Biology of Aging Research.  David is both a friend and a colleague, and I am delighted to have helped him in the creation of this new podcast. It will be an 8-episode series that provides a deep dive into the science behind why we age and the newest research on what we can do to slow, stop and even reverse aging.  While we have Episode 1 of the Lifespan podcast here, please be sure to navigate over to the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel to subscribe. New episodes will come out every Wednesday for the next 8 weeks. I am certain that you will both enjoy it and learn from it. Show notes for this episode can be found on the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer Learn more about your ad choices:
Jan 05, 2022
The Science of Making & Breaking Habits | Episode 53
In this episode, I review the science of habit formation and habit elimination and how the process of neuroplasticity (brain rewiring) underlies these processes. I describe two new systems for habit formation. The first system is grounded in the neuroscience of brain states and our ability to perform (and to avoid) certain tasks at different phases of the 24-hour day. The second system focuses on 21-day habit formation and consolidation. I also discuss "task bracketing" as an approach to enhancing habit formation and eliminating unwanted habits and the neural circuits that underlie task bracketing in the basal ganglia (a brain region for generating and stopping behaviors). I also review the science of dopamine rewards and how to apply that knowledge to shaping habits. The science and tools in this episode ought to be helpful for anyone looking to build better habits and eliminate unwanted habits for school, work, fitness, relationships, creative endeavors, and more—indeed for any person or situation where behavioral changes are needed.   Thank you to our sponsors: Athletic Greens -  InsideTracker -  Helix Sleep -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: Excellent review on science of habits -  Meta-analysis on habits -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Habits; New Programs 00:02:30 Athletic Greens, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep 00:06:52 Habits versus Reflexes, Learning, Neuroplasticity 00:08:51 Goal-Based Habits vs. Identity-Based Habits 00:11:40 How Long It (Really) Takes to Form a Habit; Limbic-Friction 00:16:07 Linchpin Habits  00:18:55 Mapping Your Habits; Habit Strength, Context-Dependence 00:22:55 Automaticity 00:24:03 Tool 1: Applying Procedural Memory Visualizations 00:27:48 Hebbian Learning, NMDA receptors 00:31:00 Tool 2: Task Bracketing; Dorsolateral Striatum 00:37:08 States of Mind, Not Scheduling Time Predicts Habit Strength 00:38:16 Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 1 00:46:29 Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 2 00:55:24 Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 3 01:01:34 Habit Flexibility 01:04:57 Should We Reward Ourselves? How? When? When NOT to. 01:10:30 Tool 4: “Dopamine Spotlighting” & Task Bracketing 01:18:22 Tool 5: The 21-Day Habit Installation & Testing System 01:28:26 Breaking Habits: Long-Term (Synaptic) Depression 01:35:49 Notifications Don’t Work 01:37:50 Tool 6: Break Bad Habits with Post-Bad-Habit “Positive Cargo” 01:44:26 Addictions as Habits: 01:45:28 Conclusion & Synthesis  01:48:27 Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer Learn more about your ad choices:
Jan 03, 2022
Dr. David Sinclair: The Biology of Slowing & Reversing Aging | Episode 52
In this episode, I am joined by Dr. David Sinclair, tenured Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and an expert researcher in the field of longevity. Dr. Sinclair is also the author of the book Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To, and the host of the Lifespan Podcast, which launches January 5, 2022.  In this interview, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and what we all can do to slow or reverse the aging process. We discuss fasting and supplementation with resveratrol, NAD, metformin, and NMN. We also discuss the use of caffeine, exercise, cold exposure, and why excessive iron load is bad for us. We discuss food choices for offsetting aging and promoting autophagy (clearance of dead cells). And we discuss the key blood markers everyone should monitor to determine your biological versus chronological age. We also discuss the future of longevity research and technology. This episode includes lots of basic science and specific, actionable protocols, right down to the details of what to do and when. By the end, you will have in-depth knowledge of the biology of aging and how to offset it.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code "huberman" InsideTracker - Magic Spoon -   Dr. David Sinclair Links: Lifespan Podcast:  Twitter: Instagram:   YouTube:   Lifespan (book):  Aging Test Waitlist:   Harvard Lab Website:    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Dr. David Sinclair, Harvard Medical School 00:03:30 ROKA, InsideTracker, Magic Spoon 00:07:45 “Aging as a Disease” vs. Longevity & Anti-Aging 00:10:23 What Causes Aging? The Epigenome 00:15:53 Cosmetic Aging  00:17:15 Development Never Stops, Horvath Clock 00:20:12 Puberty Rate as a Determinant of Aging Rate 00:23:00 Fasting, Hunger & Food Choices 00:32:44 Fasting Schedules, Long Fasts, (Macro)Autophagy 00:34:50 Caffeine, Electrolytes  00:35:56 Blood Glucose & the Sirtuins; mTOR 00:37:55 Amino Acids: Leucine, “Pulsing” 00:44:35 Metformin, Berberine 00:50:29 Resveratrol, Wine 00:53:20 What Breaks a Fast? 00:56:45 Resveratrol, NAD, NMN, NR; Dosage, Timing 01:09:10 Are Artificial Sweeteners Bad for Us? 01:12:04 Iron Load & Aging 01:15:05 Blood Work Analysis 01:19:37 C-Reactive Protein, Cholesterol: Serum & Dietary 01:26:02 Amino Acids, Plants, Antioxidants 01:33:45 Behaviors That Extend Lifespan, Testosterone, Estrogen 01:40:35 Neuroplasticity & Neural Repair 01:46:19 Ice Baths, Cold Showers, “Metabolic Winter” 01:48:07 Obesity & How It Accelerates Aging, GnRH  01:52:10 Methylation, Methylene Blue, Cigarettes  01:56:17 X-Rays   01:59:00 Public Science Education, Personal Health 02:05:40 The Sinclair Test You Can Take: 02:08:13 Zero-Cost Support & Resources, Sponsors, Patreon, Supplements, Instagram    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - 
Dec 27, 2021
Science of Social Bonding in Family, Friendship & Romantic Love | Episode 51
This episode I discuss the science of social bonding- the process by which we form attachments. I explain the neural and hormonal basis for "social homeostasis" (our drive for a given amount of socializing) which reveals why we get lonely, why we seek out connection with others and how power dynamics (hierarchies) shape those connections. I also discuss the neurochemical basis of introversion and extroversion, of trust and how shared experiences that promote similar physiological states in two or more individuals, leads to more rapid bonding. I also discuss how food and oxytocin play key roles in social bonding. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed science and practical tools for anyone seeking to find, build or end relationships.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code "huberman" Athletic Greens - Headspace -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Social Bonding: Child-Parent, Romantic, Friendship, Breakups 00:02:55 ROKA, Athletic Greens, Headspace 00:07:08 Social Bonding as a Biological Process 00:10:03 Social Isolation 00:13:32 Social Homeostasis & Neural Circuits for Social Drive  00:18:55 Brain Areas & (Neuro)Chemistry of Social Drive  00:22:48 What is Social Homeostasis & Dopamine 00:27:00 When We Lack Social Interactions: Short- Versus Long-Term 00:28:10 Introverts & Extroverts 00:31:00 “Good” Versus “Bad” Social Interactions & Hierarchies 00:33:54 Loneliness & Dorsal Raphe Nucleus & Social Hunger  00:37:33 Tools 00:38:05 Socializing & Food Appetite: Crossover Craving 00:42:45 Falling in Love 00:45:05 Tools for Social Bonds: Merging Physiologies; Story 00:53:54 Childhood Attachment Patterns in Adulthood 01:03:45 Attachment Styles: Autonomic Versus Intellectual Attachment 01:06:10 Emotional Empathy & Cognitive Empathy, Arguing 01:09:45 Allan N. Schore & “Right Brain Psychotherapy” 01:10:40 Oxytocin & Trust, In Males Versus Females, Hormonal Glue 01:16:10 Repairing Broken Bonds to Self & Others 01:18:56 Social (Media) Butterflies: Biological Basis 01:24:08 Key Points for Bonding & Understanding Social Bonds 01:27:07 Breaking Up 01:28:36 Synthesis  01:31:17 Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer Learn more about your ad choices:
Dec 20, 2021
Dr. David Berson: Understanding Your Brain's Logic & Function | Episode 50
In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Berson, Professor & Chairman of Neuroscience at Brown University. Dr. Berson discovered the neurons in your eye that set your biological rhythms for sleep, wakefulness, mood and appetite. He is also a world-renowned teacher of basic and advanced neuroscience, having taught thousands of university lectures on this topic. Many of his students have become world-leading neuroscientists and teachers themselves.  Here Dr. Berson takes us on a structured journey into and around the nervous system, explaining: how we perceive the world and our internal landscape, how we balance, see, and remember. Also, how we learn and perform reflexive and deliberate actions, how we visualize and imagine in our mind, and how the various circuits of the brain coordinate all these incredible feats.  We discuss practical and real-life examples of neural circuit function across the lifespan. Dr. Berson gives us a masterclass in the nervous system—one that, in just less than two hours, will teach you an entire course's worth about the brain and how yours works.   Thank you to our sponsors: Athletic Greens -  InsideTracker -  Magic Spoon -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: InsideTracker Interview -  Dr. Berson's Webpage -  Eyewire - (Contribute to Neuroscience Research from Home/Computer -   Best Neuroscience Textbook (NOTE this is a TEXTBOOK) -  Book - We Know It When We See It by Richard Masland -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Dr. David Berson  00:02:55 Sponsors: Athletic Greens, InsideTracker, Magic Spoon  00:08:02 How We See  00:10:02 Color Vision  00:13:47 “Strange” Vision 00:16:56 How You Orient In Time 00:25:45 Body Rhythms, Pineal function, Light & Melatonin, Blueblockers 00:34:45 Spending Times Outdoors Improves Eyesight  00:36:20 Sensation, Mood, & Self-Image 00:41:03 Sense of Balance 00:50:43 Why Pigeons Bob Their Heads, Motion Sickness  01:00:03 Popping Ears 01:02:35 Midbrain & Blindsight  01:10:44 Why Tilted Motion Feels Good  01:13:24 Reflexes vs. Deliberate Actions 01:16:35 Basal Ganglia & the “2 Marshmallow Test” 01:24:40 Suppressing Reflexes: Cortex  01:33:33 Neuroplasticity  01:36:27 What is a Connectome? 01:45:20 How to Learn (More About the Brain) 01:49:04 Book Suggestion, my Berson Appreciation 01:50:20 Zero-Cost ways to Support the HLP, Guest Suggestions, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - 
Dec 13, 2021
Erasing Fears & Traumas Based on the Modern Neuroscience of Fear | Episode 49
In this episode, I discuss fear and trauma, including the neural circuits involved in the "threat reflex" and how specific experiences and memories come to activate that system. I also discuss how our body is involved in trauma and fear. First, I describe the logic of fear mechanisms and how "top-down" processing-- meaning connections from the parts of the brain that assign meaning to our feelings, are involved in fear and erasing fears and traumas. Then I discuss what successful fear and trauma treatment must include and consider various treatments for whether they meet that standard, such as EMDR, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Ketamine, other drug-assisted therapies, and more. I also review new data on how 5 minutes per day of deliberate, self-imposed stress can erase fear and depression. And I review the role that social connection plays in erasing or maintaining fears by activating specific molecular pathways in the brain and body. Finally, I review supplementation with over-the-counter compounds for their effects on anxiety and fear and when to take them, if at all.   Thank you to our sponsors: Athletic Greens -  InsideTracker -  Helix Sleep -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Fear, Trauma & Trauma  00:02:15 Athletic Greens, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep 00:06:49 What is Fear?  00:11:45 Autonomic Arousal: “Alertness” vs. “Calmness” 00:13:44 Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA axis) 00:17:36 “The Threat Reflex”: Neural Circuits for Fear 00:28:24 Controlling Fear: Top-Down Processing 00:32:27 Narratives: “Protective or Dangerous” 00:35:58 Attaching Fear to Events: Classical Conditioning & Memory 00:41:45 How Fear Learning Occurs: Long Term Potentiation, NMDA 00:46:10 Extinguishing (Reducing) Fears 00:50:25 Cognitive (Narrative) Therapies for Fear 00:57:56 Repetition of Narrative, Overwriting Bad Experiences with Good 01:05:28 EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing 01:14:00 Social Connection & Isolation Are Chemically Powerful 01:18:23 Trans-Generational Trauma 01:25:00 PTSD Treatments: Ketamine, MDMA, oxytocin 01:39:25 How Do You Know If You Are Traumatized?  01:46:16 Deliberate Brief Stress Can Erase Fears & Trauma 01:49:50 Erasing Fears & Traumas In 5 Minutes Per Day 01:59:42 Nutrition, Sleep, & Other General Support Erasing Fear & Trauma 02:02:30 Supplements for Anxiety, Fear: Saffron, Inositol, Kava 02:10:00 Synthesis  02:11:46 Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac -   
Dec 06, 2021
Dr. David Buss: How Humans Select & Keep Romantic Partners in Short & Long Term | Episode 48
In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Buss, Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, and one of the founding members of the field of evolutionary psychology. Dr. Buss describes his work on how people select mates for short and long-term relationships, the dynamics of human courtship, and mate value assessment — meaning how people measure up as potential partners. We also discuss the causes of infidelity and differences for infidelity in men and women. He explains how people evaluate and try to alter other people’s mate value as a means to secure and even poach mates. We discuss monogamous and non-monogamous relationships in humans. And we discuss what Dr. Buss calls “the dark triad”— features common in stalkers and narcissists that relate to sexual and psychological violence in relationships. This episode is sure to be of interest to anyone single or in a relationship who seeks to know how people select mates and anyone who is interested in forming and maintaining healthy romantic partnerships.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code "huberman" InsideTracker -  Headspace -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: Dr. Buss' New Book "When Men Behave Badly" -  Dr. Buss' Website at University of Texas, Austin -  Dr. Buss' Twitter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. David Buss 00:04:10 Sponsors: ROKA, InsideTracker, Headspace 00:08:33 Choosing a Mate 00:13:40 Long Term Mates: Universal Desires 00:18:31 What Women & Men Seek in Long-Term Mates 00:25:10 Age Differences & Mating History  00:32:20 Deception in Courtship 00:37:30 Emotional Stability 00:38:40 Lying About Long-Term Interest 00:41:56 Short-Term Mating Criteria, Sliding Standards & Context Effects 00:46:25 Sexual Infidelity: Variety Seeking & (Un)happiness & Mate Switching 00:54:25 Genetic Cuckolds, How Ovulation Impacts Mate Preference 00:57:00 Long-Term vs. Short-Term Cheating, Concealment 00:59:15 Emotional & Financial Infidelity 01:04:35 Contraception  01:06:22 Status & Mating Success 01:10:10 Jealousy, Mate Value Discrepancies, Vigilance, Violence 01:24:13 Specificity of Intimate Partner Violence   01:25:12 Mate Retention Tactics: Denigration, Guilt, Etc. 01:27:33 Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy 01:33:25 Stalking 01:39:15 Influence of Children on Mate Value Assessments  01:43:24 Attachment Styles, Mate Choice & Infidelity 01:46:40 Non-Monogamy, Unconventional Relationships   01:54:00 Mate Value Self Evaluation, Anxiety About the Truth 02:02:12 Self Deception 02:05:35 The Future of Evolutionary Psychology & Neuroscience   02:06:56 Books: When Men Behave Badly; The Evolution of Desire, Textbooks 02:10:42 Concluding Statements, Zero-Cost Support: Subscribe, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - 
Nov 29, 2021
The Science of Gratitude & How to Build a Gratitude Practice | Episode 47
In this episode, I discuss the science of gratitude, which has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to have tremendous positive effects on mental and physical health. I explain, however, that most commonly used gratitude practices are ineffective (such as gratitude lists). The key elements of highly effective gratitude practices are described, including the essential need for story (narrative), receiving or perceiving gratitude rather than giving it, and the role that theory of mind plays in this context. I also discuss why we can't simply make up feelings of gratitude and how reluctance undermines the process. I also explain the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the reductions in fear and increases in motivation and lowering of inflammatory chemicals that effective narrative-based gratitude can trigger. Throughout the episode, I use the science of gratitude to design a brief but highly effective protocol.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code "huberman" InsideTracker -  Magic Spoon -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: Neural Correlates of Gratitude (Damasio) -  Reducing Inflammatory Cytokines & Fear With Gratitude -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction: Gratitude Science & Surprises 00:01:50 Controlling Heart Rate with Story 00:04:33 Sponsors: ROKA, InsideTracker, Magic Spoon 00:09:11 Major, Long-Lasting Benefits of Gratitude Practice 00:12:20 Prosocial vs. Defensive Thinking, Behaviors, & Neural Circuits  00:17:50 Why We All Need an Effective Gratitude Practice 00:21:22 Neurochemistry & Neural Circuits of Gratitude 00:25:10 Prefrontal Cortex Set Context 00:30:10 Ineffective Gratitude Practices; Autonomic Variables 00:34:55 Key Features of Effective Gratitude Practices: Receiving Thanks & Story 00:42:30 Theory of Mind Is Key 00:45:50 Building Effective Gratitude Practices: Adopting Narratives, Duration 00:52:28 Narratives That Shift Brain-Body Circuits  00:56:15 You Can’t Lie About Liking Something; Reluctance In Giving 00:59:55 How Gratitude Changes Your Brain: Reduces Anxiety, Increases Motivation 01:03:00 5 Minutes (Is More Than Enough), 3X Weekly, Timing Each Day  01:05:44 Empathy & Anterior Cingulate Cortex 01:07:35 Reducing Inflammation & Fear with Gratitude 01:10:56 Serotonin, Kanna/Zembrin  01:16:00 Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology, Brain Machine Interfaces 01:18:50 The Best Gratitude Practices: & How To, My Protocol 01:24:25 Subscribe & Feedback, Supporting Sponsors, Supplements (Thorne)
Nov 22, 2021
Time Perception & Entrainment by Dopamine, Serotonin & Hormones | Episode 46
In this episode, I discuss how our brain and body track time and the role that neurochemicals, in particular dopamine and serotonin, but also hormones such as melatonin, allow us to orient ourselves in time. I review the three types of time perception: of the past, of the present, and the future, and how dopamine and serotonin adjust both our perception of the speed of the passage of time and our memory of how long previous experiences lasted. I also discuss circannual entrainment, which is the process by which our brain and body are matched to the seasons, and circadian (24 hours) entrainment, both of which subconsciously adjust our perceived measurement of time. I explain the mechanisms of that subconscious control. And I cover the ultradian (90 minutes) rhythms that govern our ability to focus, including how to track when these 90-minute rhythms begin and end for the sake of work and productivity. I include ten tools based on the science of time perception that you can apply to enhance productivity, creativity, and relationships in various contexts.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code "huberman" Athletic Greens -  InsideTracker -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Time Perception, Note on Fasting & Supplements 00:05:12 Sponsors: ROKA, Athletic Greens, InsideTracker 00:09:25 Entrainment, Circannual Entrainment, Melatonin 00:13:20 Seasonal Oscillations in Testosterone & Estrogen, Tool 1 00:16:06 Circadian Timing, Tools 1, 2, 3 (for Circadian Entrainment) 00:21:13 Tool 4: Timing Physical Activity; Tool 5: Timing Eating Window 00:23:00 When Circadian Entrainment is Disrupted, Time Perception Suffers 00:25:00 Tool 6: Ultradian (90min) Cycles & Focus 00:31:42 Our Sense of the Passage of Time: Present, Prospective, Retrospective 00:34:40 Dopamine (& Nor/epinephrine) Lead to Time Overestimation; Frame Rate  00:37:18 Serotonin & Time Underestimation; Decreased Frame Rate 00:39:10 Dopamine vs. Serotonin Across the Day; Tool 7: When to Do Rigid vs. Creative Work 00:42:38 Example of Tool 7 00:43:38 How Sleep Deprivation Degrades Performance 00:44:38 Trauma, “Over-clocking” & Memories; Adjusting Rates of Experience 00:50:04 Why Trauma Involves Dopamine & Epinephrine, Arousal 00:51:03 Dopamine, Spontaneous Blinking & Time Perception; Tool 8 00:53:38 Deliberate Cold Exposure, Dopamine, Tool 9: Adjusting Frame Rate in Discomfort 00:56:30 Fun “Feels Fast” BUT Is Remembered as Slow; Boring Stuff “Feels Slow,” Recall As Fast 01:00:54 Retrospective Time, Context Variation & Enhanced Bonding with Places & People 01:03:00 Dopamine Release Resets the Start of Each Time Bin on Our Experience 01:07:40 Habits & Time Perception; Tool 10 (Setting Functional Units of Each Day) 01:11:58 Synthesis & Book Suggestion (Your Brain Is a Time Machine by D. Buonomano) 01:12:27 Supporting the HLP: Subscribe, Instagram, Patreon, Thorne Supplements Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - 
Nov 15, 2021
Dr. Duncan French: How to Exercise for Strength Gains & Hormone Optimization | Episode 45
In this episode, I talk to Dr. Duncan French, Ph.D., the Vice President of Performance at the UFC Performance Institute and a world-class performance specialist. We discuss specific resistance (weight) training regimens for increasing testosterone in men and women and how to vary mechanical loads and rest between sets and workouts to optimize hormone output and training results. We also discuss how stress-induced "catecholamines" can increase testosterone or decrease it, depending on duration and mindset. And we discuss specific cold- and heat- therapies for increasing resilience, reducing inflammation, heat shock proteins and more. We discuss nutrition for training and how to match nutrition to training goals and metabolic flexibility. We discuss mental focus and how long to train for skill development. Finally, we discuss how mixed martial arts and the UFC Performance Institute are a template for exploring human performance more generally. This episode is intended for anyone interested in athletic and mental performance: athletes, students, and recreational exercisers and includes both science and many practical tools people can apply in their own training.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code "huberman" Helix -  Headspace -     Dr. Duncan French: Instagram - LinkedIn -   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Dr. Duncan French  00:02:27 Roka, Helix Sleep, Headspace 00:05:44 Duncan’s Background in Exercise Science 00:11:45 How Certain Exercises Increase Testosterone 00:16:22 What Kind of Training Increases Testosterone & Growth Hormone? 00:20:19 Intensity: Mechanical Load; Volume: Metabolic Load; Inter-set Rest Periods 00:25:25 Training Frequency & Combining Workout Goals   00:29:35 How Stress Can Increase or Decrease Testosterone  00:36:55 Using Cold Exposure for Mindset, Anti-Inflammation, Muscle-Growth 00:46:55 Skill Development 00:50:05 Why Hard Exercise Creates Brain Fog: Role of Nutrition  00:53:55 Low-Carbohydrate Versus All-Macronutrient Diets on Performance 00:56:15 Ketones & Brain Energy, Offsetting Brain Injury; Spiking Glucose During Ketosis 00:59:13 Metabolic Efficiency, Matching Nutrition to Training, “Needs Based Eating” 01:05:00 Duncan’s Work with Olympic Athletes, NCAA, UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) 01:08:00 Why UFC & MMA (Mixed-Martial Arts) Are So Valuable for Advancing Performance 01:12:40 Voluntarily Switching Between Different States of Arousal 01:14:30 Heat, Getting Better at Sweating, Heat Shock Proteins, Sauna 01:20:12 Using Rotating 12-Week Training Programs; Logging Objective & Subjective Data 01:24:07 Surprising & Unknown Aspects of The UFC and UFC Performance Institute 01:27:45 Conclusions, Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram
Nov 08, 2021
Using Your Nervous System to Enhance Your Immune System | Episode 44
This episode teaches you a lot about the immune system, immune-brain interactions and offers 12 potential tools for enhancing immune system function. I discuss how our immune system works and science-supported tools we can use to enhance our immune system. I discuss the innate and adaptive immune systems and our various microbiomes-- not just in our gut but also in our nose, eyes and mouth and how to keep them healthy. And I review how specific patterns of breathing and foods maintain a healthy mucosal barrier that is crucial for fighting infections. I discuss how certain neurochemicals called catecholamines enhance our immune system function and how to use specific breathing protocols, types and timing of heat and cold exposure, and, if appropriate, supplementation to activate catecholamines. I also discuss the role and use of serotonin for the sake of accessing the specific types of sleep for recovering from illness, and I discuss how to increase glymphatic "washout" of brain debris during sleep. I also review fever, the vagus nerve and the use of atypical yet highly effective compounds for rhinitis (nasal inflammation). Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code: "huberman" Athletic Greens - InsideTracker -   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook - Website - Newsletter -   Links: How and Why The Immune System Makes Us Sleep -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 The Mind & Immune System, New Findings: Acupuncture & Fascia 00:03:00 Sponsors: ROKA, Athletic Greens, InsideTracker 00:07:41 Foundational Tools & Practices for a Healthy Immune System 00:11:20 Immune System Basics: Skin/Mucous, Innate & Adaptive Immune System 00:17:08 Killer Cells, Complement Proteins (“Eat Me!” Signals), Cytokines (“Help Me!” Signals) 00:21:06 The Adaptive Immune System: Antibodies 00:28:00 Tool 1: Nasal Microbiome and “Scrubbing” Bacteria & Viruses; Nasal Breathing 00:30:33 Tools 2 & 3: (Not) Touching Your Eyes; Gut Microbiome & Fermented Foods 00:34:20 Some Interleukins Are Anti-Inflammatory 00:34:56 Sickness Behavior 00:39:08 Some People Seek Care When Sick, Others Want to be Alone 00:42:00 Sickness Behavior & Depression: Cytokines 00:43:40 Reduced Appetites When Sick: Protein, Iron, Libido 00:46:45 Vagus-Nerve Stimulation: Fever, Photophobia, Sleepiness 00:53:03 Humoral (Blood-Borne) Factors, & Choroid Change Your Brain State 00:55:04 Tools 4, 5: Reducing Sickness: Glymphatic Clearance, Pre-Sleep Serotonin, 5HTP 01:07:03 Tool 6: Hot Showers, Saunas, Baths & Cortisol, Heath-Cold Contrast 01:10:53 Feed a Fever & Starve a Cold (?), Adrenaline 01:12:36 Tool 7: Activating Your Immune System w/Cyclic-Hyperventilation, Alkalinity 01:29:10 Brain Chemicals & Cyclic-Hyperventilation; Catecholamines, Dopamine 01:32:10 Mindsets & Immune Function; Yes, You Can Worry Yourself Sick 01:37:00 Tool 8: Healthy Mindsets, Hope, Dopamine; Tool 9: Tyrosine; Tool 10: Cold Exposure 01:42:05 Once You’re Already Sick: Accelerating Recovery; Tool 11: Spirulina, Rhinitis 01:46:09 Histamines, Mast Cells 01:49:22 Tool 12: Acupuncture: Mechanism for How It Reduces Inflammation; Fascia, Rolfing  01:53:40 Mechanistic Science & Ancient Practices 01:58:00 Synthesis, Ways to Support Us (Zero-Cost), Sponsors, Supplements, Social Media
Nov 01, 2021
Dr. Samer Hattar: Timing Your Light, Food, & Exercise for Optimal Sleep, Energy & Mood | Episode 43
In this episode, I host Dr. Samer Hattar, Chief of the Section on Light and Circadian Rhythms at the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Hattar is a world-renowned expert on how viewing light at particular times adjusts our mood, ability to learn, stress and hormone levels, appetite, and mental health. We discuss how to determine and use your individual light sensitivity to determine the optimal sleep-wake cycle for you. We also discuss how to combine your light viewing and waking time with the timing of your food intake and exercise in order to maximize mental and physical functioning. Dr. Hattar is credited with co-discovering the neurons in the eye that set our circadian clocks and regulate mood and appetite. He explains why even a small shift in daylight savings leads to outsized effects on our biking because of the way that our cells and circadian clocks integrate across many days. And he offers precise tools to rapidly adjust to jetlag, shift work, and reset your clock after a late night of work or socializing. This episode is filled with cutting-edge data on the biological mechanisms of human physiology and practical tools for people of all ages.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code: "huberman" InsideTracker -  Magic Spoon -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Samer Hattar: Twitter Instagram Wikipedia   Links: Graphical Explanation of Temperature Minimum for Overcoming Jetlag   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Samer Hattar, Ph.D. 00:02:17 Sponsors: ROKA, InsideTracker, Magic Spoon 00:06:15 Light, Circadian (24 hour) & Circannual (365 day) “Photoentrainment”  00:14:30 Neurons in Our Eyes That Set Our Body Clocks: Similar to Frog Skin 00:18:55 What Blind People See  00:20:15 When, How & How Long to View Light for Optimal Sleep & Wakefulness 00:30:20 Sunlight Simulators, Afternoon Light Viewing, Naps 00:33:48 Are You Jetlagged at Home? Chronotypes & Why Early Risers Succeed  00:38:33 How to Decide Your Best Sleep-Wake Schedule; Minimal Light Test 00:42:16 Viewing Light in Middle of Day: Mood & “Light Hunger” 00:44:55 Evening Sunlight; Blueblocker Warning 00:48:57 Blue Light Is Not the Issue; Samer’s Cave; Complete Darkness 00:53:58 Screens at Night 00:56:03 Dangers of Bright Light Between 10 pm and 4 am: Mood & Learning 01:01:05 The Tripartite Model: Circadian, Sleep Drive, Feeding Schedules 01:05:05 Using Light to Enhance Your Mood; & The Hattar-Hernandez Nucleus 01:07:19 Why Do We Sleep? 01:08:17 Effects of Light on Appetite; Regular Light & Meal Times 01:18:08 Samer’s Experience with Adjusting Meal Timing 01:22:51 Using Light to Align Sleep, Mood, Feeding, Exercise & Cognition 01:30:15 Age-Related Changes in Timing of Mental & Physical Vigor   01:31:44 “Chrono-Attraction” in Relationships; Social-Rhythms 01:33:40 Re-setting Our Clock Schedule; Screen Devices Revisited 01:37:50 How Samer Got into the Study of Light  01:39:33 Clock Gene mRNAs & More Accurate Biomarkers 01:41:08 Light as Medicine 01:42:48 ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)  01:43:35 How to Beat Jetlag: Light, Temperature, Eating 01:50:44 Vigor: The Consequence of Proper Timing  01:52:15 Waking in the Middle of the Night: When Your Nightly Sleep Becomes a Nap 01:54:10 Melatonin, Pineal Calcification 01:55:25 Our Seasonal Rhythms: Mood, Depression, Lethargy & Reproduction 01:59:08 Daylight Savings: Much Worse Than It Might Seem  02:05:27 Eye Color & Sensitivity to Light, Bipolar Disorder 02:09:28 Spicy Food, Genetic Variations in Sensory Sensitivity  02:10:52 Synthesizing This Information, Samer on Twitter, Instagram 02:13:00 Conclusions, Ways To Support the Huberman Lab Podcast & Research
Oct 25, 2021
Nutrients For Brain Health & Performance | Episode 42
This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally. I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature. Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental, in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code: "huberman" InsideTracker - Headspace -    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman:    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Links: Review on Anthocyanins and Cognition Review on Creatine & Brain Health Studies  Review on "Rethinking Food Reward"    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Food & Brain Function Introduction 00:02:08 Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting 00:04:19 Sponsors: ROKA, Athletic Greens, Headspace 00:08:24 Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online 00:09:22 Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health  00:13:00 Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day)  00:20:35 Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) 00:22:15 Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) 00:28:26 Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) 00:29:50 Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) 00:32:22 Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day)  00:36:28 Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries)  00:41:19 L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation 00:49:23 Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs 00:55:25 Taste is 100% In your Head 00:59:50 Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods)  01:06:14 Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog  01:07:16 Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism 01:12:11 Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring 01:13:25 Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context 01:18:15 Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don’t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) 01:22:17 Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences)  01:30:42 Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars 01:36:05 Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) 01:38:28 Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements
Oct 18, 2021
Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health | Episode 41
This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code: "huberman" InsideTracker - Helix Sleep -    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram -  Twitter - Facebook -  Website - Newsletter -    Links: Comprehensive Review On Fasting In Humans:   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans 00:06:02 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Helix 00:09:42 Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture  00:11:20 Feeding, Fasting, Performance 00:13:50 Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets 00:19:48 Feeding-Induced Health Conditions  00:25:33 Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital 00:29:45 The Eight Hour Feeding Window  00:31:26 Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) 00:36:33 Liver Health 00:39:45 Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules 00:41:35 When to Start & Stop Eating 00:45:38 Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep 00:52:35 Effects of Specific Categories of Food 00:55:40 Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build 00:59:30 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows 01:03:08 Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle 01:08:13 How to Shift Your Eating Window 01:13:20 Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds 01:22:37 Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways 01:27:40 Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota 01:29:15 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver  01:32:00 Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol 01:38:40 Fertility 01:41:50 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting 01:43:20 Eating Every-Other-Day  01:45:29 Adherence 01:47:15 Mental Focus & Clarity 01:49:12 Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase 01:53:15 What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context 01:58:50 Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners 02:01:42 Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt 02:06:42 My Circadian Clock, Zero-App  02:08:20 Odd (But Common) Questions 02:09:23 Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose 02:11:12 The Ideal Fasting Protocol  02:24:00 More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements
Oct 11, 2021
Dr. Craig Heller: Using Temperature To Optimize Performance, Brain & Body Health | Episode 40
This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code "huberman" InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford:   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:    Links: Dr. Heller's Website - CoolMitt Technology -  Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance 00:02:00 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Athletic Greens 00:06:45 Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy 00:10:45 Boundary Layers  00:11:55 Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance 00:14:45 Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat 00:16:45 Temperature Gates Our Energy Use  00:19:00 Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail 00:22:10 Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive 00:26:43 Exercise-Induced Brain Fog 00:27:45 Hyperthermia 00:31:50 Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face  00:38:00 Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion 00:41:25 Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms 00:45:35 Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling 00:50:00 Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling 00:51:00 Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling 00:53:00 Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling 00:58:20 How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance 01:01:15 Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area 01:04:40 Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy 01:11:40 Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance 01:12:45 Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body 01:17:35 Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent 01:19:55 Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling 01:24:00 Female Athletic Performance  01:25:18 Shivering & Cold, Metabolism 01:26:55 Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat 01:31:10 Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans 01:34:18 Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache 01:37:50 Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis 01:39:44 How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance 01:43:42 Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks 01:48:44 Synthesis 01:49:30 Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research 
Oct 04, 2021
Controlling Your Dopamine For Motivation, Focus & Satisfaction | Episode 39
This episode serves as a sort of “Dopamine Masterclass”. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine—both their benefits and risks—and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code "huberman" InsideTracker -  Headspace -    Logitech Event - Rethink Education: The Biology of Learning Thursday, Sept. 30 at 12pm PT / 3pm ET Sign up here:    Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford:   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Links: Review on Dopamine: Cold Exposure & Dopamine:    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine 00:04:48 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace 00:09:10 Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators 00:09:58 What Dopamine (Really) Does 00:15:30 Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine  00:18:14 How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly 00:22:03 Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine 00:25:03 Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate 00:28:00 Your Dopamine History Really Matters  00:30:30 Parkinson’s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience  00:36:58 Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines 00:40:06 Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise 00:46:46 Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors 00:49:54 Pursuit, Excitement & Your “Dopamine Setpoint” 00:56:46 Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining “Pain” 01:00:00 Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine 01:07:50 Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release 01:15:28 Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits 01:19:45 Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention 01:22:20 Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection 01:24:20 Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA 01:26:15 Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits 01:27:57 Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses 01:28:45 Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine  01:37:55 Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation 01:47:40 Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine  01:53:09 Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine 01:53:50 Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours 01:55:36 Pornography 01:56:50 Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety 01:58:30 Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning 02:01:45 Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity 02:05:20 Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am 02:07:00 Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy 02:08:20 Tool 14 Huperzine A 02:10:02 Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release 02:12:20 Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application 02:14:22 Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research
Sep 27, 2021
Dr. Matthew Johnson: Psychedelics for Treating Mental Disorders | Episode 38
This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality.   Thank you to our sponsors: Athletic Greens - Belcampo - InsideTracker -   Dr. Matthew Johnson Social Media:  Twitter:  Instagram:    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Newsletter -    Links: Dr. Johnson’s Website at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine - Chris Letheby’s forthcoming book -     Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson 00:02:10 Supporting Sponsors 00:06:40 ‘Psychedelics’ Defined 00:14:09 Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception 00:19:56 Serotonin & Dopamine  00:23:50 Ketamine & Glutamate  00:28:00 An Example Psychedelic Experiment 00:37:30 ‘Letting Go’ with Psychedelics 00:44:10 Our Mind’s Eye 00:48:00 Redefining Your Sense of Self  00:58:56 Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life 01:04:36 Flashbacks 01:12:10 Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing 01:15:54 MDMA, DMT 01:26:00 Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis 01:38:15 Micro-Dosing 01:56:45 Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials 02:03:40 Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation 02:18:35 Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury  02:27:45 Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture 02:44:23 Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork  02:50:38 Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements
Sep 20, 2021
ADHD & How Anyone Can Improve Their Focus | Episode 37
In this episode, I discuss ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): what it is, the common myths, and the biology and psychology of ADHD. I discuss both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for ADHD, and brain-machine interface tools. I also discuss behavioral training protocols that can improve focus in people with ADHD and those without ADHD, and for people of different ages. I discuss the role of dopamine in coordinating 'default-mode' and 'task-related' neural networks, attentional "blinks" (lapses of attention) and how to overcome them, and the role of actual blinks in time perception and attention. Finally, I review some of the prescription and over-the-counter compounds for increasing focus such as Adderall, Ritalin, Modafinil and Armodafinil, the racetams, Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylserine and the role of diet for managing ADHD (and the controversies of diet for ADHD). The role of cell phones/technology in ADHD and ADHD-like challenges with focus are also discussed. Throughout, both basic science and clinical scenarios, as well as applicable tools and resources are covered. Thank you to our sponsors: Roka - -- code "huberman" Belcampo - Helix Sleep -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Email Newsletter -   Links: Review of Compounds for ADHD, Smart Drugs & Focus - Review of Atypical Compounds for ADHD - Study of Focus Protocol In ADHD & Non-ADHD Children -   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction & Note About Diagnosis 00:03:27 Sponsors  00:07:56 ADHD vs. ADD: Genetics, IQ, Rates in Kids & Adults 00:13:00 Attention & Focus, Impulse Control 00:14:57 Hyper-focus  00:16:45 Time Perception 00:18:25 The Pile System 00:20:00 Working Memory 00:24:10 Hyper-Focus & Dopamine  00:26:40 Neural Circuits In ADHD: Default Mode Network & Task-Related Networks  00:32:57 Low Dopamine in ADHD & Stimulant Use & Abuse 00:37:10 Sugar, Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil & Armodafinil  00:47:00 Non-Prescribed Adderall, Caffeine, Nicotine 00:49:18 How Stimulants “Teach” the Brains of ADHD Children to Focus 00:52:00 When To Medicate: A Highly Informed (Anecdotal) Case Study 00:56:35 Elimination Diets & Allergies In ADHD 01:04:46 Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPAs & DHAs  01:07:00 Modulation vs Mediation of Biological Processes 01:10:50 Attentional Blinks  01:16:56 Open Monitoring & 17minute Focus Enhancement  01:22:50 Blinking, Dopamine & Time Perception; & Focus Training  01:30:10 Reverberatory Neural & Physical Activity 01:33:40 Adderall, Ritalin & Blink Frequency 01:35:00 Cannabis  01:37:30 Interoceptive Awareness  01:41:15 Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil, Armodafinil; Smart Drugs & Caffeine: Dangers 01:48:05 DHA Fatty Acids, Phosphatidylserine 0:1:50:54 Ginko Biloba  01:51:45 Modafinil & Armodafanil: Dopamine Action & Orexin 01:56:19 Acetylcholine: Circuits Underlying Focus; Alpha-GPC 01:59:04 L-Tyrosine, (PEA) Phenylethylamine  02:01:23 Racetams, Noopept  02:05:15 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Combining Technology & Pharmacology  02:09:14 Smart Phones & ADHD & Sub-Clinical Focus Issues In Adults & Kids 02:14:30 Synthesis/Summary 02:16:10 Support for Podcast & Research, Supplement Resources
Sep 13, 2021
Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging | Episode 36
In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day.   Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks   I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed.   Thank you to our sponsors: Belcampo - -- code "huberman" Headspace - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Links: Ingesting Protein in the Morning Supports Muscle Maintenance & Growth:  Studies Using Virtual Reality to Explore Eating & Hunger & Body Image:    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating 00:08:55 Morning Protein Is Important  00:22:04 Sponsors 00:26:29 Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders 00:29:00 Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) 00:33:44 Bulimia (Overview & Myths) 00:37:35 Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica 00:39:44 What is Hunger? What is Satiety? 00:42:00 Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating 00:46:17 Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity 00:50:30 Why We Overeat 00:55:30 Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions  00:59:58 Anorexia 01:04:28 The Cholesterol Paradox 01:06:13 Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia 01:09:44 Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments 01:12:56 Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content 01:18:28 Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits 01:24:06 Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation 01:28:30 How Do You Break a Habit?  01:33:23 Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 01:35:39 MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine  01:40:35 Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT 01:43:23 Distorted Self Image in Anorexia  01:47:54 Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone 01:53:05 Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin 01:58:00 Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens 02:04:28 Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging   02:05:45 Healthy Eating Revisited 02:10:55 Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias 02:14:15 Support: Podcast, & Research Studies
Sep 06, 2021
Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Science of Stress, Testosterone & Free Will | Episode 35
In this episode, I interview Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Neurology & Neurosurgery at Stanford University. We discuss stress, what defines short-term versus long-term stress, and how stress can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the context. We also discuss stress mitigation and how our sense of control over stress mitigation techniques, including exercise, determine health outcomes. Dr. Sapolsky explains some of the key effects of the hormone testosterone — how it can amplify pre-existing tendencies for aggression or sexual behavior, but that it does not produce those behaviors per se. He also explains how testosterone impacts our social hierarchies, sense of confidence, and willingness to embrace challenges of different kinds. He also explains how our behaviors and perceptions shape testosterone levels. And we discuss estrogen and the powerful role it plays in brain development, health and longevity. Finally, we discuss free will, what it means to have free will, and if we have any free will, including how knowledge alone might allow us to make better decisions for ourselves and society.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - use code "huberman" InsideTracker -  Belcampo -    Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram -  Twitter -  Facebook -  Website -  Join Newsletter -    Links: Dr. Sapolsky's most recent book, "Behave: The Biology of Humans At Our Best & Worst":  Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford on Stress, Sleep & Human Performance:    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction: Dr. Robert Sapolsky  00:02:26 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Belcampo  00:06:30 Stress: Short & Long-Term, Good & Bad  00:09:11 Valence & Amygdala  00:11:00 Testosterone: Common Myths vs. Actual Truths  00:15:15 Behaviors that Affect Testosterone   00:17:20 Mindsets & Contexts that Affect Testosterone 00:20:28 How Finger Length Ratios Reflect Prenatal Hormone Levels   00:22:30 Aggression: Male-Female, Female-Male, & Female-Female  00:24:05 Testosterone: The Challenge Hypothesis  00:29:20 How Dopamine Impacts Testosterone & Motivation  00:32:32 Estrogen: Improves Brain & Longevity BUT TIMING IS KEY  00:39:40 Are Testosterone & Sperm Counts in Males Really Dropping?  00:42:15 Stress Mitigation & Our Sense of Control  00:51:35 How Best to Buffer Stress  00:57:04 Power of Perception, Choice & Individual Differences  01:00:32 Context-Setting, Prefrontal Cortex & Hierarchy  01:11:20 How Dr. Sapolsky Accomplishes Deep Thinking   01:13:17 Do We Have Free Will?  01:20:50 How to Apply Knowledge & Learning   01:23:44 Robert’s New Book: “Determined: The Science of Life Without Free Will”  01:28:27 Reflections, Support of Podcast, & Supporting Stress Research 
Aug 30, 2021
Understanding & Conquering Depression | Episode 34
This episode, I explain what major depression is at the biological and psychological level and the various treatments that peer-reviewed studies have revealed can help prevent and treat depression. I explain the three major chemical systems that are altered in depression: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. I discuss genetic predispositions to depression and how stress, thyroid hormone and cortisol play a role in many forms of depression. I also discuss inflammation as a common feature of many depression symptoms. I review 8 specific science-supported protocols for treating and avoiding depression, including EPA fatty acids (which have been shown to rival certain prescription treatments), how exercise protects against depression, studies of creatine, adjusting dopamine balance and more. I also discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials for ketamine and psilocybin for depression, how these compounds work and finally, I review how ketogenic diets can help in certain cases of depression, especially treatment-resistant major depression.   Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Athletic Greens - Belcampo - -- code "huberman"   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Join Newsletter -   Links: Review of EPAs for the Treatment of Depression -  Review of Creatine for the Treatment of Depression -  Recent Study on the Clinical Use of Psilocybin for Treatment of Depression -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Mood Disorders & Maintaining Mental Health (Protocol 1) 00:07:10 Sponsors 00:11:15 Major Depression 00:18:40 “Anti-Self” Confabulation 00:21:42 Autonomic (Vegetative) Symptoms of Depression 00:26:58 Norepinephrine, Dopamine & Serotonin 00:31:50 SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft, etc.): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 00:37:00 Epinephrine/Motor Functions, Dopamine/Motivation & Craving, Serotonin/Emotions 00:39:33 Physical & Emotional Pain are Linked: Substance P 00:41:50 Hormones & Depression: Thyroid & Cortisol  00:46:50 Genetic Susceptibility to Depression: Impact of Stress  00:50:50 Understanding Biological Mechanism Is Key: Recipes versus Skills 00:52:50 Tools for Dealing with Depression: Logic & Implementation (Protocol 2) 00:56:25 Brain Inflammation & Mental State: Cytokines, Prostaglandins, etc. 00:59:20 Protocol 3: Essential Fatty Acids (Omega-3, EPAs: Eicosapentaenoic Acid)* 01:02:50 How EPAs Help Offset Depression: Serotonin Synthesis, Kynurenine, Quinolinic Acid 01:05:25 Protocol 4: How Exercise Offsets Depression  01:11:44 Protocol 5: Creatine Monohydrate, Forebrain Function & NMDA receptors* 01:20:30 Protocol 6*: Ketamine, PCP (*Prescription-Only), & NMDA-Receptor Function 01:33:08 Protocol 7*: Psychedelics (*In Clinical Trials) for Major Depression: Psilocybin* 01:47:00 Protocol 8: Ketogenic Diet, GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) 01:54:50 Summary of Protocols Covered 02:00:10 Support & Additional Resources
Aug 23, 2021
Dr. Anna Lembke: Understanding & Treating Addiction | Episode 33
This episode I interview Dr. Anna Lembke, MD, Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Lembke is a psychiatrist expert in treating addictions of all kinds: drugs, alcohol, food, sex, video games, gambling, food, medication, etc. Dr. Lembke is also an expert in the opioid crisis, and the author of Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence ( We discuss the biology and psychology of why people become addicted to certain substances and behaviors and the key role that our "dopamine balance" plays in creating addiction. We also discuss the science and practice of how to conquer addictions, why people relapse and how to avoid relapsing. Dr. Lembke also shares her expertise on topics closely related to addiction such as community, shame and lying and she explains why telling the truth—even about the most basic things in daily life, adjusts dopamine levels in our brain. This episode is an important one for anyone struggling with addictions of any kind, for their friends and families and for health care professionals. It is also for anyone who has defeated addiction and is determined to stay clean. Last but not least, it helps explain why all humans do what we do, and how we can all maintain a healthy sense of pleasure seeking in life.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - -- code: huberman InsideTracker - Headspace -   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:    Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Join the Neural Network -   Dr. Anna Lembke Links: Website:   Stanford Profile:  Dopamine Nation (new book):    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Dr. Anna Lembke, Addiction Expert 00:02:25 Disclaimer & Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace 00:07:00 Dopamine, Happiness & Impulsivity  00:15:56 What Is Pleasure?  00:18:20 Addiction, Boredom & Passion for Life 00:24:00 Pain-Pleasure Balance Controls Addiction 00:29:10 Dopamine Deficits, Anhedonia 00:30:47 Are All Addictions the Same? 00:35:38 Boredom & Anxiety Lead to Creativity  00:40:35 Finding Your Passion Starts with Boredom & Action Steps  00:50:05 How to Break an Addiction 00:55:25 Relapse, Craving & Triggers 01:07:40 Can People Get Addicted To “Sobriety”?  01:11:45 Are We All Wired for Addiction?  01:15:57 Bizarre Addiction 01:18:14 Recovered Addicts Are Heroes 01:20:10 Lying, Truth Telling, Guilt & Shame 01:30:40 Clinical Applications of: Ibogaine, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin & MDMA  01:40:20 Social Media Addiction  01:51:25 Narcissism  01:53:30 Goal Seeking, Success & Surprise 01:58:10 Reciprocity 02:01:15 Closing Comments, Resources
Aug 16, 2021
How to Control Your Sense of Pain & Pleasure | Episode 32
This episode I discuss our sense of pain and pleasure: where and how they each arise in our mind and body and various ways to control their intensity. I discuss the science of behavioral tools like acupuncture and hypnosis and directed pressure, including the neural circuits they each activate to modulate our experience of pain or pleasure. I also discuss whole body pain, pain "syndromes" and novel pain relief compounds such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine, SAMe and Agmatine. I discuss neuroplasticity of the pain system and the key role that visual perception plays in pain modulation. Finally, I address the link between dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, with arousal, pleasure and pain. As always, both basic science and various protocols are described. Note: The description of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was intentionally simplified and does not include mention of dorsal horn spinal relay neurons, etc. For an excellent full text review of this anatomy and circuits for touch sensing, please see:   Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Helix Sleep - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Join the Neural Network -   Links: Instagram discussion with Dr. Sean Mackey, MD, PhD - Agmatine study -  Mechanistic basis of acupuncture -    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Skin, Pain, Pleasure  00:01:50 Protocol 1: Maximizing Motivation (with Dopamine & Pleasure) 00:07:12 Sponsors: InsideTracker, Helix Sleep, Athletic Greens 00:12:04 Pleasure & Pain, & Skin Sensors  00:18:13 Sensing Touch with Your Brain: Magnification of Feet, Hands, Lips, Face, Genitals 00:22:16 Two-Point Discrimination, Dermatomes 00:28:11 Thoughts & Genes That Make Physical Pain Worse 00:33:45 Expectations, Anxiety, & Pain Threshold 00:40:27 Protocol 2: Cold Sensing Is Relative; Getting Into Cold Water 00:45:22 Protocol 3: Heat Is Absolute 00:48:10 Injury & Pain 00:52:04 Protocol 4: Plasticity of Pain: Key Role of Vision  00:58:08 Sensing Disparate Body Parts As Merged 01:01:00 Pain “Syndromes”, Psychogenic Fever, “Psychosomatics” 01:04:40 Fibromyalgia, Naltrexone, Protocol 5: Acetyl-L-Carnitine  01:12:24 Protocol 6: Agmatine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate* 01:17:27 Acupuncture: Mechanism, Non-Responders, Itch & Inflammation 01:28:20 Laser Photobiomodulation, Protocol 7: Hypnosis (  01:30:00 Protocol 8: Pressure-Based Pain Relief, “Gate Theory of Pain (Relief)” 01:37:53 Redheads & Pain Thresholds, Endogenous Opioids  01:44:02 Protocol 8: Love & Pain, Dopamine 01:49:23 Pleasure & Reproduction, Dopamine & Serotonin, Oxytocin 01:51:40 Protocol 9: PEA, L-Phenylalanine (Precursor to Tyrosine) 01:55:40 Contextual Control of Pleasure by Autonomic Arousal, Dopamine Baselines 01:59:40 Pleasure-Pain Balance 02:01:24 Protocol 10: Controlling Pleasure, Dopamine & Motivation Over Time 02:06:40 Protocol 11: Immediate, Non-Goal-Directed Pleasure, PAG  02:08:40 Direction of Touch: Pleasure Versus Pain, Arousal & Touch “Sensitivity”  02:13:00 Synthesis & How to Conceptualize Pain and Pleasure, Support
Aug 09, 2021
Dr. Matthew Walker: The Science & Practice of Perfecting Your Sleep | Episode 31
In this episode, my guest is Dr. Matt Walker, Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Founder & Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the author of the international best-selling book Why We Sleep and the host of "The Matt Walker Podcast." We discuss the biology of sleep, including its various stages and what specifically happens to those stages when we don't get enough sleep. We also discuss the effects of sunlight, caffeine, alcohol, naps, hormones, exercise, marijuana, sexual activity, and various supplements on sleep. The episode consists of both basic science information and many science-supported actionable tools.  Thank you to our sponsors ROKA - InsideTracker - Belcampo - -- code: huberman Supplements from Thorne:  For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matt Walker (00:02:00) Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Belcampo (00:06:00) What Is Sleep? (00:10:20) REM (Rapid Eye Movement) aka 'Paradoxical Sleep' (00:16:15) Slow Wave Sleep aka 'Deep Sleep' (00:24:00) Compensating For Lost Sleep (00:32:20) Waking in the Middle Of The Night  (00:39:48) Uberman (Not Huberman!) Sleep Schedule (00:42:48) Viewing Morning SUNLight (00:49:20) Caffeine (01:07:54) Alcohol (01:14:30) Growth Hormone & Testosterone (01:16:14) Emotions, Mental Health & Longevity (01:20:40) Books vs. Podcasts (01:21:20) Lunchtime Alcohol (01:25:00) Marijuana/CBD  (01:36:00) Melatonin (01:54:14) Magnesium (01:58:10) Valerian, Kiwi, Tart Cherry, Apigenin (02:15:00) Tryptophan & Serotonin (02:19:24) Naps & Non-Sleep-Deep-Rest (NSDR) (02:28:23) Is It Possible To Get Too Much Sleep? (02:34:35) Sex, Orgasm, Masturbation, Oxytocin, Relationships (02:47:30) Unconventional Yet Powerful Sleep Tips  (02:59:10) Connecting to & Learning More from Dr. Walker (03:04:42) The New Dr. Matt Walker Podcast, Reviews & Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 02, 2021
How to Optimize Your Brain-Body Function & Health | Episode 30
This episode I describe how the organs of the body influence the function and health of our brain and how our brain controls our bodily organs. The conscious awareness of this brain-body dialogue is called interoception. I describe how two factors- mechanical forces (e.g., pressure, pain, volume, etc.) and chemical factors (e.g., gut acidity, microbiome diversity, etc.) combine to influence our moods, control inflammation, immune system, recovery from injury and more. I explain how specific actions of our lungs, heart, spleen, and diaphragm, control our brain via the vagus nerve and other neural pathways. I describe 11 science-supported protocols for enhancing brain-body health and the logic behind them.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Headspace -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Join the Neural Network -   Links: Sonnenburg, Cell Press Study -   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Your Sense of Self: Interoception 00:01:25 Protocol 1: Fermented Foods, Not Fiber, to Reduce Inflammation  00:03:30 Attributions 00:08:22 Main Drivers of Feelings & Performance 00:11:45 Brain-Body: A Mechanical & Chemical Dialogue  00:17:50 LDB (Lung-Diaphragm-Brain) Dialogue   00:21:00 Protocols 2, 3, 4: Control Heart Rate With Breathing 00:29:08 Sensing Lung Pressure: Piezo Receptors 00:30:54 Carbon Dioxide, From Air to Blood 00:34:02 Protocol 5: Alert While Calm 00:40:50 Baroreceptors: Hering-Breuer Reflex 00:42:47 Gut Volume & The Desire to Open Your Mouth  00:48:18 Protocol 6: Enhancing Gut-To-Brain Communication, Fasting  00:51:50 Intestines, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids & Sugar 00:57:00 Protocol 7: Reducing Sugar Cravings with Specific Amino Acid Nutrients  00:58:58 Gut Acidity (Is Good) 01:02:20: Improving Nasal Microbiome  01:04:13 Inflammation & Microbiome: Fiber vs. Fermented  01:11:15 Protocol 8: Reducing Inflammation & Enhancing Brain Function w/Fermented Foods 01:13:10 Leaking Guts, Auto-Immune function & Glutamine 01:15:50 Gut Acidity: HCl (hydrochloric acid), Pepsin 01:18:30 Probiotics & Brain Fog 01:21:45 Nausea: Happens in Your Brain; Area Postrema 01:28:25 Protocol 9: Reducing Nausea: Ginger, Peppermint, CBD, etc. 01:30:40 Fever: Triggers and Control Knobs: OVLT 01:37:00 Protocol 10: Cooling the Blood Properly 01:38:53 Sensing Feelings, Vagus Nerve, Stress 01:41:50 Mental Emotions Reflect Bodily Conditions 01:45:00 Sensing Other People’s Emotions via the Body 01:46:00 Protocol 11: Increasing Interoception, Sensing Heartbeat  01:50:40 Conclusions & Resources
Jul 26, 2021
Dr. Lex Fridman: Machines, Creativity & Love | Episode 29
Dr. Lex Fridman PhD, is a scientist at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), working on robotics, artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles and human-robot interactions. He is also the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast where he holds conversations with academics, entrepreneurs, athletes and creatives. Here we discuss humans, robots, and the capacity they hold for friendship and love. Dr. Fridman also shares with us his unique dream for a world where robots guide humans to be the best versions of themselves, and his efforts to make that dream a reality.    Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Connect with Dr. Lex Fridman: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook -  YouTube -  Podcast -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Join the Neural Network -   Links: Hedgehog and the Fog -   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction: Lex Fridman 00:07:35 What is Artificial Intelligence? 00:26:46 Machine & Human Learning 00:32:21 Curiosity 00:36:55 Story Telling Robots 00:40:48 What Defines a Robot? 00:44:30 Magic & Surprise 00:47:37 How Robots Change Us 00:49:35 Relationships Defined 01:02:29 Lex’s Dream for Humanity 01:11:33 Improving Social Media 01:16:57 Challenges of Creativity 01:21:49 Suits & Dresses  01:22:22 Loneliness 01:30:09 Empathy 01:35:12 Power Dynamics In Relationships 01:39:11 Robot Rights  01:40:20 Dogs: Homer & Costello 01:52:41 Friendship 01:59:47 Russians & Suffering 02:05:38 Public vs. Private Life 02:14:04 How To Treat a Robot 02:17:12 The Value of Friendship 02:20:33 Martial Arts 02:31:34 Body-Mind Interactions 02:33:22 Romantic Love 02:42:51 The Lex Fridman Podcast 02:55:54 The Hedgehog 03:01:17 Concluding Statements
Jul 19, 2021
Maximizing Productivity, Physical & Mental Health with Daily Tools | Episode 28
In this episode, I discuss science-supported tools for enhancing focus, learning, creativity, sleep, physical strength and endurance and brain and body health. I explain each protocol in detail, the rationale behind it, and how the protocol can be adjusted depending on individual needs. I set these tools in the context of a 24-hour day as a way of framing how one might incorporate these tools and protocols into their own daily routine. Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Headspace - Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne: Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Neural Network - Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction: Protocols for sleep, mood, focus, exercise creativity 00:04:08 Sponsors 00:08:50 Protocol 1: Record Your Daily Waking Time & Temperature Minimum  00:12:07 Protocol 2: Self-Generate Forward Motion (Outdoors)  00:17:00 Protocol 3: View Natural Light For 10-30min Every Morning 00:22:43 What To Do If You Can’t View The Sun: Blue Light  00:26:50 Protocol 4: Hydrate Correctly  00:28:00 Protocol 5: Delay Caffeine 90-120m After Waking 00:30:48 Protocol 6: Fast (or Fat-Fast) Until Noon 00:32:30 What Actually Breaks A Fast & What Doesn’t? 00:34:30 Fat Loss & Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea 00:37:30 Protocol 7: Optimize Deep Work: Visual Elevation, Ultradian Cycles, White Noise 00:48:30 Optimal Time of Day To Do Hard Mental Work  00:52:07 Protocol 8: Optimal Exercise; 3:2 Ratio 01:03:54 Tools for Training & Mental Focus: Fasting, Salt, Stimulants, Alpha-GPC  01:10:00 Protocol 9: Eat For Brain Function & Mood 01:17:39 Protocol 10: Get Your Testosterone & Estrogen In An Ideal Range 01:24:00 Protocol 11: Reset the Mind & Body, Enhance Neuroplasticity, 01:31:15 Protocol 12: Hydrate Correctly, Nap Rules 01:33:29 Protocol 13: View Late Afternoon/Evening Light To Support Sleep & Dopamine 01:39:00 Protocol 14: Eat Dinner That Promotes Serotonin, Calm Sleep 01:44:27 Protocol 15: Optimize Falling & Staying Asleep; Tools & Supplements That Work 01:55:00 Protocol 16: Preventing Middle of the Night Waking 01:59:10 Protocol 17: Weekends, Recovering From A Poor Nights Sleep 02:05:20 Neural Network, Supplement Sources, Sponsors Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac -
Jul 12, 2021
The Science of Hearing, Balance & Accelerated Learning | Episode 27
This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects".   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Headspace -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Neural Network -   Links: Review on spacing effects and learning:  Micro-rest and accelerated learning:  Ear movement:  Ears making sounds, hormones:  Binaural beats: review and references:    Timestamps: 00:00:00 Overview of Topics 00:02:20 Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning  00:09:10 Introduction: Hearing & Balance  00:13:53 How We Perceive Sounds 00:21:56 Your Hearing Brain (Areas)   00:23:48 Localizing Sounds 00:28:00 Ear Movement: What It Means  00:33:00 Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation  00:35:30 Binaural Beats: Do They Work?  00:43:54 White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine 00:51:00 Headphones 00:55:51 White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful 01:03:25 Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect 01:12:55 How to Learn Information You Hear 01:18:10 Doppler 01:22:43 Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? 01:30:40 Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? 01:35:00 Balance: Semi-Circular Canals 01:40:35 A Vestibular Experiment 01:43:15 Improve Your Sense of Balance 01:48:55 Accelerating Balance 01:51:55 Self-Generated Forward Motion 01:56:25 Dizzy versus Light-Headed 01:58:38 Motion Sickness Solution 02:01:23 Synthesis
Jul 05, 2021
Dr. Karl Deisseroth: Understanding & Healing the Mind | Episode 26
Dr. Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is a Clinical Psychiatrist and scientist who directs a bioengineering research laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine. His work aims to understand and develop treatments for disorders of the mind such as depression, attention deficit disorders (ADHD & ADD), autism, schizophrenia, anxiety, eating disorders, borderline personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We discuss his experience treating his patients and his laboratory’s mission to find and develop cures for mental disease and tools for probing how the brain works.  Dr. Karl Deisseroth: Twitter: New book: Lab Website: Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Athletic Greens - Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne:  Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Neural Network - Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:07:41 Using Language to Understand the Mind 00:12:19 Blood Tests For Mental Disease 00:13:38 The Largest Challenges Facing Treatment of Mental Health 00:20:21 Predicting Depression & Suicide 00:22:47 Drugs That Work for Brain Illness 00:27:01 What Would A Cure For the Broken Mind Look Like? 00:32:23 Channelopsins: Tools For Understanding & Treating the Mind 00:39:10 Curing Blindness with Channelopsins 00:41:58 Why Karl Became a Scientist 00:47:10 Vagus Nerve In Depression 00:54:12 Challenges To Overcome for Treating Mental Illness with Channelopsins 00:58:34 Using the Dialogue with Patients to Guide Treatment 01:00:52 How Our Eyes Reveal Our Mental Health 01:06:04 Controlling Structures Deep In the Brain 01:08:23 The Most Effective Drugs Often Have the Most Side Effects 01:09:50 Do Psychiatrists Take the Drugs They Prescribe 01:14:15 Moving From Experimental Tools To Novel Treatments 01:16:00 Brain-Machine Interfaces & Neuralink 01:19:30 ADHD & Dr. Deissroth’s Approach To Focusing His Mind 01:26:36 How Dr. Deisseroth Balances A Career In Medicine, Science & Family 01:35:41 New Ways of Exploring Brains: CLARITY 01:38:49 What Is Special About the Human Brain? 01:46:03 Psychedelics 01:54:12 MDMA 01:57:15 Dr. Deisseroth’s New Book “Projections: A Story of Emotions” 01:59:42 Connecting with Dr. Deisseroth on Twitter
Jun 28, 2021
How Smell, Taste & Pheromone-Like Chemicals Control You | Episode 25
This episode explains how we sense chemicals through smell, taste, and pheromones. How things smell and taste and chemicals in the tears, breath, and on the skin of others have a profound effect on how we feel, what we do, and our hormones. I explain the 3 types of responses to smell, the 5 types of tastes, the possible existence of sixth taste sense, and how the act of sniffing can make us learn and focus better. I explain how smell and taste reflect brain health and can assess and even promote brain regeneration. I discuss how eating specific categories of foods makes us crave more of those foods, including how to make sour things taste sweet and develop a heightened sense of smell and taste.  Sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker Athletic Greens   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Intro 00:06:02 Sensing Chemicals: Smell, Taste and Chemicals That People Make To Control Each Other  00:09:10 Vision Protocols Recap (Brief): Near-Far Viewing and 2 hours/day outside, and Correction  00:12:20 Color Vision: Excellent Resource: What is Color? (The Book)  00:13:54 How We Sense Chemicals: Enter Our Nose, Mouth, Eyes, Skin  00:17:28 The Chemicals From Other People’s Tears Lower Testosterone and Libido  00:21:16 SMELL: Sniffing, A Piece of Your Brain In Your Nose, 3 Responses To Smells  00:24:40 Smells and Memory: Why They Are So Powerfully Associated  00:26:40 Pheromone Effects: Spontaneous Miscarriage, Males and Timing Female Puberty  00:28:56 Sniffing Creates Alertness and If Done Properly Can Help You Focus and Learn Better  00:34:00 Protocol 1: Sniffing (Nothing) 10-15X Enhances Your Ability to Smell and Taste  00:35:50 Smelling Salts, Ammonia and Adrenaline   00:38:25 How You Can Become A Human Scent Hound, Detecting Cancer, and Tasting Better  00:43:45 Smell As A Readout Of Brain Health and Longevity; Regaining Lost Sense Of Smell  00:48:30 Dopamine, Sense Of Smell, New Neurons and New Relationships  00:50:20 Why Brain Injury Causes Loss Of Smell; Using Smell To Gauge and Speed Recovery   00:53:33 Using Smell To Immediately Becoming Physically Stronger  00:54:40 Smelling In Our Dreams, Active Sniffing In Sleep, Sniffing As a Sign Of Consciousness  00:57:35 Mint Scents Create Alertness By Activating Broad Wake-Up Pathways Of Your Nervous  00:59:48 Protocol 2 Pleasant Or Putrid: The Microwave Popcorn Test, Cilantro, Asparagus, Musk  01:03:00 Skunks, Costello, All Quiet On The Western Front    01:04:32 TASTE: Sweet, Salty, Bitter, Umami, Sour; Your Tongue, Gustatory Nerve, NST, Cortex  01:08:45 Energy, Electrolytes, Poisons, Gagging, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Sensing, Fermentation  01:13:48 Our 6th Sense of Taste: FAT Sensing  01:15:05 Gut-Brain: Your Mouth As An Extension Of Your Gut; Burned Mouth and Regeneration  01:19:30 Protocol 3: Learn To Be A Super-Taster By Top-Down Behavioral Plasticity  01:22:20 The Umami-Sweet Distinction: Tigers Versus Pandas. Aggression Versus Passivity  01:25:05 Eating More Plants Versus Eating More Meat, Cravings and Desire  01:27:15 Food That Makes You Feel Good Or Bad: Taste Receptors On Our Testes Or Ovaries  01:30:05 Biological Basis For The Sensuality of Umami and Sweet Foods  01:32:28 Appetitive and Aversive Sensing: Touching Certain Surfaces, Tasting Certain Foods  01:33:35 Amino Acids Are Key To Life, The Maillard Reaction, Smell-Taste Merge, Food Texture  01:39:00 How Processed Food Make You Crave More Processed Foods  01:39:44 Protocol 4: Invert Your Sense of Sweet and Sour: Miracle Fruit; Swapping Bitter and Sweet  01:43:03 Pheromones, Desire To Continue Mating: Coolidge Effect Occurs In Males and Females  01:46:40 Do Women Influence Each Others Menstrual Cycles?   01:49:19 Recognizing the Smell Of Your Romantic Partner   01:50:30 Differences In Odor Detection Ability, Effects Of Hormones  01:53:00 We Rub The Chemicals Of Others On Our Eyes and Skin, Bunting Behavior  01:56:40 Summary
Jun 21, 2021
The Science of Vision, Eye Health & Seeing Better | Episode 24
This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age.   Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Helix Sleep -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website: Join the Neural Network:   Link to eye exercise videos for smooth pursuit, amblyopia, etc. (Numbering of videos does correspond to numbers in episode caption.)   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:04:51 Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy 00:07:24 The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better 00:10:35 Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work 00:14:30 Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells 00:17:00 We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light 00:19:35 Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) 00:24:05 Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots 00:25:50 Depth Perception 00:28:00 Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes 00:32:00 Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; 00:35:00 Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day 00:42:00 Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens 00:48:50 Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” 00:52:20 Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily 00:54:26 Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down 00:59:21 Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) 01:02:55 Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, 01:04:32 Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day 01:06:05 Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit 01:08:48 Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week 01:13:33 Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision 01:16:20 Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 01:18:40 Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 01:24:48 Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training 01:27:57 Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain 01:29:47 Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision 01:33:00 Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow 01:44:20 Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision 01:46:00 Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics
Jun 14, 2021
How To Build Endurance In Your Brain & Body | Episode 23
In this episode, I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: Muscular endurance. Long-duration (single-set) efforts. The two kinds of high-intensity interval training that can benefit our brain and various systems of our body. I discuss the fuel systems they each rely on and how to build up your capillary beds in muscle and in the brain to increase oxygen utilization or improve postural endurance. I discuss efficiency of effort, maximizing quality of effort, and the simplest hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger (as a muscle) when we oxygenate muscles properly and ways to warm up with and improve respiration/breathing. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. As always, both science, mechanism and tools are discussed throughout Thank you to our sponsors: ROKA - - code: huberman InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page:    Supplements from Thorne:   Mechanistic review of training adaptations Example protocols
Jun 07, 2021
Science & Tools For Muscle Growth, Increasing Strength & Muscular Recovery | Episode 22
In this episode I describe how our brain and nervous system control muscle tissue and how to leverage that for muscle maintenance, growth (hypertrophy) and recovery. I explain how neurons control muscle contractions and limb movements. I explain muscle metabolism and muscle fiber recruitment. I detail protocols for increasing muscular growth and for neuro-muscular recovery. I explain the effects of deliberate cold, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-histamines on training progress. I describe science-supported protocols using certain weight load ranges, total sets per week, training intensity, frequency, and in-between set activities if one's goal is to increase muscle growth, strength or endurance. I review three foundational compounds and nutrients and three optimization compounds and nutrients that have been shown to improve neuro-muscular performance. Finally, I explain how to leverage exercise and weight training to enhance cognitive function.   Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Belcampo - Headspace -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:
May 31, 2021
How to Lose Fat with Science-Based Tools | Episode 21
This episode I describe the science of fat loss, including how fat is mobilized and oxidized (burned) and how to increase fat burning by leveraging the nervous system. Most people don't realize it, but our neurons connect to our fat and release epinephrine/adrenaline to facilitate fat oxidation.
May 24, 2021
How to Learn Skills Faster | Episode 20
This episode I discuss the science and practice of learning physical skills: what it involves at a biological level, and what to focus on during skill learning at each stage to maximize learning speed and depth. I also describe what to do immediately after a training session (note: this is different than the optimal protocol for cognitive skill training) and as you progress to more advanced levels of performance. I also cover the science of skill-based visualization which does have benefits, but only if done correctly and at the correct times. I discuss auto-replay of skill learning in the brain during sleep and the value of adding in post-training ‘deliberately idle’ sessions. I cover how to immediately improve limb-range-of-motion by leveraging cerebellum function, error generation, optimal repetition numbers for learning and more. As always, scientific mechanism, peer-reviewed studies and science-based protocols are discussed.   Thank you to our sponsors: Belcampo - InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page:   Supplements from Thorne:   Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook -   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:28 Skill Acquisition: Mental & Physical 00:08:40 Clarification About Cold, Heat & Caffeine 00:12:45 Tool: How To Quickly Eliminate the Side-Stitch ‘Cramp’ & BoostHRV Entrainment 00:16:08 Physical Skills: Open-Loop Versus Closed-Loop 00:18:50 Three Key Components To Any Skill 00:21:00 Sources of Control for Movement: 1) CPGs Govern Rhythmic Learned Behavior 00:23:30 Upper Motor Neurons for Deliberate Movement & Learning 00:25:00 Lower Motor Neurons Control Action Execution 00:25:26 What To Focus On While Learning 00:27:10 The Reality of Skill Learning & the 10,000 Hours Myth 00:28:30 Repetitions & The Super Mario Effect: Error Signals vs. Error Signals + Punishment 00:34:00 Learning To Win, Every Time 00:39:26 Errors Solve the Problem of What Focus On While Trying to Learn Skills 00:43:00 Why Increasing Baseline Levels of Dopamine Prior To Learning Is Bad 00:44:40 The Framing Effect (& Protocol Defined) 00:46:10 A Note & Warning To Coaches 00:48:30 What To Do Immediately After Your Physical Skill Learning Practice 00:53:48 Leveraging Uncertainty 00:56:59 What to Pay Attention To While Striving To Improve 01:04:45 Protocol Synthesis Part One 01:07:10 Super-Slow-Motion Learning Training: Only Useful After Some Proficiency Is Attained 01:11:06 How To Move From Intermediate To Advanced Skill Execution faster: Metronomes 01:16:44 Increasing Speed Even If It Means More Errors: Training Central Pattern Generators 01:19:12 Integrated Learning: Leveraging Your Cerebellum (“Mini-Brain”) 01:22:02 Protocol For Increasing Limb Range of Motion, Immediately 01:28:30 Visualization/ Mental Rehearsal: How To Do It Correctly 01:33:50 Results From 15 Minutes Per Day, 5 Days Per Week Visualization (vs. Actual Training) 01:35:34 Imagining Something Is Very Different Than Actually Experiencing It 01:37:58 Cadence Training & Learning “Carryover” 01:39:00 Ingestible Compounds That Support Skill Learning: Motivation, Repetitions, Alpha-GPC 01:43:39 Summary & Sequencing Tools: Reps, Fails, Idle Time, Sleep, Metronome, Visualization 01:46:20 Density Training: Comparing Ultradian- & Non-Ultradian Training Sessions 01:49:24 Cost-Free Ways to Support Us, Sponsors & Alternate Channels, Closing Remarks
May 17, 2021
Supercharge Exercise Performance & Recovery with Cooling | Episode 19
This episode I explain the science of heating and cooling the body, a process called thermoregulation-- and how to apply that knowledge to significantly improve physical performance. I describe the three areas of our body that can remove heat (or bring heat into the body) faster than anywhere else, why that is so, and how proper cooling of these areas with specific protocols can allow people to perform 200-600% more volume and repetitions of resistance exercises at the same weight loads, or to run, cycle or swim significantly further. I also describe how to use directed cooling of so-called glabrous skin: the bottoms of feet, palms and face, to significantly enhance recovery times from exercise. Also, why the common practices of trying to heat up or cool the body via the torso or whole-body submersion in cold can be inefficient and/or dangerous-- and the better alternatives. Finally, I discuss the temperature-effects of caffeine, alcohol and anti-inflammatory compounds. The information in this episode is focused on mechanisms and tools for increasing athletic or exercise performance.   Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Helix - Theragun -   Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne: Social: Instagram - Twitter - Facebook -   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:05:08 Physical Performance & Skill Learning 00:06:40 Optimal Learning Protocol (Recap): 4 Steps 00:08:31 Variables Impacting Physical Performance 00:10:00 Temperature Is the Dominant Variable 00:12:08 Understanding Mechanism Is Key 00:13:42 Heat: The Enemy of All Performance (& Why) 00:16:30 Blood Flow & Sweating & Piloerection 00:22:35 Heat Is What Limits Effort: Even If You Feel Fine/Motivated 00:25:29 Proper Cooling Can Double, Triple, Quadruple (Or More) Your Ability 00:26:42 Heat Induced Confusion & Death 00:30:02 The Three Body Parts Best For Heating & Cooling Your Whole Body 00:31:38 Face, Palms, Bottoms of Feet; Glabrous Skin 00:33:00 Arterio-Venous Anastamoses (AVAs) Are Super Cool(ing)! 00:37:15 Palmar Cooling Can Supercharge Your Athletic Performance 00:38:35 ATP, Pyruvate Kinase & Heat 00:40:55 Palmer Cooling Outperforms Anabolic Steroids Several-Fold 00:43:45 Increasing Endurance, Willpower & Persistence 00:46:33 Cardiac Drift, & Moving the ”I Quit” Point 00:50:44 Deliberate Heating: Myths and Better Protocols 00:53:20 Protocols For Self-Directed Cooling To Vastly Improve Performance 00:59:23 How To Use Cold To Recover Faster & More Thoroughly 01:02:05 Ice Baths & Cold Showers Can Prevent Training Progress: mTOR, etc. 01:06:29 Alcohol, Caffeine, NSAIDs: Their Temperature Effects Matter 01:09:44 Are Stimulants Counter Productive For Performance? It Depends. 01:12:00 The Caffeine Rule & “Caffeine Adaptation” 01:14:20 NSAIDs for Training: Performance Enhancements & Risks 01:17:00 The Best Way to Explore Your Own “Parameter Space” 01:18:35 Tools: How To Try 01:21:35 Cost-Free Support, & Additional Support & Resources
May 10, 2021
Boost Your Energy & Immune System with Cortisol & Adrenaline | Episode 18
This episode I describe the biology of two essential hormones we all make: cortisol and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Cortisol and adrenaline powerfully regulate our levels of energy, focus and immune system function. I describe various science-supported tools and practices to increase or decrease cortisol and/or adrenaline, depending on one's specific needs and goals. I also describe the biology of nootropics, and how cortisol and adrenaline can improve or degrade learning. Finally, I review the scientific data and tools for timing the release of these hormones to improve memory, energy and immune system function.   Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Athletic Greens - Headspace -   Our Patreon page: Supplements from Thorne: Social: Instagram - Twitter - Links: Intermittent Fasting & Growth Hormone Mechanism Habitual Coffee Drinking & Changes In Brain Connectivity Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:05:41 Energy & Your Immune System, & Learning Faster 00:08:34 Why & How Intermittent Fasting Increases Growth Hormone 00:11:56 Why Your Stomach Growls 00:13:09 Hot Baths & Hormones 00:14:35 Energy, Adrenaline (Epinephrine), & Cortisol 00:15:48 Cortisol & Cholesterol, Competition With Testosterone & Estrogen 00:17:54 Adrenaline (Epinephrine) Is Your (Immune Systems) Best Friend 00:18:48 Cortisol Basics In Two (Actually 1) Minute/s 00:19:48 Adrenaline Basics In Two Minutes 00:21:32 Tool: Time Your Cortisol Peak To Waking Using Specific Light Intensities 00:27:20 Brief Increases In Cortisol & Adrenaline Boost Energy, Focus & Immunity 00:30:04 Ways To Increase Adrenaline, Epinephrine & Cortisol & Why That Is Good 00:35:00 Does Mindset During Stress Matter? 00:36:15 Protocols: Adrenaline Breathing Described 00:39:00 Practices To Increase Energy Without Increasing Stress 00:45:00 Using Stressors to ENHANCE Our Immune System: Science & Tools 00:55:11 Timing Thyroid Release For Energy 00:57:02 Adrenaline/Stress Increase Performance & Memory. IF They Are After Learning 01:02:45 An Optimal Learning Protocol 01:03:20 Coffee Changes Your Brain & Increases Connectivity Of “Anxiety Circuits” 01:05:43 Nootropics: Two Kinds, & How & Why They Work, “Neural Energy” 01:09:00 Biology of Comfort Foods: From Negative to Positive Feedback Loops 01:14:00 Bombesin: Energy Without Eating 01:15:00 How Stress Makes Our Hair Gray, & How To Prevent Stress-Induced-Graying 01:18:05 Blunting Chronic Cortisol, Including: Ashwagandha & Science Of 01:25:50 Licorice Increases Cortisol & Blood Pressure, & Reduces Testosterone (by Glycyrrhizin) 01:28:50 Apigenin: Anti-Cortisol 01:29:53 Protocols For Optimizing Energy & Immune System Function (& Learning) 01:37:00 When Fasting, Exercise, Cold & Intense Breathing Become Detrimental 01:39:00 Prescription Compounds 01:39:47 Tools For Accessing Alert & Calm States of “Energy”: Separating The Brain & Body 01:42:11 Ways To Apply Knowledge Presented Today 01:43:20 No-Cost Ways To Support Us, Feedback, Sponsors, Patreon, Partners, “Office Hours”
May 03, 2021
How to Control Your Metabolism by Thyroid & Growth Hormone | Episode 17
This episode discusses metabolism and how our thyroid hormone and growth hormone control our metabolism. I also clarify that metabolism isn't just about burning energy, it’s about converting energy from different sources into fuels for building and repairing our tissues such as muscle, brain, and tendons and mobilizing energy from body fat storage. I discuss the role of iodine, selenium, and salt for thyroid health, and how specific exercise protocols, amino acids and temperature can dramatically shift levels of growth hormone release in waking and in sleep. I also describe the current landscape of prescription compounds, peptides and other factors for changing levels of thyroid and growth hormone, and some of their risks. Throughout the episode, mechanisms and tools grounded in specific mechanisms are discussed. Sponsors Four Sigmatic - Blinkist - Munk Pack - - Use code: huberman   Patreon page   Supplements from Thorne   Study on thermal stress and hormones Endocrine Effects of Repeated Hot Thermal Stress and Cold Water Immersion in Young Adult Men   Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:05 Thyroid & Growth Hormone 00:08:44 Food Shapes: Do They Matter? 00:11:43 Stevia: Naming & Impact 00:13:30 Metabolism 101: Your Brain the Furnace 00:17:33 Releasing Hormones From Your Brain, Stimulating Hormones from Your Pituitary 00:21:04 Thyroid Hormone’s Real Effects: Growth, Repair and Energy Consumption of Tissues 00:22:45 Iodine, L-Tyrosine & Selenium: The Trio Essential For Thyroid Function 00:26:05 How Much Iodine Do We Need? By Food, Supplement or Ocean Air 00:28:09 Selenium For Thyroid: Brazil Nuts & Other Valuable Sources 00:33:05 Selenium For Pregnancy, Prostate Cancer Risk, Acne 00:35:20 “Clean Eating” Downsides: Cruciferous Vegetables, Leeching Iodine 00:39:00 Other Benefits of Iodine: Reducing Inflammation 00:41:00 Why & How Increased Thyroid Increases Metabolism 00:42:12 What To Eat To Support Your Brain 00:43:00 Hyperthyroidism (Too Much) & Hypothyroidism (Too Little) 00:44:35 Menstruation: Thyroid Carbohydrate & Sugar Craving 00:45:33 Ketogenic Diet & Its Effects On Thyroid, Rebound Weight Gain 00:48:39 Growth Hormone: What, Why & How 00:51:18 Growth Hormone (GH) Changes Across The Lifespan & Risks of GH Therapy 00:53:40 How To Powerfully Increase Growth Hormone: Know The Natural Triggers 00:54:49 Not Eating Within 2hrs of Sleep: Keep Blood Glucose Low(ish) At Sleep 00:55:43 Delta Wave Brain Activity Is the Trigger For Growth Hormone Release 00:58:25 LOW Doses of Melatonin Supplementation For Increasing GH Release 01:01:00 Book: Altered Traits, Binaural Beats? Delta Waves Access 01:04:35 Specific Types & Duration of Exercise That Stimulate Growth Hormone & Warmups 01:08:40 Keeping Low Blood Glucose & Ensuring A Cool Down For Two Phase GH Release 01:10:36 Sex Differences For WHEN During Exercise Growth Hormone and IGF-1 Release Occurs: Males Have To Last Longer 01:14:10 Supplements That Increase Growth Hormone 100-400% (or more): Arginine, Ornithine 01:18:20 Arginine & Exercise Together Can Be Counter-Productive 01:19:50 L-Citrulline Better For Arginine Than Arginine Itself (?!); & Blood Pressure Caution 01:23:09 Growth Hormone Changes Across The Lifespan: No One Escapes 01:26:00 Heat (& Cold) for Triggering Extremely Large Increases In Growth Hormone 01:29:20 Specific Heat Protocols For Increasing Growth Hormone: Up To 16-Fold (?!) 01:34:30 2021 (New) Study: Heat Increases GH, & Lowers Cortisol, No Effects On Testosterone, DHEA Or Prolactin 01:36:00 Prescription Growth Hormone, & Emerging Peptides Therapeutics, Secretagogues Etc. 01:42:25 Synthesis, Summary Of Actionable Steps For Increasing GH and Thyroid Hormone 01:44:00 Zero Cost & Other Ways to Support Our Podcast; & Thank You!
Apr 26, 2021
How Hormones Control Hunger, Eating & Satiety | Episode 16
This episode I discuss how hormones from our gut, liver, pancreas and brain control our appetite-- and the specific tools we can use to adjust those hormones in order to achieve specific goals. I explain the brain areas that control our desire to eat, and our desire to stop eating. I discuss a hormone we all can make that is regulated by UV-rays from sunlight that reduces our appetite. I also explain that when we eat controls our appetite and not the other way around (and how to leverage that fact). I describe how we are basically always eating until we reach a threshold level of fatty acids and amino acids in our gut and the factors that can alter that signaling and make us eat far more than we need. I also explain how insulin, glucose and glucagon work, why cholesterol is so key for ovary, adrenal, liver and testes function and how the ketogenic diet impacts glucose and thyroid levels. As always, I describe many tools: specific supplements, prescription compounds, specific types (and timing) of exercise to regulate hormones, specific timing and types of eating, ways to reduce sugar cravings by triggering release of the hormone CCK, and more. Note: A future episode will cover Thyroid hormone. Also, I mis-spoke when explaining POMC neurons. I said “P-M-O-C” but should have said “POMC”. Apologies. The name I gave for what POMC is, however, was correct: "proopiomelanocortin". Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - Athletic Greens - Munk Pack - - Code: huberman Patreon: Supplements (Thorne): Links: Dr. Lustig’s Lecture Paper In Cell Metabolism On Processed Food Effects Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:59 Hunger: Neural & Hormonal Control 00:08:32 Chewing & Hunger 00:11:05 Siamese Rats Reveal the Importance of Hormones In Hunger 00:13:08 Neurons That Powerfully Control Hunger by Releasing Specific Hormones 00:16:28 Anorexia & Extreme Overeating 00:16:57 Why Sunlight Suppresses Hunger: a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (a -MSH) 00:20:03 Blue-blockers, Injecting a-MSH: Instant Tan & Priapism 00:22:30 Ghrelin: A Hormone That Determines When You Get Hungry, & That You Can Control 00:24:40 Meal Timing Determines Hunger, Not the Other Way Around 00:27:20 Satchin Panda, Circadian Eating & Intermittent(ish) Fasting 00:29:35 How To Rationally Adjust Meal Schedules: The 45min Per Day Rule 00:33:02 CCK (Cholecystokinin): A Hormone In Your Gut That Says “No Mas!” 00:34:55 Eating For Amino Acids, Fatty Acids & Sugar 00:39:05 L-Glutamine: Stimulates the Immune System & Reduces Sugar Cravings 00:43:42 Things To Avoid: Emulsifiers; Alter Gut Mucosa & Nutrient Sensing 00:49:32 “A Calorie Is NOT A Calorie” After All 00:52:36 Insulin & Glucose: Hyperglycemia, Euglycemia, & Hypogylcemia 00:56:12 The Order Your Eat Foods Matters: Managing Your Blood Glucose & Glucagon 01:02:40 Movement, Exercise & GLUT-4 01:04:50 Why Sugar Stimulates Your Appetite 01:05:40 Keeping Blood Sugar Stable With Specific Exercises, The Power Of Insulin Sensitivity 01:07:55 High-Intensity Exercise, Glycogen & Metabolism 01:10:28 Cholesterol, HDL, LDL & Glucose Management: Ovaries, Testes, Liver, Adrenals 01:15:00 Prescription Compounds That Reduce Blood Glucose: Metformin 01:16:45 Berberine: A Potent Glucose Buffer That Also Adjusts Cholesterol Levels, Canker Sores 01:22:05 Chromium, L-Carnitine, Ginseng, Caffeine, Magnesium, Stevia, Vitamin B3, & Zinc 01:24:34 Acids: Vinegar, Lemons & Limes & False Alkalinity 01:26:40 Ketogenic Diets (In Brief): Effects On Blood Glucose, Thyroid Hormones 01:28:10 Diabetes, Filtering Blood, Sweet Urine 01:31:08 The Power of GLP-1 & Yerba Mate For Controlling Appetite, Electrolytes 01:35:19 Summary & Notes About Thyroid, Estrogen, Testosterone 01:37:20 Zero Cost & Sponsor-Based Ways To Support The Huberman Lab Podcast
Apr 19, 2021
How to Optimize Testosterone & Estrogen | Episode 15
In this episode, I discuss testosterone and estrogen hormones and how they impact the brain, body, and behavior after puberty. I also discuss how various behaviors such as exercise (resistance and endurance training) and sex or observing sex impact these hormones and their levels. I ask: "what specifically is it about such activities that impact testosterone and estrogen?"; the resounding theme is that when our nervous system is activated in particular ways, it drives our endocrine system and vascular system to activate or repress certain hormone networks in predictable ways. I also discuss peer-reviewed studies and protocols addressing (at a mechanistic level) how light, cold and heat, and respiration (breathing) can positively or negatively impact testosterone and estrogen. We discuss specific supplements and compounds that peer-reviewed studies illustrate can adjust testosterone and estrogen levels by changing their binding to other proteins, raising them directly, or changing other hormones released from the brain and pituitary. I discuss optimization in the normal reference ranges for these hormones, and I discuss pheromones, apnea, menstrual cycles, menopause and andropause. Sponsors Four Sigmatic - Blinkist - Theragun - InsideTracker - Patreon   Supplements (Thorne) References Examine "Behavioral Endocrinology” Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:50) Hormone Optimization (00:07:00) Salutogenesis: A Powerful Way to Conceptualize Health (00:10:03) Estrogen and Testosterone: Sources, Levels and Ratios (00:15:46) The Power of Competition, Plus: Anxiety, Persistence and Dopamine (00:20:58) Testosterone and Libido Pre-Ovulation (00:21:48) Estrogen and Sexual Receptivity; Libido In Males (00:23:10) How Sex Behavior Impacts Testosterone: Observing vs. Actual vs. Abstinence (00:26:46) Testosterone and Prolactin: Sex Seeking vs Pair Bonding (00:27:30) DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone): Effects on Levels/Ratios (00:28:45) Behaviors That Decrease Testosterone (and Cortisol): Parenting and Prolactin (00:31:24) How Illness Impacts Testosterone and Estrogen: Cytokines, e.g., IL-6 (00:33:20) How Exactly Do Behaviors Change Hormones? (00:34:18) Pheromones: Miscarriage, Menstrual Cycles, Puberty Onset, and Mate Recognition (00:43:33) Apnea: A Powerful Bi-Directional Influence On Estrogen and Testosterone (00:47:44) Mouth vs. Nose Breathing and Hormone Levels: Effects Via Sleep and Direct Effects (00:51:11) How Sleep Adjusts Cortisol/Testosterone and Cortisol/Estrogen Ratios (00:53:49) 02:CO2 Ratios, Nasal Breathing During Exercise (00:56:30) Light Viewing Patterns and Hormones: Dopamine, GnRH (00:57:44) Spring Fever: Tyrosinase, Hair Color, Mating Frequency (01:04:39) Specificity of Hormone Effects (01:06:03) Temperature: Cold and Hot Gonads (01:14:10) How To Exercise: Types, Effort Level, Sequencing (01:21:42) Cardio/Endurance vs. Resistance Training (First or Last?) Yes, It Matters (01:24:41) Estrogen and Menopause: Compounds That May Ameliorate/Reverse Symptoms (01:33:18) Nutrients That Optimize The Foundation For Hormones (01:36:00) Opioids as Severe Hormone Disruptors (01:37:23) Testes, Antlers and Ovaries (01:38:50) Creatine and Increasing DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) (01:40:14) Free and Bound Testosterone: SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin), Tongat Ali (01:43:23) Nettles, Prostate, Boron, and Blood Brain Barrier (01:45:27) Hormone Related Cancers: Sometimes Reducing Estrogen and Testosterone Is Optimal (01:47:43) Ecdysteroids: Mimic Mammalian Hormones (01:51:50) Optimizing Brain Hormones: Chorionic Gonadotropin, Fadogia Agrestis (01:57:18) Additional Compounds, Liver Toxicity, Overall Milieu (01:59:17) Summary: And Note About Additional Related Topic Coverage Coming   Disclaimer
Apr 12, 2021
The Science of Sexual Development | Episode 14
In this episode, I discuss how hormones such as testosterone and estrogen and their derivatives impact the early development of the brain and body and their maturation. I review published data on environmental factors shown to powerfully alter hormone pathways in animals and humans and the effects of cannabis, alcohol and cell phones on testes, sperm, ovaries and hormones. I describe the predictable relationship between genes, beard growth and balding patterns, and the importance of estrogen for brain development in people of all chromosomal sexes. Finally, I discuss how the hormones we are exposed to in the womb shape the relative length of our finger digits, the sounds our ears make (yes you read that correctly), and how those correlate with people's self-reports of their sexual preferences. As always, basic information and tools are discussed.   Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker - Helix Sleep - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page   Supplements from Thorne   Social Instagram - Twitter - Facebook - Website - Newsletter -   Links Mood Meter NSDR video Cell Phones & Hormones Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation (Nature)  Minireview: Organizational Hypothesis: Instances of the Fingerpost (Endocrinology) LeVay Study in Science Magazine on Sexual Orientation Brain Dimorphism   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:47) Announcement: Mood Meter App Works Again (00:08:00) Maximizing Learning from the Podcast (00:10:00) New Non-Sleep Deep Rest Protocol, Spanish Subtitles (00:11:35) Sexual Differentiation: Hormones, Neurons & Behavior (00:14:15) Hormones Basics (00:15:26) Sperm Meets Egg, Chromosomal Sex, Gonadal Sex, (00:17:50) Y Chromosome Inhibition of Feminization (00:19:00) Placenta Is An Endocrine (Hormone-Producing) Organ, Adrenal Testosterone (00:19:45) Hormonal Sex, Morphological Sex (00:21:04) Hormones Fast & Slow, Sex Steroids Can Turn On Genes (00:23:06) Masculinization, Feminization, Demasculinization, Defeminization (00:23:42) Primary Sexual Characteristics: DHT Drives Penis Development (00:27:03) Secondary Sexual Characteristics (00:27:43) Penis Sprouting: Guevedoces (00:31:25) Estrogen, NOT Testosterone, Masculinizes The Brain (00:33:15) Breast Development In Males: Aromatase; Puberty, & Steroids in Athletes (00:34:50) Estrogen Powerfully Controls Brain Development In All Individuals (00:35:19) Avoiding Hormonal Disruption In Children & Adults: Specific Oils, Creams, Etc. (00:39:00) Environmental Endocrine Disruptors, Sperm Count Decline, Vincloziline (00:44:20) Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Hormones Need Receptors, SARMS (00:48:41) Estrogen Establishes “Masculine” Brain Circuits, Testosterone (00:49:42) Cannabis, Alcohol: In Babies, Puberty & Adults (00:56:25) Cell Phone Technology: Effects On Hormones, Ovaries, & Testicles (01:02:33) Beards & Baldness Patterns Around the World, DHT, 5-alpha-reductase (01:06:39) Creatine & DHT/Hair Loss (01:08:20) Predicting Aging Rates By Pubertal Rates (01:10:04) Hyenas, Baseball, & Jumbo Clitorises: Androstenedione (01:14:26) Intersex Moles (01:15:40) Marijuana Plants, Pollens: Plant-To-Animal “Warfare” (01:20:08) Finger Length Ratios, Prenatal Hormone Exposure & Sexual Orientation (01:29:13) Brain Dimorphisms with Sexual Orientation (01:32:00) “Older Brother Effects”: Male Fetuses Might Change Mothers & Subsequent Brothers (01:35:06) The Path Forward & A Warning (01:35:55) Support & Your Questions Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 05, 2021
The Science of Emotions & Relationships | Episode 13
In this episode, I discuss the biology of emotions and moods in the context of relationships. I focus on the science of how early infant-caregiver attachment, combined with adolescence and puberty shape our adult patterns of attachment. I explain the three universal aspects of emotions, the reality of right-brain versus left-brain personalities, and how the roots of adult attachment are also grounded in specific aspects of puberty. I review what factors determine when puberty starts and ends, and the role of oxytocin and other chemicals in controlling how we perceive and remember others. As always, I refer to various practical tools including new tools for understanding and predicting our emotions before they occur, and neurochemicals that shape human connection.   Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker - ExpressVPN - Magic Spoon - Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Links NSDR - Mood Meter App - Adolescence and The Brain - Vagus and Depression -   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:10) Announcing New Cost-Free Resources: Captions, NSDR Link (00:07:40) Emotions: Subjective Yet Tractable (00:10:53) To Understand Your Emotions: Look At Infancy & Puberty (00:15:21) Your First Feeling Was Anxiety (00:17:36) What Are “Healthy Emotions”? (00:19:03) Digital Tool For Predicting Your Emotions: Mood Meter App (00:21:08) The Architecture Of A Feeling: (At Least) 3 Key Questions To Ask Yourself (00:24:00) You Are An Infant: Bonds & Predictions (00:27:57) Attachment Style Hinges On How You Handle Disappointment (00:32:40) “Glue Points” Of Emotional Bonds: Gaze, Voice, Affect, Touch, (& Written) (00:36:34) “Emotional Health”: Awareness of the Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Dynamic (00:37:50) An Exercise: Controlling Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Bias (00:42:19) Getting Out Of Your Head: The Attentional Aperture (00:46:59) Puberty: Biology & Emotions On Deliberate Overdrive (00:47:58) Bodyfat & Puberty: The Leptin Connection (00:50:34) Pheromones: Mates, Timing Puberty, Spontaneous Miscarriage (00:54:37) Kisspeptin: Robust Trigger Of Puberty & Performance Enhancing Agent (00:58:26) Neuroplasticity Of Emotions: Becoming Specialists & Testing Emotional Bonds (01:00:25) Testing Driving Brain Circuits For Emotion: Dispersal (01:07:48) Science-Based Recommendations for Adolescents and Teens: The Autonomy Buffet (01:11:05) “Right-Brain Versus Left-Brain People”: Facts Versus Lies (01:14:18) Left Brain = Language, Right Brain = Spatial Awareness (01:16:15) How To Recognize “Right Brain Activity” In Speech: Prosody (01:18:32) Oxytocin: The Molecule of Synchronizing States (01:20:09) Mirror Neurons: Are Not For “Empathy”, Maybe For Predicting Behavior (01:23:00) Promoting Trust & Monogamy (01:27:00) Ways To Increase Oxytocin (01:28:34) Vasopressin: Aphrodisiac, Non-Monogamy and Anti-Bed-Wetting Qualities (01:30:43) Bonding Bodies, Not Just Minds: Vagus Nerve, Depression Relief Via the Body (01:35:18) A Powerful Tool For Enhancing Range & Depth of Emotional Experience (01:30:43) MDMA and Other Psychedelic Compounds: Building A Framework (01:38:54) Roundup, Various Forms of Support   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 29, 2021
How To Increase Motivation & Drive | Episode 12
This episode explains the science of motivation and drive. I describe how dopamine-- a chemical we all make in our brain, underlies our desire for and pursuit of our goals, as well as our capacity to move and experience pleasure. I describe how we can leverage specific behaviors, reward schedules and dopamine-prolactin balance to help ensure we can maintain motivation and capacity for pleasure over the long term. I also discuss dopamine in the context of ADHD, craving and addiction, and some absolutely amazing results about specificity of drug effects based purely on belief. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens - Headspace - Magic Spoon - Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Timestamps below (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:22) Announcement: Spanish Subtitles (00:05:06) Emotions, Addiction & Mindset (00:06:22) Motivation & Movement: The Dopamine Connection (00:07:29) A Double-Edged Dopamine Blade (00:08:56) Dopamine Fundamentals: Precursor to Adrenalin (00:10:15) The Reward Pathway: An Accelerator & A Brake (00:12:10) Motivation= Pleasure Plus Pain (00:14:14) The Dopamine Staircase: Food, Sex, Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine (00:16:15) Subjective Control of Dopamine Release (00:17:40) Social Media and Video Games (00:18:15) Addiction & Dopamine: Progressively Diminishing Returns (00:18:48) Novelty, Sensation-Seeking & Anticipation (00:20:15) Craving: Part Pain, Part Pleasure & Pain Always Prevails (00:23:11) Desire Scales With Pain: The Yearning Function (00:24:43) The Croissant Craving Circuit (00:25:45) “Here and Now” Molecules: Serotonin, Bliss & Raphe Nucleus (00:26:26) In Your Skin Or Out In the World (00:27:25) Cannabinoids Lethargy & Forgetfulness (00:28:15) The Almond Meditation (00:29:30) Drugs That Shift Exteroception Versus Interoception (00:30:36) Emotional Balance, Active & Passive Manipulation (00:32:36) Procrastination: Leveraging Stress, Breathing, Caffeine, L-Tyrosine, Prescription Drugs (00:37:04) When Enough Is Never Enough; How Dopamine Undermines Itself (00:38:58) Dopamine-Prolactin Dynamics: Sex, Reproduction & Refractory Periods (00:40:30) The Coolidge Effect: Novelty-Induced Suppression of Prolactin (00:42:22) Vitamin B6, Zinc As Mild Prolactin Inhibitors (00:43:25) Schizophrenia, Dopamine Hyperactivity and Side Effects of Anti-Dopaminergic Drugs (00:45:08) Prolactin, Post-Satisfaction “Lows” & Extending the Arc of Dopamine (00:48:00) The Chemistry of “I Won, But Now What?” (00:49:00) Healthy Emotional Development: Child and Parent (00:50:03) Never Say “Maybe” (Reward Prediction Error) (00:52:02) Surprise! (00:52:59) Are You Suppressing Your Drive and Motivation By Working Too Late? (00:54:50) Disambiguating Pleasure and Drive: Dopamine Makes Us Anti-Lazy (00:58:00) Beta-Phenylethylamine (PEA), & Acetyl L-Carnitine (01:00:00) Attention Deficit Disorders, Cal Newport Books, Impulsivity & Obesity (01:03:55) Leveraging Dopamine Schedules (01:05:22) Subjective Control of Dopamine and Drug Effects: The “Adderall” Experiment (01:09:03) Caffeine May Protect Dopamine Neurons, Methamphetamine Kills Them (01:10:57) Nicotine: Dopamine, Possible Neuroprotection, Prolactin Increase (01:11:53) Gambling, Intermittent Reinforcement, & Persistent Goal Seeking (Bad and Good) (01:14:14) Intermittent Halting of Celebration; Enjoy Your Wins, But Not All of Them (01:18:38) A Story Example of Intermittent Reward to Maintain Long-Term Drive and Motivation (01:21:25) Corrections & Notes About Spanish Captions & Other Languages Soon (01:24:00) Synthesis & Framework, Zero-Cost Support & A Note About Sponsors Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 22, 2021
How Foods and Nutrients Control Our Moods | Episode 11
This episode explains the brain-body connections that allow the specific foods we eat to control our moods and motivation. I discuss the vagus nerve and its role in dopamine and serotonin release in the brain. I review Omega-3 fatty acids and the key role of the gut microbiome in supporting (or hindering) our mental and emotional states. Many actionable tools are reviewed and discussed related to fasting, ketogenic and plant-based diets, probiotics, fermented foods, fish oils, artificial sweeteners, specific supplements that promote dopamine and serotonin, and some remarkable behavioral (and belief) effects. Thank you to our sponsors Theragun - InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page   Supplements from Thorne   Links Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Microbiome: Anti-Depressive Effects of EPAs Links to Studies on Supplements Discussed   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:00) Emotions: Aligning Mind & Body (00:06:41) Nutrients, Neurochemicals and Mood (00:08:39) Primitive Expressions and Actions (00:12:30) The Vagus Nerve: Truth, Fiction, Function (00:15:45) “Vagus Stimulation”: A Terrible Concept (00:16:35) Polyvagal Theory (00:18:27) Vagus Senses Many Things, & Moves Our Organs (00:19:35) Sugar Sensing Without Perception of Sweetness (00:23:00) Eating-Induced Anxiety (00:27:30) We Eat Until Our Brain Perceives “Amino Acid Threshold” (00:29:45) Reward Prediction Error: Buildup, Letdown and Wanting More (00:32:01) L-Tyrosine, Dopamine, Motivation, Mood, & Movement (00:34:04) Supplementing L-Tyrosine, Drugs of Abuse, Wellbutrin (00:38:29) Serotonin: Gut, Brain, Satiety and Prozac (00:43:38) Eating to Promote Dopamine (Daytime) & Serotonin (Night Time) (00:44:30) Supplementing Serotonin: Sleep, & Caution About Sleep Disruptions (00:46:40) An Amazing Cost-Free Resource with Links to Science Papers (00:48:05) Mucuna Pruriens: The Dopamine Bean with a Serotonin Outer Shell (00:51:00) Emotional Context and Book Recommendation: “How Emotions Are Made” (00:54:55) Exercise: Powerful Mood Enhancer, But Lacks Specificity (00:56:45) Omega-3: Omega-6 Ratios, Fish Oil and Alleviating Depression (01:01:00) Fish Oil as Antidepressant (01:02:40) EPAs May Improve Mood via Heart Rate Variability: Gut-Heart-Brain (01:07:24) Alternatives to Fish Oil to Obtain Sufficient Omega-3/EPAs (01:09:05) L-Carnitine for Mood, Sperm and Ovary Quality, Autism, Fibromyalgia, Migraine (01:16:29) Gut-Microbiome: Myths, Truths & the Tubes Within Us (01:21:55) Probiotics, Brain Fog, Autism, Fermentation (01:25:20) Artificial Sweeteners & the Gut Microbiome: NOT All Bad; It Depends! (01:28:00) Ketogenic, Vegan, & Processed Food Effects, Individual Differences (01:33:20) Fasting-Based Depletion of Our Microbiome (01:35:20) How Mindset Effects Our Responses to Foods: Amazing (Ghrelin) Effects! (01:38:30) How Mindset Controls Our Metabolism (01:41:03) Closing Comments, Thanks, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 15, 2021
Master Stress: Tools for Managing Stress & Anxiety | Episode 10
This episode explains what stress is, and how it recruits our brain and body to react in specific ways. I describe the three main types of stress, and how two of them actually enhance the function of our immune system making us less vulnerable to infections. I review tools that allow us to control our stress in real-time, as well as tools to prevent long-term stress, burnout and stress-induced illness and anxiety. As always, we cover behavioral tools and supplements that can assist or hinder stress control. Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker - Helix Sleep -   Our Patreon page   Supplements from Thorne   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:41) Emotions: A Logical Framework of Brain-Body Loops (00:10:29) Stress: The (Falsely Narrow) Animal Attack Narrative (00:14:31) The Stress RESPONSE: Generic, Channels blood, Biases Action (00:21:08) Tools to Actually Control Stress: Reduce Alertness or Increase Calm (00:24:15) The Fastest Way to Reduce Stress In Real Time: “Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia” (00:29:45) The Fastlane to Calm (00:34:53) Important Notes About Heart Rate Deceleration: Vaso-vagal Lag (00:36:50) Cyclic Sighing For Calm and Sleep Induction (00:37:57) Nasal Breathing For Cosmetic, Immune and Performance Enhancement (00:38:46) Two Breathing Centers In The Brain (00:39:45) Breathing For Speaking Clearly (00:40:39) The 3 Types of Stress: Short, Medium and Long-Term (00:42:10) Positive Effects of Short-Term Stress: Immunity and Focus (00:45:32) Adrenalin (Epinephrine) Deploys Killer Immune Cells (00:46:40) Cyclic Deep Breathing IS Stress: Wim Hof, Tummo & Super-Oxygenation (00:50:58) Inflammation Is Useful and Good, In the Short Term (00:52:02) Procrastination and Self-Manufactured Nootropics (00:53:00) Relaxation Can Causes Illness (00:54:30) Immune Activation Protocol (00:55:20) Medium Term Stress: A Clear Definition (00:56:07) Stress Threshold (00:57:10) Stress Inoculation Tools: Separating Mind & Body, On Purpose (00:59:50) Use Vision to Calm the Mind When the Body Is Agitated (01:02:36) Beyond NSDR (01:04:36) Long Term Stress: Definition, Measurement, Cardiovascular Risks (01:06:30) Tools for Dealing With Long Term Stress (01:08:20) The Oxytocin Myth (01:09:15) Serotonin: Satiety, Safety (01:12:00) Delight and Flexibility (01:13:30) Chemical Irritants We Make But Can Control: Tackykinin (01:15:40) Impactful Gratitude (01:16:25) Non-Prescription Chemical Compounds For Additional Anti-Stress Support (01:18:04) Melatonin: Cautionary Note About Adrenal Suppression (01:19:15) Adrenal Burnout Is A Myth… But Why You Need to Know About It Anyway (01:21:10) L-Theanine For Stress Reduction and Task Completion Anxiety (01:23:00) Beware Taurine and Energy Drinks With Taurine (01:23:30) Ashwagandha: Can Powerfully Lower Anxiety And Cortisol (01:25:50) Is An Amazing Free Resource (01:26:20) How This All Relates to Emotions: State Versus Demand = Valence (01:32:00) Modulating Reactivity, Mindfulness, & Functionality With Objective Tools (01:34:00) Next Steps (01:35:40) Topic Suggestions, Subscriptions and Reviews Please (01:37:40) Additional Resources, Synthesis   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 08, 2021
Control Pain & Heal Faster with Your Brain | Episode 9
In this episode, I describe the science of how and why pain arises in the body and brain, and how we can actively control our experience of pain. I discuss inflammation, stress, acupuncture, limb damage and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). I review protocols that leverage the lymphatic and nervous system to accelerate pain relief and healing in a variety of situations. Other topics discussed include how heat versus cold impacts neurons and wounds, red-light, sunlight, stem cells and more.  Thank you to our sponsors ExpressVPN - Athletic Greens - Our Patreon page Supplements from Thorne Links The Ready State/Dr. Kelly Starrett: Instagram (@thereadystate): Twitter (@thereadystate): Love and Pain Study:   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction/Avenues for Support (00:04:58) Deliberate Unlearning (00:06:43) Pain, Injury and Regeneration (00:09:17) A System of Touch (Somatosensation) (00:11:42) Pain and Injury are Dissociable (00:15:19) Objective versus Subjective Control of Experience (00:16:15) Plasticity of Perception (00:16:41) Lack of Pain Is Self-Destructive; So Is Excessive Pain (00:18:42) Homoculous, Ratonculous, Dogunculus (00:19:05) “Sensitivity” explained (00:21:30) Inflammation (00:22:24) Phantom Limb Pain (00:24:00) Top-down Relief of Pain by Vision (00:26:41) From Deaf to Hearing Sounds (00:28:10) Pain Is In The Mind & Body (00:29:44) Recovering Movement Faster After Injury (00:35:00) Don’t Over Compensate (00:37:34) Concussion, TBI & Brain Ageing (00:40:49) The Brain’s Sewage Treatment System: Glymphatic Clearance (00:43:05) Body Position & Angle During Sleep (00:44:30) Types of Exercise For Restoring & Maintaining Brain Health (00:47:33) Ambulance Cells in The Brain (00:49:20) True Pain Control by Belief and Context (00:51:45) Romantic Love and Pain (00:55:05) Dopaminergic Control of Pain (00:57:15) Acupuncture: Rigorous Scientific Assessment (01:07:32) Vagus Activation and Autonomic Control of Pain (01:08:30) Inflammation, Turmeric, Lead and DHT (01:11:40) Adrenalin: Wim Hof, Tummo, “Super-Oxygenation” Breathing (01:14:53) Protocols For Accelerating Tissue Repair & Managing Pain (01:17:55) Ice Is Not Always Nice (For Pain and Injury): Sludging, Fascia, Etc. (01:22:02) Chronic and/or Whole Body Pain; Red-Light Therapy, Sunlight (01:26:10) Glymphatics and Sleep (01:26:29) Stem Cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP: Shams, Shoulds and Should Nots (01:31:38) Young Blood: Actual Science (01:35:44) Synthesis, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 01, 2021
Optimize Your Brain with Science-based Tools | Episode 8
In this episode, I describe how to access focused learning bouts, creative states, and the underlying neural circuitry involved. I frame this in the context of our daily 24-hour cycle in order to make it practical, clear and precise about timing. I review the role of fasting, meal timing and specific types of nutrients for promoting certain states of mind. I also review various other tools and biological factors that directly or indirectly gate brain function and that we can control. I answer commonly asked questions about the science of psychedelics, binaural beats, and visualization. Thank you for your interest in science! Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker - Athletic Greens -   Our Patreon page   Supplements from Thorne   Links Spike Jonze/Kenzo Perfume: Dr. Charles Czeisler, MD, Ph.D.: Reveri (Research Supported Hypnosis): The NSDR I do every day (30 min):   Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:53) The Daily (Learning) Routine (00:07:13) Plasticity Is NOT the Goal (00:09:26) No Obligation To Change (00:09:59) Practical Plasticity Language (00:13:37) Pillars of Neuroplasticity (00:15:16) My Daily Routine: Chronotype Management (00:17:20) Plasticity of the Wake-Sleep Circuit: Morning Light (00:19:09) Delay Caffeine! (00:21:19) Light, Black Coffee, Hydrate (00:22:57) High Alertness, Linear Tasks/Learning (00:25:12) Background Music/Noise: Yay or Nay? (00:26:52) “GO” versus “NO-GO”: The Basal Ganglia & Dopamine (00:28:37) Leveraging GO, NO-GO (00:30:08) Non-Specific Action (00:32:06) Clear, Calm, Focused: The GO, NO-GO Sweet Spot (00:33:48) When Very Alert, Work In Silence; When Tired, Include Background Noise (00:35:28) Temperaments Vary: And So Should This (00:36:01) The 3 Hour-Long Post Waking Block (00:36:20) Early Morning Exercise and GO Networks (00:38:05) Fasting, Ketogenic Diets, & Food Volume (00:39:41) Sodium/Electrolytes (00:40:57) Avoiding Hot Lunch, Food Pre-Occupation (00:42:01) Post Lunch Low/No Cognitive Load (00:42:56) Hydration, NSDR, Nap (00:44:54) Creativity Work (00:46:26) Creativity Is A Two-Part Phenomenon (00:51:15) Psychedelics (00:58:20) Afternoon Light As Insurance (01:00:26) Evening Nutrition (01:01:21) Repacking Glycogen: Hormonal Factors (01:04:11) Pre-Sleep Anxiety: Normal and Easy To Solve (01:07:08) The Power of Objective Tools (01:08:14) Visualization (01:11:34) Mini-Synthesis (01:13:31) Resetting Your Clock (01:15:55) Don’t Trust the Mind Now (01:16:59) Two, (Maybe 3) Optimization Bouts Per Day (01:18:33) Organizational Logic (01:20:22) Wim Hof Breathing, Binaural Beats, Ice Baths, Etc. (01:24:42) Variation Among People, and Dogs (01:25:49) Accurate Versus Exhaustive (01:27:57) Familiar and New Ways To Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 22, 2021
How to Learn Faster by Using Failures, Movement & Balance | Episode 7
In this episode, I discuss how we can use specific types of behavior to change our brain, both for sake of learning the movements themselves and for allowing us to learn non-movement-based information as well. I describe the key role that errors play in triggering our brains to change and how the vestibular (balance) system can activate and amplify neuroplasticity. As always, I cover science and science-based practical tools. Thank you in advance for your questions and for your interest in science! Thank you to our sponsors Headspace - Athletic Greens - Madefor - -- code: Huberman Supplements from Thorne Timestamps below (00:00:00): Introduction (00:06:20): Nerves and Muscles (00:12:00): Exercise alone won’t change your brain (00:12:58): Behavior will change your brain (00:13:30): Remembering the wrong things (00:15:00): Behavior as the gate to plasticity (00:15:45): Types of Plasticity (00:17:32): Errors Not Flow Trigger Plasticity (00:21:30): Mechanisms of Plasticity (00:22:30): What to learn when you are young (00:23:50): Alignment of your brain maps: neuron sandwiches 00:26:00: Wearing Prisms On Your Face (00:29:10): The KEY Trigger Plasticity (00:32:20): Frustration Is the Feeling to Follow (Further into Learning) (00:33:10): Incremental Learning (00:35:30): Huberman Free Throws (00:38:50): Failure Specificity Triggers Specific Plastic Changes (00:40:20): Triggering Rapid, Massive Plasticity Made Possible (00:43:25): Addiction (00:45:25): An Example of Ultradian-Incremental Learning 00:49:42: Bad Events (00:51:55): Surprise! (00:52:00): Making Dopamine Work For You (Not The Other Way Around) (00:53:20): HOW to release dopamine (00:55:00): (Mental) Performance Enhancing Drugs (00:56:00): Timing Your Learning (00:57:36): (Chem)Trails of Neuroplasticity (00:58:57): The Three Key Levers To Accelerate Plasticity (00:59:15): Limbic Friction: Finding Clear, Calm and Focused (01:04:25): The First Question To Ask Yourself Before Learning (01:05:00): Balance (01:07:45): Cerebellum (01:10:00): Flow States Are Not The Path To Learning (01:11:18): Novelty and Instability Are Key (01:14:55): How to Arrive At Learning (01:15:45): The Other Reason Kids Learn Faster Than Adults (01:19:25): Learning French and Other Things Faster (01:22:00): Yoga versus Science (01:32:00): Closing Remarks Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 15, 2021
How to Focus to Change Your Brain | Episode 6
This episode introduces neuroplasticity—which is how our brain and nervous system learn and acquire new capabilities. I describe the differences between childhood and adult neuroplasticity, the chemicals involved and how anyone can increase their rate and depth of learning by leveraging the science of focus. I describe specific tools for increasing focus and learning. The next two episodes will cover the ideal protocols for specific types of learning and how to make learning new information more reflexive. Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker - Headspace - Madefor - -- code: Huberman Supplements from Thorne: For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:03:50) Plasticity: What Is it, & What Is It For? (00:06:30) Babies and Potato Bugs (00:08:00) Customizing Your Brain (00:08:50) Hard-Wired Versus Plastic Brains (00:10:25) Everything Changes At 25 (00:12:29) Costello and Your Hearing (00:13:10) The New Neuron Myth (00:14:10) Anosmia: Losing Smell (00:15:13) Neuronal Birthdays Near Our Death Day (00:16:45) Circumstances for Brain Change (00:17:21) Brain Space (00:18:30) No Nose, Eyes, Or Ears (00:19:30) Enhanced Hearing and Touch In The Blind (00:20:20) Brain Maps of The Body Plan (00:21:00) The Kennard Principle (Margaret Kennard) (00:21:36) Maps of Meaning (00:23:00) Awareness Cues Brain Change (00:25:20) The Chemistry of Change (00:26:15) A Giant Lie In The Universe 00:27:10) Fathers of Neuroplasticity/Critical Periods 00:29:30) Competition Is The Route to Plasticity 00:32:30) Correcting The Errors of History 00:33:29) Adult Brain Change: Bumps and Beeps (00:36:25) What It Takes to Learn (00:38:15) Adrenalin and Alertness (00:40:18) The Acetylcholine Spotlight (00:42:26) The Chemical Trio For Massive Brain Change (00:44:10) Ways To Change Your Brain (00:46:16) Love, Hate, & Shame: all the same chemical (00:47:30) The Dopamine Trap (00:49:40) Nicotine for Focus (00:52:30) Sprinting (00:53:30) How to Focus (00:55:22) Adderall: Use & Abuse (00:56:40) Seeing Your Way To Mental Focus (01:02:59) Blinking (01:05:30) And Ear Toward Learning (01:06:14) The Best Listeners In The World (01:07:20) Agitation is Key (01:07:40) ADHD & ADD: Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (01:12:00) Ultra(dian) Focus (01:13:30) When Real Change Occurs (01:16:20) How Much Learning Is Enough? (01:16:50) Learning In (Optic) Flow/Mind Drift (01:18:16) Synthesis/Summary (01:25:15) Learning With Repetition, Forming Habits As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 08, 2021
Understanding and Using Dreams to Learn and to Forget | Episode 5
This episode is all about the two major kinds of dreams and the sorts of learning and unlearning they are used for. I discuss REM-associated dreams that control emotional learning and their similarity to various trauma treatments such as ketamine and EMDR. I also discuss Non-REM dreams and their role in motor learning and learning of detailed, non-emotionally-laden information. I relate this to science-backed tools for accessing more of the types of sleep and learning people may want. Other topics are listed in the time stamps below. Thank you to our sponsors Helix Sleep - Athletic Greens - Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:03:00) The Dream Mask (00:06:00) Cycling Sleep (00:08:10) Chemical Cocktails of Sleep (00:13:00) Motor Learning (00:16:30) High Performance with Less Sleep (00:17:45) Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (00:20:30) Paralysis & Hallucinations (00:23:35) Nightmares (00:24:45) When REM & Waking Collide (00:25:00) Sleeping While Awake (00:26:45) Alien Abductions (00:29:00) Irritability (00:30:00) Sleep to Delete (00:32:25) Creating Meaning (00:34:10) Adults Acting Like Children (00:36:20) Trauma & REM (00:37:15) EMDR (00:39:10) Demo (00:44:25) Ketamine / PCP (00:45:45) Soup, Explosions, & NMDA (00:48:55) Self Therapy (00:50:30) Note About Hormones (00:51:40) Measuring REM / SWS (00:53:15) Sleep Consistency (00:56:00) Bed Wetting (00:58:00) Serotonin (00:59:00) Increasing SWS (00:59:50) Lucidity (01:02:15) Booze / Weed (01:03:50) Scripting Dreams (01:04:35) Theory of Mind (01:07:55) Synthesis (01:10:00) Intermittent Sleep Deprivation (01:11:10) Snoring Disclaimer (01:11:40) New Topic (01:15:50) Corrections (01:17:25) Closing Remarks As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 01, 2021
Find Your "Temperature Minimum" to Defeat Jetlag, Shift Work & Sleeplessness | Episode 4
In this episode, I discuss a simple and reliable measurement called your "temperature minimum" that you can use to rapidly adjust to new time zones when traveling and to offset the bad effects of nocturnal shift work. I also discuss tools for adjusting sleep and waking rhythms in babies, teens, new parents and the elderly. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens - Headspace - Supplements from Thorne For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:15) The bedrock of sleep-rest cycles (00:07:05) Night owls and morning larks (00:08:22) “The perfect schedule” (00:11:04) The 100K Lux per morning goal (00:15:15) Keeping your biological clock set (00:16:15) Reset your cortisol (00:21:22) Jetlag, death and lifespan (00:23:00) Going East versus West (00:28:45) The key to clock control (00:31:01) Your Temperature Minimum (00:36:30) Temperature and Exercise (00:41:20) Eating (00:42:50) Go West (00:44:15) Pineal myths and realities (00:51:13) The Heat-Cold Paradox (00:53:45) Staying on track (00:55:30) Nightshades (00:57:00) Emergency resets (00:57:30) Psychosis by light (00:58:05) Shift work (01:02:40) The Temperature-Light Rule (01:04:20) Up all night: watch the sunrise? (01:06:45) Error correction is good (01:08:20) NSDR protocols/implementation (01:10:44) The frog skin in your eye (not a joke) (01:16:39) Why stress turns your hair white (01:17:24) Ovaries or testes? (01:18:25) Babies and bright light (01:21:40) Polyphasic sleep (01:25:25) Ultradian cycles in children (01:27:38) Teens and puberty (01:29:50) Light before waking for better sleep (01:31:20) Older people and circadian rhythms (01:33:48) Sleepy Supplements (01:42:00) Red Pills & Acupuncture (01:43:50) Highlights (01:48:30) Feedback and Support As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 25, 2021
Using Science to Optimize Sleep, Learning & Metabolism | Episode 3
“Office Hours” — In this episode, I answer your most commonly asked questions about science-supported tools for accessing more alertness, better learning, and quality sleep. I also cover when to exercise, time meals, and how to systematically vary your temperature to achieve specific effects on your nervous system. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens - InsideTracker - For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:50) Moonlight & Fire (09:25:00) Red Light: Good & Bad (00:15:45) Why Blue-Blockers Are Unscientific (00:19:20) Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses & Windows (00:22:05) Adding Up Your Lights (00:24:30) “Netflix Inoculation” With Light (00:25:25) How The Planet Controls Your Energy (00:27:00) A Season For Breeding (?) (00:31:15) Melatonin / Serotonin (00:33:50) Epinephrine vs Adrenaline: Same? Different? (00:35:00) Exercise & Your Sleep (00:40:30) Neuroplasticity & Food/Chemicals/NSDR (00:44:10) Using Sound & Smell To Learn Faster (00:46:45) Dream Meaning & Remembering (00:48:15) Waking Up Paralyzed (00:49:40) Nap/Focus Ratios For Accelerated Learning (00:52:45) Hypnotizing Yourself (00:54:05) Smart Drugs (01:01:10) Magnesium: Yay, Nay, or Meh? (01:02:10) How Apigenin Works (01:04:30) Serotonin: Slippery Slope (01:05:35) The Frog Experiment (01:08:35) Temperature (01:10:30) Morning Chills (01:28:00) Eating For Heating (01:30:30) Vagal Pathways For Gut-Brain Dialogue (01:31:50) Sex Differences (01:33:50) Self Experimentation As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 18, 2021
Master Your Sleep & Be More Alert When Awake | Episode 2
Today's episode provides a host of information on what makes us sleepy, sleep soundly, and feel awake and alert. It covers a broad range of tools for anyone wishing to improve their sleep and wakeful state. The science and logic for each tool is described. Please put your questions related to Episodes 1 & 2 in the comments section below so I can address them in Episode 3 "Office Hours". Thank you to our sponsors Helix Sleep: Headspace: For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:03:30): What Is Sleep Really For? (00:06:15): Sleep Hunger (00:09:00): Caffeine: Devil & Angel (00:12:20): Timing Your Sleep Properly (00:14:15): Release Your Hormones (At The Right Times) (00:18:45): (Pineal) Melatonin Waring (00:24:30): Strange Vision Is Good Vision (00:32:50): Blue Light Is Great! (00:37:00): The Real Problem With Smartphones (00:38:30): Blind / Low Vision People (00:39:45): Using Exercise & Food To Set Your Clock (00:42:00): The Power of Sunset (00:45:43): The Healthy Holes In Your Skull (00:48:15): Bad Light (00:51:11): Light Location (00:53:00): Fire / Candlelight (00:54:00): When To Eat (00:54:40): How To Wake Up Earlier (01:08:00): Using The Body To Control The Mind (01:10:00) Drugs & Supplements (01:18:00): Sleep Walking (01:20:00): Office Hours Links to several of the tools mentioned in this episode are listed below. 10 Min Yoga Nidra Script (no cost) 35 Min Yoga Nidra Script (no cost) Research-Supported Hypnosis Scripts Independent Supplement Research Site Note: A special episode devoted to shift workers and jetlag is coming out soon As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 11, 2021
How Your Brain Works & Changes | Episode 1
Today’s episode provides an introduction to how the nervous system works to create sensations, perceptions, emotions, thoughts and behaviors, as well as how we can change our nervous system— a phenomenon known as neuroplasticity. The information sets the stage for all Huberman Lab Podcast episodes that follow by covering neurons, synapses, brain chemicals and the rhythms that control our ability to focus, learn and sleep… and more. Thank you for your interest in science. We'll see you next week! Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: InsideTracker: For the full show notes, visit Timestamps (00:05:00): What is the Nervous System (00:08:55): Deja Vu (00:10:50): How War, Guns & Soap Shaped Our Understanding of the Brain (00:13:30): Jennifer Aniston Neurons (00:14:30): Sensations (00:16:10): Magnetic Sensing & Mating (00:17:30): Perceptions & The Spotlight of Attention (00:18:30): Multi-Tasking Is Real (00:20:10): Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Control of Behavior (00:21:15): Focusing the Mind (00:24:30): Antidepressants (00:27:40): Thoughts & Thought Control (00:28:35): Actions (00:33:20): How We Control Our Impulses (00:36:25): Neuroplasticity: The Holy Grail of Neuroscience (00:41:20): The Portal to Neuroplasticity (00:46:40): Accelerating Learning in Sleep (00:50:20): The Pillar of Plasticity (00:55:00): Leveraging Ultradian Cycles & Self Experimentation Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 04, 2021
Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast
Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast, a new podcast from Dr. Andrew Huberman. The podcast can also be found on YouTube.
Dec 21, 2020