Huberman Lab

By Scicomm Media

Listen to a podcast, please open Podcast Republic app. Available on Google Play Store.


Category: Health & Fitness

Open in Apple Podcasts


Open RSS feed


Open Website


Rate for this podcast

Subscribers: 5327
Reviews: 15


 Sep 19, 2022
Huberman goes deep but keeps his podcast understandable and fun. This podcast has changed my life for the better in more ways then one.


 Aug 24, 2022
I understand the importance of fitness but this isn't for me. This podcast is just way to technical for me.


 Jul 16, 2022

jeff
 Apr 13, 2022

Phalanx
 Mar 14, 2022

Description

Huberman Lab discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body control our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.

Episode Date
Dr. Lex Fridman: Navigating Conflict, Finding Purpose & Maintaining Drive | Episode 100
9705
My guest this episode is Lex Fridman, Ph.D., a Research Scientist at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT), an expert on artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, and the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast. We discuss Lex’s recent trip to the heart of the Ukrainian-Russian War, geopolitics, perspectives on people living in war zones, the shared human experience, and how information is communicated and controlled. As an experienced podcaster and public educator, Dr. Fridman offers unique insights into the art of holding conversations that grow understanding, especially when they involve people with opposing viewpoints. We also discuss the peer-review process for scientific research publications and how social media and podcasts are evolving the way science and technology are communicated. We consider how to find and follow your life’s purpose, maintain ongoing motivation and implement support systems to build and sustain momentum. Our conversation also covers capitalism, masculinity, chess and cheating, Lex’s idea for an AI robotics start-up and a Q&A from audience questions solicited on social media. As one of the main inspirations for the Huberman Lab podcast, hosting Dr. Fridman for this special centennial episode was an honor and a pleasure! Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Lex Fridman (00:04:30) LMNT, Levels, Eight Sleep (00:08:28) Podcasting (00:12:11) Ukraine, Russia, War & Geopolitics (00:23:17) Conflict & Generalized Hate (00:26:23) Typical Day in Ukraine; American Military & Information Wars (00:37:28) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:38:42) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Sauna; Fertility (00:46:44) Ukraine: Science, Infrastructure & Military; Zelensky (00:53:33) Firearms; Violence & Sensitization (00:57:40) MIT & Artificial Intelligence (AI), University Teaching & Pandemic (01:05:51) Publications & Peer Review, Research, Social Media (01:13:05) InsideTracker (01:14:17) Twitter & Social Media Mindset, Andrew Tate & Masculinity (01:26:05) Donald Trump & Anthony Fauci; Ideological Extremes (01:35:11) Biotechnology & Biopharma; Money & Status (01:45:08) Robotics, AI & Social Media; Start-ups (01:53:50) Motivation & Competition; Relationships (02:01:55) Jobs; A Career vs. A Calling; Robotics & Relationships (02:12:11) Chess, Poker & Cheating (02:22:25) Ideas of Lately (02:24:44) Why Lex Wears a Suit & Tie (02:27:50) Is There an AI Equivalent of Psychedelics?  (02:29:06) Hardest Jiu-Jitsu Belt to Achieve (02:32:07) Advice to Young People (02:39:29) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
Nov 28, 2022
Dr. Chris Palmer: Diet & Nutrition for Mental Health | Episode 99
11021
My guest this episode is Chris Palmer, M.D., a board-certified psychiatrist and assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He explains the important connection between nutrition, metabolism and mental health and his pioneering work using the ketogenic diet to successfully treat patients with various mental illnesses, including depression and schizophrenia. Dr. Palmer explains how the ketogenic diet is an evidenced-based treatment for epilepsy, mimics the fasted state and can offset the cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s. He describes the key roles of mitochondria in mental health, how certain conditions likely arise from mitochondrial dysfunction, and how low-carbohydrate diets increase mitochondrial turnover to improve mental health. He also explains how low-carbohydrate diets positively impact the gut microbiome and weight loss, important risk factors for mitochondrial health such as marijuana and alcohol, and the best way to increase circulating ketones depending on individual needs. We also cover how a ketogenic diet impacts mood, sleep, and fertility. Dr. Palmer’s work stands as a revolutionary approach to mental health and disease that, given the prevalence of mental health challenges, should be of interest to people of all backgrounds and ages. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Chris Palmer, Mental Health & Metabolic Disorders (00:03:25) Thesis, Eight Sleep, ROKA (00:07:18) Nutrition & Mental Health (00:20:43) Low-Carb Diets & Anti-Depression, Fasting, Ketosis (00:27:52) Schizophrenia, Depression & Ketogenic Diet (00:34:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:38) Psychiatric Mediations, Diet Adherence (00:42:35) Highly Processed Foods, Ketones & Mental Health Benefits (00:46:51) Ketogenic Diet & Epilepsy Treatment (00:56:10) Ketogenic Diet & Mitochondria Health (00:57:05) Nutrition & Benefits for Neurologic/Psychiatric Disorders (01:05:44) Mitochondrial Function & Mental Health (01:15:12) InsideTracker (01:16:23) Mitophagy, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Aging & Diet (01:25:09) Neurons, Mitochondria & Blood Glucose (01:31:54) Obesity, Ketogenic Diet & Mitochondria (01:40:00) Mitochondrial Function: Inheritance, Risk Factors, Marijuana  (01:46:34) Alcohol & Ketogenic Diet (01:55:21) Brain Imaging, Alzheimer’s Disease & Ketones (02:01:05) Exogenous (Liquid) Ketones vs. Ketogenic Diet (02:06:27) Neuronal Damage, Ketones & Glucose  (02:10:16) Alzheimer’s Disease, Age-Related Cognitive Decline & Ketogenic Diet (02:23:45) Ketogenic Diet & Weight Loss (02:35:47) Ketogenic Diet & Fasting, Hypomania, Sleep (02:46:37) Low Carbohydrate Diets, Menstrual Cycles, Fertility (02:52:23) Obesity Epidemic, Semaglutide & GLP-1 Medications  (03:01:01) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
Nov 21, 2022
Science-Based Tools for Increasing Happiness | Episode 98
8623
I explain the science of happiness, including the different types of happiness and how our actions, circumstances and mindset control them. While it is difficult to standardize happiness from one person to the next, I outline a structured framework of what is critical to increasing your innate “natural happiness,” including financial security, purposeful work and relationships, and I explain specific tools to increase internal happiness (so-called “synthetic happiness”). I review how specific types of human connection and attention to our choices (or lack thereof) can increase or undermine our level of happiness. I also discuss the importance of certain types of physical contact, gratitude, financial choices and volunteer contributions that research shows can maximize happiness. And I discuss how factors such as children, pets, physical well-being, substance use, prior traumas and life-phase milestones affect our quest for and depth of happiness. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Happiness (00:06:27) Tool: Light Exposure Timing & Brightness Timing (00:14:14) Thesis, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep (00:17:51) Imprecise Language for Happiness (00:20:26) Happiness: Neuromodulators & Neurotransmitters  (00:26:32) Harvard Happiness Project  (00:29:22) Income & Happiness; Social Interactions & Peer Group  (00:37:20) Work, Sense of Meaning & Happiness (00:40:13) Toolkit for General Wellbeing (00:43:06) Happiness Across the Lifespan, Does Having Children Make Us Happier? (00:47:33) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:50:20) Birthdays & Evaluated Happiness (00:52:45) Smoking, Alcohol & Happiness (00:54:23) Trauma & Happiness, Lottery Winner vs. Paraplegic Accident (01:05:05) Synthesizing Happiness (01:09:18) Natural Happiness & Synthetic Happiness; Music (01:13:45) Tool: Synthesizing Happiness: Effort, Environment & Gratitude (01:24:50) Tool: Pro-Social Spending/Effort, Happiness (01:31:55) Tool: Focus, Wandering Mind & Meditation  (01:39:40) Tool: Quality Social Connection (01:41:28) Brief Social Connection, Facial Recognition & Predictability (01:46:33) Deep Social Connection, Presence & Eye Contact (01:54:00) Physical Contact & Social Connection, Allogrooming, Pets (02:03:00) Freedom & Choice; Synthetic Happiness (02:11:57) Happiness Toolkit (02:22:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
Nov 14, 2022
LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Los Angeles, CA
3817
Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Los Angeles, CA. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Los Angeles, CA. Thank you to our sponsors Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:52) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & Momentous (00:02:23) What Occurs in the Mind/Body When You Have ADHD? Are There Ways to Address It Without Medication? (00:11:55) As a Teenager, What Are 5 Things You Would Recommend to Physically Feel My Best? (00:14:42) Should We Wait to Feel the Rise of Adrenaline and the Fall of It Before Bailing From Cold Water? (00:24:03) What Is the Competing Mechanism Behind Bilateral Eye Movement (EMDR & Walking) That Helps Resolve Psychological Trauma? (00:28:07) What New Research or Interventions Are You Most Excited About in the Health & Wellness Realm? (00:37:30) What Lessons From Skateboarding Have You Learned That Can Be Applied to Neuroscience? (00:39:03) Favorite Feynman Story (00:42:10) Do You Suppose This Physiological Stress Regulator Transcends Species? (00:47:20) Is There Any Science Behind Staying Motivated or Developing Discipline? (00:50:48) What Would Be Your Biggest Piece of Advice for Achieving One's Dreams? (00:57:09) What's Your Opinion on Psilocybin? (01:01:07) Why Does My Desire to Eat Disappear After I Use the Sauna? (01:02:26) Conclusion Huberman Lab is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user’s own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
Nov 09, 2022
Dr. Layne Norton: The Science of Eating for Health, Fat Loss & Lean Muscle | Episode 97
13774
My guest is Layne Norton, Ph.D. — one of the world’s foremost experts in nutrition, protein metabolism, muscle gain and fat loss. We discuss the science of energy utilization and balance, the efficacy of different diets (e.g., ketogenic, vegan, vegetarian, carnivore, omnivore), and how best to build lean muscle mass and lose fat. We also discuss optimal protein and fiber intake, the best sources of protein, the correlation between appetite, satiety signals and exercise, along with male and female-specific needs. Dr. Norton also explains how to support a healthy gut microbiome and offers insight into sugar and artificial sweeteners, processed, cooked, and raw foods, supplements, seed oils, and the relationship of LDL/HDL levels to cardiovascular health. This episode serves as a master class in nutrition, metabolism and exercise and is sure to benefit people of all ages and with different health and fitness goals. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://www.drinklmnt.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Layne Norton, Nutrition & Fitness (00:02:53) LMNT, ROKA, InsideTracker, Momentous (00:06:50) Calories & Cellular Energy Production (00:12:35) Energy Balance, Food Labels, Fiber (00:15:19) Resting Metabolic Rate, Thermic Effect of Food (00:19:04) Exercise & Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) (00:25:49) Losing Weight, Tracking Calories, Daily Weighing (00:29:24) Post-Exercise Metabolic Rate, Appetite (00:35:04) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:19) Exercise & Appetite, Calorie Trackers, Placebo Effects & Beliefs (00:43:46) Exercise & Satiety Signals, Maintain Weight Loss & Identity (00:56:32) Weight Loss & Maintenance, Diet Adherence (01:03:33) Restrictive Diets & Transition Periods (01:08:03) Gut Health & Appetite (01:16:23) Tool: Supporting Gut Health, Fiber & Longevity (01:23:59) LDL, HDL & Cardiovascular Disease (01:30:31) Leucine, mTOR & Protein Synthesis (01:37:31) Tool: Daily Protein Intake & Muscle Mass (01:44:24) Protein & Fasting, Lean Body Mass (01:55:38) Plant-Based Proteins: Whey, Soy, Leucine, Corn, Pea (02:04:28) Processed Foods (02:11:54) Obesity Epidemic, Calorie Intake & Energy Output (02:17:33) Obesity, Sugar & Fiber, Restriction & Craving (02:25:57) Artificial Sweeteners & Blood Sugar (02:38:55) Artificial Sweeteners & Gut Microbiome, Sucralose, Blood Sugar (02:50:19) Rapid Weight Loss, Satiety & Beliefs (02:58:13) Seed Oils & Obesity, Saturated Fat, Overall Energy Toxicity (03:08:15) Females, Diet, Exercise & Menstrual Cycles (03:14:05) Raw vs. Cooked Foods (03:16:32) Berberine & Glucose Scavenging (03:19:12) Fiber & Gastric Emptying Time (03:21:00) Supplements, Creatine Monohydrate, Rhodiola Rosea (03:30:33) Hard Training; Challenge & Mental Resilience (03:36:12) Carbon App (03:47:11) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer: https://hubermanlab.com/disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com
Nov 07, 2022
AMA #1: Leveraging Ultradian Cycles, How to Protect Your Brain, Seed Oils Examined and More
1496
Welcome to a sneak peek of the first Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:09) How do you use ultradian cycles in your daily work? [Jackson Lipfert] (00:22:38) Huberman Lab Premium In the full 2 hour+ AMA episode, we discuss: Neuroplasticity and dementias (Alzheimer's, MS, Parkinson's) — Protocols for protecting the brain? Zone 2 training What do you do when you live in a northern climate and the sun doesn't rise until hours after you are up? Morning routine for people who work from 8 am to 5 pm Best productivity method: to-do list or time-blocking everything on a calendar? Seed oils and metabolic disease Do recommendations and protocols you give change with age (beyond 60)? What advice would you give to your younger self? Social & Website Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter: https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@hubermanlab LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrew-huberman Website: https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter: https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network Huberman Lab is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user’s own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
Nov 02, 2022
How Meditation Works & Science-Based Effective Meditations | Episode 96
8761
In this episode, I discuss the biological mechanisms of the state changes that occur during different types of meditation and describe how to develop the meditation practice optimal for you. I explain key meditation principles, such as using specific breathwork patterns and adjusting your perception to specific locations along the continuum between interoception, exteroception and dissociation. I discuss how meditation practices lead to long-term trait changes and neuroplasticity, including changing your default mood, reducing baseline anxiety/depression, increasing your ability to focus, enhancing relaxation, improving sleep, and increasing your overall happiness level. I also explain the concept behind the “third-eye center,” what mindfulness is from a biological standpoint, the power of ultra-brief meditations and how to select the best meditation and time and duration to meditate to meet your need. I also explain a novel open-eyed perception-based meditation that may enhance focus, relaxation and task-switching ability. Whether you are a novice or an experienced meditator or simply interested in how our brain controls different aspects of conscious awareness and self-regulation, this episode should interest you. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Meditation (00:04:13) InsideTracker, Thesis, ROKA, Momentous Supplements (00:08:25) Brief History of Meditation: Consciousness, Psychedelics, fMRI (00:16:19) How the Brain Interprets the Body & Surrounding Environment; Mindfulness (00:26:07) Neuroscience of Meditation; Perceptual Spotlights (00:32:27) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:33:41) Interoception vs. Exteroception (00:42:20) Default Mode Network, Continuum of Interoception & Exteroception (00:53:30) Tools: Interoceptive or Exteroceptive Bias, Meditation Challenge (01:01:48) State & Trait Changes, Interoceptive & Exteroceptive Meditations, Refocusing (01:07:35) Tool: Brief Meditations, Waking Up App (01:10:30) “Third Eye Center” & Wandering Thoughts (01:20:46) Meditation: Practice Types, Focal Points & Consistency (01:24:10) Breathwork: Cyclic Hyperventilation, Box Breathing & Interoception (01:30:41) Tool: Meditation Breathwork, Cyclic vs. Complex Breathwork (01:39:22) Interoception vs. Dissociation, Trauma (01:47:43) Model of Interoception & Dissociation Continuum (01:53:39) Meditation & Dissociation: Mood, Bias & Corresponding Challenge (02:00:18) Meditation & Sleep: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (02:11:33) Choosing a Meditative Practice; Hypnosis (02:14:53) Tool: Space-Time Bridging (STB) (02:25:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 31, 2022
Dr. Eddie Chang: The Science of Learning & Speaking Languages | Episode 95
9263
My guest is Eddie Chang, MD, a neurosurgeon and professor of neurological surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and the co-director of the Center for Neural Engineering & Prostheses. We discuss the brain mechanisms underlying speech, language learning and comprehension, communicating human emotion with words and hand gestures, bilingualism and language disorders, such as stuttering. Dr. Chang also explains his work developing and applying state-of-the-art technology to decode speech and using that information and artificial intelligence (AI) to successfully restore communication to patients who have suffered paralyzing injuries or “locked in syndrome.” We also discuss his work treating patients with epilepsy. Finally, we consider the future: how modern neuroscience is overturning textbook medical books, the impact of digital technology such as smartphones on language and the future of natural and computer-assisted human communication. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://www.levelshealth.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Eddie Chang, Speech & Language (00:03:00) Levels, Eight Sleep, InsideTracker, Momentous Supplements (00:07:19) Neuroplasticity, Learning of Speech & Environmental Sounds (00:13:10) White Noise Machines, Infant Sleep & Sensitization (00:17:26) Mapping Speech & Language in the Brain (00:24:26) Emotion; Anxiety & Epilepsy (00:30:19) Epilepsy, Medications & Neurosurgery (00:33:01) Ketogenic Diet & Epilepsy (00:34:56) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:10) Absence Seizures, Nocturnal Seizures & Other Seizure Types (00:41:08) Brain Areas for Speech & Language, Broca’s & Wernicke’s Areas, New Findings (00:53:23) Lateralization of Speech/Language & Handedness, Strokes (00:59:05) Bilingualism, Shared Language Circuits (01:01:18) Speech vs. Language, Signal Transduction from Ear to Brain (01:12:38) Shaping Breath: Larynx, Vocal Folds & Pharynx; Vocalizations (01:17:37) Mapping Language in the Brain (01:20:26) Plosives & Consonant Clusters; Learning Multiple Languages (01:25:07) Motor Patterns of Speech & Language (01:28:33) Reading & Writing; Dyslexia & Treatments (01:34:47) Evolution of Language (01:37:54) Stroke & Foreign Accent Syndrome (01:40:31) Auditory Memory, Long-Term Motor Memory (01:45:26) Paralysis, ALS, “Locked-In Syndrome” & Brain Computer Interface (BCI) (02:02:14) Neuralink, BCI, Superhuman Skills & Augmentation (02:10:21) Non-Verbal Communication, Facial Expressions, BCI & Avatars (02:17:35) Stutter, Anxiety & Treatment (02:22:55) Tools: Practices for Maintaining Calm Under Extreme Demands (02:31:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 24, 2022
Fitness Toolkit: Protocol & Tools to Optimize Physical Health | Episode 94
7144
I describe a fitness protocol that maximizes all the major sought-after aspects of physical fitness, including strength, endurance and flexibility. I discuss fundamentals of resistance training protocols, including repetitions, sets, inter-set and inter-workout rest periods and periodization of intensity and volume to improve strength and hypertrophy. I also explain how to integrate this with endurance training across the week by controlling the duration, timing and intensity of cardiovascular workouts. I also cover science-based protocols on leveraging the mind-body connection, deliberate breathing (during and after exercise), stretching, deliberate heat and cold exposure, and non-sleep deep rest (NSDR) for better workout performance and faster recovery. Further, I tackle a range of real-world issues that can affect a consistent training schedule, such as whether you should train if you are sick, have had a poor night of sleep or had a stressful event and how to start training again after a break and whether you should train in a fasted or fed state. Physical fitness is a key variable for immediate and long-term health. This episode provides a modifiable “foundational” template that can be adjusted based on your current fitness level, goals, time constraints, and access to different types of equipment. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Foundational Protocol for Fitness (00:03:35) Huberman Lab Premium (00:04:35) Tool: Soleus (Calf) Push-Ups, Glucose Utilization & Metabolism (00:14:42) InsideTracker, ROKA, Helix Sleep, Momentous Supplements (00:18:53) Core Principles of Fitness & Modifiable Variables (00:23:37) Day 1: Long Endurance Workout (00:34:38) Day 2: Leg Resistance Training, Strength & Hypertrophy (00:38:09) Athletic Greens (AG1) (00:39:22) Key Principles of Resistance Training (00:51:10) Day 3: Heat & Cold Exposure, Recovery (01:00:35) Day 4: Torso & Neck Resistance Training (01:09:55) Day 5: Moderate Intensity Cardiovascular Training, Running Alternatives (01:16:43) Day 6: High-Intensity Interval Training, Maximum Heart Rate (01:24:10) Day 7: Arms, Neck & Calves Resistance Training (01:28:45) Flexibility of Foundational Protocol, Workout Spacing (01:33:00) Tool: Mind-Muscle Contraction, Physiological Sighs  (01:37:10) Safety & Endurance/Cardiovascular Workouts (01:38:32) Tool: Stress or Poor Sleep & Workouts, Recovery & NSDR (01:41:20) Should You Train Fasted or Fed? (01:43:58) Tool: Static Stretching & Flexibility, Irradiation & Resistance Training (01:49:10) Tool: Hanging from a Bar & Fitness Metric  (01:50:16) Should You Train Sick?, Ramping Training (01:53:33) Tool: Deliberate Slow Breathing & Recovery (01:55:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 17, 2022
Dr. Nolan Williams: Psychedelics & Neurostimulation for Brain Rewiring | Episode 93
10135
In this episode, my guest is Nolan Williams, M.D., a triple board-certified psychiatrist, neurologist and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford School of Medicine. He is also the Director of the Stanford Brain Stimulation Lab. We discuss clinical applications for brain stimulation, behavioral protocols and novel drug treatments to halt and reverse mental health disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first discuss the neural circuits for self-identity and mood and stress control. We discuss Dr. Williams’ work using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to depression, trauma, PTSD, and other mood disorders. We then dive deep into the history, biology, modern use, and safety margins of the various psychedelics, including MDMA, LSD, ketamine, ibogaine, ayahuasca, and psilocybin, as well as cannabis and the use of SSRIs in both adults and children. Finally, we discuss behavioral treatments for mental health disorders, including sleep and sleep deprivation, light exposure, exercise, and training to control the brain-heart-rate pathways. Regardless of age, all those interested in mental health should benefit from the incredible breadth and depth of Dr. Williams’ knowledge and the clarity with which he conveys that information. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Nolan Williams, Brain Stimulation & Depression Treatment (00:03:31) Huberman Lab Premium (00:04:42) InsideTracker, Eight Sleep, ROKA (00:08:37) Momentous Supplements (00:09:16) Depression, Risk Factors, Emergency Psychiatric Treatments (00:15:11) The Brain-Heart Connection, Vagus Nerve, Prefrontal Cortex (00:17:51) Right vs. Left Brain Hemispheres & Mood Balance, Connectome (00:22:34) Heart Rate & Depression, Behavioral Interventions, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (00:33:02) Prefrontal Cortex & Cognitive Control, TMS (00:37:46) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:39:00) Belief/Identity “Rules”, Re-scripting, TMS & Talk Therapy (00:45:49) Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, TMS & Depression Treatment (00:48:36) Cingulate Cortex & Emotion, Dissociation & Catatonia (00:54:27) Ketamine, the Opioid System & Depression; Psychedelic Experience or Biology? (01:03:42) SSRIs, Serotonin & Depression; Childhood, Chemical Imbalance or Circuit? (01:13:58) Memories & “Rule” Creation; Psilocybin & “Rule” Resolution (01:21:00) MDMA & Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Treatment, Psilocybin & Depression Treatment (01:24:12) Is MDMA Neurotoxic?, Drug Purity, Dopamine Surges, Post-MDMA Prolactin (01:30:38) Psilocybin, Brain Connectivity & Depression Treatment (01:34:53) Exposure Response Prevention: “Letting Go” & Depression Treatment (01:41:23) Normal Spectrums for Mental Health Disorders (01:45:35) Ibogaine & “Life Review”; PTSD, Depression & Clinical Trials (01:57:16) Clinical Use of Psychedelics (02:01:59) Ayahuasca, Brazilian Prisoner Study (02:06:55) Cannabis: THC, CBD & Psychosis, Clinical Uses (02:14:52) Personal Relative Drug Risk & Alcohol (02:20:42) Circadian Reset for Depression, Sleep Deprivation, Light (02:28:43) Stanford Neuromodulation Therapy (SNT) Study (02:34:25) Space Learning Theory & TMS Stimulation (02:45:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 10, 2022
The Effects of Cannabis (Marijuana) on the Brain & Body | Episode 92
10057
In this episode, I discuss cannabis (aka marijuana), including the biological mechanisms underlying its effects on the mind and body, its known medical applications, its impact on libido, creativity, hunger, hormones and more. I also cover the known adverse health consequences of chronic and even acute (one-time) use and the factors that determine if cannabis is helpful or harmful. Additionally, I detail how the various strains of cannabis: sativa, indica and hybrid strains, can produce such divergent effects depending on the strain type, THC-to-CBD ratio, total dosage, and frequency of use. I review why cannabis can impact speech patterns and one’s propensity to develop anxiety/depression during and after use and, in some individuals, paranoia. As the legal landscape for cannabis is rapidly evolving, this episode should interest a wide audience, including former/current cannabis users, those in the medical, sports, law enforcement, and educational communities and, of course, children, teenagers, and parents. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Cannabis (Marijuana) (00:04:46) New: Huberman Lab Premium (00:07:03) Tool: Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR), Sleep & Anxiety (00:10:08) Levels, Thesis, InsideTracker (00:14:01) Momentous Supplements (00:15:08) Cannabis Strains, Psychoactive Compounds: THC & CBD (00:19:34) Sativa vs. Indica, Stimulant vs. Relaxation Effects (00:25:55) Hybrid Cannabis Strains, Type 1, 2 & 3 Strains (00:30:41) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:31:56) Naturally Occurring Receptors: Nicotinic & Cannabinoid Receptors (CB1) (00:40:35) THC, CBD vs. Endogenous Cannabinoids, Dependence (00:43:14) Endogenous Cannabinoids, Cannabinoid Receptors & Nervous System Function (00:53:07) Biological Effects of Cannabis (00:56:29) Cannabis Sativa & Subjective Effects: Mood, Stress, Alertness, Paranoia (01:04:58) Cannabis Indica & Subjective Effects, Memory, Dosage (01:09:41) Brain Areas Affected by THC & CBD, Side Effects (01:16:08) Creativity: Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking & Dopamine (01:26:41) Does Cannabis Increase Creativity? (01:35:08) Chronic Cannabis Use & Changes in Speech Patterns (01:46:46) Cannabis & Libido, Dopamine & Prolactin (01:56:55) Cannabis & Hormones: Prolactin, Testosterone, Estrogen & Fertility (02:06:53) Smoking/Vaping Tobacco or Cannabis & Negative Health Consequences (02:10:06) Avoiding Cannabis During Pregnancy/Breastfeeding, Fetal Neural Development (02:18:13) Negative Health Consequences of Cannabis, Anxiety & Depression, Tolerance (02:25:57) Cannabis Use & Adolescence/Young Adulthood, Predisposition to Psychosis (02:34:36) Adolescent Cannabis Use: Brain Development & Mental Health Disorders (02:41:44) Cannabis & Pain Management, Divergent Effects of Cannabis (02:44:54) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Huberman Lab Premium, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 03, 2022
Dr. Casey Halpern: Biology & Treatments for Compulsive Behaviors & Binge Eating | Episode 91
8075
My guest is Casey Halpern, M.D., Chief of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Halpern’s research and clinical practice focus on using deep brain stimulation to treat compulsive and movement disorders (e.g., binge eating disorders, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Parkinson’s disease essential tremor, dystonia). We discuss using deep brain stimulation to help patients who suffer from movement and compulsive disorders and applying this treatment to patients afflicted with binge eating. We also explore applications of this technology to other conditions such as OCD, anorexia and tremor, and the future therapeutic directions of the use of non-invasive brain stimulation approaches, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and ultrasound, for the treatment of other psychiatric illnesses and conditions. This episode will interest those curious about the biology of eating, anorexia, bulimia, compulsive thoughts and behaviors, and movement. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Casey Halpern & Disordered Eating & Brain Stimulation (00:03:18) ROKA, Eight Sleep, InsideTracker (00:07:19) Momentous Supplements (00:08:28) Neurosurgeon’s View of the Brain, Neurosurgery Specialization (00:13:05) Deep Brain Stimulation & Other Unexpected Positive Effects (00:17:20) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Prescriptions & Cognitive Therapies (00:25:40) Brain Areas in OCD, Risk, Rewards & Addiction (00:31:11) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:27) Facial and Vocal Ticks, Stimulants, Stress & Superstition (00:39:28) Nucleus Accumbens, Reward Circuits, Eating Disorders & Obesity (00:47:18) Stimulation of Nucleus Accumbens, Continuous vs. Episodic Stimulation (00:49:49) Binge Eating Disorder & Loss of Control Eating (00:53:02) Developing Binge Eating Disorder: Predisposition, Environment, Stress (01:02:07) Electrodes in Nucleus Accumbens, Identifying “Craving Cells” (01:11:41) Effects of Stimulation, Interrupting Craving, Intermediate Stimulation (01:16:46) Anorexia, Obesity & Compulsions, Potential Treatments for Anorexia (01:23:14) Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (01:32:27) MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound: Tremor, Essential Tremor & Parkinson’s (01:36:40) Future of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Epilepsy & Depression (01:41:51) Pre-Behavioral States in Compulsion & Awareness, Mood Provocation (01:48:02) Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence & Compulsion Predictions (01:53:05) Neurosurgeon Hands, Resistance Training & Deadlifts (01:59:00) “Neurosurgeon Calm,” Quality Time & Prioritization, Neurosurgeon Training (02:09:53) Daily Habits: Sleep, Exercise, Mediation (02:11:59) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 26, 2022
Nicotine’s Effects on the Brain & Body & How to Quit Smoking or Vaping | Episode 90
6816
In this episode, I explain how nicotine impacts the brain and body, including its potent ability to enhance attention, focus, and alertness, increase blood pressure and metabolism and reduce appetite. I discuss nicotine’s ability to increase the action of neurochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine and activate sympathetic (alertness-promoting) neural circuits. I also discuss common nicotine delivery methods, such as cigarettes, vaping, dip, and snuff, and how they each create their own unique experience and how they, but not nicotine itself, cause cancer and other adverse health effects. I also explain science-based tools to permanently quit smoking cigarettes or vaping, including peer-reviewed clinical hypnosis tools, antidepressants, and alternative nicotine replacement (patches, lozenges, gums etc.). As nicotine is one of the most widely used substances with billions of users — most of whom report wanting to quit — this episode ought to be of interest to former/current nicotine users, those who want to quit smoking or vaping and/or those interested in learning the biology behind how nicotine impacts the brain and body. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Nicotine (00:02:47) Momentous Supplements (00:03:41) Tool: Brief Daily Meditation & Focus (00:05:59) The Arrow Model of Focus, Alpha GPC & Garlic Supplements (00:10:43) Thesis, InsideTracker, ROKA (00:14:35) Nicotine Effects vs. Methods of Delivery, Acetylcholine (00:19:55) Where is Nicotine Found? Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (00:25:12) Nicotine & Effects on the Brain: Appetite, Dopamine & GABA (00:30:58) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:11) Nicotine, Acetylcholine & Attentional “Spotlighting” (00:37:29) Nicotine, Norepinephrine & Alertness/Energy (00:41:10) Nicotine & Effects on Appetite & Metabolism (00:46:47) Nicotine & Effects on Body: Sympathetic Tone (00:51:29) Nicotine & Cognitive Work vs. Physical Performance (00:55:08) Nicotine Delivery Methods & Side Effects, Young People & Dependency (00:58:35) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Carcinogens & Endothelial Cells (01:02:34) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Negative Impacts on Lifespan & Health (01:09:23) How to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Cravings & Withdrawal (01:13:56) Vaping & Nicotine, Rates of Effect Onset, Dopamine, Addiction & Depression (01:25:06) Tool: Quitting Smoking & Clinical Hypnosis, Reveri (01:30:16) Bupropion (Wellbutrin) & Quitting Smoking (01:36:24) Tool: A Nicotine Replacement Schedule to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Patch/Gum (01:41:52) Tool: Biological Homeostasis & Nicotine Withdrawal, The “First Week” Strategy (01:51:39) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 19, 2022
Dr. David Anderson: The Biology of Aggression, Mating, & Arousal | Episode 89
6934
My guest is David Anderson, PhD, a world expert in the science of sexual behavior, violent aggression, fear and other motivated states. Dr. Anderson is a Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), a member of the National Academy of Sciences and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). We discuss how states of mind (and body) arise and persist and how they probably better explain human behavior than emotions per se. We also discuss the many kinds of arousal that create varying levels of pressure for certain behaviors to emerge. We discuss different types of violent aggression and how they are impacted by biological sex, gender, context, prior experience, and hormones, and the neural interconnectedness of fear, aggression and sexual behavior. We also discuss peptides and their role in social isolation-induced anxiety and aggression. Dr. Anderson also describes novel, potentially powerful therapeutics for mental health. This episode should interest anyone wanting to learn more about mental health, human emotions, sexual and/or violent behavior.   Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Anderson, Emotions & Aggression  (00:03:33) Momentous Supplements  (00:04:27) Levels, Helix Sleep, LMNT  (00:08:10) Emotions vs. States (00:10:36) Dimensions of States: Persistence, Intensity & Generalization (00:14:38) Arousal & Valence  (00:18:11) Aggression, Optogenetics & Stimulating Aggression in Mice, VMH (00:24:42) Aggression Types: Offensive, Defensive & Predatory  (00:29:20) Evolution & Development of Defensive vs. Offensive Behaviors, Fear (00:35:38) Hydraulic Pressures for States & Homeostasis (00:38:33) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:39:46) Hydraulic Pressure & Aggression (00:44:50) Balancing Fear & Aggression (00:48:31) Aggression & Hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone (00:52:33) Female Aggression, Motherhood (00:59:48) Mating & Aggressive Behaviors  (01:05:10) Neurobiology of Sexual Fetishes  (01:10:06) Temperature, Mating Behavior & Aggression (01:15:25) Mounting: Sexual Behavior or Dominance? (01:20:59) Females & Male-Type Mounting Behavior (01:24:40) PAG (Periaqueductal Gray) Brain Region: Pain Modulation & Fear  (01:30:38) Tachykinins & Social Isolation: Anxiety, Fear & Aggression  (01:43:49) Brain, Body & Emotions; Somatic Marker Hypothesis & Vagus Nerve  (01:52:52) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 12, 2022
Focus Toolkit: Tools to Improve Your Focus & Concentration | Episode 88
6690
In this episode, I provide a list of behavioral, nutritional, and supplement-based tools you can use to improve your ability to get into a focused state to do mental or physical work. I explain science-supported strategies for transitioning into focus, maintaining focus during the work bout, and exiting the focus session, which is also critical, including decompression/defocusing tools. I explain when and how to use: binaural beats, caffeine, deliberate cold exposure, the pros and cons of working in fasted vs. fed states, and supplements and foods that enhance dopamine, epinephrine (i.e., adrenaline) and acetylcholine to promote optimal focus. Also, I explain how short behavioral practices, such as meditation and visual gaze training, will benefit your ability to focus over the long term. As deep focus is crucial to significantly improve cognitive or physical performance in any realm, this episode should be useful to anyone. By the end, you’ll have an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost focus and concentration strategies to select from that can be tailored to your physical and mental performance needs. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Virtusan: https://virtusan.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Focus Toolkit  (00:04:25) Momentous Supplements  (00:05:38) Thesis, LMNT, Eight Sleep  (00:09:37) The “Arrow Model” of Focus: Epinephrine, Acetylcholine & Dopamine (00:15:15) Modulation vs. Mediation, Importance of Sleep (00:18:11) Tool: Binaural Beats to Improve Concentration  (00:20:54) Tool: White, Brown & Pink Noise, Transition to Focused State (00:22:55) Warm-Up for Cognitive Work, Refocusing Attention & Neuroplasticity  (00:26:14) Tool: Ultradian Cycles: Warm-Up, Maintaining Focus & Deliberate Defocusing  (00:31:22) How Many Daily Ultradian Cycles Can One Perform?  (00:34:14) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:35) Virtusan: Mental & Physical Health Journeys  (00:36:52) Tool: Fasted vs. Fed States & Focus, Prevent an Afternoon Crash, Ketosis (00:45:52) Tool: Foods to Improve Focus & Regulating Food Volume (00:47:53) Tool: Caffeine & Focused Work, Dopamine Efficacy, Alertness (00:52:55) Tool: Stress & Improved Concentration  (00:55:46) Tool: Deliberate Cold Exposure & Focus, Dopamine & Epinephrine  (01:00:39) Layer Focusing Tools & Design Your Own Protocols  (01:01:19) Tool: Short Meditation & Improved Ability to Refocus  (01:07:40) Tool: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) & Defocus Periods (01:12:13) Tool: Hypnosis & Focus/Deep Relaxation States (01:16:07) Optimal Time of Day to Use Specific Tools (01:16:46) Tool: Overt Visual Focus & Deliberate Gaze  (01:20:42) Covert Visual Focus; Deliberate Gaze Warm-Up & Focused Work  (01:24:43) Tool: Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids  (01:27:28) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate  (01:29:10) Tool: Alpha-GPC & Acetylcholine, Increased Risk of Stroke? & Garlic  (01:33:52) Tool: L-Tyrosine Supplements & Food (01:34:47) Combining & Choosing Focus Tools, Variability  (01:36:50) ADHD Prescriptions, Training Neural Circuits, Maintenance & Reduced Dosage (01:39:19) Tool: Optimal Order Approaching Focus Tools, Prescriptions & Dependency  (01:42:56) Tool: Phenylethylamine & Dopamine (01:44:50) Tool: Other Supplements to Enhance Dopamine, Epinephrine & Acetylcholine  (01:46:46) Behavioral, Nutrition & Supplement Tools for Focus (01:49:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 05, 2022
LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Portland, OR
3090
Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Portland, OR. Attend The Brain Body Contract Live Events Los Angeles, CA: October 16, 2022 New York, NY: November 9, 2022 https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A (00:01:08) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker (00:01:36) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York (00:02:16) What Are the Current Best Practices for Post-TBIs? Thoughts on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy? (00:08:03) Are There Effective Ways to Decrease Dopamine When You Get Too Much of It? (00:13:50) How and When to Improve Brain Plasticity if You Have 10 Minutes a Day? (00:17:51) How to Use Supplements to Optimize Health When Career Prevents Consistent Routines? (00:21:09) How Is Social Media Changing Our Brains? (00:25:10) What New Piece of Neurological Research Most Excites You? (00:28:35) Do You Believe in the Wim How Method? Does It Work? What's Happening in the Brain? (00:37:08) Can Red Light Therapy Help Treat Exercise Intolerance and Fatigue in Mitochondrial Disease? (00:40:39) Is It Possible to Over Do Ice Baths? (00:46:10) What Are Your Favorite Brain Hacks for Doing Hard Things? (00:48:25) What Do You Fear? How Do You Manage Fear? (00:50:05) Conclusion Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 31, 2022
Dr. Erich Jarvis: The Neuroscience of Speech, Language & Music | Episode 87
6859
My guest this episode is Dr. Erich Jarvis, PhD—Professor and the Head of the Laboratory of Neurogenetics of Language at Rockefeller University and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). Dr. Jarvis’ research spans the molecular and genetic mechanisms of vocal communication, comparative genomics of speech and language across species and the relationship between speech, language and movement. We discuss the unique ability of humans (and certain animal species) to learn and communicate using complex language, including verbal speech production and the ability to interpret both written and spoken language. We also discuss the connections between language, singing and dance and why song may have evolved before language. Dr. Jarvis also explains some of the underlying biological and genetic components of stutter/speech disorders, non-verbal communication, why it's easiest to learn a language as a child and how individuals can learn multiple languages at any age. This episode ought to be of interest to everyone interested in the origins of human speech, language, music and culture and how newer technology, such as social media and texting, change our brains.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Erich Jarvis & Vocal Communication (00:03:43) Momentous Supplements  (00:04:36) InsideTracker, ROKA, LMNT  (00:08:01) Speech vs. Language, Is There a Difference?   (00:10:55) Animal Communication, Hand Gestures & Language  (00:15:25) Vocalization & Innate Language, Evolution of Modern Language     (00:21:10) Humans & Songbirds, Critical Periods, Genetics, Speech Disorders  (00:27:11) Innate Predisposition to Learn Language, Cultural Hybridization (00:31:34) Genes for Speech & Language (00:35:49) Learning New or Multiple Languages, Critical Periods, Phonemes  (00:41:39) AG1 (Athletic Greens)  (00:42:52) Semantic vs. Effective Communication, Emotion, Singing (00:47:32) Singing, Link Between Dancing & Vocal Learning  (00:52:55) Motor Theory of Vocal Learning, Dance  (00:55:03) Music & Dance, Emotional Bonding, Genetic Predispositions (01:04:11) Facial Expressions & Language, Innate Expressions (01:09:35) Reading & Writing  (01:15:13) Writing by Hand vs. Typing, Thoughts & Writing (01:20:58) Stutter, Neurogenetics, Overcome Stutter, Conversations (01:26:58) Modern Language Evolution: Texting, Social Media & the Future (01:36:26) Movement: The Link to Cognitive Growth  (01:40:21) Comparative Genomics, Earth Biogenome Project, Genome Ark, Conservation (01:48:24) Evolution of Skin & Fur Color (01:51:22) Dr. Erich Jarvis, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 29, 2022
What Alcohol Does to Your Body, Brain & Health | Episode 86
7155
In this episode, I discuss the physiological effects that drinking alcohol has on the brain and body at different levels of consumption and over time. I also describe genetic differences that predispose certain individuals to alcoholism, binge and habit-drinking. I explain alcohol metabolism in simple terms and how it effectively acts as a poison, leading to cellular stress and damage. I then explain that it impacts neuronal function and changes our thinking and behavior – hallmarks of inebriation. I also discuss how alcohol consumption of different amounts impacts inflammation, stress, neurodegeneration, and cancer risk and negatively impacts the gut microbiome, brain thickness, hormone balance, mood and feelings of motivation. Additionally, I discuss the biology of hangovers and describe science-based strategies to mitigate the severity of a hangover. Since alcohol is one of the most widely consumed recreational substances, this episode ought to be of relevance to everyone.  Indeed, even low-to-moderate alcohol consumption negatively impacts the brain and body in direct ways. The goal of this episode is to help people make informed decisions about their alcohol consumption that are in keeping with their mental and physical health goals.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Effects of Alcohol Consumption (00:02:25) Momentous Supplements  (00:03:19) Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption & Neurodegeneration  (00:06:52) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:10:46) Historical Context & Uses of Alcohol  (00:13:28) Alcohol Metabolism, “Empty Calories”  (00:18:23) Inebriation: Top-Down Inhibition, Impulsivity & Memory Formation (00:24:23) Long-Lasting Effects & Impulsivity, Neuroplasticity & Reversibility  (00:27:55) Food & Alcohol Absorption (00:30:07) Alcohol & Serotonin, SSRIs & Depression, Risk for Alcoholism, Blackouts (00:37:39) Predisposition for Alcoholism; Chronic Consumption, Cortisol & Stress (00:44:53) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:46:07) Genetic Predisposition for Alcoholism, Consuming Alcohol Too Young (00:52:27) Gut-Liver-Brain Axis: Alcohol, Gut Microbiome, Inflammation & Leaky Gut  (00:59:46) Tool: Improving/Replenishing Gut Microbiome  (01:02:44) Reducing Alcohol Consumption & Stress  (01:04:25) Hangover: Alcohol & Sleep, Anxiety, Headache (01:12:11) Hangover Recovery, Adrenaline & Deliberate Cold Exposure  (01:17:16) Hangover Recovery, Dehydration & Electrolytes (01:20:45) Types of Alcohol & Hangover Severity, Congeners   (01:25:25) Alcohol Tolerance, Dopamine & Serotonin, Pleasure-Pain Balance    (01:33:36) Are There Any Positive Effects of Alcohol?, Resveratrol  (01:35:42) Alcohol & Brain Thickness  (01:37:11) Alcohol & Cancer Risk: DNA Methylation, Breast Cancer Risk  (01:44:31) Mitigating Cancer Risk, Folate, B Vitamins  (01:46:54) Alcohol & Pregnancy, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  (01:50:58) Hormones: Testosterone & Estrogen Balance (01:55:09) Negative Effects of Alcohol Consumption  (01:58:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 22, 2022
LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Seattle, WA
3364
Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Seattle, WA. Attend The Brain Body Contract Live Events Los Angeles, CA: October 16, 2022 New York, NY: November 9, 2022 https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A (00:01:07) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker (00:01:35) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York (00:02:16) What Is Your Most-Used Protocol? (00:04:12) Should You Vary Wake-Up Time Seasonally? (00:06:05) Why Is My Drive Depleted Upon Waking-Up? (00:08:42) What Are Your Favorite/Most Impactful Books? (00:12:08) What Excites You About the Future of Mental Health Treatment? (00:17:25) What Is the Biggest Area for Performance Enhancement? (00:21:44) Can You Still Do a Kickflip? (00:22:32) Tips on How to Improve Memory (00:24:54) How Do You Manage Social Media Addiction? (00:27:43) Were You Nervous Tonight/ How Did You Prepare? (00:29:10) Is Learning from Failure Equal to Learning from Success? (00:32:23) When Are You Going to Start Training Jiu-Jitsu? (00:33:28) Discuss the Supplements You Take (00:36:29) Advice or Protocols to Improve Learning & Retention (00:38:42) What Exciting Research/Work are You Doing? (00:40:22) How Does Dopamine Factor into Neuroplasticity? (00:43:12) What Advice Do You Have for Future Scientists? (00:46:47) Is Age 66 Too Old for Neuroplasticity & Learning? (00:48:00) How Do You Read Research Papers? (00:49:40) What is Your Favorite Condiment? (00:50:10) Most Important Takeaway from Your ADHD Research? (00:52:58) What Future Episodes Are in the Pipeline? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 17, 2022
Dr. Peter Attia: Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones for Vitality & Longevity | Episode 85
10110
My guest this episode is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of The Drive podcast and is a world expert on behavioral approaches, nutritional interventions, supplementation and pharmacological techniques to improve lifespan, healthspan and athletic performance. We discuss how best to evaluate your health status using routine blood work, body scans and regular tests of physical strength and endurance. Dr. Attia explains what he uses with his patients to “back-cast” their health goals as a way to design their exercise and nutritional programs. We also discuss hormone modulation and replacement therapy for both men and women. We explain how cholesterol and related factors contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and how to monitor and mitigate that risk. Dr. Attia details various supplementation, nutrition, exercise and prescription approaches useful to people in every decade of life to improve vitality, reduce their risk of disease and increase the number of years sustaining peak cognitive and physical health.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Assessing Health Status & Improving Vitality  (00:02:51) Momentous Supplements  (00:03:46) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:07:29) Lifespan: Bloodwork & Biomarkers Testing, The “4 Horseman of Disease”  (00:11:51) Healthspan: Functional Testing, Cognitive & Emotional States  (00:13:59) Blood Testing: Best Frequency  (00:16:01) DEXA Scan: Lean Mass & Fat, Bone Mineral Density & Osteoporosis  (00:22:33) Bone Mineral Density & Age-Related Decline, Strength Training, Corticosteroids  (00:29:24) Osteopenia & Osteoporosis Diagnosis, Strength Training (00:31:03) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:16) Back-casting: Defining Your “Marginal Decade”  (00:38:31) All-Cause Mortality: Smoking, Strength, VO2 max  (00:44:43) Attia’s Rule of Supplementation, “Centenarian Decathlete” Physical Goals (00:49:24) Importance of Exercise, Brain Health, MET hours  (00:55:23) Nicotine & Cognitive Focus (01:03:12) Menstruation, PMS & Menopause  (01:10:10) Hormone Replacement Therapy, Menopause & Breast Cancer Risk (01:22:06) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone Therapies in Women (01:26:35) Hormone Replacement Therapy in Men, SHBG & Testosterone, Insulin (01:37:23) Clomid, Pituitary, Testosterone & Cholesterol, Anastrozole, HCG (01:47:46) Fadogia Agrestis, Supplements, Rapamycin  (01:52:06) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Fertility  (01:59:26) Total Testosterone vs. Free Testosterone (02:02:51) Cholesterol & Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fat, LDL & HDL, Apolipoprotein B (02:17:42) Apolipoprotein B, Diet, Statins & Other Cholesterol Prescriptions  (02:25:15) Cardiovascular Disease, Age & Disease Risk  (02:28:53) Peptides, Stem Cells, BPC157, PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma), Injury Rehabilitation  (02:37:40) Metabolomics & Exercise  (02:40:44) GLP-1 & Weight Loss  (02:47:06) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 15, 2022
Sleep Toolkit: Tools for Optimizing Sleep & Sleep-Wake Timing | Episode 84
6060
In this episode, I describe a comprehensive toolkit consisting of behavioral and supplement-based tools that you can customize to enhance the quality, duration and impact of your sleep. This has an enormous positive impact on your overall health and daytime functioning, brain, hormones and immune system. I teach you how to effectively harness light (and darkness), temperature, food, exercise, caffeine, supplements, and digital devices in order to fall asleep faster, stay deeply asleep longer and overall, and achieve better quality sleep. I also describe how these tools can be modified to recover quickly from a poor night’s sleep, jet lag or bouts of shift work. Given that sleep is the foundation of all mental health, physical health and performance, this episode should benefit everyone as it provides an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost strategies that can be tailored to optimize your sleep routine. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Tools to Optimize Sleep (00:03:02) Momentous Supplements (00:04:16) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:08:24) Factors to Control Circadian Rhythm & Sleep (00:15:10) Morning Tool: Morning Sunlight Viewing, Cortisol (00:20:44) Morning Sunlight: Circadian Rhythm, Artificial Lights, Cloudy Days (00:26:18) Evaluating Light in Environment, Compensating for Missed Morning Light (00:29:26) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:46) Morning Tools: Temperature & Deliberate Cold Exposure, Exercise (00:34:58) Timing Caffeine, “Afternoon Crash,” Exercise (00:40:08) Timing Eating, Alertness & Circadian Rhythm (00:45:20) 3 Daily Critical Periods (00:46:49) Afternoons: Naps, Deep Relaxation (NSDR, Self-Hypnosis), Exercise & Body Temperature, Caffeine (00:51:59) Afternoon Tools: Viewing Sunlight in Late Afternoon, Evening Light (00:56:45) Evening/Night Tools: Overhead Artificial Lights, Light Sensitivity (01:04:40) Evening Tools: Hot Bath/Sauna, Temperature & Sleeping Environment (01:09:40) Alcohol, THC & Reduced Sleep Quality; CBD, Anxiety & Falling Asleep (01:11:45) Sleep Supplements: Magnesium Threonate, Apigenin & Theanine (01:16:34) Melatonin Supplementation (Caution) (01:17:44) Additional Sleep Supplements: GABA, Glycine, Myo-Inositol & Anxiety (01:20:08) Falling Back Asleep: Reveri App, NSDR, Yoga Nidra (01:22:55) Staying Asleep: Eye Masks, Ear Plugs, Elevating Feet (01:24:58) Tool: Sleep Apnea & Nasal Breathing (01:28:20) Sleep Schedule Consistency, Weekends, Compensatory Sleep & Caffeine (01:31:14) Tools: Temperature Minimum & Jet Lag, Shift Work & Red Lights (01:37:38) Behavioral Tools for 3 Daily Critical Periods (01:39:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Huberman Lab Clips, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 08, 2022
Dr. Emily Balcetis: Tools for Setting & Achieving Goals | Episode 83
5792
My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis’ research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation (00:03:24) Momentous Supplements (00:04:38) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus “Spotlight” (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort (00:33:38) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists  (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 01, 2022
The Science & Treatment of Bipolar Disorder | Episode 82
8317
In this episode, I explain the biology, symptoms, causes and types of bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar depression). I discuss neuroplasticity and how the brain normally regulates mood, energy, and perceptions; then, I contrast that with the biology of bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extremes of energy and mood, e.g., mania and depression. I outline the mechanisms through which bipolar disorder manifests in the brain, including deficits of interoception and reduced connections between the parietal and limbic systems. I also outline how treatment options (such as lithium) work in part through homeostatic plasticity.’ I discuss not only lithium but also the treatment of bipolar with ketamine, different talk therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and nutraceuticals, including Omega-3 and Inositol supplementation. This episode should interest anyone who has or knows someone with bipolar disorder and, more broadly, those interested in how the brain works to create a balance between thoughts, energy levels, focus, and mood. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Bipolar Disorder (00:02:23) Momentous Supplements (00:03:42) Tool: Appetite Suppression & GLP-1, Parallel Pathways, Yerba Mate (00:10:23) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:14:24) Prevalence & Severity of Bipolar Disorder (00:16:30) Bipolar Disorder I, Diagnostic Criteria of Mania (00:28:58) Bipolar Disorder II, Individual Variability (00:33:07) Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II: Manic, Depressive & Symptom-Free States (00:38:20) Consequences of Bipolar Disorder, Heritability (00:46:53) Bipolar Disorder vs. Borderline Personality Disorder (00:51:51) Mania & Depression, Negative Impacts (00:53:06) History of Lithium Treatment (01:02:44) Lithium Treatment & Side-Effects (01:05:05) Effects of Lithium: BDNF, Anti-inflammatory & Neuroprotection (01:10:10) Neural Circuits of Bipolar Disorder, Interoception, Hyper- vs. Hypoactivity (01:17:11) Neural States & Mania, Parietal Lobe & Limbic System (01:22:58) Homeostatic Plasticity, Synaptic Scaling, Lithium & Ketamine (01:36:00) Talk Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Family-Focused Therapy, Interpersonal & Social Rhythm Therapy (01:43:18) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) (01:48:01) Psylocibin, Cannabis (01:51:50) Lifestyle Support, Supplements: Inositol & Omega-3 Fatty Acids (02:03:31) Omega-3s, Membrane Fluidity & Neuroplasticity (02:06:44) Mania, Creativity & Occupations (02:15:33) Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis, Neural Circuits & Treatment (02:17:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 25, 2022
Dr. Charles Zuker: The Biology of Taste Perception & Sugar Craving | Episode 81
8187
My guest this episode is Dr. Charles Zuker, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biophysics and Neuroscience at Columbia University and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Zuker is the world’s leading expert in the biology of taste, thirst and craving. His laboratory explores the mechanisms of taste perception, focusing on how our conscious and unconscious processing of specific foods and nutrients guide our actions and behaviors. We discuss the neural circuits of taste, the “gut-brain axis,” the basis of food cravings and the key difference between wanting (craving) and liking (perceiving) sugar. We also explore how taste perception relates to specific food satiety, thirst, to our emotions, and expectation. We also consider how sugar containing and highly-processed foods can hijack the natural balance of the taste and digestive systems. Dr. Zuker provides a true masterclass in the biology of taste and perception that ought to be of interest to anyone curious about how the brain works, our motivated behaviors and the neural, chemical perceptual aspects of the mind. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Charles Zuker & Taste Perception (00:03:05) Momentous Supplements (00:04:35) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:08:35) Sensory Detection vs. Sensory Perception (00:11:48) Individual Variations within Perception, Color (00:16:20) Perceptions & Behaviors (00:20:19) The 5 Taste Modalities (00:26:18) Aversive Taste, Bitter Taste (00:28:00) Survival-Based & Evolutionary Reasons for Taste Modalities, Taste vs. Flavor (00:30:14) Additional Taste Modalities: Fat & Metallic Perception (00:34:02) Tongue “Taste Map,” Taste Buds & Taste Receptors  (00:39:34) Burning Your Tongue & Perception (00:42:54) The “Meaning” of Taste Stimuli, Sweet vs. Bitter, Valence (00:51:55) Positive vs. Negative Neuronal Activation & Behavior (00:56:16) Acquired Tastes, Conditioned Taste Aversion  (01:01:44) Olfaction (Smell) vs. Taste, Changing Tastes over One’s Lifetime (01:09:14) Integration of Odor & Taste, Influence on Behavior & Emotion (01:17:26) Sensitization to Taste, Internal State Modulation, Salt (01:24:05) Taste & Saliva: The Absence of Taste (01:28:10) Sugar & Reward Pleasure Centers; Gut-Brain Axis, Anticipatory Response (01:36:23) Vagus Nerve (01:43:09) Insatiable Sugar Appetite, Liking vs. Wanting, Gut-Brain Axis (01:52:03) Tool: Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners, Curbing Appetite (01:54:06) Cravings & Gut-Brain Axis  (01:57:30) Nutrition, Gut-Brain Axis & Changes in Behavior (02:01:53) Fast vs. Slow Signaling & Reinforcement, Highly Processed Foods  (02:10:38) Favorite Foods: Enjoyment, Sensation & Context (02:15:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 18, 2022
Optimize & Control Your Brain Chemistry to Improve Health & Performance | Episode 80
7675
In this episode, I explain the biological roles of the four major neuromodulators—dopamine, epinephrine (aka adrenaline), serotonin, and acetylcholine—and describe how these neuromodulators impact a wide variety of mental states and behaviors, including focus, creativity, motivation, drive, learning, alertness, mood, relationships, and feelings of well-being. Then, with that foundational understanding in mind, I describe a potent toolkit of science-supported behavioral, nutrition, and supplementation tools that can be used to increase baseline levels of individual neuromodulators and that can be modified for specific goals. This episode summarizes low-or-no-cost, actionable, science-based tools that can benefit anyone in order to enhance their levels of brain chemicals and improve mental health, physical health, and performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Optimizing Neurochemicals to Improve Health (00:03:40) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sleep & Maintaining Healthy Metabolism (00:09:52) Tools: How to Wake Up Earlier, Night Owls (00:19:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:22:05) Nervous System Overview (00:31:32) How Neuromodulators Work  (00:34:24) Baseline Neuromodulator Levels, 3 Daily Phases (00:42:15) Hormones Modulate Neuromodulators (00:52:12) The 4 Major Types of Neuromodulators (01:01:45) Tool Kit 1: Increase Baseline Dopamine & Focus (01:08:52) Tyrosine-rich Foods & Dopamine (01:10:59) Dopamine Supplementation: Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine & Phenylethylamine (01:16:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:21:12) Tool Kit 2: Additional Tips to Increase Dopamine (01:26:10) Tool Kit 3: Increase Epinephrine (Adrenaline) & Alertness (01:34:34) Tool Kit 4: Increase Acetylcholine & Attention/Learning; Choline-rich Foods (01:37:29) Acetylcholine Supplements: Nicotine, Alpha GPC, Huperzine  (01:44:47) Tool Kit 5: Behavior to Increase Focus & Acetylcholine (01:46:56) Tool Kit 6: Behavior to Increase Serotonin & Feelings of Well-being  (01:50:51) Tools: Tryptophan-Rich Foods & Serotonin (01:53:31) Tools: Serotonin Supplements: Cissus Quadrangularis, 5-HTP, Myo-inositol (02:02:14) Use the Neurochemical Toolkit to Meet Individual Goals (02:06:44) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 11, 2022
Jeff Cavaliere: Optimize Your Exercise Program with Science-Based Tools | Episode 79
9585
My guest this episode is Jeff Cavaliere, MSPT CSCS, a world-class physical therapist and Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. Jeff has coached athletes ranging from novice to professional and has taught science-based physical training protocols to tens of millions of everyday people via his enormously clear and actionable online programs. Jeff is a true expert on proper resistance and cardiovascular training, injury prevention and rehabilitation and has extensive knowledge on proper form, posture, nutrition and supplementation. We discuss how to best design and optimize a physical training program to achieve your specific goals. We also discuss how to build and leverage mental focus during workouts, when and how to stretch, pain management and enhancing workout recovery and sleep, and how to personalize your training and nutrition program over time. Jeff’s knowledge and science-based approach ought to benefit everyone in reaching their desired fitness, aesthetic and overall health goals. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Jeff Cavaliere, Physical Training (00:03:27) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:08:38) Tool: A Fitness Plan for General Health (00:13:27) Tool: Optimizing Body Part Training Splits (00:20:12) Two-a-Day Training (00:22:33) Cardiovascular Conditioning, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & Skills (00:28:24) Tool: Mind-Muscle Connection, The Cavaliere Cramp Contraction Test (00:35:05) “Muscularity” & Resting Tone (00:41:31) Tool: Muscle Recovery & Soreness, Grip Strength (00:50:39) Sleep & Sleep Position (00:57:24) Active (Dynamic) vs. Passive Stretching, Timing & Healing Muscle (01:07:23) Tool: Jumping Rope (01:12:56) Internal & External Rotation, Upright Row vs. High Pull (01:24:27) Back Pain Relief & Medial Glutes, Body Pain & Origins (01:37:39) Tool: Properly Holding Weights & Deepening Grip (01:43:54) Tool: Physical Recovery, Heat & Cold Exposure (01:47:19) Tool: Record Keeping for Training Performance & Rest Time (01:51:47) Nutrition Principles & Consistency, Processed Foods & Sugar (02:00:15) Tool: “Plate Eating”: Protein, Fibrous & Starchy Carbohydrates (02:11:25) Training in Men vs. Women, Training for Kids & Adolescents (02:18:05) Tool: Pre- and Post-Training Nutrition (02:26:30) Intensity & Training Consistency (02:29:53) AthleanX, Jesse Laico & Fitness Journeys (02:38:27) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 04, 2022
The Science & Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) | Episode 78
9132
In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder? (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity (00:15:10) Categories of OCD (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 27, 2022
Ido Portal: The Science & Practice of Movement | Episode 77
9214
My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Thesis (00:07:49) What is Movement? (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming” (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement (01:52:43) Walking Gaits (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 20, 2022
Improve Flexibility with Research-Supported Stretching Protocols | Episode 76
7533
In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching (00:02:57) Sponsors (00:07:22) Innate Flexibility (00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion (00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms (00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging (00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice (00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation (00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion (00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises (00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) (00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration (01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency (01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol (01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching (01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits (01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition (01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch (01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching” (01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises? (01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease (01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga (02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols (02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 13, 2022
Dr. Paul Conti: Therapy, Treating Trauma & Other Life Challenges | Episode 75
8611
My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery  (00:02:30) Sponsors (00:07:00) Defining Trauma  (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion  (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal  (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist? (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies  (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling  (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences  (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist  (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity   (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs (01:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals  (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues   (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs  (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs  (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery     (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals   (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery  (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses) (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions  (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself” (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 06, 2022
The Science & Process of Healing from Grief | Episode 74
7588
This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives. We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement  (00:03:44) Sponsors (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief  (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving  (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping  (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments  (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory  (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence  (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles  (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine) (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects   (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity  (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery  (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving  (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery  (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 30, 2022
Dr. Wendy Suzuki: Boost Attention & Memory with Science-Based Tools | Episode 73
6389
My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory (00:02:50) Sponors (00:07:27) How Memories Form  (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination  (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance  (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a “Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus”  (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)  (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory  (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol  (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise  (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition  (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors   (01:17:09) “Every Drop of Sweat Counts” – Exercise & Cognitive Function  (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood  (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance  (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention  (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 23, 2022
Understand & Improve Memory Using Science-Based Tools | Episode 72
7746
This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking “mental snapshots.” I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory   (00:02:45) Sponsors (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory  (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation  (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory  (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation   (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus  (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement  (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline  (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol   (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline  (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation  (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory  (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle  (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis  (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability  (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement (01:37:29) Photographic Memory (01:38:49) “Super Recognizers,” Facial Recognition    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement (01:49:12) Déjà Vu (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory  (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 16, 2022
Understanding & Controlling Aggression | Episode 71
5427
This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones—estrogen and testosterone—in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ‘prime’ an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression (00:03:33) Sponsors (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, “Hydraulic Pressure Model”  (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)  (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression  (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression  (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression  (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors  (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood  (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort  (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity  (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression  (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior  (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the “Hydraulic Pressure Model” of Aggression  (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships  (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 09, 2022
Dr. Rhonda Patrick: Micronutrients for Health & Longevity | Episode 70
10109
My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick – Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure  (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sponsors (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed  (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination)  (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges  (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2  (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation  (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression  (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements?  (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy  (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s  (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s  (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure  (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation  (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation  (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D  (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate  (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ‘Browning’, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle  (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna  (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood  (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk  (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)  (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity  (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility  (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin  (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 02, 2022
The Science & Health Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure | Episode 69
6766
I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Heat & Health (00:03:37) Momentous Supplements (00:05:46) Sponsors (00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature (00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia (00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA) (00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health (00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation (00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3 (00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism (00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure (01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure (01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna (01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood (01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool (01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism (01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure (01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure (01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 25, 2022
Using Light (Sunlight, Blue Light & Red Light) to Optimize Health | Episode 68
8463
I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health (00:05:17) Sponsors (00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy (00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light (00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues (00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals (00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin (00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects (00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels (00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen (00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone (01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone (01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance (01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain (01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) (01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function (01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months (01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure (01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light (01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization (01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing (01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) (01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss (01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure (02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work (02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection (02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health (02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 18, 2022
Dr. Kyle Gillett: How to Optimize Your Hormones for Health & Vitality | Episode 67
10680
My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization    (00:04:10) Sponsors (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health  (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health  (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone  (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1 (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss  (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto  (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility  (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer  (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein   (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil  (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM  (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats  (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels  (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage  (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P) (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic)  (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency  (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin  (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan  (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health  (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones  (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 11, 2022
Using Deliberate Cold Exposure for Health and Performance | Episode 66
7986
I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work (00:11:32) Sponsors (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be? (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold – The Søberg Principle, Shivering (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 04, 2022
Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Strength, Muscle Size & Endurance | Episode 65
12557
My guest is Dr. Andy Galpin, Professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, and one of the foremost experts in the world on the science and application of methods to increase strength, hypertrophy and endurance performance. We discuss fundamental principles of strength and hypertrophy training and building endurance, the mechanisms underlying them and we review specific protocols to optimize training and recovery. We also discuss hydration, sleep, nutrition, supplements, and mental tools that can be leveraged to accelerate adaptations leading to enhanced strength, muscle growth and/or endurance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin, Strength & Endurance Training   (00:03:55) Sponsors (00:08:20) Adaptations of Exercise, Progressive Overload  (00:14:40) Modifiable Variables, One-Rep Max, Muscle Soreness (00:27:30) Modifiable Variables of Strength Training, Supersets   (00:43:50) How to Select Training Frequency: Strength vs. Hypertrophy  (00:58:45) Hypertrophy Training, Repetition Ranges, Blood Flow Restriction  (01:08:50) Tools: Protocols for Strength Training, the 3 by 5 Concept  (01:10:48) Mind-Muscle Connection  (01:16:16) Mental Awareness  (01:27:57) Breathing Tools for Resistance Training & Post-Training  (01:37:25) Endurance Training & Combining with Strength (01:51:20) Tools: Protocols for Endurance Training (02:08:15) Muscular Endurance, Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle  (02:16:35) Hydration & the Galpin Equation, Sodium, Fasting    (02:35:57) Cold Exposure & Training   (02:43:15) Heat Exposure & Training  (02:53:47) Recovery   (03:04:02) Tool: Sodium Bicarbonate (03:17:26) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate (03:20:08) Absolute Rest (03:29:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 28, 2022
Controlling Sugar Cravings & Metabolism with Science-Based Tools | Episode 64
7002
I explain how to blunt sugar cravings through fundamental knowledge of how sugar is sensed, metabolized, and utilized within the body. I explain how sugar is processed through the digestive tract and nervous system and how both the taste and nutritive components of sugar can lead to specific appetite changes and cravings. I discuss the connection between sugar, dopamine, and cravings and outline many tools to curb sugar cravings, specifically craving highly processed refined sugars. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Sugar & Physiology (00:03:13) Sponsors (00:07:40) Sugar & the Brain (00:10:06) Appetite & Hormones: Ghrelin & Insulin (00:14:17) Glucose & Brain Function (00:24:19) Glucose & Physical Activity (00:26:16) Fructose vs. Glucose (00:32:41) When to Eat High-Sugar Foods? (00:35:01) Sugar’s Taste vs. Nutritive Pathways, Sugar Cravings (00:41:46) Tool: Sugar & the Dopamine, Pleasure – Pain Dichotomy (00:48:43) Subconscious Sugar Circuits, Hidden Sugars in Food (00:58:03) Glucose Metabolism in the Brain (01:03:00) Tool: Glycemic Index, Blunting Sugar Cravings (01:12:08) Sugary Drinks, Highly Refined Sugars (01:14:33) Artificial Sweeteners (01:22:36) ADHD, Omega-3s (01:30:18) Tools: Reduce Sugar Cravings with EPA Omega-3s & Glutamine (01:35:15) Tool: Blunt Sugar Peaks & Craving with Lemon Juice (01:43:09) Tool: Reduce Sugar Cravings & Spikes with Cinnamon (01:45:10) Berberine, Sustained Low Blood Glucose Levels (01:51:24) Tool: Sleep & Sugar Cravings (01:56:33) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 21, 2022
Using Salt to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance | Episode 63
7387
I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual’s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ‘hidden’ sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt’s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body’s performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Role of Salt  (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ‘Hidden’ Cravings  (00:10:57) Sponsors (00:15:06) Salt Regulation  (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst  (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst  (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination  (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need?  (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake?  (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt  (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety  (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium  (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine  (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake  (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods  (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials  (01:53:13) Dehydration  (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You?  (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 14, 2022
Dr. Justin Sonnenburg: How to Build, Maintain & Repair Gut Health | Episode 62
7911
My guest this episode is Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Sonnenburg’s research focuses on how microbes in our gut impact our mental and physical health and how diet and your environment shape your gut microbiome. We discuss the architecture of the gut microbiome and microbiota variability in different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and how these can change in response to diet, environment or genetics. We explore the early establishment of your microbiome and how your mode of delivery into the world (C-section or not) shapes your gut. We also discuss lifestyle factors that can alter your microbiome and the integral role the gut microbiome plays in communicating to other organs, including your brain. Dr. Sonnenburg details his recent clinical study, which found that diets rich in fermented foods (but not fiber) increase microbiota diversity and reduce signals of inflammation. Additionally, we examine how foods typical in Western Diets (e.g., high fat, low fiber, processed foods) can negatively impact the gut microbiome. Throughout the episode, we discuss actionable tools from peer-reviewed clinical findings that anyone can implement, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their gut microbiome and health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Gut Microbiome (00:04:16) Sponsors (00:08:30) What is the Gut Microbiome? (00:12:49) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract & Microbiota Variability (00:16:00) Breast Feeding, C-Sections & Pets (00:21:56) The Human Microbiome Project at Stanford (00:26:30) Traditional vs. Industrialized Populations (00:28:58) Resilience of the Microbiome (00:35:10) Regional Differences Along Your GI Tract (00:42:04) Fasting, Cleanses & Gut Health (00:51:19) Dietary Differences (01:01:24) Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates, Processed Foods (01:07:03) Artificial & Plant-based Sweeteners (01:12:44) Cleanses: Useful? Harmful? (01:14:50) Your Microbiome & Your Immune System (01:20:17) Dietary Fiber & Fermented Foods (01:32:13) High-Fiber vs. High-Fermented Diet; Inflammation (01:41:33) Ripple Effects of a Healthy Diet (01:45:00) Does a High-Fiber Diet Make Inflammation Worse? (01:47:22) Over Sterilized Environments (01:50:15) The Gut Microbiome’s Effect on Physiology (01:56:45) Gut-Brain Connection (01:59:30) Probiotics: Benefits & Risks (02:04:20) Prebiotics: Essential? (02:07:00) Tools for Enhancing Your Gut Microbiota (02:11:12) Dr. Sonnenburg’s Research, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 07, 2022
How to Enhance Your Gut Microbiome for Brain & Overall Health | Episode 61
6703
In this episode, I discuss the profound effect the gut has on the nervous system. I cover the structure and function of the gut-brain axis and the role of the gut microbiome in the brain and overall health. I describe how the gut controls hunger or satiety by affecting neurons in our brain. I also contrast the many pathways by which the gut influences the brain: direct vs. indirect pathways, chemical vs. mechanical, and fast vs. slow signaling. Additionally, I discuss what defines a healthy microbiome and how your lifestyle impacts the gut microbiome, including the effects of stress, fasting, antibiotics, pets, environment, prebiotics and probiotics. I address how different foods shape the gut microbiome, in particular, the emerging data that fermented foods can increase the diversity of healthy gut microbiota. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed and textbook findings that reveal the critical role of the gut microbiome in supporting mental and physical health and I outline simple tools that anyone can use in order to enhance their gut microbiome health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Gut Microbiome  (00:03:02) Sponsors (00:06:55) Your Gut-Brain Axis  (00:09:44) Gut-Brain Anatomy (00:15:32) Microbiota vs. Gut Microbiome  (00:20:01) Roles of Gut Microbiome  (00:23:03) Neuropod Cells: (Subconscious) Tasting with Your Stomach  (00:34:13) Ghrelin: Slow Modulation of Your Brain in Hunger (00:38:02) Glucagon Like Peptide 1; GLP-1  (00:42:22) Tools: ‘Free Will’ & Food Cravings  (00:44:46) Mechanical Cues from Gut to Brain (00:49:05) Dopamines, Vomiting  (00:52:06) Indirect Signals from Gut Microbiota (00:59:30) Gut Microbiome “Critical Periods”  (01:03:08) How Gut Health Controls Overall Health  (01:12:25) What is a Healthy Gut Microbiome? (01:15:00) Tools: Enhance Your Gut Microbiome (01:23:49) Foods to Enhance Microbiota Diversity; Fermented Foods  (01:37:07) High-Fiber Diets & Inflammation (01:40:58) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners  (01:44:27) Structure & Function of Gut-Brain Axis  (01:49:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 28, 2022
Dr. David Spiegel: Using Hypnosis to Enhance Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 60
6656
My guest is Dr. David Spiegel MD, Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health and Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience with hypnosis, stress physiology, and psychotherapy. In this episode, we examine the role of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of trauma, chronic pain, anxiety and more. Dr. Spiegel explains how to determine your level of ‘hypnotizability’ and provides case studies of incredible successes with hypnosis to treat a variety of ailments. We also discuss how breathing, vision and directed mental focus can modulate internal states and enhance performance. Additionally, we discuss how the adoption of self-hypnosis techniques can reduce stress and enhance sleep in anyone. Dr. Spiegel teaches us how hypnosis works at the neural circuit level to enhance cognitive flexibility. Throughout the episode, Dr. Spiegel summarizes key clinical trials and peer-reviewed findings and resources to work with a trained clinical professional or to do guided self-hypnosis.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Spiegel MD, Hypnosis (00:04:16) Sponsors (00:09:09) Clinical Hypnosis (00:16:45) Stage Hypnosis (00:20:25) Neurobiology of Hypnosis (00:26:04) ADHD (00:28:22) Hypnosis for Stress & Sleep (00:32:12) Hypnosis to Strengthen Neural Connections (00:37:19) Restructuring Trauma Narratives (00:45:14) Ketamine Therapy (00:50:07) Self-directed Hypnosis, Reveri (00:56:53) Eliminating Obsessive Thoughts, Superstitions (01:01:50) ‘Hypnotizability’, the Spiegel Eye-roll Test (01:15:36) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) (01:21:43) Confronting Stress & Trauma (01:27:56) The Mind-Body Connection (01:31:35) Dealing with Grief (01:35:45) Hypnosis in Children & Groups (01:40:06) Drug Therapies & Hypnosis (01:42:39) Breathing Patterns, Peak Performance (01:50:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 21, 2022
The Science of Love, Desire and Attachment | Episode 59
9126
In this episode, I discuss the psychology and biology of desire, love and attachment. I explain how childhood attachment types are thought to inform adult attachment styles to romantic partners, and I describe some of the major theories of human mate selection, relationships and infidelity. Additionally, I explore the neurobiology and proposed subconscious processing underlying desire, love and attachment, including the roles of empathy and “positive delusion." I outline how self-awareness can shift one’s relationship attachment style towards securely bonded partnerships. Finally, I describe specific tools and supplements that have been researched to increase libido and sex drive. Throughout the episode, I explain the science and key mechanisms underlying romantic love and outline tools for those seeking to find a strong, healthy relationship, or for those wanting to strengthen an existing relationship.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Desire, Love & Attachment  (00:02:59) Odor, Perceived Attractiveness & Birth Control (00:08:04) Sponsors (00:14:13) Romance: Balancing Love & Desire (00:19:00) Animal Studies, Vasopressin & Monogamy  (00:22:06) Strange Situation Task, Childhood Attachment Styles (00:32:52) Adult Attachment Styles (00:38:50) Secure Attachment  (00:41:23) Autonomic Arousal: The “See-Saw” (00:50:39) Tool: Self-Awareness, Healthy Interdependence (00:53:11) Neurobiology of Desire, Love & Attachment   (00:58:02) Empathy & Mating & the Autonomic Nervous System (01:10:02) Positive Delusion, Touch (01:15:20) Relationship Stability  (01:21:22) Selecting Mates, Recognition of Autonomic Tone (01:38:28) Neural Mechanisms of Romantic Attachment  (01:47:43) Autonomic Coordination in Relationships  (01:56:13) Infidelity & Cheating (02:08:56) “Chemistry”, Subconscious Processes (02:12:44) Tools: Libido & Sex Drive  (02:20:20) Maca (Maca root)   (02:25:58) Tongkat Ali (Longjack)  (02:28:56) Tribulus terrestris  (02:33:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify/Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 14, 2022
Using Play to Rewire & Improve Your Brain | Episode 58
6293
In this episode, I discuss the transformative nature of play—how it changes our feelings, thoughts and actions and indeed, how it can rewire our brain to function better in all contexts. I explain the role of play in childhood, as well as adulthood in skill and social development and describe key characteristics of the mind and body during play. Additionally, I explore how play allows the brain to test contingencies in different roles/environments. Throughout, I discuss the underlying neurobiology of play. I also describe how low-stakes play, and tinkering can broaden and shape your future capabilities. Finally, I discuss how our childhood ‘personal play identity’ informs our adult personality. Throughout the episode, I use the science of play to outline recommendations for using play as a means to enhance neuroplasticity and explore novel situations, regardless of age. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Power of Play (00:02:23) Tool: Reading on Smart Phones, Sighing & Learning (00:09:14) Sponsors (00:13:57) Homeostatic Regulation of Play (00:23:53) Childhood Play & Mindsets (00:29:21) Contingency Testing (00:32:17) The (Power of) Playful Mindset (00:36:13) Body Postures (00:44:03) Rule Testing & Breaking (00:48:24) Role Play (00:50:39) Neurobiology of Low-stakes Play (00:54:22) Expanding Capabilities through Tinkering (01:00:03) Play Is THE Portal to Neuroplasticity (01:04:44) Adulthood Play (01:10:14) Fire Together, Wire Together (01:18:03) Trauma & Play Deficits & Recovery (01:23:25) Competition & Dynamic Movement (01:27:36) Chess, Mental Roles, Novelty (01:32:52) Personal Play Identity (01:37:24) Play Transforms Your Future Self (01:40:55) Recommendations for Play (01:44:25) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify/Apple Reviews, YouTube, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 07, 2022
Optimizing Workspace for Productivity, Focus, & Creativity | Episode 57
5988
In this episode, I discuss ways to set up your workspace to optimize productivity, focus and creativity. I discuss how to adjust light, physically arrange your work environment, and leverage body posture to enhance productivity. Additionally, I explore how to shift your work environment for particular types of tasks. Moreover, I review the role of body movement in the workspace. I also discuss sound-based tools that can either enhance or diminish cognitive functioning (the ability to focus on deep work). I describe a particular frequency of binaural beats that studies show can be used to enhance memory and recall. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed findings practical tools anyone can use, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their workspace to achieve heightened levels of productivity, increased alertness and focus, and creativity. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Arranging Environment for Focus (00:02:40) Sponsors (00:07:55) How to Increase Focus (00:10:02) Lighting Your Work in Phase 1 (00:16:00) Lighting Your Work in Phase 2 (00:19:45) Lighting Your Work in Phase 3 (00:24:17) Where to Look While You Work (00:28:02) Arranging Your Environment (00:31:24) Body Posture (00:34:22) How Long to Do Deep Work (00:36:50) Set the Right Visual Window Size (00:42:15) 45 min / 5 min Rule (00:44:23) The Cathedral Effect: Analytic vs Creative Work (00:55:50) Leveraging Background Noise (01:02:20) Binaural Beats for Work (01:06:38) The Best Binaural Frequency for Work (01:11:17) How Binaural Beats Increase Focus (01:13:56) Minimizing Interruptions (01:20:01) Sit or Stand, or Both? (01:25:18) Movement in the Workspace (01:31:00) Summary & Shifting Work Environments (01:39:36) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 31, 2022
Dr. Alia Crum: Science of Mindsets for Health & Performance | Episode 56
5969
My guest is Dr. Alia Crum, Associate (tenured) Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and Director of the Stanford Mind & Body Lab. Dr. Crum is a world expert on mindsets and beliefs and how they shape our responses to stress, exercise, and even to the foods we eat. We discuss how our mindset about the nutritional content of food changes whether it is satisfying to us at a physiological (hormonal and metabolic) level. She also tells how mindsets about exercise can dramatically alter the effects of exercise on weight loss, blood pressure, and other health metrics. Dr. Crum teaches us how to think about stress in ways that allow stress to grow us and bring out our best rather than diminish our health and performance. Throughout the episode, Dr. Crum provides descriptions of high-quality peer-reviewed scientific findings that we can all leverage toward better health and performance in our lives. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Alia Crum from Stanford University (00:03:15) Sponsors (00:08:26) What Is a Mindset & What Does It Do?  (00:14:45) Mindsets Change Our Biological Responses to Food (00:22:28) Beliefs About Our Food Matter (00:25:57) Placebo vs Beliefs vs Nocebo Effects (00:28:57) Mindset (Dramatically) Impacts the Effects of Exercise (00:33:44) Motivational Messaging & Mindset About Fitness (00:39:30) The Power of a ‘Potency & Indulgence’ Mindset (00:42:03) Mindsets About Sleep, Tracking Sleep  (00:45:00) Making Stress Work For (or Against) You (01:01:50) Mindsets Link Our Conscious & Subconscious (01:04:50) 3 Best Ways to Leverage Stress (01:10:40) 4 Things That Shape Mindsets, Influencers & Mindsets (01:19:40) Mindsets About Medicines & Side Effects (01:26:25) How to Teach Mindsets (01:31:47) Dr. Crum’s Research, Clinical & Athletic Backgrounds (01:36:20) The Stanford Mind & Body Lab, Resources for Stress (01:38:30) Synthesis, Participating in Research (01:39:04) Subscribe, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 24, 2022
The Science of Setting & Achieving Goals | Episode 55
6575
In this episode, I discuss the science of setting, assessing, and pursuing goals. I explain the neural (brain) circuits that underlie goal setting and pursuit. Then I describe nine science-supported tools anyone can apply toward their goals. I explain when and how to use goal visualization, when to use multitasking and how to use specific rewards to improve the likelihood of reaching your goals. I also explain why envisioning failures and their consequences are effective and how to set goals of the appropriate level of challenge. I also explain how the molecule dopamine is used to gauge our progress toward milestones and long-term overarching goals and how to leverage dopamine for goal pursuit. Finally, I explain a unique tool called 'space-time bridging' that can be used to support all aspects of goal setting, assessment, and pursuit. This episode ought to be useful for anyone seeking to improve their performance in work, school, exercise, athletics, or personal development. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Neuroscience of Goals (00:01:56) Tool 1: Learn Fast(er) by the 85% Rule  (00:06:04) Sponsors (00:13:55) Brain Circuits for Setting & Pursuing Goals (00:21:52) Determining the Value of Goals  (00:24:33) Psychology of Goal Setting: Assessing Value, Action Steps (00:30:29) Peripersonal Space vs. Extrapersonal Space (00:35:39) Visually Focusing on a Goal Line Improves Performance (00:43:50) How Vision Improves Performance: Blood Pressure (00:51:55) Tool 2: Use Focal Vision to Initiate Goal Pursuit (00:54:40) Tool 3: Use Aged Self-Images to Self-Motivate  (00:59:33) Tool 4: Visualization of Goals is Only Helpful at the Start  (01:02:05) Tool 5: Visualizing Failure is the Best Ongoing Motivator (01:07:26) Tool 6: Make Goals Moderately Lofty  (01:13:05) Tool 7: Avoid Goal Distraction; Focus on 1-2 Major Goals Per Year (01:15:57) Tool 8: Ensure Specificity of Goals, Weekly Assessment (01:19:57) Dopamine, Motivation & Pleasure in Seeking Goals (01:22:43) Dopamine Reward Prediction Error, Controlling Dopamine (01:34:26) How Dopamine Influences Vision & Vice Versa (01:38:10) Interim Summary of Goal-Pursuit Steps (01:39:50) Tool 9: Space-Time Bridging  (01:49:59) Summary (01:51:50) Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 17, 2022
Dr. Jack Feldman: Breathing for Mental & Physical Health & Performance | Episode 54
8429
This episode my guest is Dr. Jack Feldman, Distinguished Professor of Neurobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles and a pioneering world expert in the science of respiration (breathing). We discuss how and why humans breathe the way we do, the function of the diaphragm and how it serves to increase oxygenation of the brain and body. We discuss how breathing influences mental state, fear, memory, reaction time, and more. And we discuss specific breathing protocols such as box-breathing, cyclic hyperventilation (similar to Wim Hof breathing), nasal versus mouth breathing, unilateral breathing, and how these each affect the brain and body. We discuss physiological sighs, peptides expressed by specific neurons controlling breathing, and magnesium compounds that can improve cognitive ability and how they work. This conversation serves as a sort of "Master Class" on the science of breathing and breathing-related tools for health and performance.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Our Breath Collective https://www.ourbreathcollective.com/huberman  Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Jack Feldman (00:03:05) Sponsors (00:10:35) Why We Breathe  (00:14:35) Neural Control of Breathing: “Pre-Botzinger Complex” (00:16:20) Nose vs Mouth Breathing (00:18:18) Skeletal vs. Smooth Muscles: Diaphragm, Intracostals & Airway Muscles (00:20:11) Two Breathing Oscillators: Pre-Botzinger Complex & Parafacial Nucleus (00:26:20) How We Breathe Is Special (Compared to Non-Mammals) (00:33:40) Stomach & Chest Movements During Breathing (00:36:23) Physiological Sighs, Alveoli Re-Filling, Bombesin (00:49:39) If We Don’t Sigh, Our Lung (& General) Health Suffers (01:00:42) Breathing, Brain States & Emotions  (01:05:34) Meditating Mice, Eliminating Fear  (01:11:00) Brain States, Amygdala, Locked-In Syndrome, Laughing (01:16:25) Facial Expressions (01:19:00) Locus Coeruleus & Alertness (01:29:40) Breath Holds, Apnea, Episodic Hypoxia, Hypercapnia (01:35:22) Stroke, Muscle Strength, TBI (01:38:08) Cyclic Hyperventilation (01:39:50) Hyperbaric Chambers (01:40:41) Nasal Breathing, Memory, Right vs. Left Nostril (01:44:50) Breathing Coordinates Everything: Reaction Time, Fear, etc. (01:57:13) Dr. Feldman’s Breathwork Protocols, Post-Lunch  (02:02:05) Deliberately Variable Breathwork: The Feldman Protocol (02:06:29) Magnesium Threonate & Cognition & Memory  (02:18:27) Gratitude for Dr. Feldman’s Highly Impactful Work (02:20:53) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 10, 2022
LIFESPAN: The Science Behind Why We Age | Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair | Episode 1
3825
I am honored to share the first episode of the new podcast, Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair.  Dr. Sinclair is a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. He is also the co-director of Harvard Medical School's Paul F. Glenn Center for Biology of Aging Research.  David is both a friend and a colleague, and I am delighted to have helped him in the creation of this new podcast. It will be an 8-episode series that provides a deep dive into the science behind why we age and the newest research on what we can do to slow, stop and even reverse aging.  While we have Episode 1 of the Lifespan podcast here, please be sure to navigate over to the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel to subscribe. New episodes will come out every Wednesday for the next 8 weeks. I am certain that you will both enjoy it and learn from it. Show notes for this episode can be found on the Lifespan with Dr. David Sinclair podcast channel. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 05, 2022
The Science of Making & Breaking Habits | Episode 53
6580
In this episode, I review the science of habit formation and habit elimination and how the process of neuroplasticity (brain rewiring) underlies these processes. I describe two new systems for habit formation. The first system is grounded in the neuroscience of brain states and our ability to perform (and to avoid) certain tasks at different phases of the 24-hour day. The second system focuses on 21-day habit formation and consolidation. I also discuss "task bracketing" as an approach to enhancing habit formation and eliminating unwanted habits and the neural circuits that underlie task bracketing in the basal ganglia (a brain region for generating and stopping behaviors). I also review the science of dopamine rewards and how to apply that knowledge to shaping habits. The science and tools in this episode ought to be helpful for anyone looking to build better habits and eliminate unwanted habits for school, work, fitness, relationships, creative endeavors, and more—indeed for any person or situation where behavioral changes are needed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Habits; New Programs (00:02:30) Sponsors (00:06:52) Habits versus Reflexes, Learning, Neuroplasticity (00:08:51) Goal-Based Habits vs. Identity-Based Habits (00:11:40) How Long It (Really) Takes to Form a Habit; Limbic-Friction (00:16:07) Linchpin Habits  (00:18:55) Mapping Your Habits; Habit Strength, Context-Dependence (00:22:55) Automaticity (00:24:03) Tool 1: Applying Procedural Memory Visualizations (00:27:48) Hebbian Learning, NMDA receptors (00:31:00) Tool 2: Task Bracketing; Dorsolateral Striatum (00:37:08) States of Mind, Not Scheduling Time Predicts Habit Strength (00:38:16) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 1 (00:46:29) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 2 (00:55:24) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 3 (01:01:34) Habit Flexibility (01:04:57) Should We Reward Ourselves? How? When? When NOT to. (01:10:30) Tool 4: “Dopamine Spotlighting” & Task Bracketing (01:18:22) Tool 5: The 21-Day Habit Installation & Testing System (01:28:26) Breaking Habits: Long-Term (Synaptic) Depression (01:35:49) Notifications Don’t Work (01:37:50) Tool 6: Break Bad Habits with Post-Bad-Habit “Positive Cargo” (01:44:26) Addictions as Habits: https://hubermanlab.com/dr-anna-lembke-understanding-and-treating-addiction (01:45:28) Conclusion & Synthesis  (01:48:27) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 03, 2022
Dr. David Sinclair: The Biology of Slowing & Reversing Aging | Episode 52
7796
In this episode, I am joined by Dr. David Sinclair, tenured Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and an expert researcher in the field of longevity. Dr. Sinclair is also the author of the book Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To, and the host of the Lifespan Podcast, which launches January 5, 2022.  In this interview, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and what we all can do to slow or reverse the aging process. We discuss fasting and supplementation with resveratrol, NAD, metformin, and NMN. We also discuss the use of caffeine, exercise, cold exposure, and why excessive iron load is bad for us. We discuss food choices for offsetting aging and promoting autophagy (clearance of dead cells). And we discuss the key blood markers everyone should monitor to determine your biological versus chronological age. We also discuss the future of longevity research and technology. This episode includes lots of basic science and specific, actionable protocols, right down to the details of what to do and when. By the end, you will have in-depth knowledge of the biology of aging and how to offset it. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Sinclair, Harvard Medical School (00:03:30) Sponsors (00:07:45) “Aging as a Disease” vs. Longevity & Anti-Aging (00:10:23) What Causes Aging? The Epigenome (00:15:53) Cosmetic Aging  (00:17:15) Development Never Stops, Horvath Clock (00:20:12) Puberty Rate as a Determinant of Aging Rate (00:23:00) Fasting, Hunger & Food Choices (00:32:44) Fasting Schedules, Long Fasts, (Macro)Autophagy (00:34:50) Caffeine, Electrolytes  (00:35:56) Blood Glucose & the Sirtuins; mTOR (00:37:55) Amino Acids: Leucine, “Pulsing” (00:44:35) Metformin, Berberine (00:50:29) Resveratrol, Wine (00:53:20) What Breaks a Fast? (00:56:45) Resveratrol, NAD, NMN, NR; Dosage, Timing (01:09:10) Are Artificial Sweeteners Bad for Us? (01:12:04) Iron Load & Aging (01:15:05) Blood Work Analysis (01:19:37) C-Reactive Protein, Cholesterol: Serum & Dietary (01:26:02) Amino Acids, Plants, Antioxidants (01:33:45) Behaviors That Extend Lifespan, Testosterone, Estrogen (01:40:35) Neuroplasticity & Neural Repair (01:46:19) Ice Baths, Cold Showers, “Metabolic Winter” (01:48:07) Obesity & How It Accelerates Aging, GnRH  (01:52:10) Methylation, Methylene Blue, Cigarettes  (01:56:17) X-Rays   (01:59:00) Public Science Education, Personal Health (02:05:40) The Sinclair Test You Can Take: www.doctorsinclair.com (02:08:13) Zero-Cost Support & Resources, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Dec 27, 2021
Science of Social Bonding in Family, Friendship & Romantic Love | Episode 51
5554
This episode I discuss the science of social bonding- the process by which we form attachments. I explain the neural and hormonal basis for "social homeostasis" (our drive for a given amount of socializing) which reveals why we get lonely, why we seek out connection with others and how power dynamics (hierarchies) shape those connections. I also discuss the neurochemical basis of introversion and extroversion, of trust and how shared experiences that promote similar physiological states in two or more individuals, leads to more rapid bonding. I also discuss how food and oxytocin play key roles in social bonding. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed science and practical tools for anyone seeking to find, build or end relationships. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Social Bonding: Child-Parent, Romantic, Friendship, Breakups (00:02:55) Sponsors (00:07:08) Social Bonding as a Biological Process (00:10:03) Social Isolation (00:13:32) Social Homeostasis & Neural Circuits for Social Drive  (00:18:55) Brain Areas & (Neuro)Chemistry of Social Drive  (00:22:48) What is Social Homeostasis & Dopamine (00:27:00) When We Lack Social Interactions: Short- Versus Long-Term (00:28:10) Introverts & Extroverts (00:31:00) “Good” Versus “Bad” Social Interactions & Hierarchies (00:33:54) Loneliness & Dorsal Raphe Nucleus & Social Hunger  (00:37:33) Tools (00:38:05) Socializing & Food Appetite: Crossover Craving (00:42:45) Falling in Love (00:45:05) Tools for Social Bonds: Merging Physiologies; Story (00:53:54) Childhood Attachment Patterns in Adulthood (01:03:45) Attachment Styles: Autonomic Versus Intellectual Attachment (01:06:10) Emotional Empathy & Cognitive Empathy, Arguing (01:09:45) Allan N. Schore & “Right Brain Psychotherapy” (01:10:40) Oxytocin & Trust, In Males Versus Females, Hormonal Glue (01:16:10) Repairing Broken Bonds to Self & Others (01:18:56) Social (Media) Butterflies: Biological Basis (01:24:08) Key Points for Bonding & Understanding Social Bonds (01:27:07) Breaking Up (01:28:36) Synthesis  (01:31:17) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Dec 20, 2021
Dr. David Berson: Understanding Your Brain's Logic & Function | Episode 50
6664
In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Berson, Professor & Chairman of Neuroscience at Brown University. Dr. Berson discovered the neurons in your eye that set your biological rhythms for sleep, wakefulness, mood and appetite. He is also a world-renowned teacher of basic and advanced neuroscience, having taught thousands of university lectures on this topic. Many of his students have become world-leading neuroscientists and teachers themselves.  Here Dr. Berson takes us on a structured journey into and around the nervous system, explaining: how we perceive the world and our internal landscape, how we balance, see, and remember. Also, how we learn and perform reflexive and deliberate actions, how we visualize and imagine in our mind, and how the various circuits of the brain coordinate all these incredible feats.  We discuss practical and real-life examples of neural circuit function across the lifespan. Dr. Berson gives us a masterclass in the nervous system—one that, in just less than two hours, will teach you an entire course's worth about the brain and how yours works. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Berson  (00:02:55) Sponsors (00:08:02) How We See  (00:10:02) Color Vision  (00:13:47) “Strange” Vision (00:16:56) How You Orient In Time (00:25:45) Body Rhythms, Pineal function, Light & Melatonin, Blueblockers (00:34:45) Spending Times Outdoors Improves Eyesight  (00:36:20) Sensation, Mood, & Self-Image (00:41:03) Sense of Balance (00:50:43) Why Pigeons Bob Their Heads, Motion Sickness  (01:00:03) Popping Ears (01:02:35) Midbrain & Blindsight  (01:10:44) Why Tilted Motion Feels Good  (01:13:24) Reflexes vs. Deliberate Actions (01:16:35) Basal Ganglia & the “2 Marshmallow Test” (01:24:40) Suppressing Reflexes: Cortex  (01:33:33) Neuroplasticity  (01:36:27) What is a Connectome? (01:45:20) How to Learn (More About the Brain) (01:49:04) Book Suggestion, my Berson Appreciation (01:50:20) Zero-Cost ways to Support the HLP, Guest Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Dec 13, 2021
Erasing Fears & Traumas Based on the Modern Neuroscience of Fear | Episode 49
7953
In this episode, I discuss fear and trauma, including the neural circuits involved in the "threat reflex" and how specific experiences and memories come to activate that system. I also discuss how our body is involved in trauma and fear. First, I describe the logic of fear mechanisms and how "top-down" processing-- meaning connections from the parts of the brain that assign meaning to our feelings, are involved in fear and erasing fears and traumas. Then I discuss what successful fear and trauma treatment must include and consider various treatments for whether they meet that standard, such as EMDR, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Ketamine, other drug-assisted therapies, and more. I also review new data on how 5 minutes per day of deliberate, self-imposed stress can erase fear and depression. And I review the role that social connection plays in erasing or maintaining fears by activating specific molecular pathways in the brain and body. Finally, I review supplementation with over-the-counter compounds for their effects on anxiety and fear and when to take them, if at all.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Fear, Trauma & Trauma  (00:02:15) Sponsors (00:06:49) What is Fear?  (00:11:45) Autonomic Arousal: “Alertness” vs. “Calmness” (00:13:44) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA axis) (00:17:36) “The Threat Reflex”: Neural Circuits for Fear (00:28:24) Controlling Fear: Top-Down Processing (00:32:27) Narratives: “Protective or Dangerous” (00:35:58) Attaching Fear to Events: Classical Conditioning & Memory (00:41:45) How Fear Learning Occurs: Long Term Potentiation, NMDA (00:46:10) Extinguishing (Reducing) Fears (00:50:25) Cognitive (Narrative) Therapies for Fear (00:57:56) Repetition of Narrative, Overwriting Bad Experiences with Good (01:05:28) EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (01:14:00) Social Connection & Isolation Are Chemically Powerful (01:18:23) Trans-Generational Trauma (01:25:00) PTSD Treatments: Ketamine, MDMA, oxytocin (01:39:25) How Do You Know If You Are Traumatized?  (01:46:16) Deliberate Brief Stress Can Erase Fears & Trauma (01:49:50) Erasing Fears & Traumas In 5 Minutes Per Day (01:59:42) Nutrition, Sleep, & Other General Support Erasing Fear & Trauma (02:02:30) Supplements for Anxiety, Fear: Saffron, Inositol, Kava (02:10:00) Synthesis  (02:11:46) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Dec 06, 2021
Dr. David Buss: How Humans Select & Keep Romantic Partners in Short & Long Term | Episode 48
7924
In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Buss, Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, and one of the founding members of the field of evolutionary psychology. Dr. Buss describes his work on how people select mates for short and long-term relationships, the dynamics of human courtship, and mate value assessment — meaning how people measure up as potential partners. We also discuss the causes of infidelity and differences for infidelity in men and women. He explains how people evaluate and try to alter other people’s mate value as a means to secure and even poach mates. We discuss monogamous and non-monogamous relationships in humans. And we discuss what Dr. Buss calls “the dark triad”— features common in stalkers and narcissists that relate to sexual and psychological violence in relationships. This episode is sure to be of interest to anyone single or in a relationship who seeks to know how people select mates and anyone who is interested in forming and maintaining healthy romantic partnerships.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. David Buss (00:04:10) Sponsors (00:08:33) Choosing a Mate (00:13:40) Long Term Mates: Universal Desires (00:18:31) What Women & Men Seek in Long-Term Mates (00:25:10) Age Differences & Mating History  (00:32:20) Deception in Courtship (00:37:30) Emotional Stability (00:38:40) Lying About Long-Term Interest (00:41:56) Short-Term Mating Criteria, Sliding Standards & Context Effects (00:46:25) Sexual Infidelity: Variety Seeking & (Un)happiness & Mate Switching (00:54:25) Genetic Cuckolds, How Ovulation Impacts Mate Preference (00:57:00) Long-Term vs. Short-Term Cheating, Concealment (00:59:15) Emotional & Financial Infidelity (01:04:35) Contraception  (01:06:22) Status & Mating Success (01:10:10) Jealousy, Mate Value Discrepancies, Vigilance, Violence (01:24:13) Specificity of Intimate Partner Violence   (01:25:12) Mate Retention Tactics: Denigration, Guilt, Etc. (01:27:33) Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy (01:33:25) Stalking (01:39:15) Influence of Children on Mate Value Assessments  (01:43:24) Attachment Styles, Mate Choice & Infidelity (01:46:40) Non-Monogamy, Unconventional Relationships   (01:54:00) Mate Value Self Evaluation, Anxiety About the Truth (02:02:12) Self Deception (02:05:35) The Future of Evolutionary Psychology & Neuroscience   (02:06:56) Books: When Men Behave Badly; The Evolution of Desire, Textbooks (02:10:42) Concluding Statements, Zero-Cost Support: Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Nov 29, 2021
The Science of Gratitude & How to Build a Gratitude Practice | Episode 47
5060
In this episode, I discuss the science of gratitude, which has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to have tremendous positive effects on mental and physical health. I explain, however, that most commonly used gratitude practices are ineffective (such as gratitude lists). The key elements of highly effective gratitude practices are described, including the essential need for story (narrative), receiving or perceiving gratitude rather than giving it, and the role that theory of mind plays in this context. I also discuss why we can't simply make up feelings of gratitude and how reluctance undermines the process. I also explain the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the reductions in fear and increases in motivation and lowering of inflammatory chemicals that effective narrative-based gratitude can trigger. Throughout the episode, I use the science of gratitude to design a brief but highly effective protocol.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00 Introduction: Gratitude Science & Surprises (00:01:50 Controlling Heart Rate with Story (00:04:33 Sponsors (00:09:11 Major, Long-Lasting Benefits of Gratitude Practice (00:12:20 Prosocial vs. Defensive Thinking, Behaviors, & Neural Circuits  (00:17:50 Why We All Need an Effective Gratitude Practice (00:21:22 Neurochemistry & Neural Circuits of Gratitude (00:25:10 Prefrontal Cortex Set Context (00:30:10 Ineffective Gratitude Practices; Autonomic Variables (00:34:55 Key Features of Effective Gratitude Practices: Receiving Thanks & Story (00:42:30 Theory of Mind Is Key (00:45:50 Building Effective Gratitude Practices: Adopting Narratives, Duration (00:52:28 Narratives That Shift Brain-Body Circuits  (00:56:15 You Can’t Lie About Liking Something; Reluctance In Giving (00:59:55 How Gratitude Changes Your Brain: Reduces Anxiety, Increases Motivation (01:03:00 5 Minutes (Is More Than Enough), 3X Weekly, Timing Each Day  (01:05:44 Empathy & Anterior Cingulate Cortex (01:07:35 Reducing Inflammation & Fear with Gratitude (01:10:56 Serotonin, Kanna/Zembrin  (01:16:00 Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology, Brain Machine Interfaces (01:18:50 The Best Gratitude Practices: & How To, My Protocol (01:24:25 Subscribe & Feedback, Supporting Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Nov 22, 2021
Time Perception & Entrainment by Dopamine, Serotonin & Hormones | Episode 46
4380
In this episode, I discuss how our brain and body track time and the role that neurochemicals, in particular dopamine and serotonin, but also hormones such as melatonin, allow us to orient ourselves in time. I review the three types of time perception: of the past, of the present, and the future, and how dopamine and serotonin adjust both our perception of the speed of the passage of time and our memory of how long previous experiences lasted. I also discuss circannual entrainment, which is the process by which our brain and body are matched to the seasons, and circadian (24 hours) entrainment, both of which subconsciously adjust our perceived measurement of time. I explain the mechanisms of that subconscious control. And I cover the ultradian (90 minutes) rhythms that govern our ability to focus, including how to track when these 90-minute rhythms begin and end for the sake of work and productivity. I include ten tools based on the science of time perception that you can apply to enhance productivity, creativity, and relationships in various contexts.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Time Perception, Note on Fasting & Supplements (00:05:12) Sponsors (00:09:25) Entrainment, Circannual Entrainment, Melatonin (00:13:20) Seasonal Oscillations in Testosterone & Estrogen, Tool 1 (00:16:06) Circadian Timing, Tools 1, 2, 3 (for Circadian Entrainment) (00:21:13) Tool 4: Timing Physical Activity; Tool 5: Timing Eating Window (00:23:00) When Circadian Entrainment is Disrupted, Time Perception Suffers (00:25:00) Tool 6: Ultradian (90min) Cycles & Focus (00:31:42) Our Sense of the Passage of Time: Present, Prospective, Retrospective (00:34:40) Dopamine (& Nor/epinephrine) Lead to Time Overestimation; Frame Rate  (00:37:18) Serotonin & Time Underestimation; Decreased Frame Rate (00:39:10) Dopamine vs. Serotonin Across the Day; Tool 7: When to Do Rigid vs. Creative Work (00:42:38) Example of Tool 7 (00:43:38) How Sleep Deprivation Degrades Performance (00:44:38) Trauma, “Over-clocking” & Memories; Adjusting Rates of Experience (00:50:04) Why Trauma Involves Dopamine & Epinephrine, Arousal (00:51:03) Dopamine, Spontaneous Blinking & Time Perception; Tool 8 (00:53:38) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Dopamine, Tool 9: Adjusting Frame Rate in Discomfort (00:56:30) Fun “Feels Fast” BUT Is Remembered as Slow; Boring Stuff “Feels Slow,” Recall As Fast (01:00:54) Retrospective Time, Context Variation & Enhanced Bonding with Places & People (01:03:00) Dopamine Release Resets the Start of Each Time Bin on Our Experience (01:07:40) Habits & Time Perception; Tool 10 (Setting Functional Units of Each Day) (01:11:58) Synthesis & Book Suggestion (Your Brain Is a Time Machine by D. Buonomano) (01:12:27) Supporting the HLP: Subscribe, Instagram, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Nov 15, 2021
Dr. Duncan French: How to Exercise for Strength Gains & Hormone Optimization | Episode 45
5402
In this episode, I talk to Dr. Duncan French, Ph.D., the Vice President of Performance at the UFC Performance Institute and a world-class performance specialist. We discuss specific resistance (weight) training regimens for increasing testosterone in men and women and how to vary mechanical loads and rest between sets and workouts to optimize hormone output and training results. We also discuss how stress-induced "catecholamines" can increase testosterone or decrease it, depending on duration and mindset. And we discuss specific cold- and heat- therapies for increasing resilience, reducing inflammation, heat shock proteins and more. We discuss nutrition for training and how to match nutrition to training goals and metabolic flexibility. We discuss mental focus and how long to train for skill development. Finally, we discuss how mixed martial arts and the UFC Performance Institute are a template for exploring human performance more generally. This episode is intended for anyone interested in athletic and mental performance: athletes, students, and recreational exercisers and includes both science and many practical tools people can apply in their own training.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Duncan French  (00:02:27) Sponsors (00:05:44) Duncan’s Background in Exercise Science (00:11:45) How Certain Exercises Increase Testosterone (00:16:22) What Kind of Training Increases Testosterone & Growth Hormone? (00:20:19) Intensity: Mechanical Load; Volume: Metabolic Load; Inter-set Rest Periods (00:25:25) Training Frequency & Combining Workout Goals   (00:29:35) How Stress Can Increase or Decrease Testosterone  (00:36:55) Using Cold Exposure for Mindset, Anti-Inflammation, Muscle-Growth (00:46:55) Skill Development (00:50:05) Why Hard Exercise Creates Brain Fog: Role of Nutrition  (00:53:55) Low-Carbohydrate Versus All-Macronutrient Diets on Performance (00:56:15) Ketones & Brain Energy, Offsetting Brain Injury; Spiking Glucose During Ketosis (00:59:13) Metabolic Efficiency, Matching Nutrition to Training, “Needs Based Eating” (01:05:00) Duncan’s Work with Olympic Athletes, NCAA, UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) (01:08:00) Why UFC & MMA (Mixed-Martial Arts) Are So Valuable for Advancing Performance (01:12:40) Voluntarily Switching Between Different States of Arousal (01:14:30) Heat, Getting Better at Sweating, Heat Shock Proteins, Sauna (01:20:12) Using Rotating 12-Week Training Programs; Logging Objective & Subjective Data (01:24:07) Surprising & Unknown Aspects of The UFC and UFC Performance Institute (01:27:45) Conclusions, Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Nov 08, 2021
Using Your Nervous System to Enhance Your Immune System | Episode 44
7149
This episode teaches you a lot about the immune system, immune-brain interactions and offers 12 potential tools for enhancing immune system function. I discuss how our immune system works and science-supported tools we can use to enhance our immune system. I discuss the innate and adaptive immune systems and our various microbiomes-- not just in our gut but also in our nose, eyes and mouth and how to keep them healthy. And I review how specific patterns of breathing and foods maintain a healthy mucosal barrier that is crucial for fighting infections. I discuss how certain neurochemicals called catecholamines enhance our immune system function and how to use specific breathing protocols, types and timing of heat and cold exposure, and, if appropriate, supplementation to activate catecholamines. I also discuss the role and use of serotonin for the sake of accessing the specific types of sleep for recovering from illness, and I discuss how to increase glymphatic "washout" of brain debris during sleep. I also review fever, the vagus nerve and the use of atypical yet highly effective compounds for rhinitis (nasal inflammation). Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) The Mind & Immune System, New Findings: Acupuncture & Fascia (00:03:00) Sponsors (00:07:41) Foundational Tools & Practices for a Healthy Immune System (00:11:20) Immune System Basics: Skin/Mucous, Innate & Adaptive Immune System (00:17:08) Killer Cells, Complement Proteins (“Eat Me!” Signals), Cytokines (“Help Me!” Signals) (00:21:06) The Adaptive Immune System: Antibodies (00:28:00) Tool 1: Nasal Microbiome and “Scrubbing” Bacteria & Viruses; Nasal Breathing (00:30:33) Tools 2 & 3: (Not) Touching Your Eyes; Gut Microbiome & Fermented Foods (00:34:20) Some Interleukins Are Anti-Inflammatory (00:34:56) Sickness Behavior (00:39:08) Some People Seek Care When Sick, Others Want to be Alone (00:42:00) Sickness Behavior & Depression: Cytokines (00:43:40) Reduced Appetites When Sick: Protein, Iron, Libido (00:46:45) Vagus-Nerve Stimulation: Fever, Photophobia, Sleepiness (00:53:03) Humoral (Blood-Borne) Factors, & Choroid Change Your Brain State (00:55:04) Tools 4, 5: Reducing Sickness: Glymphatic Clearance, Pre-Sleep Serotonin, 5HTP (01:07:03) Tool 6: Hot Showers, Saunas, Baths & Cortisol, Heath-Cold Contrast (01:10:53) Feed a Fever & Starve a Cold (?), Adrenaline (01:12:36) Tool 7: Activating Your Immune System w/Cyclic-Hyperventilation, Alkalinity (01:29:10) Brain Chemicals & Cyclic-Hyperventilation; Catecholamines, Dopamine (01:32:10) Mindsets & Immune Function; Yes, You Can Worry Yourself Sick (01:37:00) Tool 8: Healthy Mindsets, Hope, Dopamine; Tool 9: Tyrosine; Tool 10: Cold Exposure (01:42:05) Once You’re Already Sick: Accelerating Recovery; Tool 11: Spirulina, Rhinitis (01:46:09) Histamines, Mast Cells (01:49:22) Tool 12: Acupuncture: Mechanism for How It Reduces Inflammation; Fascia, Rolfing  (01:53:40) Mechanistic Science & Ancient Practices (01:58:00) Synthesis, Ways to Support Us (Zero-Cost), Sponsors, Supplements, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Nov 01, 2021
Dr. Samer Hattar: Timing Your Light, Food, & Exercise for Optimal Sleep, Energy & Mood | Episode 43
8091
In this episode, I host Dr. Samer Hattar, Chief of the Section on Light and Circadian Rhythms at the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Hattar is a world-renowned expert on how viewing light at particular times adjusts our mood, ability to learn, stress and hormone levels, appetite, and mental health. We discuss how to determine and use your individual light sensitivity to determine the optimal sleep-wake cycle for you. We also discuss how to combine your light viewing and waking time with the timing of your food intake and exercise in order to maximize mental and physical functioning. Dr. Hattar is credited with co-discovering the neurons in the eye that set our circadian clocks and regulate mood and appetite. He explains why even a small shift in daylight savings leads to outsized effects on our biking because of the way that our cells and circadian clocks integrate across many days. And he offers precise tools to rapidly adjust to jetlag, shift work, and reset your clock after a late night of work or socializing. This episode is filled with cutting-edge data on the biological mechanisms of human physiology and practical tools for people of all ages.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Samer Hattar, Ph.D. (00:02:17) Sponsors (00:06:15) Light, Circadian (24 hour) & Circannual (365 day) “Photoentrainment”  (00:14:30) Neurons in Our Eyes That Set Our Body Clocks: Similar to Frog Skin (00:18:55) What Blind People See  (00:20:15) When, How & How Long to View Light for Optimal Sleep & Wakefulness (00:30:20) Sunlight Simulators, Afternoon Light Viewing, Naps (00:33:48) Are You Jetlagged at Home? Chronotypes & Why Early Risers Succeed  (00:38:33) How to Decide Your Best Sleep-Wake Schedule; Minimal Light Test (00:42:16) Viewing Light in Middle of Day: Mood & “Light Hunger” (00:44:55) Evening Sunlight; Blueblocker Warning (00:48:57) Blue Light Is Not the Issue; Samer’s Cave; Complete Darkness (00:53:58) Screens at Night (00:56:03) Dangers of Bright Light Between 10 pm and 4 am: Mood & Learning (01:01:05) The Tripartite Model: Circadian, Sleep Drive, Feeding Schedules (01:05:05) Using Light to Enhance Your Mood; & The Hattar-Hernandez Nucleus (01:07:19) Why Do We Sleep? (01:08:17) Effects of Light on Appetite; Regular Light & Meal Times (01:18:08) Samer’s Experience with Adjusting Meal Timing (01:22:51) Using Light to Align Sleep, Mood, Feeding, Exercise & Cognition (01:30:15) Age-Related Changes in Timing of Mental & Physical Vigor   (01:31:44) “Chrono-Attraction” in Relationships; Social-Rhythms (01:33:40) Re-setting Our Clock Schedule; Screen Devices Revisited (01:37:50) How Samer Got into the Study of Light  (01:39:33) Clock Gene mRNAs & More Accurate Biomarkers (01:41:08) Light as Medicine (01:42:48) ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)  (01:43:35) How to Beat Jetlag: Light, Temperature, Eating (01:50:44) Vigor: The Consequence of Proper Timing  (01:52:15) Waking in the Middle of the Night: When Your Nightly Sleep Becomes a Nap (01:54:10) Melatonin, Pineal Calcification (01:55:25) Our Seasonal Rhythms: Mood, Depression, Lethargy & Reproduction (01:59:08) Daylight Savings: Much Worse Than It Might Seem  (02:05:27) Eye Color & Sensitivity to Light, Bipolar Disorder (02:09:28) Spicy Food, Genetic Variations in Sensory Sensitivity  (02:10:52) Synthesizing This Information, Samer on Twitter, Instagram (02:13:00) Conclusions, Ways To Support the Huberman Lab Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 25, 2021
Nutrients For Brain Health & Performance | Episode 42
5953
This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally. I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature. Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental, in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Food & Brain Function Introduction (00:02:08) Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting (00:04:19) Sponsors (00:08:24) Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online (00:09:22) Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health  (00:13:00) Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day)  (00:20:35) Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) (00:22:15) Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) (00:28:26) Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) (00:29:50) Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) (00:32:22) Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day)  (00:36:28) Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries)  (00:41:19) L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation (00:49:23) Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs (00:55:25) Taste is 100% In your Head (00:59:50) Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods)  (01:06:14) Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog  (01:07:16) Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism (01:12:11) Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring (01:13:25) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context (01:18:15) Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don’t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) (01:22:17) Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences)  (01:30:42) Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars (01:36:05) Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) (01:38:28) Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 18, 2021
Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health | Episode 41
8635
This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans (00:06:02) Sponsors (00:09:42) Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture (https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M) (00:11:20) Feeding, Fasting, Performance (00:13:50) Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets (00:19:48) Feeding-Induced Health Conditions  (00:25:33) Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital (00:29:45) The Eight Hour Feeding Window  (00:31:26) Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) (00:36:33) Liver Health (00:39:45) Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules (00:41:35) When to Start & Stop Eating (00:45:38) Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep (00:52:35) Effects of Specific Categories of Food (00:55:40) Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build (00:59:30) 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows (01:03:08) Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle (01:08:13) How to Shift Your Eating Window (01:13:20) Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds (01:22:37) Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways (01:27:40) Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota (01:29:15) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver  (01:32:00) Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol (01:38:40) Fertility (01:41:50) 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting (01:43:20) Eating Every-Other-Day  (01:45:29) Adherence (01:47:15) Mental Focus & Clarity (01:49:12) Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase (01:53:15) What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context (01:58:50) Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners (02:01:42) Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt (02:06:42) My Circadian Clock, Zero-App  (02:08:20) Odd (But Common) Questions (02:09:23) Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose (02:11:12) The Ideal Fasting Protocol  (02:24:00) More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 11, 2021
Dr. Craig Heller: Using Temperature To Optimize Performance, Brain & Body Health | Episode 40
6634
This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance (00:02:00) Sponsors (00:06:45) Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy (00:10:45) Boundary Layers  (00:11:55) Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance (00:14:45) Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat (00:16:45) Temperature Gates Our Energy Use  (00:19:00) Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail (00:22:10) Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive (00:26:43) Exercise-Induced Brain Fog (00:27:45) Hyperthermia (00:31:50) Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face  (00:38:00) Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion (00:41:25) Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms (00:45:35) Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling (00:50:00) Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling (00:51:00) Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling (00:53:00) Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling (00:58:20) How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance (01:01:15) Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area (01:04:40) Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy (01:11:40) Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance (01:12:45) Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body (01:17:35) Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent (01:19:55) Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling (01:24:00) Female Athletic Performance  (01:25:18) Shivering & Cold, Metabolism (01:26:55) Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat (01:31:10) Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans (01:34:18) Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache (01:37:50) Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis (01:39:44) How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance (01:43:42) Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks (01:48:44) Synthesis (01:49:30) Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Oct 04, 2021
Controlling Your Dopamine For Motivation, Focus & Satisfaction | Episode 39
8110
This episode serves as a sort of “Dopamine Masterclass”. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine—both their benefits and risks—and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine (00:04:48) Sponsors (00:09:10) Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators (00:09:58) What Dopamine (Really) Does (00:15:30) Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine  (00:18:14) How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly (00:22:03) Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine (00:25:03) Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate (00:28:00) Your Dopamine History Really Matters  (00:30:30) Parkinson’s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience  (00:36:58) Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines (00:40:06) Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise (00:46:46) Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors (00:49:54) Pursuit, Excitement & Your “Dopamine Setpoint” (00:56:46) Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining “Pain” (01:00:00) Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine (01:07:50) Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release (01:15:28) Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits (01:19:45) Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention (01:22:20) Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection (01:24:20) Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA (01:26:15) Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits (01:27:57) Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses (01:28:45) Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine  (01:37:55) Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation (01:47:40) Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine  (01:53:09) Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine (01:53:50) Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours (01:55:36) Pornography (01:56:50) Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety (01:58:30) Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning (02:01:45) Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity (02:05:20) Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am (02:07:00) Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy (02:08:20) Tool 14 Huperzine A (02:10:02) Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release (02:12:20) Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application (02:14:22) Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 27, 2021
Dr. Matthew Johnson: Psychedelics for Treating Mental Disorders | Episode 38
10279
This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson (00:02:10) Supporting Sponsors (00:06:40) ‘Psychedelics’ Defined (00:14:09) Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception (00:19:56) Serotonin & Dopamine  (00:23:50) Ketamine & Glutamate  (00:28:00) An Example Psychedelic Experiment (00:37:30) ‘Letting Go’ with Psychedelics (00:44:10) Our Mind’s Eye (00:48:00) Redefining Your Sense of Self  (00:58:56) Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life (01:04:36) Flashbacks (01:12:10) Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing (01:15:54) MDMA, DMT (01:26:00) Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis (01:38:15) Micro-Dosing (01:56:45) Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials (02:03:40) Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation (02:18:35) Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury  (02:27:45) Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture (02:44:23) Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork  (02:50:38) Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 20, 2021
ADHD & How Anyone Can Improve Their Focus | Episode 37
8197
In this episode, I discuss ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): what it is, the common myths, and the biology and psychology of ADHD. I discuss both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for ADHD, and brain-machine interface tools. I also discuss behavioral training protocols that can improve focus in people with ADHD and those without ADHD, and for people of different ages. I discuss the role of dopamine in coordinating 'default-mode' and 'task-related' neural networks, attentional "blinks" (lapses of attention) and how to overcome them, and the role of actual blinks in time perception and attention. Finally, I review some of the prescription and over-the-counter compounds for increasing focus such as Adderall, Ritalin, Modafinil and Armodafinil, the racetams, Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylserine and the role of diet for managing ADHD (and the controversies of diet for ADHD). The role of cell phones/technology in ADHD and ADHD-like challenges with focus are also discussed. Throughout, both basic science and clinical scenarios, as well as applicable tools and resources are covered. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction & Note About Diagnosis (00:03:27) Sponsors  (00:07:56) ADHD vs. ADD: Genetics, IQ, Rates in Kids & Adults (00:13:00) Attention & Focus, Impulse Control (00:14:57) Hyper-focus  (00:16:45) Time Perception (00:18:25) The Pile System (00:20:00) Working Memory (00:24:10) Hyper-Focus & Dopamine  (00:26:40) Neural Circuits In ADHD: Default Mode Network & Task-Related Networks  (00:32:57) Low Dopamine in ADHD & Stimulant Use & Abuse (00:37:10) Sugar, Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil & Armodafinil  (00:47:00) Non-Prescribed Adderall, Caffeine, Nicotine (00:49:18) How Stimulants “Teach” the Brains of ADHD Children to Focus (00:52:00) When To Medicate: A Highly Informed (Anecdotal) Case Study (00:56:35) Elimination Diets & Allergies In ADHD (01:04:46) Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPAs & DHAs  (01:07:00) Modulation vs Mediation of Biological Processes (01:10:50) Attentional Blinks  (01:16:56) Open Monitoring & 17minute Focus Enhancement  (01:22:50) Blinking, Dopamine & Time Perception; & Focus Training  (01:30:10) Reverberatory Neural & Physical Activity (01:33:40) Adderall, Ritalin & Blink Frequency (01:35:00) Cannabis  (01:37:30) Interoceptive Awareness  (01:41:15) Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil, Armodafinil; Smart Drugs & Caffeine: Dangers (01:48:05) DHA Fatty Acids, Phosphatidylserine (0:1:50:54) Ginko Biloba  (01:51:45) Modafinil & Armodafanil: Dopamine Action & Orexin (01:56:19) Acetylcholine: Circuits Underlying Focus; Alpha-GPC (01:59:04) L-Tyrosine, (PEA) Phenylethylamine  (02:01:23) Racetams, Noopept  (02:05:15) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Combining Technology & Pharmacology  (02:09:14) Smart Phones & ADHD & Sub-Clinical Focus Issues In Adults & Kids (02:14:30) Synthesis/Summary (02:16:10) Support for Podcast & Research, Supplement Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 13, 2021
Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging | Episode 36
8094
In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day. Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating (00:08:55) Morning Protein Is Important  (00:22:04) Sponsors (00:26:29) Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders (00:29:00) Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) (00:33:44) Bulimia (Overview & Myths) (00:37:35) Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica (00:39:44) What is Hunger? What is Satiety? (00:42:00) Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating (00:46:17) Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity (00:50:30) Why We Overeat (00:55:30) Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions  (00:59:58) Anorexia (01:04:28) The Cholesterol Paradox (01:06:13) Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia (01:09:44) Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments (01:12:56) Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content (01:18:28) Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits (01:24:06) Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation (01:28:30) How Do You Break a Habit?  (01:33:23) Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (01:35:39) MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine  (01:40:35) Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT (01:43:23) Distorted Self Image in Anorexia  (01:47:54) Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone (01:53:05) Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin (01:58:00) Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens (02:04:28) Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging   (02:05:45) Healthy Eating Revisited (02:10:55) Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias (02:14:15) Support: Podcast, & Research Studies Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Sep 06, 2021
Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Science of Stress, Testosterone & Free Will | Episode 35
5393
In this episode, I interview Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Neurology & Neurosurgery at Stanford University. We discuss stress, what defines short-term versus long-term stress, and how stress can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the context. We also discuss stress mitigation and how our sense of control over stress mitigation techniques, including exercise, determine health outcomes. Dr. Sapolsky explains some of the key effects of the hormone testosterone — how it can amplify pre-existing tendencies for aggression or sexual behavior, but that it does not produce those behaviors per se. He also explains how testosterone impacts our social hierarchies, sense of confidence, and willingness to embrace challenges of different kinds. He also explains how our behaviors and perceptions shape testosterone levels. And we discuss estrogen and the powerful role it plays in brain development, health and longevity. Finally, we discuss free will, what it means to have free will, and if we have any free will, including how knowledge alone might allow us to make better decisions for ourselves and society.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Dr. Robert Sapolsky  (00:02:26) Sponsors (00:06:30) Stress: Short & Long-Term, Good & Bad  (00:09:11) Valence & Amygdala  (00:11:00) Testosterone: Common Myths vs. Actual Truths  (00:15:15) Behaviors that Affect Testosterone   (00:17:20) Mindsets & Contexts that Affect Testosterone (00:20:28) How Finger Length Ratios Reflect Prenatal Hormone Levels   (00:22:30) Aggression: Male-Female, Female-Male, & Female-Female  (00:24:05) Testosterone: The Challenge Hypothesis  (00:29:20) How Dopamine Impacts Testosterone & Motivation  (00:32:32) Estrogen: Improves Brain & Longevity BUT TIMING IS KEY  (00:39:40) Are Testosterone & Sperm Counts in Males Really Dropping?  (00:42:15) Stress Mitigation & Our Sense of Control  (00:51:35) How Best to Buffer Stress  (00:57:04) Power of Perception, Choice & Individual Differences  (01:00:32) Context-Setting, Prefrontal Cortex & Hierarchy  (01:11:20) How Dr. Sapolsky Accomplishes Deep Thinking   (01:13:17) Do We Have Free Will?  (01:20:50) How to Apply Knowledge & Learning   (01:23:44) Robert’s New Book: “Determined: The Science of Life Without Free Will”  (01:28:27) Reflections, Support of Podcast, & Supporting Stress Research  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 30, 2021
Understanding & Conquering Depression | Episode 34
7294
This episode, I explain what major depression is at the biological and psychological level and the various treatments that peer-reviewed studies have revealed can help prevent and treat depression. I explain the three major chemical systems that are altered in depression: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. I discuss genetic predispositions to depression and how stress, thyroid hormone and cortisol play a role in many forms of depression. I also discuss inflammation as a common feature of many depression symptoms. I review 8 specific science-supported protocols for treating and avoiding depression, including EPA fatty acids (which have been shown to rival certain prescription treatments), how exercise protects against depression, studies of creatine, adjusting dopamine balance and more. I also discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials for ketamine and psilocybin for depression, how these compounds work and finally, I review how ketogenic diets can help in certain cases of depression, especially treatment-resistant major depression. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Mood Disorders & Maintaining Mental Health (Protocol 1) (00:07:10) Sponsors (00:11:15) Major Depression (00:18:40) “Anti-Self” Confabulation (00:21:42) Autonomic (Vegetative) Symptoms of Depression (00:26:58) Norepinephrine, Dopamine & Serotonin (00:31:50) SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft, etc.): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (00:37:00) Epinephrine/Motor Functions, Dopamine/Motivation & Craving, Serotonin/Emotions (00:39:33) Physical & Emotional Pain are Linked: Substance P (00:41:50) Hormones & Depression: Thyroid & Cortisol  (00:46:50) Genetic Susceptibility to Depression: Impact of Stress  (00:50:50) Understanding Biological Mechanism Is Key: Recipes versus Skills (00:52:50) Tools for Dealing with Depression: Logic & Implementation (Protocol 2) (00:56:25) Brain Inflammation & Mental State: Cytokines, Prostaglandins, etc. (00:59:20) Protocol 3: Essential Fatty Acids (Omega-3, EPAs: Eicosapentaenoic Acid)* (01:02:50) How EPAs Help Offset Depression: Serotonin Synthesis, Kynurenine, Quinolinic Acid (01:05:25) Protocol 4: How Exercise Offsets Depression  (01:11:44) Protocol 5: Creatine Monohydrate, Forebrain Function & NMDA receptors* (01:20:30) Protocol 6*: Ketamine, PCP (*Prescription-Only), & NMDA-Receptor Function (01:33:08) Protocol 7*: Psychedelics (*In Clinical Trials) for Major Depression: Psilocybin* (01:47:00) Protocol 8: Ketogenic Diet, GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) (01:54:50) Summary of Protocols Covered (02:00:10) Support & Additional Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 23, 2021
Dr. Anna Lembke: Understanding & Treating Addiction | Episode 33
7313
This episode I interview Dr. Anna Lembke, MD, Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Lembke is a psychiatrist expert in treating addictions of all kinds: drugs, alcohol, food, sex, video games, gambling, food, medication, etc. Dr. Lembke is also an expert in the opioid crisis, and the author of Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence. We discuss the biology and psychology of why people become addicted to certain substances and behaviors and the key role that our "dopamine balance" plays in creating addiction. We also discuss the science and practice of how to conquer addictions, why people relapse and how to avoid relapsing. Dr. Lembke also shares her expertise on topics closely related to addiction such as community, shame and lying and she explains why telling the truth—even about the most basic things in daily life, adjusts dopamine levels in our brain. This episode is an important one for anyone struggling with addictions of any kind, for their friends and families and for health care professionals. It is also for anyone who has defeated addiction and is determined to stay clean. Last but not least, it helps explain why all humans do what we do, and how we can all maintain a healthy sense of pleasure seeking in life. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Anna Lembke, Addiction Expert (00:02:25) Disclaimer & Sponsors (00:07:00) Dopamine, Happiness & Impulsivity  (00:15:56) What Is Pleasure?  (00:18:20) Addiction, Boredom & Passion for Life (00:24:00) Pain-Pleasure Balance Controls Addiction (00:29:10) Dopamine Deficits, Anhedonia (00:30:47) Are All Addictions the Same? (00:35:38) Boredom & Anxiety Lead to Creativity  (00:40:35) Finding Your Passion Starts with Boredom & Action Steps  (00:50:05) How to Break an Addiction (00:55:25) Relapse, Craving & Triggers (01:07:40) Can People Get Addicted To “Sobriety”?  (01:11:45) Are We All Wired for Addiction?  (01:15:57) Bizarre Addiction (01:18:14) Recovered Addicts Are Heroes (01:20:10) Lying, Truth Telling, Guilt & Shame (01:30:40) Clinical Applications of: Ibogaine, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin & MDMA  (01:40:20) Social Media Addiction  (01:51:25) Narcissism  (01:53:30) Goal Seeking, Success & Surprise (01:58:10) Reciprocity (02:01:15) Closing Comments, Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 16, 2021
How to Control Your Sense of Pain & Pleasure | Episode 32
8062
This episode I discuss our sense of pain and pleasure: where and how they each arise in our mind and body and various ways to control their intensity. I discuss the science of behavioral tools like acupuncture and hypnosis and directed pressure, including the neural circuits they each activate to modulate our experience of pain or pleasure. I also discuss whole body pain, pain "syndromes" and novel pain relief compounds such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine, SAMe and Agmatine. I discuss neuroplasticity of the pain system and the key role that visual perception plays in pain modulation. Finally, I address the link between dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, with arousal, pleasure and pain. As always, both basic science and various protocols are described. Note: The description of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was intentionally simplified and does not include mention of dorsal horn spinal relay neurons, etc. For an excellent full text review of this anatomy and circuits for touch sensing, please see: https://bit.ly/3jH9CPf Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Skin, Pain, Pleasure  (00:01:50) Protocol 1: Maximizing Motivation (with Dopamine & Pleasure) (00:07:12) Sponsors (00:12:04) Pleasure & Pain, & Skin Sensors  (00:18:13) Sensing Touch with Your Brain: Magnification of Feet, Hands, Lips, Face, Genitals (00:22:16) Two-Point Discrimination, Dermatomes (00:28:11) Thoughts & Genes That Make Physical Pain Worse (00:33:45) Expectations, Anxiety, & Pain Threshold (00:40:27) Protocol 2: Cold Sensing Is Relative; Getting Into Cold Water (00:45:22) Protocol 3: Heat Is Absolute (00:48:10) Injury & Pain (00:52:04) Protocol 4: Plasticity of Pain: Key Role of Vision  (00:58:08) Sensing Disparate Body Parts As Merged (01:01:00) Pain “Syndromes”, Psychogenic Fever, “Psychosomatics” (01:04:40) Fibromyalgia, Naltrexone, Protocol 5: Acetyl-L-Carnitine  (01:12:24) Protocol 6: Agmatine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate* (01:17:27) Acupuncture: Mechanism, Non-Responders, Itch & Inflammation (01:28:20) Laser Photobiomodulation, Protocol 7: Hypnosis (reveri.com)  (01:30:00) Protocol 8: Pressure-Based Pain Relief, “Gate Theory of Pain (Relief)” (01:37:53) Redheads & Pain Thresholds, Endogenous Opioids  (01:44:02) Protocol 8: Love & Pain, Dopamine (01:49:23) Pleasure & Reproduction, Dopamine & Serotonin, Oxytocin (01:51:40) Protocol 9: PEA, L-Phenylalanine (Precursor to Tyrosine) (01:55:40) Contextual Control of Pleasure by Autonomic Arousal, Dopamine Baselines (01:59:40) Pleasure-Pain Balance (02:01:24) Protocol 10: Controlling Pleasure, Dopamine & Motivation Over Time (02:06:40) Protocol 11: Immediate, Non-Goal-Directed Pleasure, PAG  (02:08:40) Direction of Touch: Pleasure Versus Pain, Arousal & Touch “Sensitivity”  (02:13:00) Synthesis & How to Conceptualize Pain and Pleasure, Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 09, 2021
Dr. Matthew Walker: The Science & Practice of Perfecting Your Sleep | Episode 31
11099
In this episode, my guest is Dr. Matt Walker, Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Founder & Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the author of the international best-selling book Why We Sleep and the host of "The Matt Walker Podcast." We discuss the biology of sleep, including its various stages and what specifically happens to those stages when we don't get enough sleep. We also discuss the effects of sunlight, caffeine, alcohol, naps, hormones, exercise, marijuana, sexual activity, and various supplements on sleep. The episode consists of both basic science information and many science-supported actionable tools.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matt Walker (00:02:00) Sponsors (00:06:00) What Is Sleep? (00:10:20) REM (Rapid Eye Movement) aka 'Paradoxical Sleep' (00:16:15) Slow Wave Sleep aka 'Deep Sleep' (00:24:00) Compensating For Lost Sleep (00:32:20) Waking in the Middle Of The Night  (00:39:48) Uberman (Not Huberman!) Sleep Schedule (00:42:48) Viewing Morning SUNLight (00:49:20) Caffeine (01:07:54) Alcohol (01:14:30) Growth Hormone & Testosterone (01:16:14) Emotions, Mental Health & Longevity (01:20:40) Books vs. Podcasts (01:21:20) Lunchtime Alcohol (01:25:00) Marijuana/CBD  (01:36:00) Melatonin (01:54:14) Magnesium (01:58:10) Valerian, Kiwi, Tart Cherry, Apigenin (02:15:00) Tryptophan & Serotonin (02:19:24) Naps & Non-Sleep-Deep-Rest (NSDR) (02:28:23) Is It Possible To Get Too Much Sleep? (02:34:35) Sex, Orgasm, Masturbation, Oxytocin, Relationships (02:47:30) Unconventional Yet Powerful Sleep Tips  (02:59:10) Connecting to & Learning More from Dr. Walker (03:04:42) The New Dr. Matt Walker Podcast, Reviews & Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Aug 02, 2021
How to Optimize Your Brain-Body Function & Health | Episode 30
6652
This episode I describe how the organs of the body influence the function and health of our brain and how our brain controls our bodily organs. The conscious awareness of this brain-body dialogue is called interoception. I describe how two factors- mechanical forces (e.g., pressure, pain, volume, etc.) and chemical factors (e.g., gut acidity, microbiome diversity, etc.) combine to influence our moods, control inflammation, immune system, recovery from injury and more. I explain how specific actions of our lungs, heart, spleen, and diaphragm, control our brain via the vagus nerve and other neural pathways. I describe 11 science-supported protocols for enhancing brain-body health and the logic behind them. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Your Sense of Self: Interoception (00:01:25) Protocol 1: Fermented Foods, Not Fiber, to Reduce Inflammation  (00:03:30) Attributions (00:08:22) Main Drivers of Feelings & Performance (00:11:45) Brain-Body: A Mechanical & Chemical Dialogue  (00:17:50) LDB (Lung-Diaphragm-Brain) Dialogue   (00:21:00) Protocols 2, 3, 4: Control Heart Rate With Breathing (00:29:08) Sensing Lung Pressure: Piezo Receptors (00:30:54) Carbon Dioxide, From Air to Blood (00:34:02) Protocol 5: Alert While Calm (00:40:50) Baroreceptors: Hering-Breuer Reflex (00:42:47) Gut Volume & The Desire to Open Your Mouth  (00:48:18) Protocol 6: Enhancing Gut-To-Brain Communication, Fasting  (00:51:50) Intestines, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids & Sugar (00:57:00) Protocol 7: Reducing Sugar Cravings with Specific Amino Acid Nutrients  (00:58:58) Gut Acidity (Is Good) (01:02:20) Improving Nasal Microbiome  (01:04:13) Inflammation & Microbiome: Fiber vs. Fermented  (01:11:15) Protocol 8: Reducing Inflammation & Enhancing Brain Function w/Fermented Foods (01:13:10) Leaking Guts, Auto-Immune function & Glutamine (01:15:50) Gut Acidity: HCl (hydrochloric acid), Pepsin (01:18:30) Probiotics & Brain Fog (01:21:45) Nausea: Happens in Your Brain; Area Postrema (01:28:25) Protocol 9: Reducing Nausea: Ginger, Peppermint, CBD, etc. (01:30:40) Fever: Triggers and Control Knobs: OVLT (01:37:00) Protocol 10: Cooling the Blood Properly (01:38:53) Sensing Feelings, Vagus Nerve, Stress (01:41:50) Mental Emotions Reflect Bodily Conditions (01:45:00) Sensing Other People’s Emotions via the Body (01:46:00) Protocol 11: Increasing Interoception, Sensing Heartbeat  (01:50:40) Conclusions & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 26, 2021
Dr. Lex Fridman: Machines, Creativity & Love | Episode 29
10938
Dr. Lex Fridman PhD, is a scientist at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), working on robotics, artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles and human-robot interactions. He is also the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast where he holds conversations with academics, entrepreneurs, athletes and creatives. Here we discuss humans, robots, and the capacity they hold for friendship and love. Dr. Fridman also shares with us his unique dream for a world where robots guide humans to be the best versions of themselves, and his efforts to make that dream a reality.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Lex Fridman (00:07:35) What is Artificial Intelligence? (00:26:46) Machine & Human Learning (00:32:21) Curiosity (00:36:55) Story Telling Robots (00:40:48) What Defines a Robot? (00:44:30) Magic & Surprise (00:47:37) How Robots Change Us (00:49:35) Relationships Defined (01:02:29) Lex’s Dream for Humanity (01:11:33) Improving Social Media (01:16:57) Challenges of Creativity (01:21:49) Suits & Dresses  (01:22:22) Loneliness (01:30:09) Empathy (01:35:12) Power Dynamics In Relationships (01:39:11) Robot Rights  (01:40:20) Dogs: Homer & Costello (01:52:41) Friendship (01:59:47) Russians & Suffering (02:05:38) Public vs. Private Life (02:14:04) How To Treat a Robot (02:17:12) The Value of Friendship (02:20:33) Martial Arts (02:31:34) Body-Mind Interactions (02:33:22) Romantic Love (02:42:51) The Lex Fridman Podcast (02:55:54) The Hedgehog (03:01:17) Concluding Statements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 19, 2021
Maximizing Productivity, Physical & Mental Health with Daily Tools | Episode 28
7568
In this episode, I discuss science-supported tools for enhancing focus, learning, creativity, sleep, physical strength and endurance and brain and body health. I explain each protocol in detail, the rationale behind it, and how the protocol can be adjusted depending on individual needs. I set these tools in the context of a 24-hour day as a way of framing how one might incorporate these tools and protocols into their own daily routine. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Protocols for sleep, mood, focus, exercise creativity (00:04:08) Sponsors (00:08:50) Protocol 1: Record Your Daily Waking Time & Temperature Minimum  (00:12:07) Protocol 2: Self-Generate Forward Motion (Outdoors)  (00:17:00) Protocol 3: View Natural Light For 10-30min Every Morning (00:22:43) What To Do If You Can’t View The Sun: Blue Light  (00:26:50) Protocol 4: Hydrate Correctly  (00:28:00) Protocol 5: Delay Caffeine 90-120m After Waking (00:30:48) Protocol 6: Fast (or Fat-Fast) Until Noon (00:32:30) What Actually Breaks A Fast & What Doesn’t? (00:34:30) Fat Loss & Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea (00:37:30) Protocol 7: Optimize Deep Work: Visual Elevation, Ultradian Cycles, White Noise (00:48:30) Optimal Time of Day To Do Hard Mental Work  (00:52:07) Protocol 8: Optimal Exercise; 3:2 Ratio (01:03:54) Tools for Training & Mental Focus: Fasting, Salt, Stimulants, Alpha-GPC  (01:10:00) Protocol 9: Eat For Brain Function & Mood (01:17:39) Protocol 10: Get Your Testosterone & Estrogen In An Ideal Range (01:24:00) Protocol 11: Reset the Mind & Body, Enhance Neuroplasticity, Reveri.com (01:31:15) Protocol 12: Hydrate Correctly, Nap Rules (01:33:29) Protocol 13: View Late Afternoon/Evening Light To Support Sleep & Dopamine (01:39:00) Protocol 14: Eat Dinner That Promotes Serotonin, Calm Sleep (01:44:27) Protocol 15: Optimize Falling & Staying Asleep; Tools & Supplements That Work (01:55:00) Protocol 16: Preventing Middle of the Night Waking (01:59:10) Protocol 17: Weekends, Recovering From A Poor Nights Sleep (02:05:20) Neural Network, Supplement Sources, Sponsors Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 12, 2021
The Science of Hearing, Balance & Accelerated Learning | Episode 27
7333
This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects". Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Overview of Topics (00:02:20) Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning  (00:09:10) Introduction: Hearing & Balance  (00:13:53) How We Perceive Sounds (00:21:56) Your Hearing Brain (Areas)   (00:23:48) Localizing Sounds (00:28:00) Ear Movement: What It Means  (00:33:00) Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation  (00:35:30) Binaural Beats: Do They Work?  (00:43:54) White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine (00:51:00) Headphones (00:55:51) White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful (01:03:25) Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect (01:12:55) How to Learn Information You Hear (01:18:10) Doppler (01:22:43) Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? (01:30:40) Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? (01:35:00) Balance: Semi-Circular Canals (01:40:35) A Vestibular Experiment (01:43:15) Improve Your Sense of Balance (01:48:55) Accelerating Balance (01:51:55) Self-Generated Forward Motion (01:56:25) Dizzy versus Light-Headed (01:58:38) Motion Sickness Solution (02:01:23) Synthesis Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jul 05, 2021
Dr. Karl Deisseroth: Understanding & Healing the Mind | Episode 26
7343
Dr. Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is a Clinical Psychiatrist and scientist who directs a bioengineering research laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine. His work aims to understand and develop treatments for disorders of the mind such as depression, attention deficit disorders (ADHD & ADD), autism, schizophrenia, anxiety, eating disorders, borderline personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We discuss his experience treating his patients and his laboratory’s mission to find and develop cures for mental disease and tools for probing how the brain works.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:07:41) Using Language to Understand the Mind (00:12:19) Blood Tests For Mental Disease (00:13:38) The Largest Challenges Facing Treatment of Mental Health (00:20:21) Predicting Depression & Suicide (00:22:47) Drugs That Work for Brain Illness (00:27:01) What Would A Cure For the Broken Mind Look Like? (00:32:23) Channelopsins: Tools For Understanding & Treating the Mind (00:39:10) Curing Blindness with Channelopsins (00:41:58) Why Karl Became a Scientist (00:47:10) Vagus Nerve In Depression (00:54:12) Challenges To Overcome for Treating Mental Illness with Channelopsins (00:58:34) Using the Dialogue with Patients to Guide Treatment (01:00:52) How Our Eyes Reveal Our Mental Health (01:06:04) Controlling Structures Deep In the Brain (01:08:23) The Most Effective Drugs Often Have the Most Side Effects (01:09:50) Do Psychiatrists Take the Drugs They Prescribe (01:14:15) Moving From Experimental Tools To Novel Treatments (01:16:00) Brain-Machine Interfaces & Neuralink (01:19:30) ADHD & Dr. Deissroth’s Approach To Focusing His Mind (01:26:36) How Dr. Deisseroth Balances A Career In Medicine, Science & Family (01:35:41) New Ways of Exploring Brains: CLARITY (01:38:49) What Is Special About the Human Brain? (01:46:03) Psychedelics (01:54:12) MDMA (01:57:15) Dr. Deisseroth’s New Book “Projections: A Story of Emotions” (01:59:42) Connecting with Dr. Deisseroth on Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 28, 2021
How Smell, Taste & Pheromone-Like Chemicals Control You | Episode 25
7051
This episode explains how we sense chemicals through smell, taste, and pheromones. How things smell and taste and chemicals in the tears, breath, and on the skin of others have a profound effect on how we feel, what we do, and our hormones. I explain the 3 types of responses to smell, the 5 types of tastes, the possible existence of sixth taste sense, and how the act of sniffing can make us learn and focus better. I explain how smell and taste reflect brain health and can assess and even promote brain regeneration. I discuss how eating specific categories of foods makes us crave more of those foods, including how to make sour things taste sweet and develop a heightened sense of smell and taste.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 21, 2021
The Science of Vision, Eye Health & Seeing Better | Episode 24
6506
This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age. Thank you to our sponsors: AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:51) Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy (00:07:24) The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better (00:10:35) Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work (00:14:30) Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells (00:17:00) We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light (00:19:35) Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) (00:24:05) Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots (00:25:50) Depth Perception (00:28:00) Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes (00:32:00) Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; (00:35:00) Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day (00:42:00) Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens (00:48:50) Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” (00:52:20) Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily (00:54:26) Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down (00:59:21) Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) (01:02:55) Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, (01:04:32) Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day (01:06:05) Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit (01:08:48) Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week (01:13:33) Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision (01:16:20) Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 (01:18:40) Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 (01:24:48) Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training (01:27:57) Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain (01:29:47) Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision (01:33:00) Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow (01:44:20) Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision (01:46:00) Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 14, 2021
How To Build Endurance In Your Brain & Body | Episode 23
7381
This episode I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: muscular endurance, long duration (single-set) efforts, and the two kinds of high intensity interval training (HIIT). I discuss efficiency of effort and maximizing quality of effort, and a hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger when we oxygenate muscles properly. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. Thank you to our sponsors: AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jun 07, 2021
Science & Tools For Muscle Growth, Increasing Strength & Muscular Recovery | Episode 22
7341
In this episode, I describe how our brain and nervous system control muscle tissue and how to leverage that for muscle maintenance, growth (hypertrophy) and recovery. I explain how neurons control muscle contractions and limb movements. I explain muscle metabolism and muscle fiber recruitment. I detail protocols for increasing muscular growth and for neuro-muscular recovery. I explain the effects of deliberate cold, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-histamines on training progress. I describe science-supported protocols using certain weight load ranges, total sets per week, training intensity, frequency, and in-between set activities if one's goal is to increase muscle growth, strength or endurance. I review three foundational compounds and nutrients and three optimization compounds and nutrients that have been shown to improve neuro-muscular performance. Finally, I explain how to leverage exercise and weight training to enhance cognitive function. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, including timestamps, visit hubermanlab.com Disclaimer
May 31, 2021
How to Lose Fat with Science-Based Tools | Episode 21
6704
This episode I describe the science of fat loss, including how fat is mobilized and oxidized (burned) and how to increase fat burning by leveraging the nervous system. Most people don't realize it, but our neurons connect to our fat and release epinephrine/adrenaline to facilitate fat oxidation. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction  (00:06:00) Fat Loss: The Key Role of Neurons  (00:08:44) The First Law of Fat Loss  (00:11:00) Neurons Connect To Fat! (& That Really Matters)  (00:13:38) 5 Pillars of Metabolism: Sleep, Essential Fatty Acids, Glutamine, Microbiome, Thyroid  (00:19:20) Mindset Truly Matters: Amazing Examples of Beliefs on Fat Loss  (00:23:08) Our Brain Talks To Our Fat (00:25:00) The Most Incredible & Dangerous Fat Loss Agent  (00:27:28) Losing Fat Is a Two-Part Process: Mobilization and Oxidation   (00:32:25) The Critical Role of Adrenaline/Epinephrine, But NOT from Adrenal Glands  (00:34:45) Fidgeting & Shivering: A Powerful Science-Supported Method For Fat Loss  (00:41:24) How Fidgeting Works: Promotes Epinephrine Release into Fat. “N-E-A-T”  (00:44:55) Two Ways of Using Shivering To Accelerate Fat Loss   (00:47:30) White, Brown & Beige Fat; & Using Cold-Induced Shiver To Burn Fat  (00:50:25) How To Use Cold Properly To Stimulate Fat Loss: Succinate Release Is Key/Shiver  (00:52:26) Exact Protocols: (1-5X per week); Don’t Adapt! Submerge and Exit “Sets & Reps”  (00:56:15) thecoldplunge.com see “protocols” tab Cold-Shiver-Fat-Loss Tool (cost free)  (00:58:03) If Fat-Loss Is Your Goal, Avoid Cold Adaptation: Remember Polar Bear Swimmers   (00:58:17) Irisin: Underwhelming; Succinate Is The Real Deal  (01:00:00) Brown Fat, Why Babies Can’t Shiver and Becoming a Hotter Furnace, Adding Heat  (01:01:55) Ice On Back of The Neck, Cold Underpants: Not A Great Idea For Fat Loss  (01:04:00) A Key Paper For the Aficionados: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826518/  (01:05:00) Spot Reduction: There May Be Hope After All. Targeting Specific Fat Pads.  (01:09:20) Exercising For Fat Loss: What Is Best? High Intensity, Sprinting, Moderate Intensity?   (01:13:30) Exercising Fasted: Does It Truly Accelerate Fat Loss/Oxidation.   (01:16:30) The 90 Minute Rule: After 90 Minutes, The Fasted Exercisers Start To Burn More Fat  (01:18:15) If High-Intensity Training Is Done First, The Benefits of Fasting Arrive Before 90min.  (01:22:44) Post-Exercise Metabolic Increases: How To Bias This Toward Fat Oxidation  (01:26:05) A Protocol For Exercise-Induced Fat Loss; Adrenalin Is The Effector  (01:28:50) Supplements/Compounds For Fat Loss Part: Caffeine Fidgeting, & Caffeine Adaptation  (01:34:30) Ephedrine, Fenfluramine: Removed From Market Due to Safety Concerns  (01:35:22) GLP1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide 1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea, Semaglutide   (01:40:30) Berberine, Metformin: Glucose/Insulin Reduction, Increase Fat Oxidation: But Caution  (01:41:28) Gardner Lab Results: What You Eat May Not Matter, But Adherence Is Key Tool  (01:43:00) examine.com & Enter “Yerba Mate”: Lowers Heart Rate Even Though Is a Stimulant  (01:44:35) Acetly-L-Carnitine: Facilitates Fat Oxidation  (01:48:00) Summary List of Tools & How Nervous System Controls Fat Loss  (01:51:20) Cost Free & Other Ways To Support Our Podcast, Making Sure We See Feedback  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 24, 2021
How to Learn Skills Faster | Episode 20
6541
This episode I discuss the science and practice of learning physical skills: what it involves at a biological level, and what to focus on during skill learning at each stage to maximize learning speed and depth. I also describe what to do immediately after a training session (note: this is different than the optimal protocol for cognitive skill training) and as you progress to more advanced levels of performance. I also cover the science of skill-based visualization which does have benefits, but only if done correctly and at the correct times. I discuss auto-replay of skill learning in the brain during sleep and the value of adding in post-training ‘deliberately idle’ sessions. I cover how to immediately improve limb-range-of-motion by leveraging cerebellum function, error generation, optimal repetition numbers for learning and more. As always, scientific mechanism, peer-reviewed studies and science-based protocols are discussed.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:28) Skill Acquisition: Mental & Physical (00:08:40) Clarification About Cold, Heat & Caffeine (00:12:45) Tool: How To Quickly Eliminate the Side-Stitch ‘Cramp’ & BoostHRV Entrainment (00:16:08) Physical Skills: Open-Loop Versus Closed-Loop (00:18:50) Three Key Components To Any Skill (00:21:00) Sources of Control for Movement: 1) CPGs Govern Rhythmic Learned Behavior (00:23:30) Upper Motor Neurons for Deliberate Movement & Learning (00:25:00) Lower Motor Neurons Control Action Execution (00:25:26) What To Focus On While Learning (00:27:10) The Reality of Skill Learning & the 10,000 Hours Myth (00:28:30) Repetitions & The Super Mario Effect: Error Signals vs. Error Signals + Punishment (00:34:00) Learning To Win, Every Time (00:39:26) Errors Solve the Problem of What Focus On While Trying to Learn Skills (00:43:00) Why Increasing Baseline Levels of Dopamine Prior To Learning Is Bad (00:44:40) The Framing Effect (& Protocol Defined) (00:46:10) A Note & Warning To Coaches (00:48:30) What To Do Immediately After Your Physical Skill Learning Practice (00:53:48) Leveraging Uncertainty (00:56:59) What to Pay Attention To While Striving To Improve (01:04:45) Protocol Synthesis Part One (01:07:10) Super-Slow-Motion Learning Training: Only Useful After Some Proficiency Is Attained (01:11:06) How To Move From Intermediate To Advanced Skill Execution faster: Metronomes (01:16:44) Increasing Speed Even If It Means More Errors: Training Central Pattern Generators (01:19:12) Integrated Learning: Leveraging Your Cerebellum (“Mini-Brain”) (01:22:02) Protocol For Increasing Limb Range of Motion, Immediately (01:28:30) Visualization/Mental Rehearsal: How To Do It Correctly (01:33:50) Results From 15 Minutes Per Day, 5 Days Per Week Visualization (vs. Actual Training) (01:35:34) Imagining Something Is Very Different Than Actually Experiencing It (01:37:58) Cadence Training & Learning “Carryover” (01:39:00) Ingestible Compounds That Support Skill Learning: Motivation, Repetitions, Alpha-GPC (01:43:39) Summary & Sequencing Tools: Reps, Fails, Idle Time, Sleep, Metronome, Visualization (01:46:20) Density Training: Comparing Ultradian- & Non-Ultradian Training Sessions (01:49:24) Cost-Free Ways to Support Us, Sponsors & Alternate Channels, Closing Remarks Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 17, 2021
Supercharge Exercise Performance & Recovery with Cooling | Episode 19
4941
This episode I explain the science of heating and cooling the body, a process called thermoregulation-- and how to apply that knowledge to significantly improve physical performance. I describe the three areas of our body that can remove heat (or bring heat into the body) faster than anywhere else, why that is so, and how proper cooling of these areas with specific protocols can allow people to perform 200-600% more volume and repetitions of resistance exercises at the same weight loads, or to run, cycle or swim significantly further. I also describe how to use directed cooling of so-called glabrous skin: the bottoms of feet, palms and face, to significantly enhance recovery times from exercise. Also, why the common practices of trying to heat up or cool the body via the torso or whole-body submersion in cold can be inefficient and/or dangerous-- and the better alternatives. Finally, I discuss the temperature-effects of caffeine, alcohol and anti-inflammatory compounds. The information in this episode is focused on mechanisms and tools for increasing athletic or exercise performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:08) Physical Performance & Skill Learning (00:06:40) Optimal Learning Protocol (Recap): 4 Steps (00:08:31) Variables Impacting Physical Performance (00:10:00) Temperature Is the Dominant Variable (00:12:08) Understanding Mechanism Is Key (00:13:42) Heat: The Enemy of All Performance (& Why) (00:16:30) Blood Flow & Sweating & Piloerection (00:22:35) Heat Is What Limits Effort: Even If You Feel Fine/Motivated (00:25:29) Proper Cooling Can Double, Triple, Quadruple (Or More) Your Ability (00:26:42) Heat Induced Confusion & Death (00:30:02) The Three Body Parts Best For Heating & Cooling Your Whole Body (00:31:38) Face, Palms, Bottoms of Feet; Glabrous Skin (00:33:00) Arterio-Venous Anastamoses (AVAs) Are Super Cool(ing)! (00:37:15) Palmar Cooling Can Supercharge Your Athletic Performance (00:38:35) ATP, Pyruvate Kinase & Heat (00:40:55) Palmer Cooling Outperforms Anabolic Steroids Several-Fold (00:43:45) Increasing Endurance, Willpower & Persistence (00:46:33) Cardiac Drift, & Moving the ”I Quit” Point (00:50:44) Deliberate Heating: Myths and Better Protocols (00:53:20) Protocols For Self-Directed Cooling To Vastly Improve Performance (00:59:23) How To Use Cold To Recover Faster & More Thoroughly (01:02:05) Ice Baths & Cold Showers Can Prevent Training Progress: mTOR, etc. (01:06:29) Alcohol, Caffeine, NSAIDs: Their Temperature Effects Matter (01:09:44) Are Stimulants Counter Productive For Performance? It Depends. (01:12:00) The Caffeine Rule & “Caffeine Adaptation” (01:14:20) NSAIDs for Training: Performance Enhancements & Risks (01:17:00) The Best Way to Explore Your Own “Parameter Space” (01:18:35) Tools: How To Try (01:21:35) Cost-Free Support, & Additional Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 10, 2021
Boost Your Energy & Immune System with Cortisol & Adrenaline | Episode 18
6287
This episode I describe the biology of two essential hormones we all make: cortisol and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Cortisol and adrenaline powerfully regulate our levels of energy, focus and immune system function. I describe various science-supported tools and practices to increase or decrease cortisol and/or adrenaline, depending on one's specific needs and goals. I also describe the biology of nootropics, and how cortisol and adrenaline can improve or degrade learning. Finally, I review the scientific data and tools for timing the release of these hormones to improve memory, energy and immune system function. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:41) Energy & Your Immune System, & Learning Faster (00:08:34) Why & How Intermittent Fasting Increases Growth Hormone (00:11:56) Why Your Stomach Growls (00:13:09) Hot Baths & Hormones (00:14:35) Energy, Adrenaline (Epinephrine), & Cortisol (00:15:48) Cortisol & Cholesterol, Competition With Testosterone & Estrogen (00:17:54) Adrenaline (Epinephrine) Is Your (Immune Systems) Best Friend (00:18:48) Cortisol Basics In Two (Actually 1) Minute/s (00:19:48) Adrenaline Basics In Two Minutes (00:21:32) Tool: Time Your Cortisol Peak To Waking Using Specific Light Intensities (00:27:20) Brief Increases In Cortisol & Adrenaline Boost Energy, Focus & Immunity (00:30:04) Ways To Increase Adrenaline, Epinephrine & Cortisol & Why That Is Good (00:35:00) Does Mindset During Stress Matter? (00:36:15) Protocols: Adrenaline Breathing Described (00:39:00) Practices To Increase Energy Without Increasing Stress (00:45:00) Using Stressors to ENHANCE Our Immune System: Science & Tools (00:55:11) Timing Thyroid Release For Energy (00:57:02) Adrenaline/Stress Increase Performance & Memory. IF They Are After Learning (01:02:45) An Optimal Learning Protocol (01:03:20) Coffee Changes Your Brain & Increases Connectivity Of “Anxiety Circuits” (01:05:43) Nootropics: Two Kinds, & How & Why They Work, “Neural Energy” (01:09:00) Biology of Comfort Foods: From Negative to Positive Feedback Loops (01:14:00) Bombesin: Energy Without Eating (01:15:00) How Stress Makes Our Hair Gray, & How To Prevent Stress-Induced-Graying (01:18:05) Blunting Chronic Cortisol, Including: Ashwagandha & Science Of (01:25:50) Licorice Increases Cortisol & Blood Pressure, & Reduces Testosterone (by Glycyrrhizin) (01:28:50) Apigenin: Anti-Cortisol (01:29:53) Protocols For Optimizing Energy & Immune System Function (& Learning) (01:37:00) When Fasting, Exercise, Cold & Intense Breathing Become Detrimental (01:39:00) Prescription Compounds (01:39:47) Tools For Accessing Alert & Calm States of “Energy”: Separating The Brain & Body (01:42:11) Ways To Apply Knowledge Presented Today (01:43:20) No-Cost Ways To Support Us, Feedback, Sponsors, Patreon, Partners, “Office Hours” Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
May 03, 2021
How to Control Your Metabolism by Thyroid & Growth Hormone | Episode 17
6360
This episode discusses metabolism and how our thyroid hormone and growth hormone control our metabolism. I also clarify that metabolism isn't just about burning energy, it’s about converting energy from different sources into fuels for building and repairing our tissues such as muscle, brain, and tendons and mobilizing energy from body fat storage. I discuss the role of iodine, selenium, and salt for thyroid health, and how specific exercise protocols, amino acids and temperature can dramatically shift levels of growth hormone release in waking and in sleep. I also describe the current landscape of prescription compounds, peptides and other factors for changing levels of thyroid and growth hormone, and some of their risks. Throughout the episode, mechanisms and tools grounded in specific mechanisms are discussed. Sponsors Four Sigmatic - http://foursigmatic.com/huberman Blinkist - http://blinkist.com/huberman Munk Pack - http://munkpack.com - Use code: huberman   Patreon page https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman   Supplements from Thorne http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman   Study on thermal stress and hormones Endocrine Effects of Repeated Hot Thermal Stress and Cold Water Immersion in Young Adult Men   Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:05 Thyroid & Growth Hormone 00:08:44 Food Shapes: Do They Matter? 00:11:43 Stevia: Naming & Impact 00:13:30 Metabolism 101: Your Brain the Furnace 00:17:33 Releasing Hormones From Your Brain, Stimulating Hormones from Your Pituitary 00:21:04 Thyroid Hormone’s Real Effects: Growth, Repair and Energy Consumption of Tissues 00:22:45 Iodine, L-Tyrosine & Selenium: The Trio Essential For Thyroid Function 00:26:05 How Much Iodine Do We Need? By Food, Supplement or Ocean Air 00:28:09 Selenium For Thyroid: Brazil Nuts & Other Valuable Sources 00:33:05 Selenium For Pregnancy, Prostate Cancer Risk, Acne 00:35:20 “Clean Eating” Downsides: Cruciferous Vegetables, Leeching Iodine 00:39:00 Other Benefits of Iodine: Reducing Inflammation 00:41:00 Why & How Increased Thyroid Increases Metabolism 00:42:12 What To Eat To Support Your Brain 00:43:00 Hyperthyroidism (Too Much) & Hypothyroidism (Too Little) 00:44:35 Menstruation: Thyroid Carbohydrate & Sugar Craving 00:45:33 Ketogenic Diet & Its Effects On Thyroid, Rebound Weight Gain 00:48:39 Growth Hormone: What, Why & How 00:51:18 Growth Hormone (GH) Changes Across The Lifespan & Risks of GH Therapy 00:53:40 How To Powerfully Increase Growth Hormone: Know The Natural Triggers 00:54:49 Not Eating Within 2hrs of Sleep: Keep Blood Glucose Low(ish) At Sleep 00:55:43 Delta Wave Brain Activity Is the Trigger For Growth Hormone Release 00:58:25 LOW Doses of Melatonin Supplementation For Increasing GH Release 01:01:00 Book: Altered Traits, Binaural Beats? Delta Waves Access 01:04:35 Specific Types & Duration of Exercise That Stimulate Growth Hormone & Warmups 01:08:40 Keeping Low Blood Glucose & Ensuring A Cool Down For Two Phase GH Release 01:10:36 Sex Differences For WHEN During Exercise Growth Hormone and IGF-1 Release Occurs: Males Have To Last Longer 01:14:10 Supplements That Increase Growth Hormone 100-400% (or more): Arginine, Ornithine 01:18:20 Arginine & Exercise Together Can Be Counter-Productive 01:19:50 L-Citrulline Better For Arginine Than Arginine Itself (?!); & Blood Pressure Caution 01:23:09 Growth Hormone Changes Across The Lifespan: No One Escapes 01:26:00 Heat (& Cold) for Triggering Extremely Large Increases In Growth Hormone 01:29:20 Specific Heat Protocols For Increasing Growth Hormone: Up To 16-Fold (?!) 01:34:30 2021 (New) Study: Heat Increases GH, & Lowers Cortisol, No Effects On Testosterone, DHEA Or Prolactin 01:36:00 Prescription Growth Hormone, & Emerging Peptides Therapeutics, Secretagogues Etc. 01:42:25 Synthesis, Summary Of Actionable Steps For Increasing GH and Thyroid Hormone 01:44:00 Zero Cost & Other Ways to Support Our Podcast; & Thank You!
Apr 26, 2021
How Hormones Control Hunger, Eating & Satiety | Episode 16
5983
This episode I discuss how hormones from our gut, liver, pancreas and brain control our appetite-- and the specific tools we can use to adjust those hormones in order to achieve specific goals. I explain the brain areas that control our desire to eat, and our desire to stop eating. I discuss a hormone we all can make that is regulated by UV-rays from sunlight that reduces our appetite. I also explain that when we eat controls our appetite and not the other way around (and how to leverage that fact). I describe how we are basically always eating until we reach a threshold level of fatty acids and amino acids in our gut and the factors that can alter that signaling and make us eat far more than we need. I also explain how insulin, glucose and glucagon work, why cholesterol is so key for ovary, adrenal, liver and testes function and how the ketogenic diet impacts glucose and thyroid levels. As always, I describe many tools: specific supplements, prescription compounds, specific types (and timing) of exercise to regulate hormones, specific timing and types of eating, ways to reduce sugar cravings by triggering release of the hormone CCK, and more. Note: A future episode will cover Thyroid hormone. Also, I mis-spoke when explaining POMC neurons. I said “P-M-O-C” but should have said “POMC”. Apologies. The name I gave for what POMC is, however, was correct: "proopiomelanocortin". Thank you to our sponsors: InsideTracker - http://insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - http://athleticgreens.com/huberman Munk Pack - http://munkpack.com - Code: huberman Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman Supplements (Thorne): http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman Links: Dr. Lustig’s Lecture Paper In Cell Metabolism On Processed Food Effects Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:59 Hunger: Neural & Hormonal Control 00:08:32 Chewing & Hunger 00:11:05 Siamese Rats Reveal the Importance of Hormones In Hunger 00:13:08 Neurons That Powerfully Control Hunger by Releasing Specific Hormones 00:16:28 Anorexia & Extreme Overeating 00:16:57 Why Sunlight Suppresses Hunger: a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (a -MSH) 00:20:03 Blue-blockers, Injecting a-MSH: Instant Tan & Priapism 00:22:30 Ghrelin: A Hormone That Determines When You Get Hungry, & That You Can Control 00:24:40 Meal Timing Determines Hunger, Not the Other Way Around 00:27:20 Satchin Panda, Circadian Eating & Intermittent(ish) Fasting 00:29:35 How To Rationally Adjust Meal Schedules: The 45min Per Day Rule 00:33:02 CCK (Cholecystokinin): A Hormone In Your Gut That Says “No Mas!” 00:34:55 Eating For Amino Acids, Fatty Acids & Sugar 00:39:05 L-Glutamine: Stimulates the Immune System & Reduces Sugar Cravings 00:43:42 Things To Avoid: Emulsifiers; Alter Gut Mucosa & Nutrient Sensing 00:49:32 “A Calorie Is NOT A Calorie” After All 00:52:36 Insulin & Glucose: Hyperglycemia, Euglycemia, & Hypogylcemia 00:56:12 The Order Your Eat Foods Matters: Managing Your Blood Glucose & Glucagon 01:02:40 Movement, Exercise & GLUT-4 01:04:50 Why Sugar Stimulates Your Appetite 01:05:40 Keeping Blood Sugar Stable With Specific Exercises, The Power Of Insulin Sensitivity 01:07:55 High-Intensity Exercise, Glycogen & Metabolism 01:10:28 Cholesterol, HDL, LDL & Glucose Management: Ovaries, Testes, Liver, Adrenals 01:15:00 Prescription Compounds That Reduce Blood Glucose: Metformin 01:16:45 Berberine: A Potent Glucose Buffer That Also Adjusts Cholesterol Levels, Canker Sores 01:22:05 Chromium, L-Carnitine, Ginseng, Caffeine, Magnesium, Stevia, Vitamin B3, & Zinc 01:24:34 Acids: Vinegar, Lemons & Limes & False Alkalinity 01:26:40 Ketogenic Diets (In Brief): Effects On Blood Glucose, Thyroid Hormones 01:28:10 Diabetes, Filtering Blood, Sweet Urine 01:31:08 The Power of GLP-1 & Yerba Mate For Controlling Appetite, Electrolytes 01:35:19 Summary & Notes About Thyroid, Estrogen, Testosterone 01:37:20 Zero Cost & Sponsor-Based Ways To Support The Huberman Lab Podcast
Apr 19, 2021
How to Optimize Testosterone & Estrogen | Episode 15
7238
In this episode, I discuss testosterone and estrogen hormones and how they impact the brain, body, and behavior after puberty. I also discuss how various behaviors such as exercise (resistance and endurance training) and sex or observing sex impact these hormones and their levels. I ask: "what specifically is it about such activities that impact testosterone and estrogen?"; the resounding theme is that when our nervous system is activated in particular ways, it drives our endocrine system and vascular system to activate or repress certain hormone networks in predictable ways. I also discuss peer-reviewed studies and protocols addressing (at a mechanistic level) how light, cold and heat, and respiration (breathing) can positively or negatively impact testosterone and estrogen. We discuss specific supplements and compounds that peer-reviewed studies illustrate can adjust testosterone and estrogen levels by changing their binding to other proteins, raising them directly, or changing other hormones released from the brain and pituitary. I discuss optimization in the normal reference ranges for these hormones, and I discuss pheromones, apnea, menstrual cycles, menopause and andropause. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:50) Hormone Optimization (00:07:00) Salutogenesis: A Powerful Way to Conceptualize Health (00:10:03) Estrogen and Testosterone: Sources, Levels and Ratios (00:15:46) The Power of Competition, Plus: Anxiety, Persistence and Dopamine (00:20:58) Testosterone and Libido Pre-Ovulation (00:21:48) Estrogen and Sexual Receptivity; Libido In Males (00:23:10) How Sex Behavior Impacts Testosterone: Observing vs. Actual vs. Abstinence (00:26:46) Testosterone and Prolactin: Sex Seeking vs Pair Bonding (00:27:30) DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone): Effects on Levels/Ratios (00:28:45) Behaviors That Decrease Testosterone (and Cortisol): Parenting and Prolactin (00:31:24) How Illness Impacts Testosterone and Estrogen: Cytokines, e.g., IL-6 (00:33:20) How Exactly Do Behaviors Change Hormones? (00:34:18) Pheromones: Miscarriage, Menstrual Cycles, Puberty Onset, and Mate Recognition (00:43:33) Apnea: A Powerful Bi-Directional Influence On Estrogen and Testosterone (00:47:44) Mouth vs. Nose Breathing and Hormone Levels: Effects Via Sleep and Direct Effects (00:51:11) How Sleep Adjusts Cortisol/Testosterone and Cortisol/Estrogen Ratios (00:53:49) 02:CO2 Ratios, Nasal Breathing During Exercise (00:56:30) Light Viewing Patterns and Hormones: Dopamine, GnRH (00:57:44) Spring Fever: Tyrosinase, Hair Color, Mating Frequency (01:04:39) Specificity of Hormone Effects (01:06:03) Temperature: Cold and Hot Gonads (01:14:10) How To Exercise: Types, Effort Level, Sequencing (01:21:42) Cardio/Endurance vs. Resistance Training (First or Last?) Yes, It Matters (01:24:41) Estrogen and Menopause: Compounds That May Ameliorate/Reverse Symptoms (01:33:18) Nutrients That Optimize The Foundation For Hormones (01:36:00) Opioids as Severe Hormone Disruptors (01:37:23) Testes, Antlers and Ovaries (01:38:50) Creatine and Increasing DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) (01:40:14) Free and Bound Testosterone: SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin), Tongat Ali (01:43:23) Nettles, Prostate, Boron, and Blood Brain Barrier (01:45:27) Hormone Related Cancers: Sometimes Reducing Estrogen and Testosterone Is Optimal (01:47:43) Ecdysteroids: Mimic Mammalian Hormones (01:51:50) Optimizing Brain Hormones: Chorionic Gonadotropin, Fadogia Agrestis (01:57:18) Additional Compounds, Liver Toxicity, Overall Milieu (01:59:17) Summary: And Note About Additional Related Topic Coverage Coming Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 12, 2021
The Science of Sexual Development | Episode 14
5810
In this episode, I discuss how hormones such as testosterone and estrogen and their derivatives impact the early development of the brain and body and their maturation. I review published data on environmental factors shown to powerfully alter hormone pathways in animals and humans and the effects of cannabis, alcohol and cell phones on testes, sperm, ovaries and hormones. I describe the predictable relationship between genes, beard growth and balding patterns, and the importance of estrogen for brain development in people of all chromosomal sexes. Finally, I discuss how the hormones we are exposed to in the womb shape the relative length of our finger digits, the sounds our ears make (yes you read that correctly), and how those correlate with people's self-reports of their sexual preferences. As always, basic information and tools are discussed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:47) Announcement: Mood Meter App Works Again (00:08:00) Maximizing Learning from the Podcast (00:10:00) New Non-Sleep Deep Rest Protocol, Spanish Subtitles (00:11:35) Sexual Differentiation: Hormones, Neurons & Behavior (00:14:15) Hormones Basics (00:15:26) Sperm Meets Egg, Chromosomal Sex, Gonadal Sex, (00:17:50) Y Chromosome Inhibition of Feminization (00:19:00) Placenta Is An Endocrine (Hormone-Producing) Organ, Adrenal Testosterone (00:19:45) Hormonal Sex, Morphological Sex (00:21:04) Hormones Fast & Slow, Sex Steroids Can Turn On Genes (00:23:06) Masculinization, Feminization, Demasculinization, Defeminization (00:23:42) Primary Sexual Characteristics: DHT Drives Penis Development (00:27:03) Secondary Sexual Characteristics (00:27:43) Penis Sprouting: Guevedoces (00:31:25) Estrogen, NOT Testosterone, Masculinizes The Brain (00:33:15) Breast Development In Males: Aromatase; Puberty, & Steroids in Athletes (00:34:50) Estrogen Powerfully Controls Brain Development In All Individuals (00:35:19) Avoiding Hormonal Disruption In Children & Adults: Specific Oils, Creams, Etc. (00:39:00) Environmental Endocrine Disruptors, Sperm Count Decline, Vincloziline (00:44:20) Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Hormones Need Receptors, SARMS (00:48:41) Estrogen Establishes “Masculine” Brain Circuits, Testosterone (00:49:42) Cannabis, Alcohol: In Babies, Puberty & Adults (00:56:25) Cell Phone Technology: Effects On Hormones, Ovaries, & Testicles (01:02:33) Beards & Baldness Patterns Around the World, DHT, 5-alpha-reductase (01:06:39) Creatine & DHT/Hair Loss (01:08:20) Predicting Aging Rates By Pubertal Rates (01:10:04) Hyenas, Baseball, & Jumbo Clitorises: Androstenedione (01:14:26) Intersex Moles (01:15:40) Marijuana Plants, Pollens: Plant-To-Animal “Warfare” (01:20:08) Finger Length Ratios, Prenatal Hormone Exposure & Sexual Orientation (01:29:13) Brain Dimorphisms with Sexual Orientation (01:32:00) “Older Brother Effects”: Male Fetuses Might Change Mothers & Subsequent Brothers (01:35:06) The Path Forward & A Warning (01:35:55) Support & Your Questions Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Apr 05, 2021
The Science of Emotions & Relationships | Episode 13
5982
In this episode, I discuss the biology of emotions and moods in the context of relationships. I focus on the science of how early infant-caregiver attachment, combined with adolescence and puberty shape our adult patterns of attachment. I explain the three universal aspects of emotions, the reality of right-brain versus left-brain personalities, and how the roots of adult attachment are also grounded in specific aspects of puberty. I review what factors determine when puberty starts and ends, and the role of oxytocin and other chemicals in controlling how we perceive and remember others. As always, I refer to various practical tools including new tools for understanding and predicting our emotions before they occur, and neurochemicals that shape human connection. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:10) Announcing New Cost-Free Resources: Captions, NSDR Link (00:07:40) Emotions: Subjective Yet Tractable (00:10:53) To Understand Your Emotions: Look At Infancy & Puberty (00:15:21) Your First Feeling Was Anxiety (00:17:36) What Are “Healthy Emotions”? (00:19:03) Digital Tool For Predicting Your Emotions: Mood Meter App (00:21:08) The Architecture Of A Feeling: (At Least) 3 Key Questions To Ask Yourself (00:24:00) You Are An Infant: Bonds & Predictions (00:27:57) Attachment Style Hinges On How You Handle Disappointment (00:32:40) “Glue Points” Of Emotional Bonds: Gaze, Voice, Affect, Touch, (& Written) (00:36:34) “Emotional Health”: Awareness of the Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Dynamic (00:37:50) An Exercise: Controlling Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Bias (00:42:19) Getting Out Of Your Head: The Attentional Aperture (00:46:59) Puberty: Biology & Emotions On Deliberate Overdrive (00:47:58) Bodyfat & Puberty: The Leptin Connection (00:50:34) Pheromones: Mates, Timing Puberty, Spontaneous Miscarriage (00:54:37) Kisspeptin: Robust Trigger Of Puberty & Performance Enhancing Agent (00:58:26) Neuroplasticity Of Emotions: Becoming Specialists & Testing Emotional Bonds (01:00:25) Testing Driving Brain Circuits For Emotion: Dispersal (01:07:48) Science-Based Recommendations for Adolescents and Teens: The Autonomy Buffet (01:11:05) “Right-Brain Versus Left-Brain People”: Facts Versus Lies (01:14:18) Left Brain = Language, Right Brain = Spatial Awareness (01:16:15) How To Recognize “Right Brain Activity” In Speech: Prosody (01:18:32) Oxytocin: The Molecule of Synchronizing States (01:20:09) Mirror Neurons: Are Not For “Empathy”, Maybe For Predicting Behavior (01:23:00) Promoting Trust & Monogamy (01:27:00) Ways To Increase Oxytocin (01:28:34) Vasopressin: Aphrodisiac, Non-Monogamy and Anti-Bed-Wetting Qualities (01:30:43) Bonding Bodies, Not Just Minds: Vagus Nerve, Depression Relief Via the Body (01:35:18) A Powerful Tool For Enhancing Range & Depth of Emotional Experience (01:30:43) MDMA and Other Psychedelic Compounds: Building A Framework (01:38:54) Roundup, Various Forms of Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 29, 2021
How To Increase Motivation & Drive | Episode 12
5249
This episode explains the science of motivation and drive. I describe how dopamine-- a chemical we all make in our brain, underlies our desire for and pursuit of our goals, as well as our capacity to move and experience pleasure. I describe how we can leverage specific behaviors, reward schedules and dopamine-prolactin balance to help ensure we can maintain motivation and capacity for pleasure over the long term. I also discuss dopamine in the context of ADHD, craving and addiction, and some absolutely amazing results about specificity of drug effects based purely on belief. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:22) Announcement: Spanish Subtitles (00:05:06) Emotions, Addiction & Mindset (00:06:22) Motivation & Movement: The Dopamine Connection (00:07:29) A Double-Edged Dopamine Blade (00:08:56) Dopamine Fundamentals: Precursor to Adrenalin (00:10:15) The Reward Pathway: An Accelerator & A Brake (00:12:10) Motivation= Pleasure Plus Pain (00:14:14) The Dopamine Staircase: Food, Sex, Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine (00:16:15) Subjective Control of Dopamine Release (00:17:40) Social Media and Video Games (00:18:15) Addiction & Dopamine: Progressively Diminishing Returns (00:18:48) Novelty, Sensation-Seeking & Anticipation (00:20:15) Craving: Part Pain, Part Pleasure & Pain Always Prevails (00:23:11) Desire Scales With Pain: The Yearning Function (00:24:43) The Croissant Craving Circuit (00:25:45) “Here and Now” Molecules: Serotonin, Bliss & Raphe Nucleus (00:26:26) In Your Skin Or Out In the World (00:27:25) Cannabinoids Lethargy & Forgetfulness (00:28:15) The Almond Meditation (00:29:30) Drugs That Shift Exteroception Versus Interoception (00:30:36) Emotional Balance, Active & Passive Manipulation (00:32:36) Procrastination: Leveraging Stress, Breathing, Caffeine, L-Tyrosine, Prescription Drugs (00:37:04) When Enough Is Never Enough; How Dopamine Undermines Itself (00:38:58) Dopamine-Prolactin Dynamics: Sex, Reproduction & Refractory Periods (00:40:30) The Coolidge Effect: Novelty-Induced Suppression of Prolactin (00:42:22) Vitamin B6, Zinc As Mild Prolactin Inhibitors (00:43:25) Schizophrenia, Dopamine Hyperactivity and Side Effects of Anti-Dopaminergic Drugs (00:45:08) Prolactin, Post-Satisfaction “Lows” & Extending the Arc of Dopamine (00:48:00) The Chemistry of “I Won, But Now What?” (00:49:00) Healthy Emotional Development: Child and Parent (00:50:03) Never Say “Maybe” (Reward Prediction Error) (00:52:02) Surprise! (00:52:59) Are You Suppressing Your Drive and Motivation By Working Too Late? (00:54:50) Disambiguating Pleasure and Drive: Dopamine Makes Us Anti-Lazy (00:58:00) Beta-Phenylethylamine (PEA), & Acetyl L-Carnitine (01:00:00) Attention Deficit Disorders, Cal Newport Books, Impulsivity & Obesity (01:03:55) Leveraging Dopamine Schedules (01:05:22) Subjective Control of Dopamine and Drug Effects: The “Adderall” Experiment (01:09:03) Caffeine May Protect Dopamine Neurons, Methamphetamine Kills Them (01:10:57) Nicotine: Dopamine, Possible Neuroprotection, Prolactin Increase (01:11:53) Gambling, Intermittent Reinforcement, & Persistent Goal Seeking (Bad and Good) (01:14:14) Intermittent Halting of Celebration; Enjoy Your Wins, But Not All of Them (01:18:38) A Story Example of Intermittent Reward to Maintain Long-Term Drive and Motivation (01:21:25) Corrections & Notes About Spanish Captions & Other Languages Soon (01:24:00) Synthesis & Framework, Zero-Cost Support & A Note About Sponsors Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 22, 2021
How Foods and Nutrients Control Our Moods | Episode 11
6154
This episode explains the brain-body connections that allow the specific foods we eat to control our moods and motivation. I discuss the vagus nerve and its role in dopamine and serotonin release in the brain. I review Omega-3 fatty acids and the key role of the gut microbiome in supporting (or hindering) our mental and emotional states. Many actionable tools are reviewed and discussed related to fasting, ketogenic and plant-based diets, probiotics, fermented foods, fish oils, artificial sweeteners, specific supplements that promote dopamine and serotonin, and some remarkable behavioral (and belief) effects. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:00) Emotions: Aligning Mind & Body (00:06:41) Nutrients, Neurochemicals and Mood (00:08:39) Primitive Expressions and Actions (00:12:30) The Vagus Nerve: Truth, Fiction, Function (00:15:45) “Vagus Stimulation”: A Terrible Concept (00:16:35) Polyvagal Theory (00:18:27) Vagus Senses Many Things, & Moves Our Organs (00:19:35) Sugar Sensing Without Perception of Sweetness (00:23:00) Eating-Induced Anxiety (00:27:30) We Eat Until Our Brain Perceives “Amino Acid Threshold” (00:29:45) Reward Prediction Error: Buildup, Letdown and Wanting More (00:32:01) L-Tyrosine, Dopamine, Motivation, Mood, & Movement (00:34:04) Supplementing L-Tyrosine, Drugs of Abuse, Wellbutrin (00:38:29) Serotonin: Gut, Brain, Satiety and Prozac (00:43:38) Eating to Promote Dopamine (Daytime) & Serotonin (Night Time) (00:44:30) Supplementing Serotonin: Sleep, & Caution About Sleep Disruptions (00:46:40) Examine.com An Amazing Cost-Free Resource with Links to Science Papers (00:48:05) Mucuna Pruriens: The Dopamine Bean with a Serotonin Outer Shell (00:51:00) Emotional Context and Book Recommendation: “How Emotions Are Made” (00:54:55) Exercise: Powerful Mood Enhancer, But Lacks Specificity (00:56:45) Omega-3: Omega-6 Ratios, Fish Oil and Alleviating Depression (01:01:00) Fish Oil as Antidepressant (01:02:40) EPAs May Improve Mood via Heart Rate Variability: Gut-Heart-Brain (01:07:24) Alternatives to Fish Oil to Obtain Sufficient Omega-3/EPAs (01:09:05) L-Carnitine for Mood, Sperm and Ovary Quality, Autism, Fibromyalgia, Migraine (01:16:29) Gut-Microbiome: Myths, Truths & the Tubes Within Us (01:21:55) Probiotics, Brain Fog, Autism, Fermentation (01:25:20) Artificial Sweeteners & the Gut Microbiome: NOT All Bad; It Depends! (01:28:00) Ketogenic, Vegan, & Processed Food Effects, Individual Differences (01:33:20) Fasting-Based Depletion of Our Microbiome (01:35:20) How Mindset Effects Our Responses to Foods: Amazing (Ghrelin) Effects! (01:38:30) How Mindset Controls Our Metabolism (01:41:03) Closing Comments, Thanks, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 15, 2021
Master Stress: Tools for Managing Stress & Anxiety | Episode 10
5828
This episode explains what stress is, and how it recruits our brain and body to react in specific ways. I describe the three main types of stress, and how two of them actually enhance the function of our immune system making us less vulnerable to infections. I review tools that allow us to control our stress in real-time, as well as tools to prevent long-term stress, burnout and stress-induced illness and anxiety. As always, we cover behavioral tools and supplements that can assist or hinder stress control. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:41) Emotions: A Logical Framework of Brain-Body Loops (00:10:29) Stress: The (Falsely Narrow) Animal Attack Narrative (00:14:31) The Stress RESPONSE: Generic, Channels blood, Biases Action (00:21:08) Tools to Actually Control Stress: Reduce Alertness or Increase Calm (00:24:15) The Fastest Way to Reduce Stress In Real Time: “Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia” (00:29:45) The Fastlane to Calm (00:34:53) Important Notes About Heart Rate Deceleration: Vaso-vagal Lag (00:36:50) Cyclic Sighing For Calm and Sleep Induction (00:37:57) Nasal Breathing For Cosmetic, Immune and Performance Enhancement (00:38:46) Two Breathing Centers In The Brain (00:39:45) Breathing For Speaking Clearly (00:40:39) The 3 Types of Stress: Short, Medium and Long-Term (00:42:10) Positive Effects of Short-Term Stress: Immunity and Focus (00:45:32) Adrenalin (Epinephrine) Deploys Killer Immune Cells (00:46:40) Cyclic Deep Breathing IS Stress: Wim Hof, Tummo & Super-Oxygenation (00:50:58) Inflammation Is Useful and Good, In the Short Term (00:52:02) Procrastination and Self-Manufactured Nootropics (00:53:00) Relaxation Can Causes Illness (00:54:30) Immune Activation Protocol (00:55:20) Medium Term Stress: A Clear Definition (00:56:07) Stress Threshold (00:57:10) Stress Inoculation Tools: Separating Mind & Body, On Purpose (00:59:50) Use Vision to Calm the Mind When the Body Is Agitated (01:02:36) Beyond NSDR (01:04:36) Long Term Stress: Definition, Measurement, Cardiovascular Risks (01:06:30) Tools for Dealing With Long Term Stress (01:08:20) The Oxytocin Myth (01:09:15) Serotonin: Satiety, Safety (01:12:00) Delight and Flexibility (01:13:30) Chemical Irritants We Make But Can Control: Tackykinin (01:15:40) Impactful Gratitude (01:16:25) Non-Prescription Chemical Compounds For Additional Anti-Stress Support (01:18:04) Melatonin: Cautionary Note About Adrenal Suppression (01:19:15) Adrenal Burnout Is A Myth… But Why You Need to Know About It Anyway (01:21:10) L-Theanine For Stress Reduction and Task Completion Anxiety (01:23:00) Beware Taurine and Energy Drinks With Taurine (01:23:30) Ashwagandha: Can Powerfully Lower Anxiety And Cortisol (01:25:50) Examine.com Is An Amazing Free Resource (01:26:20) How This All Relates to Emotions: State Versus Demand = Valence (01:32:00) Modulating Reactivity, Mindfulness, & Functionality With Objective Tools (01:34:00) Next Steps (01:35:40) Topic Suggestions, Subscriptions and Reviews Please (01:37:40) Additional Resources, Synthesis Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 08, 2021
Control Pain & Heal Faster with Your Brain | Episode 9
5844
In this episode, I describe the science of how and why pain arises in the body and brain, and how we can actively control our experience of pain. I discuss inflammation, stress, acupuncture, limb damage and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). I review protocols that leverage the lymphatic and nervous system to accelerate pain relief and healing in a variety of situations. Other topics discussed include how heat versus cold impacts neurons and wounds, red-light, sunlight, stem cells and more.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction/Avenues for Support (00:04:58) Deliberate Unlearning (00:06:43) Pain, Injury and Regeneration (00:09:17) A System of Touch (Somatosensation) (00:11:42) Pain and Injury are Dissociable (00:15:19) Objective versus Subjective Control of Experience (00:16:15) Plasticity of Perception (00:16:41) Lack of Pain Is Self-Destructive; So Is Excessive Pain (00:18:42) Homoculous, Ratonculous, Dogunculus (00:19:05) “Sensitivity” explained (00:21:30) Inflammation (00:22:24) Phantom Limb Pain (00:24:00) Top-down Relief of Pain by Vision (00:26:41) From Deaf to Hearing Sounds (00:28:10) Pain Is In The Mind & Body (00:29:44) Recovering Movement Faster After Injury (00:35:00) Don’t Over Compensate (00:37:34) Concussion, TBI & Brain Ageing (00:40:49) The Brain’s Sewage Treatment System: Glymphatic Clearance (00:43:05) Body Position & Angle During Sleep (00:44:30) Types of Exercise For Restoring & Maintaining Brain Health (00:47:33) Ambulance Cells in The Brain (00:49:20) True Pain Control by Belief and Context (00:51:45) Romantic Love and Pain (00:55:05) Dopaminergic Control of Pain (00:57:15) Acupuncture: Rigorous Scientific Assessment (01:07:32) Vagus Activation and Autonomic Control of Pain (01:08:30) Inflammation, Turmeric, Lead and DHT (01:11:40) Adrenalin: Wim Hof, Tummo, “Super-Oxygenation” Breathing (01:14:53) Protocols For Accelerating Tissue Repair & Managing Pain (01:17:55) Ice Is Not Always Nice (For Pain and Injury): Sludging, Fascia, Etc. (01:22:02) Chronic and/or Whole Body Pain; Red-Light Therapy, Sunlight (01:26:10) Glymphatics and Sleep (01:26:29) Stem Cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP: Shams, Shoulds and Should Nots (01:31:38) Young Blood: Actual Science (01:35:44) Synthesis, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Mar 01, 2021
Optimize Your Brain with Science-based Tools | Episode 8
5340
In this episode, I describe how to access focused learning bouts, creative states, and the underlying neural circuitry involved. I frame this in the context of our daily 24-hour cycle in order to make it practical, clear and precise about timing. I review the role of fasting, meal timing and specific types of nutrients for promoting certain states of mind. I also review various other tools and biological factors that directly or indirectly gate brain function and that we can control. I answer commonly asked questions about the science of psychedelics, binaural beats, and visualization. Thank you for your interest in science! Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:53) The Daily (Learning) Routine (00:07:13) Plasticity Is NOT the Goal (00:09:26) No Obligation To Change (00:09:59) Practical Plasticity Language (00:13:37) Pillars of Neuroplasticity (00:15:16) My Daily Routine: Chronotype Management (00:17:20) Plasticity of the Wake-Sleep Circuit: Morning Light (00:19:09) Delay Caffeine! (00:21:19) Light, Black Coffee, Hydrate (00:22:57) High Alertness, Linear Tasks/Learning (00:25:12) Background Music/Noise: Yay or Nay? (00:26:52) “GO” versus “NO-GO”: The Basal Ganglia & Dopamine (00:28:37) Leveraging GO, NO-GO (00:30:08) Non-Specific Action (00:32:06) Clear, Calm, Focused: The GO, NO-GO Sweet Spot (00:33:48) When Very Alert, Work In Silence; When Tired, Include Background Noise (00:35:28) Temperaments Vary: And So Should This (00:36:01) The 3 Hour-Long Post Waking Block (00:36:20) Early Morning Exercise and GO Networks (00:38:05) Fasting, Ketogenic Diets, & Food Volume (00:39:41) Sodium/Electrolytes (00:40:57) Avoiding Hot Lunch, Food Pre-Occupation (00:42:01) Post Lunch Low/No Cognitive Load (00:42:56) Hydration, NSDR, Nap (00:44:54) Creativity Work (00:46:26) Creativity Is A Two-Part Phenomenon (00:51:15) Psychedelics (00:58:20) Afternoon Light As Insurance (01:00:26) Evening Nutrition (01:01:21) Repacking Glycogen: Hormonal Factors (01:04:11) Pre-Sleep Anxiety: Normal and Easy To Solve (01:07:08) The Power of Objective Tools (01:08:14) Visualization (01:11:34) Mini-Synthesis (01:13:31) Resetting Your Clock (01:15:55) Don’t Trust the Mind Now (01:16:59) Two, (Maybe 3) Optimization Bouts Per Day (01:18:33) Organizational Logic (01:20:22) Wim Hof Breathing, Binaural Beats, Ice Baths, Etc. (01:24:42) Variation Among People, and Dogs (01:25:49) Accurate Versus Exhaustive (01:27:57) Familiar and New Ways To Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 22, 2021
How to Learn Faster by Using Failures, Movement & Balance | Episode 7
5239
In this episode, I discuss how we can use specific types of behavior to change our brain, both for sake of learning the movements themselves and for allowing us to learn non-movement-based information as well. I describe the key role that errors play in triggering our brains to change and how the vestibular (balance) system can activate and amplify neuroplasticity. As always, I cover science and science-based practical tools. Thank you in advance for your questions and for your interest in science! Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:20) Nerves and Muscles (00:12:00) Exercise alone won’t change your brain (00:12:58) Behavior will change your brain (00:13:30) Remembering the wrong things (00:15:00) Behavior as the gate to plasticity (00:15:45) Types of Plasticity (00:17:32) Errors Not Flow Trigger Plasticity (00:21:30) Mechanisms of Plasticity (00:22:30) What to learn when you are young (00:23:50) Alignment of your brain maps: neuron sandwiches 00:26:00: Wearing Prisms On Your Face (00:29:10) The KEY Trigger Plasticity (00:32:20) Frustration Is the Feeling to Follow (Further into Learning) (00:33:10) Incremental Learning (00:35:30) Huberman Free Throws (00:38:50) Failure Specificity Triggers Specific Plastic Changes (00:40:20) Triggering Rapid, Massive Plasticity Made Possible (00:43:25) Addiction (00:45:25) An Example of Ultradian-Incremental Learning 00:49:42: Bad Events (00:51:55) Surprise! (00:52:00) Making Dopamine Work For You (Not The Other Way Around) (00:53:20) HOW to release dopamine (00:55:00) (Mental) Performance Enhancing Drugs (00:56:00) Timing Your Learning (00:57:36) (Chem)Trails of Neuroplasticity (00:58:57) The Three Key Levers To Accelerate Plasticity (00:59:15) Limbic Friction: Finding Clear, Calm and Focused (01:04:25) The First Question To Ask Yourself Before Learning (01:05:00) Balance (01:07:45) Cerebellum (01:10:00) Flow States Are Not The Path To Learning (01:11:18) Novelty and Instability Are Key (01:14:55) How to Arrive At Learning (01:15:45) The Other Reason Kids Learn Faster Than Adults (01:19:25) Learning French and Other Things Faster (01:22:00) Yoga versus Science (01:32:00) Closing Remarks Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 15, 2021
How to Focus to Change Your Brain | Episode 6
5383
This episode introduces neuroplasticity—which is how our brain and nervous system learn and acquire new capabilities. I describe the differences between childhood and adult neuroplasticity, the chemicals involved and how anyone can increase their rate and depth of learning by leveraging the science of focus. I describe specific tools for increasing focus and learning. The next two episodes will cover the ideal protocols for specific types of learning and how to make learning new information more reflexive. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:03:50) Plasticity: What Is it, & What Is It For? (00:06:30) Babies and Potato Bugs (00:08:00) Customizing Your Brain (00:08:50) Hard-Wired Versus Plastic Brains (00:10:25) Everything Changes At 25 (00:12:29) Costello and Your Hearing (00:13:10) The New Neuron Myth (00:14:10) Anosmia: Losing Smell (00:15:13) Neuronal Birthdays Near Our Death Day (00:16:45) Circumstances for Brain Change (00:17:21) Brain Space (00:18:30) No Nose, Eyes, Or Ears (00:19:30) Enhanced Hearing and Touch In The Blind (00:20:20) Brain Maps of The Body Plan (00:21:00) The Kennard Principle (Margaret Kennard) (00:21:36) Maps of Meaning (00:23:00) Awareness Cues Brain Change (00:25:20) The Chemistry of Change (00:26:15) A Giant Lie In The Universe 00:27:10) Fathers of Neuroplasticity/Critical Periods 00:29:30) Competition Is The Route to Plasticity 00:32:30) Correcting The Errors of History 00:33:29) Adult Brain Change: Bumps and Beeps (00:36:25) What It Takes to Learn (00:38:15) Adrenalin and Alertness (00:40:18) The Acetylcholine Spotlight (00:42:26) The Chemical Trio For Massive Brain Change (00:44:10) Ways To Change Your Brain (00:46:16) Love, Hate, & Shame: all the same chemical (00:47:30) The Dopamine Trap (00:49:40) Nicotine for Focus (00:52:30) Sprinting (00:53:30) How to Focus (00:55:22) Adderall: Use & Abuse (00:56:40) Seeing Your Way To Mental Focus (01:02:59) Blinking (01:05:30) And Ear Toward Learning (01:06:14) The Best Listeners In The World (01:07:20) Agitation is Key (01:07:40) ADHD & ADD: Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (01:12:00) Ultra(dian) Focus (01:13:30) When Real Change Occurs (01:16:20) How Much Learning Is Enough? (01:16:50) Learning In (Optic) Flow/Mind Drift (01:18:16) Synthesis/Summary (01:25:15) Learning With Repetition, Forming Habits As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 08, 2021
Understanding and Using Dreams to Learn and to Forget | Episode 5
4728
This episode is all about the two major kinds of dreams and the sorts of learning and unlearning they are used for. I discuss REM-associated dreams that control emotional learning and their similarity to various trauma treatments such as ketamine and EMDR. I also discuss Non-REM dreams and their role in motor learning and learning of detailed, non-emotionally-laden information. I relate this to science-backed tools for accessing more of the types of sleep and learning people may want. Other topics are listed in the time stamps below. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:03:00) The Dream Mask (00:06:00) Cycling Sleep (00:08:10) Chemical Cocktails of Sleep (00:13:00) Motor Learning (00:16:30) High Performance with Less Sleep (00:17:45) Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (00:20:30) Paralysis & Hallucinations (00:23:35) Nightmares (00:24:45) When REM & Waking Collide (00:25:00) Sleeping While Awake (00:26:45) Alien Abductions (00:29:00) Irritability (00:30:00) Sleep to Delete (00:32:25) Creating Meaning (00:34:10) Adults Acting Like Children (00:36:20) Trauma & REM (00:37:15) EMDR (00:39:10) Demo (00:44:25) Ketamine / PCP (00:45:45) Soup, Explosions, & NMDA (00:48:55) Self Therapy (00:50:30) Note About Hormones (00:51:40) Measuring REM / SWS (00:53:15) Sleep Consistency (00:56:00) Bed Wetting (00:58:00) Serotonin (00:59:00) Increasing SWS (00:59:50) Lucidity (01:02:15) Booze / Weed (01:03:50) Scripting Dreams (01:04:35) Theory of Mind (01:07:55) Synthesis (01:10:00) Intermittent Sleep Deprivation (01:11:10) Snoring Disclaimer (01:11:40) New Topic (01:15:50) Corrections (01:17:25) Closing Remarks As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Feb 01, 2021
Find Your "Temperature Minimum" to Defeat Jetlag, Shift Work & Sleeplessness | Episode 4
6682
In this episode, I discuss a simple and reliable measurement called your "temperature minimum" that you can use to rapidly adjust to new time zones when traveling and to offset the bad effects of nocturnal shift work. I also discuss tools for adjusting sleep and waking rhythms in babies, teens, new parents and the elderly. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:04:15) The bedrock of sleep-rest cycles (00:07:05) Night owls and morning larks (00:08:22) “The perfect schedule” (00:11:04) The 100K Lux per morning goal (00:15:15) Keeping your biological clock set (00:16:15) Reset your cortisol (00:21:22) Jetlag, death and lifespan (00:23:00) Going East versus West (00:28:45) The key to clock control (00:31:01) Your Temperature Minimum (00:36:30) Temperature and Exercise (00:41:20) Eating (00:42:50) Go West (00:44:15) Pineal myths and realities (00:51:13) The Heat-Cold Paradox (00:53:45) Staying on track (00:55:30) Nightshades (00:57:00) Emergency resets (00:57:30) Psychosis by light (00:58:05) Shift work (01:02:40) The Temperature-Light Rule (01:04:20) Up all night: watch the sunrise? (01:06:45) Error correction is good (01:08:20) NSDR protocols/implementation (01:10:44) The frog skin in your eye (not a joke) (01:16:39) Why stress turns your hair white (01:17:24) Ovaries or testes? (01:18:25) Babies and bright light (01:21:40) Polyphasic sleep (01:25:25) Ultradian cycles in children (01:27:38) Teens and puberty (01:29:50) Light before waking for better sleep (01:31:20) Older people and circadian rhythms (01:33:48) Sleepy Supplements (01:42:00) Red Pills & Acupuncture (01:43:50) Highlights (01:48:30) Feedback and Support As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 25, 2021
Using Science to Optimize Sleep, Learning & Metabolism | Episode 3
6187
“Office Hours” — In this episode, I answer your most commonly asked questions about science-supported tools for accessing more alertness, better learning, and quality sleep. I also cover when to exercise, time meals, and how to systematically vary your temperature to achieve specific effects on your nervous system. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:05:50) Moonlight & Fire (09:25:00) Red Light: Good & Bad (00:15:45) Why Blue-Blockers Are Unscientific (00:19:20) Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses & Windows (00:22:05) Adding Up Your Lights (00:24:30) “Netflix Inoculation” With Light (00:25:25) How The Planet Controls Your Energy (00:27:00) A Season For Breeding (?) (00:31:15) Melatonin / Serotonin (00:33:50) Epinephrine vs Adrenaline: Same? Different? (00:35:00) Exercise & Your Sleep (00:40:30) Neuroplasticity & Food/Chemicals/NSDR (00:44:10) Using Sound & Smell To Learn Faster (00:46:45) Dream Meaning & Remembering (00:48:15) Waking Up Paralyzed (00:49:40) Nap/Focus Ratios For Accelerated Learning (00:52:45) Hypnotizing Yourself (00:54:05) Smart Drugs (01:01:10) Magnesium: Yay, Nay, or Meh? (01:02:10) How Apigenin Works (01:04:30) Serotonin: Slippery Slope (01:05:35) The Frog Experiment (01:08:35) Temperature (01:10:30) Morning Chills (01:28:00) Eating For Heating (01:30:30) Vagal Pathways For Gut-Brain Dialogue (01:31:50) Sex Differences (01:33:50) Self Experimentation As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 18, 2021
Master Your Sleep & Be More Alert When Awake | Episode 2
5011
Today's episode provides a host of information on what makes us sleepy, sleep soundly, and feel awake and alert. It covers a broad range of tools for anyone wishing to improve their sleep and wakeful state. The science and logic for each tool is described. Please put your questions related to Episodes 1 & 2 in the comments section below so I can address them in Episode 3 "Office Hours". Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:03:30) What Is Sleep Really For? (00:06:15) Sleep Hunger (00:09:00) Caffeine: Devil & Angel (00:12:20) Timing Your Sleep Properly (00:14:15) Release Your Hormones (At The Right Times) (00:18:45) (Pineal) Melatonin Waring (00:24:30) Strange Vision Is Good Vision (00:32:50) Blue Light Is Great! (00:37:00) The Real Problem With Smartphones (00:38:30) Blind / Low Vision People (00:39:45) Using Exercise & Food To Set Your Clock (00:42:00) The Power of Sunset (00:45:43) The Healthy Holes In Your Skull (00:48:15) Bad Light (00:51:11) Light Location (00:53:00) Fire / Candlelight (00:54:00) When To Eat (00:54:40) How To Wake Up Earlier (01:08:00) Using The Body To Control The Mind (01:10:00) Drugs & Supplements (01:18:00) Sleep Walking (01:20:00) Office Hours Note: A special episode devoted to shift workers and jetlag is coming out soon As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 11, 2021
How Your Brain Works & Changes | Episode 1
3847
Today’s episode provides an introduction to how the nervous system works to create sensations, perceptions, emotions, thoughts and behaviors, as well as how we can change our nervous system— a phenomenon known as neuroplasticity. The information sets the stage for all Huberman Lab Podcast episodes that follow by covering neurons, synapses, brain chemicals and the rhythms that control our ability to focus, learn and sleep… and more. Thank you for your interest in science. We'll see you next week! Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:05:00) What is the Nervous System (00:08:55) Deja Vu (00:10:50) How War, Guns & Soap Shaped Our Understanding of the Brain (00:13:30) Jennifer Aniston Neurons (00:14:30) Sensations (00:16:10) Magnetic Sensing & Mating (00:17:30) Perceptions & The Spotlight of Attention (00:18:30) Multi-Tasking Is Real (00:20:10) Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Control of Behavior (00:21:15) Focusing the Mind (00:24:30) Antidepressants (00:27:40) Thoughts & Thought Control (00:28:35) Actions (00:33:20) How We Control Our Impulses (00:36:25) Neuroplasticity: The Holy Grail of Neuroscience (00:41:20) The Portal to Neuroplasticity (00:46:40) Accelerating Learning in Sleep (00:50:20) The Pillar of Plasticity (00:55:00) Leveraging Ultradian Cycles & Self Experimentation Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Jan 04, 2021
Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast
262
Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast, a new podcast from Dr. Andrew Huberman. The podcast can also be found on YouTube.
Dec 21, 2020