Nourish Balance Thrive

By Christopher Kelly

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Description

The Nourish Balance Thrive podcast is designed to help you perform better. Christopher Kelly, your host, is co-founder of Nourish Balance Thrive, an online clinic using advanced biochemical testing to optimize performance in athletes. On the podcast, Chris interviews leading minds in medicine, nutrition and health, as well as world-class athletes and members of the NBT team, to give you up-to-date information on the lifestyle changes and personalized techniques being used to make people go faster – from weekend warriors to Olympians and world champions.

Episode Date
Testosterone: Why You Need It and What to Do When You Don’t Have Enough
51:34

For men, testosterone is important for moodbone healtherectile function, libido, strength and muscle mass and is also associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers, better insulin sensitivity, and metabolic health. It also may even have some vasodilatory effects, and higher testosterone levels are also associated with better health outcomes in general and lower cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Unfortunately, It looks like testosterone levels in the population are dropping, although more isn’t necessarily better.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are talking about testosterone: why we should care about it, how to test for it, and how to support healthy levels of this hormone. Megan discusses signs and symptoms of low testosterone and seven different lifestyle changes you can make to support optimal levels - before you even consider taking a supplement. We also talk about hormone replacement therapy, who might benefit, and some of the downsides to this strategy.

For all the references and a detailed roadmap of everything we discuss, be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline for this podcast

Here’s the outline of this episode with Megan Hall:

[00:00:24] Testosterone: Why you should care.

[00:01:49] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:02:46] Optimal reference range for Testosterone.

[00:03:51] Symptoms of low testosterone.

[00:04:25] Testing for testosterone.

[00:07:02] High testosterone is associated with violent crime. Study: Dabbs Jr, James M., et al. "Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior among 692 male prison inmates." Personality and individual Differences 18.5 (1995): 627-633.

[00:07:32] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:08:22] The testosterone suppression system.

[00:08:35] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World, by Joseph Henrich.

[00:10:13] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:12:02] Testosterone physiology; troubleshooting by testing LS and FSH.

[00:14:38] Varicocele - the enlargement of veins within the testicles - common amongst athletes.

[00:16:31] Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)

[00:19:44] How to support testosterone levels.

[00:20:41] 4-Quadrant Model; Josh Turknett's AHS talk: How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm - AHS19.

[00:20:55] Josh Turknett on the NBT podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution

[00:21:11] Sleep; Greg Potter on the podcast talking about sleep: Why Sleep Is Critical for Immune HealthHow to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic HealthBetter Sleep for Athletes, and What to Do When You Can’t Sleep.

[00:21:33] Sleep deprivation decreases testosterone; Study: Leproult, Rachel, and Eve Van Cauter. "Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men." Jama 305.21 (2011): 2173-2174 and Gonzalez-Santos, M. R., et al. "Sleep deprivation and adaptive hormonal responses of healthy men." Archives of andrology 22.3 (1989): 203-207.

[00:22:26] Greg Potter's articles on sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast

[00:22:37] Stress; Chronic stress in particular, more so than acute stress.

[00:24:54] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:25:09] Eating sufficient calories.

[00:26:13] Podcast with Herman Pontzer: How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy.

[00:27:57] Nutrient deficiencies: zinc, magnesium, vitamin D.

[00:29:30] Cholesterol and dietary fat.

[00:30:51] Exercise.

[00:33:32] Within day energy availability can negatively impact the testosterone:cortisol ratio; Study: Torstveit, Monica Klungland, et al. "Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 28.4 (2018): 419-427.

[00:34:59] Testosterone suppression - a dysfunction or a normal adaptation to training? Study: Sansone, Andrea, et al. "Sport, doping and male fertility." Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 16.1 (2018): 1-12.

[00:37:02] Book: Move Your DNA: Restore Your Health Through Natural Movement, by Katy Bowman.

[00:39:00] Environmental toxins: estrogens, cigarette smoking and alcohol.

[00:40:16] Herbs and supplements to consider.

[00:43:40] Pituitary tumours, TBI and concussion.

[00:44:36] Testosterone Replacement Therapy.

[00:48:59] Join our group program to get a blood test, bloodsmart.ai report, and 4 group coaching sessions.

Nov 26, 2021
The Clot Thickens: Malcolm Kendrick on the Enduring Mystery of Heart Disease
01:27:51

If you’ve followed the NBT podcast for a while you probably heard Dr. Malcolm Kendrick talking about the tenuous connection between cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. Malcolm has published with The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics on this topic, including a recent review paper entitled LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease. In the paper, they include both total cholesterol and LDL-C in their discussions, and if you look at epidemiological data, I think they make a good point. For instance, total cholesterol had almost no effect on mortality in the HUNT-2 study in Norway, and higher levels were associated with lower mortality risk in women. Or the ESCARVAL-RISK study, where higher LDL-C is associated with lower all-cause mortality until it’s well above 200 mg/dl. Or the In-Chianti study, where people over 64 had the lowest mortality rates if they had an LDL-C greater than 130mg/dl.

The question then becomes, if not cholesterol, then what? To answer that we must resist monomania and acknowledge the very notion of causation in a complex system is suspicious. Ask not what but how. Malcolm argues in his new book The Clot Thickens that if you maintain metabolic health, manage stress, and mind your endothelial function, cholesterol levels become largely irrelevant. Simple enough, but as you’ll discover in this interview, the devil is in the details.

Here’s the outline of this episode with Malcolm Kendrick:

[00:00:24] Previous NBT podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think About Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:00:42] Book: The Clot Thickens: The enduring mystery of heart disease, by Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:03:04] 5-part series with lipidologist Thomas Dayspring (Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5);  2-hour interview with Ron Krauss on The Drive Podcast.

[00:04:23] Book: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine.

[00:06:12] LDL Cholesterol - challenging mainstream thought.

[00:17:16] Fatty streaks never become atherosclerotic plaques; Review: Velican, C., M. Anghelescu, and D. Velican. "Preliminary study on the natural history of cerebral atherosclerosis." Medicine interne 19.2 (1981): 137-145.

[00:18:54] Genetic influences; familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and high clotting factors; Case study of patient with untreated FH but no presence of atherosclerosis: Johnson, Kipp W., Joel T. Dudley, and Jason R. Bobe. "A 72-year-old patient with longstanding, untreated familial hypercholesterolemia but no coronary artery calcification: a case report." Cureus 10.4 (2018).

[00:21:22] Clotting factors more important than high LDL; Paper: Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Inborn coagulation factors are more important cardiovascular risk factors than high LDL-cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia." Medical hypotheses 121 (2018): 60-63.

[00:25:03] UK Biobank Study: Mora, Samia, Seth S. Martin, and Salim S. Virani. "Cholesterol Insights and Controversies From the UK Biobank Study: Three Take-Home Messages for the Busy Clinician." (2019): 553-555.

[00:25:51] Machine learning used to predict cardiovascular disease; Study: Weng, Stephen F., et al. "Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?." PloS one 12.4 (2017): e0174944.

[00:30:54] FOURIER PCSK9-inhibitor study: More deaths in the treatment group; Study: Sabatine, Marc S., et al. "Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease." New England Journal of Medicine 376.18 (2017): 1713-1722.

[00:31:26] Evolocumab also reduces Lp(a); Study: O’Donoghue, Michelle L., et al. "Lipoprotein (a), PCSK9 inhibition, and cardiovascular risk: insights from the FOURIER trial." Circulation 139.12 (2019): 1483-1492.

[00:34:02] APOA-1 Milano and HDL cholesterol.

[00:38:45] Lp(a) and Vitamin C, plasminogen and clotting.

[00:47:02] Rudolf Virchow, the father of the cholesterol hypothesis.

[00:48:42] So what causes CVD?

[00:49:53] Biomechanical stress; High blood pressure.

[00:52:16] Endothelial and glycocalyx damage.

[01:02:19] Steroids, immunosuppressants.

[01:03:52] Avastin (bevacizumab) increases the risk of CVD; Study: Totzeck, Matthias, Raluca Ileana Mincu, and Tienush Rassaf. "Cardiovascular adverse events in patients with cancer treated with bevacizumab: a meta‐analysis of more than 20 000 patients." Journal of the American Heart Association 6.8 (2017): e006278.

[01:06:07] Clotting disorders.

[01:10:41] Sickle cell anemia - 50,000% increased risk of CVD.

[01:11:36] Case study of 14-year old boy: Study: Elsharawy, M. A., and K. M. Moghazy. "Peripheral arterial lesions in patient with sickle cell disease." EJVES Extra 14.2 (2007): 15-18.

[01:13:25] Air pollution, smoking, lead.

[01:15:57] Biggest risk factors for CVD.

[01:20:09] Supplements that strengthen the glycocalyx; Chondroitin Sulfate.

[01:22:12] Malcolm's blog.

Nov 19, 2021
How to Continually Improve Your Brain Health, Body Composition, Energy, and Athletic Performance Using a Simple Blood Test and Machine Learning
01:10:24

Each month for the past year we’ve offered our bloodsmart.ai group program. It’s an opportunity to use machine learning to predict—from a pretty simple blood test—what is likely happening inside your body (and what might be going wrong) along with expert feedback on the results from NBT Scientific Director and Coach, Megan Hall and me. The program has been very popular, not to mention a lot of fun, and people are going through more than once to measure their ongoing progress.

On this podcast, Megan provides detailed feedback on the bloodsmart.ai report belonging to NBT Coach Clay Higgins. What you’ll hear is very similar to what goes on during our group coaching sessions. It’s a review of exactly what’s going well and where there’s opportunity for improvement - along with specific steps to take right now to improve overall health, based on the data, symptoms, and personal history.

If you’d like to participate in a group program please email NBT support for details and be sure to let us know where in the world you live so we can tailor our response to your needs.

Here’s the outline of this episode with Megan Hall and Clay Higgins:

[00:00:33] Clay's combined bloodsmart.ai report.

[00:05:13] Overall wellness score and PhenoAge.

[00:07:30] Marker Detail View Page.

[00:08:12] NutriSense continuous glucose monitoring.

[00:12:03] Calculated red blood cell survival and HbA1C.

[00:13:52] Eight Sleep.

[00:16:33] Uric acid.

[00:25:10] Potential oxidative stress: N. Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) may help.

[00:26:58] Calcium a bit low; consider following up with a blood parathyroid test and/or supplement with magnesium.

[00:32:56] HDL Cholesterol a little high and what that might mean.

[00:34:26] Red blood cell indices and low oxygen deliverability suggest possible nutrient deficiencies.

[00:35:53] Digestive enzymes: Thorne Biogest or Betaine HCl.

[00:38:05] HomocysteX Plus.

[00:40:33] Reticulocyte production index and RDW.

[00:43:44] Low neutrophils (neutropenia) could suggest low copper level.

[00:46:36] Nose to Tail.

[00:48:00] Bloodsmart.ai forecasts.

[00:48:32] Environmental toxin exposure; Quicksilver Blood Metals Testing.

[00:51:53] Supporting detoxification: sauna, binders, supporting detox pathways.

[00:53:45] Mitigating toxins in the environment. Skin Deep app; Think Dirty Shop Clean app.

[00:55:59] Forecasted iodine deficiency; sea vegetables are a good source.

[00:57:06] Forecasted issues with immune system/gut.

[00:58:28] Designs for Health GI Revive.

[00:59:35] Lucy Mailing, PhD; Lucy on previous NBT podcasts: 1, 2, 3.

[01:01:49] Homocysteine forecasted to be high - B vitamins are important, as well as glycine, creatine.

[01:01:50] Join our bloodsmart.ai group program to get Megan’s feedback on your blood chemistry.  In the US, click here to get started. $198 includes blood testing, a bloodsmart.ai report, and access to 4 group coaching sessions with Megan. (Note: Residents of NY, NJ, RI and those living outside the US - pricing and availability varies. Please contact us for assistance.)

Nov 12, 2021
How to Nurture a Healthy Vaginal Microbiome
01:03:17

The vaginal microbiome is often mentioned in passing - sort of as an afterthought - usually when we’re really talking about the gut microbiome. We’ve decided to give the vaginal microbiome centre stage today, and with good reason - it’s a huge factor when it comes to the quality of a woman’s life and health, and has implications for fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, and risks associated with sexually transmitted infections. 

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director and Coach Megan Hall and I are discussing the vaginal microbiome: what it is, how to assess for problems, and how to maintain a state of good health. Megan talks about the effects of vaginal dysbiosis on pregnancy and fertility, and how to create the best possible outcome for childbirth. She explains what causes disruption to the vaginal microbiome in the first place, and how ancestral health principles can keep you on track. She also outlines how to rebalance the vaginal microbiome when there’s dysbiosis, along with practical steps to take before resorting to antibiotics and antifungals.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:02:30] Why care about the vaginal microbiota?

[00:03:55] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:04:50] What is the vaginal microbiome (VM)?

[00:05:52] 5 core vaginal microbiome community state types (CSTs).

[00:07:40] Why lactobacilli are beneficial.

[00:10:52] Lucy Mailing, PhD; Podcasts: 123.

[00:12:06] Diagnoses associated with vaginal dysbiosis.

[00:13:47] Direct to consumer VM testing.

[00:15:48] Changes throughout a woman's lifespan.

[00:18:02] Podcast: You Are Not Broken: A Modern Approach to Women’s Sexual Health and Desire, with Kelly Casperson, MD.

[00:18:38] Common vaginal microbiome dysbiosis pathologies: Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), and Group B Strep (GBS).

[00:26:16] Pregnancy: protection from preterm labor, preeclampsia, and infertility.

[00:29:44] Studies on the effects of the microbiota and success with infertility treatment: 1. Moreno, Inmaculada, et al. "Evidence that the endometrial microbiota has an effect on implantation success or failure." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 215.6 (2016): 684-703. and 2. Moore, Donald E., et al. "Bacteria in the transfer catheter tip influence the live-birth rate after in vitro fertilization." Fertility and sterility 74.6 (2000): 1118-1124.

[00:31:06] NBT Podcasts with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick: 12.

[00:32:15] Causes of disruption to the vaginal microbiome: menses, gut dysbiosis, diet, smoking, contraceptives, antibiotics, general hygiene, stress, tampons, lubricants, hygiene products.

[00:35:49] Women who eat a vegetarian diet have higher vaginal microbial diversity (which is unfavorable); Study: Song, Stephanie D., et al. "Daily vaginal microbiota fluctuations associated with natural hormonal cycle, contraceptives, diet, and exercise." Msphere 5.4 (2020): e00593-20.

[00:37:05] Compounds from cigarette smoke can be found in cervical mucus; Study: Prokopczyk, Bogdan, et al. "Identification of tobacco-specific carcinogen in the cervical mucus of smokers and nonsmokers." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89.12 (1997): 868-873.

[00:37:24] Microbial composition of man's penis can predict BV incidence in female sex partner: Study: Mehta, Supriya D., et al. "The Microbiome Composition of a Man's Penis Predicts Incident Bacterial Vaginosis in His Female Sex Partner With High Accuracy." Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 10 (2020): 433.

[00:38:53] Maternal stress alters proteins related to vaginal immunity and abundance of lactobacilli; Study: Jašarević, Eldin, et al. "Alterations in the vaginal microbiome by maternal stress are associated with metabolic reprogramming of the offspring gut and brain." Endocrinology 156.9 (2015): 3265-3276.

[00:39:34] Maternal vaginal microbiome mediates responses to prenatal stress; Study: Jašarević, Eldin, et al. "The maternal vaginal microbiome partially mediates the effects of prenatal stress on offspring gut and hypothalamus." Nature neuroscience 21.8 (2018): 1061-1071.

[00:42:44] Summarizing lifestyle practices that most affect the vaginal microbiome.

[00:43:07] The BBC More or Less Podcast: Has the number of periods a woman has in her lifetime quadrupled? 

[00:43:49] Best options for contraceptives; Fertility Awareness Method. Podcast: The Truth About Fertility and the Fertility Awareness Method, with Torea Rodriguez.

[00:45:08] Personal hygiene products - be wary.

[00:46:49] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:47:22] How to rebalance the vaginal ecosystem (before resorting to antibiotics and antifungals).

[00:48:19] Vaginal pH test strips.

[00:48:33] Probiotics: Jarrow Fem-Dophilus has two good strains.

[00:52:34] Intervaginal vitamin C can help treat BV; Study: Petersen, E. Eiko, and Paola Magnani. "Efficacy and safety of Vitamin C vaginal tablets in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis: A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study." European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 117.1 (2004): 70-75.

[00:52:46] Medical grade honey, thyme and garlic.

[00:55:13] The next frontier in VM study.

[00:57:02] Seeding with fecal microbiota transplantation in C-section infants; Study: Korpela, Katri, et al. "Maternal fecal microbiota transplantation in cesarean-born infants rapidly restores normal gut microbial development: a proof-of-concept study." Cell 183.2 (2020): 324-334.

[00:58:30] Microbiome-based biologic drug being studied (L crispatus probiotic); Study: Lagenaur, Laurel A., et al. "Connecting the dots: Translating the vaginal microbiome into a drug." The Journal of Infectious Diseases 223.Supplement_3 (2021): S296-S306.

[01:00:09] 4-quadrant model.

Oct 29, 2021
Living Ancestral Health: Diet, Cohousing and Unschooling
42:47

One of the best things about doing this podcast for the past seven years has been how our guests have shaped nearly every aspect of my life and the lives of my family. Over the years my wife Julie and I have built an ancestral lifestyle we believe to be most conducive to health, connection, and longevity, largely influenced by the brilliant guests we’ve interviewed right here. The process has been nothing short of an adventure, and it continues to unfold.

On this podcast, I’m joined by my wife, food scientist Julie Kelly to talk about how we’ve taken everything we’ve learned about health, wellness, and ancestral living to create a home life that truly supports and sustains our family. We talk about how we eat, prepare meals, and educate our kids and changes we’ve made over the years. Julie shares the immense value she’s derived from a very specific type of psychotherapy, and we discuss how our practice of managing stress has evolved. We also give an update on our adventures in cohousing, and the number one factor that we’ve learned will make or break cohousing relationships.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julie Kelly:

​​[00:00:17] Ayla is 6 months old; the birth experience.

[00:02:21] Podcasts with Lily Nichols, RDN: How to Optimise Nutrition for Pregnancy and Real Food for Gestational Diabetes with Lily Nichols.

[00:03:13] How our eating has evolved over time.

[00:04:04] Podcast: How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy, with Herman Pontzer, PhD.

[00:04:22] Meal prep and shopping. Our eBook: What We Eat.

[00:07:14] Justin Sonnenberg.

[00:07:37] Lucy Mailing, PhD; Podcasts: 1. How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, 2. Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, 3. Rewilding the Gut: Restoring Ancestral Diversity to the Microbiome.

[00:09:17] Simon Marshall's Stress Audit; Podcast: How to Manage Stress.

[00:11:31] Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP); Podcast: Healing and Transformation with Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP), with Jason Connell. Learn more about working with Jason.

[00:16:27] Book: It's Not Always Depression: Working the Change Triangle to Listen to the Body, Discover Core Emotions, and Connect to Your Authentic Self, by Hilary Jacobs Hendel.

[00:18:33] Forest School.

[00:21:58] Book: Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life, by Peter Gray; Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD.

[00:22:36] Books: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, and The Scientist In The Crib: Minds, Brains, And How Children Learn, by Alison Gopnik, PhD.

[00:24:54] Book: Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World, by David Epstein.

[00:25:00] Cohousing; Podcast: Contemplating Cohousing: A Paradigm for Modern Day Tribal Living.

[00:25:07] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:26:13] Article: The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake, by David Brooks.

[00:26:25] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristin Hawkes, PhD.

[00:29:54] Our experience with Workaway.info

[00:38:38] Our Workaway profile.

Oct 22, 2021
A Model for Affordable and Accessible Functional Medicine
52:36

Dr Gabriel Niles, MD has travelled many roads in his search for the ideal model of healing and flourishing. Prior to his training as a Medical Doctor at USC School of Medicine, he studied Traditional Chinese Medicine in Shanghai, China. He has organized and led multiple Circle of Healers retreats with the American Medical Student Association as a medical student, seeking to integrate the wisdom of healing traditions with modern medical science. In recent years, Dr Niles has been integrating the insights and benefits of Functional Medicine into his medical practice while remaining committed to keeping medical care affordable for his patients. 

For this podcast, I caught up with Gabe after the Ancestral Health Symposium in Los Angeles to discuss his integration of Functional Medicine into a mainstream bill-to-insurance medical practice. We talk about areas where his approach differs from that of other family physicians, including his favouring of lifestyle changes over-reliance on pharmaceuticals. He also explains why he has continued working within the conventional medical system, despite rejecting the big-pharma controlled dis-ease model of medical “care”.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Gabriel Niles:

[00:00:27] Gabriel's background and interest in medicine and health.

[00:02:33] Evan Hirsch, MD; Podcast: How to Fix Your Fatigue.

[00:03:01] Institute for Functional Medicine's AFMCP Training.

[00:03:15] Studying Chinese medicine.

[00:09:58] Service in the US Navy.

[00:13:30] Dr. Kirk Parsley; Podcasts: 1. How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD; 2. Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top.

[00:14:27] Saying no to Big Pharma; The problem with statins.

[00:17:14] Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:20:20] James Nestor; Book: Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art; Podcast: How to Fix Your Breathing to Improve Your Health.

[00:21:06] Todd Becker; Podcast: Getting Stronger; AHS Talk: Desirable Difficulties: Using Hormesis to Learn More Effectively - Todd Becker (AHS21).

[00:23:20] Mickey Trescott; Podcast: Autoimmune recovery with Mickey Trescott.

[00:26:22] Book: The End of Alzheimer's, by Dale Bredesen.

[00:28:41] Medical problems faced by knowledge workers.

[00:31:13] International Society for Environmentally Acquired Illness (ISEAI).

[00:34:37] Books: It Starts with Food and The Whole30, by Melissa Hartwig Urban and Dallas Hartwig.

[00:36:39] Paul SaladinoThe Carnivore Code; Podcast: Fundamental Health Podcast.

[00:40:23] Book: Natural Causes by Barbara Ehrenreich.

[00:42:56] Why Gabriel continues to bill insurance.

[00:44:34] Podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, with James Maskell. Book: The Community Cure.

[00:45:31] Evan Hirsch's Virtual MD course.

[00:47:48] Work with Gabriel Niles in Los Angeles, CA.

Oct 15, 2021
How to Fix Your Fatigue
59:53

Evan Hirsch, MD, is a world-renowned fatigue expert and the Founder & CEO of the International Center for Fatigue. Through his best-selling book, podcast, and online programs, he has helped thousands of people around the world boost their energy naturally, and is on a mission to help a million more. He has been featured widely on television, podcasts, and summits.

On this podcast, Evan discusses the many different causes of fatigue and his 4-step process for treating it. He shares details about his Fix Your Fatigue program, which has identified 10 different causes of fatigue - and Evan notes that everyone has multiple causes. To complicate things further, everyone has different multiple causes, so no one treatment works for everyone. Evan shares resources for identifying the causes of your fatigue and simple steps you can take to improve your energy levels today.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Evan Hirsch:

[00:00:20] Gabriel Niles, MD introduced us at the Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:00:41] How Evan became interested in medicine and fatigue.

[00:02:28] Book: Fix Your Fatigue: The four step process to resolving chronic fatigue, achieving abundant energy and reclaiming your life!, by Evan H. Hirsch MD.

[00:04:29] Viruses that can be transmitted that can end up triggering fatigue.

[00:06:21] How to know if you have an abnormal level of fatigue.

[00:08:16] Book: This Is Your Mind on Plants, by Michael Pollan.

[00:08:41] Surviving on caffeine.

[00:09:48] Different levels of fatigue (levels based on treatment needed).

[00:11:22] Toxicities that we're exposed to that need to be removed to alleviate fatigue.

[00:11:54] 4-Quadrant Model.

[00:12:58] Best diets for fixing fatigue.

[00:14:14] Mike T. Nelson; Course: Flex Diet Foundations.

[00:14:53] 4-step process: 1. assess causes 2. replace deficiencies 3. opening detox pathways 4. remove toxicities.

[00:17:19] Adrenals, mitochondria, thyroid - the "Big 3" factors that help restore energy.

[00:21:42] "Detox"; Herbal products + external therapies.

[00:24:42] Mold exposure and toxicity.

[00:28:51] Article: Your building might be making you sick. Joe Allen can help., by Colleen Walsh.

[00:30:12] Great Plains Urine MycoTOX Profile to evaluate for mold exposure/toxicity.

[00:31:16] Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) test - evaluates mold in the environment. Find a professional.

[00:31:46] What to do if you have mold exposure: binders, supplements to remove toxins.

[00:32:54] Heavy Metals and infections.

[00:33:37] COVID long-haulers or post-acute syndromes.

[00:35:24] Using symptoms to diagnose conditions.

[00:36:01] Bartonella quiz on the www.FixYourFatigue.com website.

[00:37:49] Podcast: How to Prevent and Heal Lyme and Its Co-Infections, with Sunjya Schweig, MD.

[00:38:13] Herbal antimicrobials vs antibiotics.

[00:38:33] Results page of Evan's website.

[00:42:30] Book: Cure: A Journey into the Science of Mind Over Body by Jo Marchant.

[00:47:18] Electromagnetic Fields; Previous podcasts on EMF: Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs): The Controversy, the Science, and How to Protect Yourself, with Joseph Mercola, DO; EMFs: Why You Should Care and What to Do, with Nick Pineault.

[00:51:52] Safe Sleeve cases and other ways to mitigate EMFs.

[00:52:41] LessEMF.com.

[00:54:05] How to know if your fatigue can be helped.

[00:55:38] Find Evan at www.FixYourFatigue.com; Facebook group; Schedule a free discovery call.

Oct 08, 2021
Blood Flow Restriction Q&A with Jim Stray-Gundersen
36:35

Jim Stray-Gundersen, MD is a world-renowned expert in Sports Medicine, Exercise Physiology and Training for Sport Performance. Drawing from his lifetime of experience with elite level athletes and clinical populations, Jim developed and co-founded the B Strong Training System using Blood Flow Restriction (BFR). The system works by applying cuffs to the arms and legs to temporarily restrict venous return without occluding arterial inflow. Put simply, blood flow restriction prompts an outsize response from the brain to speed up the normal process of repairing and rebuilding damaged tissue with lighter weight and a reduced risk of injury compared to traditional weight lifting. Jim predicts the B Strong Training System will change how the world gains the benefits of exercise, improving longevity and quality of life.

On this podcast, Jim discusses the important difference between the B Strong system and other BFR devices on the market, and answers questions about application and safety when training with blood flow restriction. He talks about how athletes and like-minded people are using BFR and shares some common user errors and ways to avoid them. Jim also describes his new professional training course available to anyone interested in learning more about the theory and application of BFR. Or - even better - for the next 14 days you can get the B Strong BFR Training System for 20% off using the code Kelly20. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jim Stray-Gundersen:

[00:00:10] Jim's previous appearance on the NBT podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan.

[00:00:28] B Strong Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) training system.

[00:00:41] Dr. Steven Patterson; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training: Science and Application.

[00:01:08] Blood flow restriction: elastic vs. rigid devices.

[00:05:04] Study: Patterson, Stephen D., et al. "Blood flow restriction exercise: considerations of methodology, application, and safety." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 533.

[00:05:09] Johnny Owens, founder of Owens Recovery Science.

[00:09:19] Question regarding the potential for endothelial damage; Study: Credeur, Daniel P., Brandon C. Hollis, and Michael A. Welsch. "Effects of handgrip training with venous restriction on brachial artery vasodilation." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 42.7 (2010): 1296.

[00:13:10] Olympic athletes using BFR training: Sifan Hassan (Netherlands), Galen Rupp (USA), Kate Grace (USA), Mikaela Shiffrin (USA).

[00:14:52] How athletes are using the BFR system.

[00:17:24] B Strong BFR training course for both BFR users and professionals.

[00:21:37] Common errors and things to avoid with BFR.

[00:25:17] Delayed onset muscle soreness.

[00:27:38] Frequency of workouts and habit building.

[00:31:40] Get the B Strong system using the 20% off discount code Kelly20, good for 2 weeks after podcast airs.

Oct 01, 2021
Finding Social Connection in a Disconnected World
01:18:36

Ben Greenfield is a human performance consultant, speaker, and New York Times bestselling author of 13 books, including the popular titles “Beyond Training”, “Boundless” and “Fit Soul”. Former collegiate tennis, water polo, and volleyball player, bodybuilder, 13-time Ironman triathlete, and professional obstacle course racer, Ben has been voted by the NSCA as America’s top Personal Trainer and by Greatist as one of the top 100 Most Influential People In Health And Fitness. In 2014, my NBT co-founder and medical doctor Jamie Kendall-Weed and I appeared on the Ben Greenfield podcast, and to this day people tell me that’s how they learned about Nourish Balance Thrive. 

​For this podcast, Ben and I met up on the UCLA campus during the Ancestral Health Symposium in August to walk and talk about the harmful effects of loneliness and the importance of social connection. Ben shares some of the innovative ways he’s increased connection with others, despite being a self-proclaimed introvert. We talk about some of the downsides of social isolation and the best reasons for opening yourself up to the “messiness” of others. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ben Greenfield:

[00:01:48] Previous podcasts with Ben Greenfield featuring Christopher Kelly: Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!The Little-Known Test That Tells You Everything You Need To Know About Your Metabolism, and 7 Signs Your Cortisol And Adrenals Are Broken.

[00:03:21] James Nestor; Podcast: How to Fix Your Breathing to Improve Your Health.

[00:03:27] Diana Rodgers; Podcast: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat.

[00:03:50] All the 2021 AHS videos are on YouTube.

[00:06:52] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John T. Cacioppo.

[00:07:01] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping (Third Edition), by Robert M. Sapolsky.

[00:09:56] Book: The Martian, by Andy Weir.

[00:11:47] Introversion.

[00:12:00] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joseph Henrich.

[00:12:25] Recent podcast with Lucy Mailing, PhD: Rewilding the Gut: Restoring Ancestral Diversity to the Microbiome.

[00:13:53] Book: Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking, by Susan Cain

[00:18:21] Loneliness is as bad for you as smoking; Study: ​​Dyal, Stephanie R., and Thomas W. Valente. "A systematic review of loneliness and smoking: small effects, big implications." Substance use & misuse 50.13 (2015): 1697-1716.

[00:18:49] Loneliness vs. social isolation.

[00:25:20] Book: Never Eat Alone, Expanded and Updated: And Other Secrets to Success, One Relationship at a Time, by Keith Ferrazzi.

[00:26:39] Mastermind Talks, created by Jayson Gaignard.

[00:27:34] Ben's dinner parties.

[00:33:04] Julian Abel, MD; Book: The Compassion Project: A case for hope and humankindness from the town that beat loneliness; Julian's Podcast: Survival of the Kindest.  Listen to Julian's most recent interview on the NBT Podcast.

[00:35:40] Opening yourself up to the messiness of other people.

[00:38:38] Ben’s article on the dopaminergic response while experiencing pain or pleasure with others.

[00:39:40] Book: Friendship in the age of loneliness: An Optimist's Guide to Connection, by Adam Smiley Poswolsky.

[00:40:40] Contacts+.

[00:42:26] Community events; Realm Church Management Software.

[00:48:23] Ben's expanded spiritual practice.

[00:52:34] Books by Jamie Wheal: Stealing Fire and Recapture the Rapture.

[00:53:13] Book: The Immortality Key: The Secret History of the Religion with No Name, by Brian C. Muraresku.

[01:01:59] Church and the monogamous nuclear family.

[01:11:05] Eye gazing.

[01:14:44] See Ben’s show notes for this recording.

[01:15:52] Join the NBT Elite Performance Club Forum by supporting NBT on Patreon.

Sep 24, 2021
How to Get Consistently Good Blood Test Results
01:08:56

Throughout 2021 we’ve had hundreds of people try out our bloodsmart.ai software within the format of our monthly group program. We’ve met clients from all walks of life – some athletes, some not – but most want the same things: to feel better now and to preserve healthspan later. Over the years – and especially more recently after racing was cancelled – my own goals have also shifted from athletic performance, instead landing on what needs to be done to maximise healthspan – that is the period of life spent in good health, free from the chronic diseases and disabilities of ageing. Talking each week to others with the same goals has become a highlight of my work week...

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall and I are discussing my latest blood chemistry results and bloodsmart.ai report. I was pleased with my results a couple of years ago when my Overall Wellness Score reached a perfect 100. This time around, however, there’s room for improvement, and Megan offers her usual excellent advice.

If you’d like to get a blood test + a bloodsmart.ai report along with a series of group coaching sessions with Megan and me, we can arrange that for you. The coaching sessions take on a format much like this podcast, with individual reports reviewed and advice for a path forward described in detail. Be sure to follow along with this episode with Megan’s detailed outline.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:25] Podcasts featuring Brianna Stubbs, PhD: 1234.

[00:02:29] Christopher Kelly’s combined bloodsmart.ai report

[00:02:58] Overall Wellness Score; Horne paper: Anderson, Jeffrey L., et al. "Usefulness of a complete blood count-derived risk score to predict incident mortality in patients with suspected cardiovascular disease." The American journal of cardiology 99.2 (2007): 169-174.

[00:03:25] Health Assessment Questionnaire.

[00:04:36] Why to get a blood test when you're feeling good.

[00:12:21] Wellness Score and PhenoAge; Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall.

[00:13:54] Individual input markers.

[00:14:42] Podcasts: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure), with Megan Hall; Protein vs. Energy for Improved Body Composition and Healthspan, with Ted Naiman, MD; Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease and How to Fight It, with Ben Bikman, PhD.

[00:15:55] Protein requirements: 1.6g protein per Kg of body weight.

[00:17:12] Rhonda Patrick’s podcast with Ashley Mason: Dr. Ashley Mason On Drug-Free Approaches For Treating Depression, Insomnia, And Overeating | Found My Fitness With Dr. Rhonda Patrick.

[00:19:44] Podcast: Blood Chemistry in Athletes, with Tommy Wood, MD, PhD.

[00:21:02] Thorne Multi-Vitamin Elite.

[00:21:54] Supplements Megan is most likely to take: Magnesium and creatine (with Creapure).

[00:24:45] Iron panel and blood donation; DIY therapeutic phlebotomy.

[00:27:17] Podcast on iron overload:  Iron overload and the impact it can have on performance and health, with Dr. Tommy Wood; “Bronze Diabetes” paper: ROOT, HOWARD F. "Insulin resistance and bronze diabetes." New England Journal of Medicine 201.5 (1929): 201-206.

[00:28:46] Protein:Energy (PE) Ratio; Book: The PE Diet: Leverage your biology to achieve optimal health, by Ted Naiman.

[00:38:04] Podcast: How to Go Faster and Feel More Energetic By Addressing Anaemia and Increasing Oxygen Deliverability.

[00:43:25] Zinc deficiency makes RBC membranes more fragile; Study: O'Dell, Boyd L., Jimmy D. Browning, and Philip G. Reeves. "Zinc deficiency increases the osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes." The Journal of nutrition 117.11 (1987): 1883-1889.

[00:45:06] bloodsmart.ai forecasts.

[00:45:45] Previous podcast talking about bloodsmart.ai and forecasts: You Literally Bled for That Data. Now What? and How to Use Biomedical Testing to Find Problems Inside Your Body.

[00:50:28] Lead and toxic metals overload.

[00:51:23] The negative impacts of lead on both nervous and renal systems are obvious at a blood lead concentration of 2 μg/dL; Study: Shefa, Syeda T., and Paul Héroux. "Both physiology and epidemiology support zero tolerable blood lead levels." Toxicology letters 280 (2017): 232-237.

[00:53:19] Supporting detoxification.

[00:55:00] Iodine and sea vegetables; Maine Coast granulated sea vegetables.

[00:57:29] Summarizing action items.

[00:58:01] Eat more food!  RED-S; Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[01:02:08] Vitamin D; Chris Masterjohn's Presentation on COVID-19 at AHS and article on Vitamin D and COVID-19: The Current State of the Evidence.

[01:04:55] Megan's outline for this podcast 

[01:05:11] Join a bloodsmart.ai group program to get a blood test, bloodsmart.ai report, and group coaching sessions with Megan Hall.

Sep 17, 2021
Rewilding the Gut: Restoring Ancestral Diversity to the Microbiome
49:30

At the 2021 Ancestral Health Symposium (AHS) in Los Angeles last month I was able to catch up with microbiome researcher and writer Lucy Mailing, PhD. This year Lucy presented on the topic of Rewilding the Gut, noting the detrimental effects of our modern environment, diet, and lifestyle on the gut microbiome. Lucy has been on the podcast twice before, talking about optimising the gut microbiome and debunking microbiome myths and misconceptions. Lucy’s research and writings are truly cutting-edge and have consistently shaped our recommendations and approach to gut health with our clients. 

​On this podcast, Lucy shares some of the concepts she outlined during her AHS Talk, including the specific aspects of modern living that interfere with microbiome diversity and establishing a basis for chronic disease.  She talks about the hygiene hypothesis, including the need for early childhood exposure to microbes, and some of the best ways to support a healthy gut ecosystem.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lucy Mailing:

[00:00:32] Video: Rewilding the gut - Lucy Mailing (AHS21).

[00:02:27] Book: ”Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!": Adventures of a Curious Character, by Richard P. Feynman.

[00:03:25] Environmental mismatches.

[00:04:35] Book: Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues, by Martin J. Blaser MD.

[00:05:03] Effects of diet on the microbiome; Study: Smits, Samuel A., et al. "Individualized responses of gut microbiota to dietary intervention modeled in humanized mice." Msystems 1.5 (2016): e00098-16.

[00:05:29] The Hadza people of Tanzania.

[00:06:53] Herman Pontzer, PhD; Paper: Pontzer, Herman, Brian M. Wood, and David A. Raichlen. "Hunter‐gatherers as models in public health." Obesity Reviews 19 (2018): 24-35; Podcast: How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy.

[00:07:37] Jeff D. Leach, microbiome researcher.

[00:07:55] Article: I spent three days as a hunter-gatherer to see if it would improve my gut health, by Tim Spector.

[00:09:47] Rewilding.

[00:12:11] Video: What are the ethical implications of anti-meat dietary policies? - Diana Rodgers (AHS21); Podcast: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat.

[00:12:10] Allan Savory on desertification.

[00:13:06] Keystone predator species; Blastocystis hominis.

[00:13:55] Blastocystis associated with distinct microbiome ecological patterns; Study: Nieves-Ramírez, M. E., et al. "Asymptomatic intestinal colonization with protist Blastocystis is strongly associated with distinct microbiome ecological patterns." Msystems 3.3 (2018): e00007-18.

[00:15:04] Lucy’s previous appearances on the NBT podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, and Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions.

[00:17:05] Article: The oxygen-gut dysbiosis connection, by Lucy Mailing, PhD.

[00:18:33] 4-Quadrant Model.

[00:20:13] Podcast: The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters, with James Estes, PhD.

[00:20:55] C-Sections and the microbiome.

[00:22:41] Mom-to-baby fecal transplant; Study: Korpela, Katri, et al. "Maternal fecal microbiota transplantation in cesarean-born infants rapidly restores normal gut microbial development: a proof-of-concept study." Cell 183.2 (2020): 324-334.

[00:25:22] Are we over-sanitizing?

[00:28:33] Benefits of exposure to animals.

[00:29:09] Podcast: The Dog as the Ultimate Health Upgrade (an Introduction for Pre-Contemplators), with Toréa Rodriguez.

[00:31:30] Rewilding the nervous system.

[00:34:37] Secure attachment; Podcast: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy, with Jessica Fern.

[00:37:41] Dr. Julian Abel; Podcasts: 1. Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, 2. Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19, and 3. The Compassion Project: The Power of Hope and Human Kindness.

[00:40:12] Eating for a healthy microbiome.

[00:40:32] Metabolic flexibility of the gut; Study: Sholl, Jonathan, Lucy J. Mailing, and Thomas R. Wood. "Reframing Nutritional Microbiota Studies To Reflect an Inherent Metabolic Flexibility of the Human Gut: a Narrative Review Focusing on High-Fat Diets." Mbio 12.2 (2021): e00579-21.

[00:41:21] Jason Hawrelak’s new course: Functional Gastrointestinal Testing: A Critical Review; Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health.

[00:44:06] NBT Podcasts with Ben Bikman, PhD and Ted Naiman, MD.

[00:45:51] Find Lucy at lucymailing.comPatreonconsultation.

Sep 10, 2021
Love People Use Things (Because the Opposite Doesn’t Work)
01:48:21

Joshua Fields Millburn is one half of the popular simple living duo known as The Minimalists. He and his best friend and fellow Minimalist Ryan Nicodemus have helped over 20 million people live more meaningful lives with less through their website, books, podcast, and Netflix films. The Minimalists have been featured in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Boston Globe, Forbes, TIME, ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, BBC, and NPR. Joshua has previously been an NBT client, and I’m fortunate enough to call him a friend.

On this podcast, Joshua and I talk about minimalism, consumerism, values, and healing.  Joshua explains how minimalism is not simply about getting rid of material possessions (though that can play a role), but rather it’s a process of getting to the root of life’s lingering discontent - digging out from under the stuff, the debt, the stress and the loneliness and regaining control of your life. He describes some of the main points of his new book, Love People Use Things, and shares some of the most important lessons he’s learned along his Minimalist journey.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Joshua Fields Millburn:

[00:00:13] Paul Saladino.

[00:01:29] Mimetic Desires; Podcast: Wanting: The Power of Mimetic Desire in Everyday Life.

[00:02:09] Book: Love People, Use Things: Because the Opposite Never Works, by Joshua Fields Millburn and Ryan Nicodemus.

[00:02:51] Enneagram.

[00:03:03] Ian Cron; Book: The Road Back to You: An Enneagram Journey to Self-Discovery, Podcast: Typology.

[00:05:51] Consumerism.

[00:08:03] Book: Maybe You Should Talk to Someone: A Therapist, HER Therapist, and Our Lives Revealed, by Lori Gottlieb.

[00:08:28] Lori Gottlieb on The Minimalists Podcast.

[00:14:21] Books by Chris Ryan: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships and Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress.

[00:17:50] Four types of values.

[00:19:13] Book: Wanting: The Power of Mimetic Desire in Everyday Life, by Luke Burgis; thick vs. thin desires.

[00:19:45] Luke Burgis on The Minimalist Podcast.

[00:20:46] Erwin McManus, lead pastor at Mosaic; Hear him on The Minimalists Podcast.

[00:22:40] Minimalism and what that term means.

[00:24:36] Podcast: Healing Trauma with MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy, with Dan Engle.

[00:26:00] The spontaneous combustion rule.

[00:26:33] Chris Kelly on The Minimalists Podcast #138: Healthproblems.

[00:30:39] The Minimalists: Less is Now Movie (trailer).

[00:33:01] Podcast: Protein vs. Energy for Improved Body Composition and Healthspan.

[00:33:46] The Minimalists Love People, Use Things Tour.

[00:34:52] Spartanism (compulsive decluttering); Minimalists podcasts on hoarding and compulsive decluttering.

[00:37:05] Minimalist diets and Joshua's story of regaining his health.

[00:38:54] Minimalists Podcast episode #184: Minimalist Diets.

[00:43:25] Documentary: The Sensitives.

[00:46:22] Pain management solution: grounding. 

[00:47:09] 4-Quadrant Model.

[00:47:57] Book: Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever! (Second Edition), by Clinton Ober, Stephen T. Sinatra, et al.

[00:48:37] Documentaries by Clint Ober. The Ground Therapy Universal Mat.

[00:51:41] Elixinol CBD.

[00:56:51] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall, PhD.

[01:00:18] Lyme disease coinfections; Sunjya Schweig, MD; Podcast: How to Prevent and Heal Lyme and Its Co-Infections.

[01:03:03] Testosterone replacement therapy.

[01:08:32] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joseph Henrich.

[01:10:43] Personality traits; Introversion/Extraversion.

[01:20:50] Podcast: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy, with Jessica Fern.

[01:25:30] Homelessness, mental health, and intellect.

[01:27:55] Overrated virtues.

[01:31:24] Podcast: Healing and Transformation with Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP), with Jason Connell.

[01:29:27] Problems with empathy.

[01:33:39] Jealousy.

[01:40:01] Object A; Peter Rollins.

[01:45:52] theminimalists.com.

Sep 03, 2021
A Precision Medicine Approach to Alzheimer’s Disease
01:09:21

Family physician Deborah Gordon, MD is the founder and Medical Director of the Northwest Memory Center in Ashland, Oregon. Her decades-long practice has revolved around healthy and adoptable lifestyle choices that impact the development of health problems, with a more recent focus on choices that affect cognitive health and neurodegenerative disease. Deborah has been on the podcast before to talk about autoimmunity, and she’s with me today to discuss her new study, currently in the peer review process, in which potential contributors to cognitive decline are identified and targeted therapeutically.

​On this podcast, Deborah discusses the potential for using a precision medicine approach to Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Inspired by the work of physician and author Dr Dale Bredesen, Deborah has been working with patients to identify and treat root causes, including environmental exposures and infections, while promoting many of the lifestyle changes we talk about all the time on this podcast.  The results are astounding, and call into question the current standard of care for Alzheimer’s. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Deborah Gordon:

[00:01:10] Deborah’s previous appearance on the podcast: How to Fix Autoimmunity in the over 50s.

[00:01:23] Deborah's interest in cognitive decline.

[00:01:38] Dale Bredesen, MD; The Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

[00:02:56] Tommy Wood, MD; Video: Systems Analysis and Multiple Sclerosis – Physicians for Ancestral health Symposium, 2015.

[00:03:31] Anne Hathaway, MD; Podcast: The Critical Role of Oestradiol for Women’s Cognition.

[00:03:45] Dr. Bredesen's study: Bredesen, Dale E. "Reversal of cognitive decline: a novel therapeutic program." Aging (Albany NY) 6.9 (2014): 707.

[00:05:54] Dr. Gordon's new paper: Toups, Kat, et al. "Precision Medicine Approach to Alzheimer's Disease: Successful Proof-of-Concept Trial." medRxiv (2021).

[00:06:07] Cognitive decline.

[00:07:20] Alz.org.

[00:10:53] Objective measures of cognition.

[00:11:51] Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

[00:13:47] CNS Vital Signs; Lumosity, Brain-HQ.

[00:19:09] The conventional standard of care for cognitive impairment.

[00:21:10] Medications for Alzheimer's.

[00:27:27] IntellxxDNA.

[00:29:20] Josh Turknett, MD; Josh on the NBT podcast: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:33:58] 4-Quadrant Model.

[00:41:24] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:45:00] Toxic exposures and infections; mold remediation.

[00:48:45] Dr. Lyn Patrick, ND.

[01:01:53] Dr. Bredesen’s site: Apollo Health.

[01:03:49] Facebook: Dale Bredesen and The Official Bredesen Protocol Support Group.

[01:04:11] Dr. Bredesen's books: 1. The End of Alzheimer's: The First Program to Prevent and Reverse Cognitive Decline 2. The End of Alzheimer's Program: The First Protocol to Enhance Cognition and Reverse Decline at Any Age 3. The First Survivors of Alzheimer's: How Patients Recovered Life and Hope in Their Own Words.

[01:05:22] Where to find Deborah: Drdeborahmd.comNorthwest Wellness & Memory CenterFacebook.

Aug 27, 2021
Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease and How to Fight It
01:09:18

Benjamin Bikman, PhD is an internationally renowned scientist and pathophysiology professor at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Currently, his professional focus is to better understand the origins and consequences of metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes, with a particular emphasis on the role of insulin. He frequently publishes his research in peer-reviewed journals and presents at international science and public meetings.

​On this podcast, Ben talks with NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall about insulin resistance: what causes it, how it develops in the body, and the downstream effects of this all-too-common condition. Ben discusses the role of insulin as a regulator of human metabolism and its relevance in the development of most chronic diseases. He also offers a simple and effective prescription for optimal metabolic health and healthy ageing. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Benjamin Bikman:

[00:00:00] Ben’s previous (2017) appearance on the NBT Podcast: Ketones, Insulin and the Physiology of Fat Cells.

[00:00:42] Ben's background and his study of metabolism.

[00:02:27] Ben's lab at BYU.

[00:03:05] Insulin resistance, defined.

[00:05:19] Causes of insulin resistance.

[00:06:15] Problems with measuring insulin resistance.

[00:10:24] Effects of diet, inflammation and stress on creating insulin resistance.

[00:14:18] How insulin resistance develops in the body.

[00:20:31] Fat hypertrophy vs hyperplasia.

[00:22:24] The Athlete's Paradox.

[00:24:22] Insulin resistance at the level of the brain; Alzheimer's as Type 3 Diabetes.

[00:28:25] Brain fog; Stephen Cunnane, PhD., Research Center on Aging, Universite de Sherbrooke.

[00:28:53] Young women with PCOS exhibit brain hypometabolism and insulin resistance; Study: Castellano, Christian-Alexandre, et al. "Regional brain glucose hypometabolism in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: possible link to mild insulin resistance." PLoS One 10.12 (2015): e0144116.

[00:29:41] Pathological vs physiological insulin resistance.

[00:33:14] Just 50g of carbohydrate the night before improves outcomes on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); Study: Klein, Klara R., et al. "Carbohydrate intake prior to oral glucose tolerance testing." Journal of the Endocrine Society 5.5 (2021): bvab049.

[00:38:20] Problems with the focus on calories in nutrition research.

[00:43:09] Video: Dr. Benjamin Bikman - 'Insulin vs. Glucagon: The relevance of dietary protein'.

[00:46:55] Book: Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease and How to Fight It.

[00:51:22] Study: Walton, Chase M., et al. "Ketones Elicit Distinct Alterations in Adipose Mitochondrial Bioenergetics." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21.17 (2020): 6255.

[00:51:52] Untreated diabetes and metabolic rate; A Study of Metabolism in Severe Diabetes, by Francis G. Benedict and Elliott P. Joslin.

[00:52:26] Insulin significantly reduces energy expenditure; Study: Nair, K. S., D. Halliday, and J. S. Garrow. "Increased energy expenditure in poorly controlled type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients." Diabetologia 27.1 (1984): 13-16.

[00:54:42] Ketogenic diet and lifespan; Megan’s study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:55:56] Effects of β-Hydroxybutyrate on skeletal muscle mitochondria; Study: Parker, Brian A., et al. "β-Hydroxybutyrate elicits favorable mitochondrial changes in skeletal muscle." International journal of molecular sciences 19.8 (2018): 2247.

[00:56:42] Effects of ketones on β-cell function; Study: Gropp, Jarom, et al. "β-Hydroxybutyrate improves β-cell mitochondrial function and survival." Journal of Insulin Resistance 2.1 (2017): 1-8.

[00:58:44] Paper out of UC Davis: Zhou, Zeyu, et al. "A ketogenic diet impacts markers of mitochondrial mass in a tissue specific manner in aged mice." Aging (Albany NY) 13.6 (2021): 7914.

[01:00:04] Ketone concentrations during a 36-hour fast; Study: Deru, Landon S., et al. "The Effects of Exercise on Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations over a 36-h Fast: A Randomized Crossover Study." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (2021).

[01:02:27] Prescription for optimal metabolic health and healthy ageing.

[01:03:15] 4 pillars: control carbs, prioritize protein, don't fear fat, fast.

[01:05:19] Where to find Ben: InstagramHLTH Code meal replacement shake.

Aug 20, 2021
Keto Flex to Reduce Inflammation, Burn Fat & Reboot Your Metabolism
54:13

Ben Azadi, FDN-P, is on a mission to help 1 billion people live a healthier lifestyle. Ben is the author of three best-selling books and has become a trusted resource on intermittent fasting and the ketogenic diet. He is an advocate for investigating dysfunction and then educating, rather than medicating, to return the body to a state of health. Ben is also the host of the Keto Kamp Podcast and the creator of several online courses to help you build and achieve keto and intermittent fasting results that stick.

On this podcast, Ben and I discuss the current state of keto and steps to take for those who want to improve their metabolic health. We talk about the best oils and artificial sweeteners (and the ones to avoid), electrolytes, and liver support. We also discuss sleep as the foundation of health, and how inadequate sleep can sabotage your diet. Ben also describes some of the key points in his latest book, Keto Flex, which brings together the benefits of a low carb lifestyle, intermittent fasting, nutrient timing and carb cycling for optimal energy, fat burning and hormone balance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ben Azadi:

[00:00:17] Ben's Podcast: Keto Kamp.

[00:00:30] Ben's background and interest in keto.

[00:01:05] Inspirations: Paul Chek, Dave Asprey, Dr. Daniel Pompa.

[00:03:24] Lessons learned from Keto + Crossfit.

[00:07:05] Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes being reversed with keto + intermittent fasting.

[00:09:16] Problems with industrial seed oils.

[00:09:57] Ben's podcasts with Brian Peskin and Dr. Cate Shanahan.

[00:11:18] Books by Dr. Cate Shanahan: Food Rules: A Doctor's Guide to Healthy Eating (2010), Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food (2017), and The Fatburn Fix: Boost Energy, End Hunger, and Lose Weight by Using Body Fat for Fuel (2020).

[00:12:29] Oils: which to avoid, which to use.

[00:16:11] Book: The P:E Diet: Leverage Your Biology to Achieve Optimal Health, by Ted Naiman, MD; Ted on the NBT Podcast.

[00:18:06] Video: AHS18 Todd Becker - How Hormesis Works.

[00:18:46] Podcast: Dominic D'Agostino: Researcher and Athlete on the Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet.

[00:19:18] Podcast: Rethinking Diabetes: Inspiring UK-based Healthcare Professionals Achieving Remarkable Outcomes, with Ruth Tapsell.

[00:19:42] Dr. Eric Westman.

[00:22:35] Artificial Sweeteners and sugar alcohols.

[00:22:45] Gary Taubes on the Keto Kamp podcast.

[00:23:08] Artificial sweeteners increase insulin in the body; Study: Pepino, M. Yanina, et al. "Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load." Diabetes care 36.9 (2013): 2530-2535.

[00:23:26] Pharmacokinetics of Splenda in the human body; Study: Roberts, A., et al. "Sucralose metabolism and pharmacokinetics in man." Food and chemical toxicology 38 (2000): 31-41.

[00:27:26] Video: UK doctor switches to 80% ULTRA-processed food diet for 30 days.

[00:28:17] Electrolytes; Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[00:28:32] Bile and bitters to support the liver.

[00:30:23] Pomegranate husk powder.

[00:30:24] Jason Hawrelak, PhD; Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health.

[00:32:01] Sleep: the foundation of health.

[00:32:35] Hormonal effects of inadequate sleep; Review: Leproult, Rachel, and Eve Van Cauter. "Role of sleep and sleep loss in hormonal release and metabolism." Pediatric Neuroendocrinology 17 (2010): 11-21.

[00:35:31] Tracking sleep: Oura Ring, Whoop Band.

[00:36:16] Mike T. Nelson, PhD; appearances on NBT podcast: 1234. 5.

[00:37:36] Early Time Restricted Eating (eTRE); Podcasts with Satchin Panda, PhD. and Bill Lagakos, PhD.

[00:39:57] Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGM); Kara Collier from NutriSense on the Keto Kamp Podcast and on the NBT Podcast.

[00:41:20] Problems with long-term keto.

[00:42:18] Book: Keto Flex: The 4 Secrets to Reduce Inflammation, Burn Fat & Reboot Your Metabolism, by Ben Azadi.

[00:42:55] Book: Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat, by Paul Jaminet and Shou-Ching Jaminet, PhD.

[00:44:19] Book: The Case for Keto: Rethinking Weight Control and the Science and Practice of Low-Carb/High-Fat Eating, by Gary Taubes.

[00:44:49] Benjamin Bikman, PhD.

[00:45:50] Podcasts featuring Eric Helms, PhD: The Nutrition and Science of Natural Bodybuilding, and Diet and Lifting Q&A with Natural Bodybuilder, Eric Helms.

[00:47:30] Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT).

[00:48:40] Speaking at upcoming conferences.

[00:51:04] Keto Kamp podcast featuring NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall.

Aug 13, 2021
Healing Trauma with MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy
01:14:07

Dan Engle, MD, is a psychiatrist with a clinical practice that combines aspects of regenerative medicine, psychedelic research, integrative spirituality, and peak performance.

His medical degree is from the University of Texas at San Antonio. His psychiatry residency degree is from the University of Colorado Denver, and his child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship degree is from Oregon Health & Science University

On this podcast, Dan talks about the potential to help people heal trauma - and instigate change in their lives - with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. He discusses how this drug, commonly known as Ecstacy, has been shown in studies to be remarkably effective for curing even difficult cases of post-traumatic stress disorder. We talk about his new book, A Dose of Hope, which offers a client’s first-person account of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for healing transgenerational trauma.

An important disclaimer: The information provided in this podcast is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical recommendations, diagnoses, or treatment. The use of information in this podcast is at one’s own discretion and is not an endorsement of use given the complexity inherent in these medicines, and the current variable widespread illegality of their usage.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dan Engle:

[00:00:41] Dan's background and interest in psychedelics.

[00:02:38] How psychedelic therapy helped Dan.

[00:05:22] Book: A Dose of Hope: A Story of MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy, by Dan Engle and Alex Young.

[00:11:34] Video: ‘EQUASY’: How Horse Riding Is More Likely To Kill You Than Ecstasy | David Nutt On London Real.

[00:13:56] Psychological contraindications for MDMA.

[00:15:29] Stanislav Grof tested the value of LSD in the treatment of psychologically ill people.

[00:18:11] Dr. Gabor Maté.

[00:19:04] Bruce Alexander's Rat Park experiments.

[00:21:03] MDMA as the best treatment for trauma.

[00:21:45] Physical contraindications for MDMA.

[00:22:26] Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

[00:25:08] 83% cure rate for PTSD in 2-3 sessions; Study: Mithoefer, Michael C., et al. "The safety and efficacy of±3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study." Journal of psychopharmacology 25.4 (2011): 439-452.

[00:25:46] Psychotherapeutic interventions used along with MDMA.

[00:26:25] Follow-up studies on MDMA therapy and PTSD: Jerome, Lisa, et al. "Long-term follow-up outcomes of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: a longitudinal pooled analysis of six phase 2 trials." Psychopharmacology 237 (2020): 2485-2497.

[00:37:23] Dan's co-author, Alex Young.

[00:39:41] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe, with Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:39:51] Book: The Drama of the Gifted Child: The Search for the True Self, Third Edition, by Alice Miller.

[00:39:58] Book: The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma, by Bessel van der Kolk.

[00:40:02] Book: Will I Ever Be Good Enough?: Healing the Daughters of Narcissistic Mothers, by Karyl McBride.

[00:40:32] Transgenerational family trauma; Book: It Didn't Start with You: How Inherited Family Trauma Shapes Who We Are and How to End the Cycle, by Mark Wolynn.

[00:44:45] The process and cost of the therapy.

[00:59:01] The future and vision of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.

[01:03:16] MDMA vs. talk therapy.

[01:09:11] Find Dan at ddrdanengle.comkuya.lifeFull Spectrum Medicine.

Aug 06, 2021
Rethinking Diabetes: Inspiring UK-based Healthcare Professionals Achieving Remarkable Outcomes
49:26

Dr. Ruth Tapsell is an NHS GP and an ambassador for the UK’s Public Health Collaborative, a nonprofit organisation dedicated to improving the quality of public health education. She and her colleagues have been having outstanding success helping patients to reverse their type 2 diabetes with a low carbohydrate diet. During a time when improving metabolic health is more important than ever, Ruth is showing that it is indeed possible to turn the metabolic supertanker around quickly and effectively.

​On this podcast, Ruth shares her perspective as a GP treating type 2 diabetes and prediabetes with a low carb approach. We discuss the effects this approach could have on a societal scale, including improved public health outcomes and huge financial savings, should the NHS adopt lifestyle interventions as the first-line treatment for metabolic disorders. Ruth also offers resources for making the change to low carb, for both health care consumers and practitioners.

As a reminder, the information provided in this podcast is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ruth Tapsell:

[00:00:13] Public Health CollaborationThe Real Foods Rocks Festival.

[00:00:19] Podcast with Sam Feltham: Real Food Initiatives for Public Health in the UK.

[00:00:36] Ruth's background and interest in low carb.

[00:00:59] David Unwin, Scientific Advisory Board member for the Public Health Collaboration in the UK.

[00:02:54] Treatment options prior to using a low carb approach.

[00:06:02] In patients with prediabetes, 93% attained a normal HbA1c; Study: Unwin, David, et al. "Insights from a general practice service evaluation supporting a lower carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes: a secondary analysis of routine clinic data including HbA1c, weight and prescribing over 6 years." BMJ nutrition, prevention & health 3.2 (2020): 285.

[00:07:31] Virta Health.

[00:11:13] Public Health Collaboration on YouTube.

[00:12:42] Low carb and heart disease.

[00:13:46] Effects of ketogenic diet on cardiovascular indices; Virta Health paper: Athinarayanan, Shaminie J., et al. "Impact of a 2-year trial of nutritional ketosis on indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes." Cardiovascular diabetology 19.1 (2020): 1-13.

[00:14:17] Podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:14:21] Malcolm Kendrick's blog.

[00:14:49] Women’s Health Initiative and the effects of diet on cardiovascular risk; Howard, Barbara V., et al. "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial." Jama 295.6 (2006): 655-666.

[00:15:17] Lead increases risk of cardiovascular disease; Study: Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study.

[00:15:46] Lunchtime and evening webinars.

[00:16:10] Dr. Kesar Sadhra, working with a 90% South Asian patient population.

[00:18:44] Freestyle Libre.

[00:19:09] Video: Type 2 diabetes in South Asian’s: Achieving control in general practice - Dr Kesar Sadhra.

[00:19:59] Video: 55 people improved HbA1C with lifestyle interventions.

[00:21:03] Video: Patient who lost 49kg during lockdown.

[00:23:18] Reducing diabetes medications.

[00:25:10] Professor Marcus Saemann.

[00:27:02] Potential savings on NHS diabetes medication budget: slides from David Unwin and Kesar Sadhra.

[00:27:06] OpenPrescribing: website to compare prescribing trends, funded by NHS England.

[00:27:29] Video: Savings of £117K/year

[00:29:32] Pediatric endocrinologist Dr. James Bailes, MD.

[00:29:38] Podcasts with Type 1 diabetics: Will Catterson and Tim Harsch.

[00:31:28] Challenges to the program; emotional eating.

[00:31:46] Video: Food Addiction: What's to be Done? by Dr Jen Unwin & Heidi Giaever.

[00:37:30] Social prescribers in the UK.

[00:38:19] Podcast: The Compassion Project: The Power of Hope and Human Kindness, with Julian Abel.

[00:40:55] Podcast: Professor Tim Noakes: True Hydration and the Power of low carb, High-Fat Diets.

[00:41:54] Scaling low carb.

[00:43:10] Dr. Michael Bazlinton, low carb practitioner.

[00:44:19] Advice for people who don't have a low carb doc.

[00:44:31] Dr. Campbell Murdochscientific articles by Dr. Murdoch.

[00:45:04] Ruth on Twitter.

[00:45:25] Diet Doctor

[00:45:29] New Forest PCN.

[00:45:36] Dr. David Oliver at Freshwell Low Carb Project.

[00:46:11] Get onto the webinars: lowcarbhcp@gmail.com.

Jul 30, 2021
Healing and Transformation with Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP)
01:17:14

Back on the podcast with me today is licensed therapist and certified meditation teacher, Jason Connell. His work focuses on the intersection of evidence-based psychology, philosophy, and enduring insights from the wisdom traditions. His goal is to help his clients develop self-love and self-compassion while solving persistent and challenging problems related to happiness, stress, anxiety, work, relationships, and finding meaning.

On this podcast, Jason talks about Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP), the approach he uses to foster connection and facilitate positive transformational experiences with his clients. We discuss the goals of this therapeutic method, including the healing of attachment injury, which affects about 50% of the population. You can also listen in as Jason guides me through a short AEDP session right here on the podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jason Connell:

[00:02:13] People experience greater stress in urban areas; Study: Lederbogen, Florian, et al. "City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans." Nature 474.7352 (2011): 498-501.

[00:03:20] Jason's previous NBT podcast: From Magic to Mindfulness: The Evolution of an Entrepreneur.

[00:03:33] Book: It's Not Always Depression: Working the Change Triangle to Listen to the Body, Discover Core Emotions, and Connect to Your Authentic Self, by Hilary Jacobs Hendel.

[00:03:39] Book: The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma, by Bessel van der Kolk.

[00:06:01] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe, with Stephen Porges.

[00:06:43] The need to belong.

[00:06:51] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:07:53] Change triangle.

[00:08:26] Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP), founded by Diana Fosha, PhD.

[00:10:08] Attachment theory - 50% are securely attached, 50% have attachment injury.

[00:12:59] John Bowlby's work on attachment.

[00:13:02] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:13:06] Book: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy, by Jessica Fern.

[00:26:04] Book: Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion, by Paul Bloom.

[00:26:45] Compassion vs. Empathy.

[00:28:19] Polyvagal theory.

[00:30:54] Physiological safety.

[00:32:46] Alexithymia.

[00:37:05] AEDP demonstration.

[01:02:54] Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) vs. AEDP.

[01:12:16] AEDP Practitioner Directory.

[01:13:39] Emotional Focused Therapy (couples) and Internal Family Systems (families); Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

[01:14:55] Find Jason at jasonconnell.co.

Jul 23, 2021
Protein vs. Energy for Improved Body Composition and Healthspan
01:03:32

Ted Naiman MD is a board-certified Family Medicine physician in the Department of Primary Care at a leading major medical centre in Seattle. His research and medical practice are focused on the practical implementation of diet and exercise for health optimization. He is also the author of The P:E Diet, which breaks down the success of every dietary strategy into one simple metric: Protein vs. Energy.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall interviews Ted about the basic levers that govern physiology and how to achieve mastery over your own body composition. Ted talks about the Protein:Energy (P:E) Ratio and why how much you eat depends on what you eat. He discusses why adequate protein is necessary for longevity and healthspan, and the differences between plant and animal sources of this critical macronutrient.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ted Naiman:

[00:01:10] Ted's background and interest in diet.

[00:04:57] Protein vs. non-protein energy (carbs and fats) - P:E ratio.

[00:09:32] Protein + resistance exercise to failure for building muscle.

[00:09:54] Lean body mass and resistance exercise for metabolic health.

[00:10:19] Who needs to pay attention to P:E ratio?

[00:13:29] Satiety per calorie: how much you eat depends on what you eat.

[00:17:38] Plant vs. animal protein.

[00:23:44] Nutrient deficiencies with plant based diets.

[00:25:06] The problem with eating carbs and fats together.

[00:27:54] Podcast: The True Cause of Insulin Resistance and Obesity (and What To Do Instead), with Peter Dobromylskyj.

[00:28:42] Improving P:E ratio.

[00:30:39] 3 types of hunger: Nutrients, Energy, and Hedonic.

[00:33:05] Satiety per calorie of Bulletproof Coffee.

[00:34:28] Refined fats: why to avoid them.

[00:36:41] People who are turned off by protein.

[00:39:46] Satiety per calorie of plants.

[00:41:30] Plant based diet vs. animal-based keto diet; Study: Hall, Kevin D., et al. "Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad libitum energy intake." Nature Medicine 27.2 (2021): 344-353.

[00:43:52] Triglycerides as a marker of metabolic health.

[00:47:16] Protein needs for longevity and healthspan.

[00:49:31] Adults aged 70-79 not getting enough protein; Study: Houston, Denise K., et al. "Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study." The American journal of clinical nutrition 87.1 (2008): 150-155.

[00:50:24] Muscle mass as a predictor of longevity; Study: Srikanthan, Preethi, and Arun S. Karlamangla. "Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults." The American journal of medicine 127.6 (2014): 547-553.

[00:50:52] Positive association between bone density and protein intake.

[00:53:14] Industry driving the diabetes and obesity epidemic.

[00:55:01] Increase protein to 30% of calories to reverse prediabetes in 100% of subjects; Study: Stentz, Frankie B., et al. "Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial." BMJ open diabetes research and care 4.1 (2016): e000258.

[00:55:48] As we become more insulin resistant, protein needs go up, driving increased protein consumption; Study: Simpson, Stephen J., and David Raubenheimer. "Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis." obesity reviews 6.2 (2005): 133-142.

[00:57:13] Behavior change and hyper-palatable food.

[00:59:04] High protein ice cream.

[00:59:46] Book: The P:E Diet: Leverage Your Biology to Achieve Optimal Health, by Ted Naiman.

[01:00:28] Find Ted on Twitter and Instagram.

[01:01:17] Podcast: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure).

Jul 16, 2021
Wanting: The Power of Mimetic Desire in Everyday Life
50:37

Luke Burgis is an entrepreneur and author, who has co-created and led four companies in wellness, consumer products, and technology. He is Managing Partner of Fourth Wall Ventures, an incubator that he founded to build, train, and invest in people and companies that contribute to a healthy human ecology. He is also a recognized expert in French thinker René Girard's mimetic theory.

On this podcast, Luke discusses mimetic desire - how people unconsciously want what others want, and therefore value jobs, spouses, brands, moral viewpoints, and even themselves according to the desires of others. He describes this phenomenon, which has been exploited by internet trolls, politicians, and ad agencies, in his new book Wanting: The Power of Mimetic Desire in Everyday Life. Luke also talks about how the future depends on what we learn to want today, and how best to cultivate desires that are authentic for each of us.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Luke Burgis: 

[00:00:35] Book: Wanting: The Power of Mimetic Desire in Everyday Life, by Luke Burgis.

[00:00:36] Ryan Nicodemus of the Minimalists.

[00:01:00] Book: Violence and the Sacred by René Girard.

[00:02:05] Luke's background and interest in René Girard and mimetic theory.

[00:05:03] Tony Hsieh of Zappos.

[00:08:42] Mimetic desire.

[00:10:58] Ubuntu.

[00:13:43] Christopher Ryan; Books: Sex at Dawn and Civilized to Death; Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:14:07] Distinguishing between biological needs and desires.

[00:17:37] Peter Thiel, co-founder of PayPal and the first outside investor in Facebook.

[00:25:04] Movie: The Prestige.

[00:25:35] Good violence vs. bad violence

[00:30:35] Mimetic models: people we look to to shape our desires; Celebristan vs. Freshmanistan.

[00:33:04] Thin vs. thick desire.

[00:36:00] Mimetic rivalry.

[00:37:06] Cultivating thick desires.

[00:40:28] Simon Marshall, PhD; Study: Haubenstricker, John E., et al. "The Effect Of Acculturation And Socioeconomic Status On Dietary Patterns In Mexican-American Women: 1716: Board# 66 May 27 3: 30 PM-5: 00 PM." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41.5 (2009): 106.

[00:41:07] Exposure to TV associated with eating disorders; Study: Becker, Anne E. "Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: Negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change." Culture, medicine and psychiatry 28.4 (2004): 533-559.

[00:42:25] Luke's Anti-Mimetic Newsletter.

[00:45:10] Celibacy.

[00:47:05] Jamie Wheal; Podcast: Recapture the Rapture: Rethinking God, Sex, and Death in a World That's Lost Its Mind.

[00:48:03] Lukeburgis.com.

Jul 09, 2021
Data-Driven Health Coaching for Optimised Performance
53:10

Patrick Samy is the co-founder and CEO of Span Health, a start-up that offers health coaching informed by biometric data from lab work and wearable devices. Like me, Patrick started out as a software engineer confronted with his own health challenges. Pairing his curiosity for biology with his background in computer science, and adding in a new generation of more accurate consumer health and fitness devices, Patrick is leading Span Health to enable everyday athletes to take their health and performance to a new level.

In this podcast, Patrick talks about the value of personal biometric data for finding your individual path to optimal performance and longevity. He shares lessons learned from his own experiments with wearable data trackers, and trends he’s observed while working with clients. We also discuss his go-to devices and biomarkers to track, and the lifestyle interventions that make the biggest difference.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Patrick Samy:

[00:00:49] The story behind Span Health

[00:04:09] The intersection between biology and computer science.

[00:07:53] Lessons learned by collecting personal health data.

[00:10:12] Span's founding team members, Dr. Adam Bataineh, Chief Medical Officer and Rachel Lett, Chief Care Officer.

[00:11:58] Timing of workouts and eating as critical factors.

[00:14:10] Heart rate variability (HRV) as a marker of recovery.

[00:16:10] Early time restricted feeding (eTRF): Podcasts on eTRF with Greg Potter, PhDSatchin Panda, PhD, and Bill Lagakos, PhD.

[00:17:38] Oura Ring.

[00:18:30] Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs); Podcast: Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan, with Kara Collier, RDN from Nutrisense.

[00:23:57] Span Health's vision for health coaching.

[00:34:01] Peter Attia, MD; Podcast: The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan.

[00:35:03] PhenoAge; Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall.

[00:35:07] Overall wellness score based on data by Horne, et al. (2009): Horne, Benjamin D., et al. "Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests." The American journal of medicine 122.6 (2009): 550-558.

[00:38:16] Kraft insulin assay.

[00:39:12] Robert Lustig, MD.

[00:43:15] Wearable devices; Most people quit wearing activity trackers after a while; Study: Finkelstein, Eric A., et al. "Effectiveness of activity trackers with and without incentives to increase physical activity (TRIPPA): a randomised controlled trial." The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology 4.12 (2016): 983-995.

[00:48:58] Getting new clients.

[00:50:25] Span Health Blog.

[00:50:39] Span Health on Twitter; Patrick on Twitter.

Jul 02, 2021
You Are Not Broken: A Modern Approach to Women’s Sexual Health and Desire
52:30

Kelly Casperson, MD is a board-certified urologist and self-taught women’s sexual health expert. Years of helping care for women has shown her that we, as a society, are not doing enough to teach women about their mind, body and relationships. Kelly aims to break down societal barriers and combat limiting beliefs that are keeping women from awakening into their best intimate experience. She is basically the friendly expert you never had, to teach you - You Are Not Broken.

On this podcast, Kelly talks about women’s sexual health and wellness, including the biological and psychological issues that stand in the way of having a great sex life. She talks about spontaneous vs. responsive desire, and why unrealistic expectations may be a huge barrier to intimacy. Kelly also offers great tips for improving sexual health and function, from mind-body strategies like mindfulness and meditation to purely physiological options like topical estrogen and lube.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kelly Casperson:

[00:00:49] Jessa Zimmerman; Book: Sex without stress; a couple’s guide to overcoming disappointment, avoidance, and pressure; Podcast: How to Have Intimacy With Ease.

[00:01:05] Podcast: Recapture the Rapture: Rethinking God, Sex, and Death in a World That's Lost Its Mind, with Jamie Wheal.

[00:02:01] Kelly's background and interest in urology.

[00:06:59] FDA approved medication for low libido in women.

[00:08:44] Spontaneous vs. responsive desire.

[00:14:09] Discrepancies in desire.

[00:15:16] Scheduling sex.

[00:18:15] Meditation and mindfulness.

[00:19:44] Orgasm inequality.

[00:22:56] Multiple orgasms.

[00:25:43] Book: Come As You Are: Revised and Updated: The Surprising New Science That Will Transform Your Sex Life, by Emily Nagoski, PhD.

[00:26:15] Foreplay is everything and everything is foreplay.

[00:28:34] Types of arousal.

[00:29:58] Topical estrogen.

[00:31:36] Podcast: The Critical Role of Oestradiol for Women’s Cognition, with Anne Hathaway.

[00:34:20] Oral birth control.

[00:36:08] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristin Hawkes.

[00:38:43] Podcast: How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy, with Herman Pontzer, PhD.

[00:39:36] Vibrators don't cause desensitization; Study: Herbenick, Debra, et al. "Prevalence and characteristics of vibrator use by women in the United States: Results from a nationally representative study." The journal of sexual medicine 6.7 (2009): 1857-1866.

[00:40:47] Everybody should use lube; Uberlube.

[00:43:36] Podcast: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision, with Stephanie Welch.

[00:48:17] Book: You Are Not Broken (coming soon).

[00:49:09] The You Are Not Broken Podcast.

[00:49:22] Kelly's website.

[00:49:51] Find Kelly on Instagram.

Jun 25, 2021
The True Cause of Insulin Resistance and Obesity (and What To Do Instead)
01:16:52

Peter Dobromylskyj is a UK-based veterinary anaesthetist and nutrition blogger whose blog Hyperlipid is amongst the longest-running and most highly respected in the low-carb and ancestral health communities. Peter has been writing about the biochemistry of nutrition since 2006, and has authored over 800 posts aimed at reviewing, analysing, and interpreting nutrition literature. Given his outside-the-box thinking and unconventional approach to metabolism and health, Peter’s work has amassed a large and devoted following.

Today, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall interviews Peter to talk about insulin resistance, including the factors that cause it and why the condition is actually physiologically adaptive. Peter compares dietary saturated fats to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and explains why the scientific literature can be misleading when determining which truly promotes health. He gives specific science-based recommendations for how much PUFA to include in your diet, and also offers advice on what to feed your pets.

For additional resources on insulin resistance and the influence of dietary fat sources, be sure to see the outline Megan wrote to prepare for this podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Peter Dobromylskyj:

[00:01:52] Insulin resistance is physiologically adaptive.

[00:02:23] Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) as signaling molecules.

[00:04:52] Dr. David Speijer, Researcher at the University of Amsterdam.

[00:05:31] Dr. Nick Lane, Professor of Evolutionary Biochemistry.

[00:11:29] Protons thread on the Hyperlipid blog.

[00:22:58] When insulin sensitivity becomes insulin resistance.

[00:30:37] How long it takes to become insulin resistant.

[00:34:55] Acipimox reduces free fatty acid circulation and temporarily reverses insulin resistance; 1. Santomauro, A. T., et al. "Overnight lowering of free fatty acids with Acipimox improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance in obese diabetic and nondiabetic subjects." Diabetes 48.9 (1999): 1836-1841; 2. Aday, Aaron W., et al. "Impact of Acipimox Therapy on Free Fatty Acid Efflux and Endothelial Function in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Trial." Obesity 27.11 (2019): 1812-1819.

[00:36:19] Effects of caffeine on insulin resistance.

[00:37:34] Phil Maffetone.

[00:38:25] In mice, stearic acid reduces visceral adipose tissue; Study: Shen, Ming-Che, et al. "Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice." PLoS one 9.9 (2014): e104083.

[00:38:34] Overfeeding studies in humans: 1. Rosqvist, Fredrik, et al. "Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans." Diabetes 63.7 (2014): 2356-2368; 2. Iggman, David, et al. "Association of adipose tissue fatty acids with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in elderly men." JAMA cardiology 1.7 (2016): 745-753.

[00:44:10] Raphael Sirtoli’s Podcast: Carnivore Cast.

[00:45:02] Butter fat → higher postprandial levels of FFAs and triglycerides; Study: López, Sergio, et al. "Distinctive postprandial modulation of β cell function and insulin sensitivity by dietary fats: monounsaturated compared with saturated fatty acids." The American journal of clinical nutrition 88.3 (2008): 638-644.

[00:46:50] Tucker Goodrich.

[00:47:38] How much polyunsaturated fat is needed to cause metabolic dysfunction?

[00:48:27] Leptin-deficient mouse study: Reeves, Valerie Lynn. "A diet enriched in stearic acid protects against the progression of type 2 diabetes in leptin receptor deficient mice (DB/DB)." (2012).

[00:49:57] Aim for 2-4% of calories from linoleic acid (over 8% is obesogenic).

[00:51:26] Efforts to lose weight with unsaturated vs. saturated fat stores.

[00:53:29] Animal based keto with 15% polyunsaturates; Study: Hall, Kevin D., et al. "Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad libitum energy intake." Nature Medicine 27.2 (2021): 344-353.

[00:58:46] Electron transport chain (see this figure) and mitochondria.

[00:58:57] Summary so far.

[01:01:33] What dogs/pets should be eating.

[01:09:05] Labradors may have problems with leptin signaling; Book: Raw Meaty Bones Promote Health, by Tom Lonsdale.

Jun 18, 2021
Why You Should Be Testing your HbA1c
30:23

Elevated blood glucose is one of the earliest and most common indicators of worsening metabolic health, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. For our clients, fasting blood glucose and triglycerides are amongst the first things we test to get a snapshot view of metabolic health. We’ve now added HbA1C - a marker that offers a broader look at glycemic history - to our baseline blood panel, to better evaluate our clients.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall talks about the HbA1C blood test: what it is, who needs it, and why you should care. Megan talks about the optimal reference range for this test, and when to become concerned about your result (hint: it’s sooner than your doctor would have you believe). She also talks about exactly what to do if your A1C is out of range, and how a continuous glucose monitor can help you evaluate your body’s response to different foods and other environmental factors.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:48] HbA1C (aka glycated haemoglobin): a marker of your glycemic history.

[00:02:27] Glucose to A1C conversion chart.

[00:02:52] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:03:04] Why you should care about HbA1C.

[00:03:48] Optimal ranges for HbA1C: 5.0% to 5.4%.

[00:04:33] Studies supporting optimal reference range: 1. Zhong, Guo-Chao, et al. "HbA 1c and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Death in Subjects without Known Diabetes: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies." Scientific reports 6.1 (2016): 1-11; 2. Schöttker, Ben, et al. "HbA 1c levels in non-diabetic older adults–No J-shaped associations with primary cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjustment for confounders in a meta-analysis of individual participant data from six cohort studies." BMC medicine 14.1 (2016): 1-17; 3. Li, Fu-Rong, et al. "Glycated hemoglobin and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among adults with and without diabetes." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 104.8 (2019): 3345-3354; 4. Pai, Jennifer K., et al. "Hemoglobin a1c is associated with increased risk of incident coronary heart disease among apparently healthy, nondiabetic men and women." Journal of the American Heart Association 2.2 (2013): e000077.

[00:06:12] Prediabetes range: 5.7% to 6.4% (above 6.4% is diabetes).

[00:07:06] Only 12% of the population is metabolically healthy; Study: Araújo, Joana, Jianwen Cai, and June Stevens. "Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016." Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17.1 (2019): 46-52.

[00:07:31] Limitations and caveats of the A1C blood marker.

[00:08:05] Partial marker of mean glycemic exposure; Article: Bloomgarden, Zachary. "Beyond HbA1c." Journal of diabetes 9.12 (2017): 1052-1053.

[00:08:53] Things that cause HbA1C to be falsely low or high.

[00:10:14] Study: Virtue, Mark A., et al. "Relationship between GHb concentration and erythrocyte survival determined from breath carbon monoxide concentration." Diabetes Care 27.4 (2004): 931-935.

[00:12:36] Racial and ethnic differences: Herman, William H., and Robert M. Cohen. "Racial and ethnic differences in the relationship between HbA1c and blood glucose: implications for the diagnosis of diabetes." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97.4 (2012): 1067-1072.

[00:12:42] Other markers of glycemic regulation.

[00:12:55] Drawbacks of Glycomark.

[00:14:08] Reticulocytes - helpful to calculate RBC lifespan.

[00:14:40] Equation: RBC survival (days) = ~ 100 / [Retics (%) / RLS (days)]

[00:15:44] Sign up for our group program to get a blood test + bloodsmart.ai report + 4 group coaching sessions + help videos.

[00:16:44] Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM).

[00:17:26] Podcast: Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan, with Kara Collier, RDN.

[00:17:46] Get $50 off your Nutrisense membership when you support NBT on Patreon.

[00:18:26] Studies demonstrating that HbA1C is not the perfect marker: 1. Cohen, Robert M., et al. "Red cell life span heterogeneity in hematologically normal people is sufficient to alter HbA1c." Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology 112.10 (2008): 4284-4291; 2. Wright, Lorena Alarcon-Casas, and Irl B. Hirsch. "The challenge of the use of glycemic biomarkers in diabetes: reflecting on hemoglobin A1C, 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol, and the glycated proteins fructosamine and glycated albumin." Diabetes spectrum 25.3 (2012): 141-148; 3. Dubowitz, N., et al. "Aging is associated with increased HbA1c levels, independently of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and also with decreased HbA1c diagnostic specificity." Diabetic Medicine 31.8 (2014): 927-935.

[00:18:58] What to do if your A1C is out of range: Diet, lifestyle, measure other markers, monitor blood glucose.

[00:19:35] Cellular vs. acellular carbs.

[00:22:25] Simon Marshall, PhD. on stress management: How to Manage Stress.

[00:24:19] 4-quadrant model.

[00:26:07] Retest after 2-3 months.

[00:27:58] Join our group program.

Jun 11, 2021
Validation: The Best Communication Tool You’re Not Using (Yet)
40:23

Michael S. Sorensen is a business executive by day and a bestselling author, speaker, and relationship coach by night. He has helped hundreds of thousands of people across the world heal broken relationships, revitalize their confidence, and become masters of connection in business, love, and life. Unique among others in his field, Michael is not a therapist, social worker, or medical professional. Instead, he gained his knowledge by going to therapy himself—1-2 times per week, for over five years—and voraciously consuming every relationship and self-help book he could get his hands on.

On this podcast, Michael talks about one of the most valuable (yet little-known) communication skills - validation. The subject of his book, I Hear You, validation is the key to calming fears and uncertainties, increasing feelings of love and appreciation in relationships, and giving advice and feedback that sticks. Michael shares his 4-step method for validating others (and oneself), talks about how to identify emotions, and shares why validation is such a simple yet powerful interpersonal tool.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Michael Sorensen:

[00:00:31] Book: I Hear You: The Surprisingly Simple Skill Behind Extraordinary Relationships, by Michael S. Sorensen.

[00:00:43] Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, Anna Dow.

[00:00:54] Book: Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depended on It, by Chris Voss.

[00:01:31] How Michael came to the skill of validation.

[00:03:38] Defining validation.

[00:05:16] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:06:49] Listening vs. validation.

[00:07:45] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristin Hawkes, PhD.

[00:09:37] Benefits of validation.

[00:11:25] Invalidating statements.

[00:14:35] When to validate.

[00:15:11] 4 step method: Listen empathically, validate, advice/feedback, validate again.

[00:16:56] How to identify emotions.

[00:18:16] Emotion wheel.

[00:18:56] Podcast: From Magic to Mindfulness: The Evolution of an Entrepreneur, with Jason Connell.

[00:19:23] Book: It's Not Always Depression: Working the Change Triangle to Listen to the Body, Discover Core Emotions, and Connect to Your Authentic Self, by Hilary Jacobs Hendel.

[00:24:52] Validation vs. reflective listening.

[00:27:23] Validating when you don't agree.

[00:33:05] Why it’s a short book.

[00:34:41] The I Hear You Relationships Podcast.

[00:35:35] Validating ourselves.

[00:37:32] Find Michael: Amazonmichaelssorensen.com.

Jun 04, 2021
Airway Dentistry: What to Do When You Don’t Breathe Right At Night
01:02:23

Back on the podcast with me today is Physical Therapist and Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach Zac Cupples. When it comes to physiology, movement and biomechanics, Zac is among the best and has become an invaluable resource to me and many of our clients. He offers online movement consultation, mentoring, and fitness training, with expertise in the areas of rehab, training, nutrition, sleep, stress management, breathing, pain, and sports science.

​On this podcast, Zac and I are talking about the impact of mouth and face structure on breathing, sleeping, and overall health. Zac discusses some of the causes of abnormal facial development, and the problems that result, including sleep disorders, crowded and crooked teeth, and worsened athletic performance. He also describes the best way to assess for breathing problems at night and offers some tips for prevention and intervention.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zac Cupples:

[00:01:15] Utilizing breathing to enhance movement.

[00:05:10] Abel Romero; Podcast: How to Avoid Chronic Pain, Improve Mobility and Feel 100% Confident in Your Lifting.

[00:06:59] Mike T. Nelson's Flex Diet Podcast: S2_EP_23_Cranial Face Structures, Nasal Breathing, Orthodontics, Tongue Position, and More Unlikely Performance Limiters: Interview with Zac Cupples.

[00:08:53] Kevin Boyd’s Amazing Shrinking Face presentation.

[00:10:17] Tongue and lip tie (picture).

[00:14:39] Dr. Joseph SanelliDr. Soroush ZaghiDr. Brian Hockel.

[00:15:55] Book: Six-Foot Tiger, Three-Foot Cage: Take Charge of Your Health by Taking Charge of Your Mouth, by Dr. Felix Liao DDS.

[00:18:33] Latera nasal implant.

[00:21:07] Dr. Movahed.

[00:27:25] When you should do a sleep study.

[00:29:12] Pulse oximeter vs. sleep study.

[00:29:28] WatchPAT / WatchPAT One; Study: Yuceege, Melike, et al. "Reliability of the Watch-PAT 200 in detecting sleep apnea in highway bus drivers." Journal of clinical sleep medicine 9.4 (2013): 339-344.

[00:29:39] Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI).

[00:30:01] Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI).

[00:30:39] Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome vs. sleep apnea.

[00:34:22] Risks of untreated sleep apnea.

[00:37:35] Measuring progress.

[00:38:53] i-Sleep Home Sleep Solutions in Reno (use HST10 discount code for 10% off).

[00:39:31] Lofta at-home sleep study.

[00:40:28] Book:  Jaws: The Story of a Hidden Epidemic, by Sandra Kahn and Paul R. Ehrlich.

[00:40:42] Book: Gasp!: Airway Health - The Hidden Path To Wellness, by Dr. Michael Gelb.

[00:42:07] Factors leading to airway problems.

[00:44:24] Book: Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects, by Weston A Price.

[00:45:38] Dental intervention for children.

[00:47:05] Finding an orthodontist.

[00:47:19] Podcast: Airway Dentistry with Dr. Brian Hockel.

[00:49:14] Academy of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy (AOMT).

[00:50:20] Daniel Lieberman books: Exercised and The Story of the Human Body.

[00:50:47] Book: Burn by Herman Pontzer; Podcast: How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy.

[00:58:41] Elevate Sports Performance and Health Care, Las Vegas NV.

[00:59:28] zaccupples.comYouTubeFacebookTwitterInstagram.

May 28, 2021
L-Citrulline for Cardiovascular Health
19:17

For the last 18 months or so NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall has been holding weekly Office Hours sessions on Zoom. It’s a chance for our clients and Patreon supporters to ask questions about just about anything related to improving health and performance and get answers based on the scientific literature. This has become such a valuable resource for the NBT community that I wanted to share just a taste of it on the podcast today.

Today you can listen in on one of Megan’s recent Office Hours sessions. First, she discusses ways to increase the body’s nitric oxide (NO) production, including the best foods and the supplements arginine and citrulline. NO’s most important function is vasodilation, meaning it relaxes the inner muscles of the blood vessels, causing them to widen and increase circulation. Later she talks about natural ways to keep mosquitos away, including her favourite non-toxic insect repellant and other lesser-known strategies for staying bug-bite free.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:01] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:00:13] Podcast: The Pleiotropic Effects of Sunlight, with Megan Hall.

[00:01:53] Nitric oxide precursor: L-citrulline.

[00:03:02] Study: Tsuboi, Tomoe, Morihiko Maeda, and Toshio Hayashi. "Administration of L-arginine plus L-citrulline or L-citrulline alone successfully retarded endothelial senescence." PloS one 13.2 (2018): e0192252.

[00:04:15] Figure 1 from Study: Figueroa, Arturo, et al. "Influence of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance." Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 20.1 (2017): 92-98.

[00:06:24] L-citrulline may reduce blood pressure in hypertensive individuals; Studies: 1. Kapil, Vikas, et al. "Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans: role for nitrite-derived NO." Hypertension 56.2 (2010): 274-281; 2. Bonilla Ocampo, Diego A., et al. "Dietary nitrate from beetroot juice for hypertension: A systematic review." Biomolecules 8.4 (2018): 134.

[00:06:29] L-citrulline may help with erectile dysfunction; Study: Cormio, Luigi, et al. "Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction." Urology 77.1 (2011): 119-122.

[00:07:52] Dosing L-citrulline.

[00:08:34] Concentrated nitrate supplements and foods.

[00:10:12] Supplementing L-citrulline; Allergy Research Group L-Citrulline powder.

[00:10:58] Eat more watermelon, dark chocolate, and beetroot; Studies: Bonilla Ocampo, Diego A., et al. "Dietary nitrate from beetroot juice for hypertension: A systematic review." Biomolecules 8.4 (2018): 134; 2. Sudarma, Verawati, Sri Sukmaniah, and Parlindungan Siregar. "Effect of dark chocolate on nitric oxide serum levels and blood pressure in prehypertension subjects." Acta Med Indones 43.4 (2011): 224-8; 3. Faridi, Zubaida, et al. "Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 88.1 (2008): 58-63; 4. Ried, K., P. Fakler, and N. P. Stocks. "Cochrane Hypertension Group National Institute of Integrative Medicine. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure." Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2017).

[00:11:30] Natural ways to keep mosquitos away.

[00:11:51] Blog post: 12 Mosquito Repellant Plants.

[00:12:09] Yellow light bulbs.

[00:12:40] Nature Spray (nontoxic natural mosquito repellent).

[00:13:20] Citronella Candles.

May 21, 2021
From Magic to Mindfulness: The Evolution of an Entrepreneur
01:10:50

I’m so excited to introduce you today to a good friend of mine. Jason Connell is a licensed psychotherapist practising in the state of Colorado, with a Master’s Degree in Clinical Social Work from Fordham University. He works with a focus on Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP), a therapeutic methodology that works toward healing trauma and expanding positive transformational experiences. He is also a certified meditation teacher and has advanced training in motivational enhancement. 

On this podcast, Jason and I talk about his personal and professional evolution, from entertaining the masses as a magician at the age of 6 to embracing his current role as a teacher and psychotherapist. He describes his young adult life of travelling and volunteering (and inspiring others to do the same), and becoming a public speaker as a “22-year old jackass.” Perhaps most valuable are Jason’s insights on entrepreneurism and the importance of authentic communication.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jason Connell:

[00:01:32] Becoming a child magician.

[00:03:06] Book: Train Dreams: A Novella.

[00:06:39] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.

[00:12:09] Traveling, volunteering, and becoming a keynote speaker.

[00:16:07] Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD. 

[00:17:57] Charge way more than your competition.

[00:25:51] Teaching others to get speaking gigs.

[00:35:23] Healing psychological injuries.

[00:40:25] Becoming a licensed therapist.

[00:46:00] Thoughts on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).

[00:50:23] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:50:49] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

[00:51:22] Book: The Happiness Trap: How to Stop Struggling and Start Living: A Guide to ACT, by Russ Harris.

[00:51:39] Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP).

[00:54:23] Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

[00:54:51] Psychotherapist Jessica Fern; Podcast: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy; Book: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy.

[01:02:04] Dr. Ken Ford; Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[01:05:55] Jason’s website.

May 14, 2021
How to Go Faster and Feel More Energetic By Addressing Anaemia and Increasing Oxygen Deliverability
01:00:44

Anaemia is an incredibly common blood condition in which you lack enough red blood cells - or haemoglobin within them - to adequately deliver and supply oxygen to the body’s tissues. Worldwide, children and pregnant women are disproportionately affected, though we’ve had a number of clients benefit from lifestyle changes aimed at increasing haemoglobin. And I can tell you from personal experience, anaemia can have a measurable impact on athletic performance.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are talking about low oxygen deliverability resulting from anaemia and the many factors that can lead to this condition. We discuss in detail the blood tests that suggest anaemia is affecting your health, along with science-based optimal reference ranges for the most important markers.

Megan also details steps you can take to improve your oxygen deliverability status if your haemoglobin is low (and taking an iron pill is not always the answer!).

There’s a ton of great information in this one, so be sure to follow along with the outline Megan wrote to prepare for the podcast

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:03:07] What is oxygen deliverability? Background and physiology.

[00:05:00] Anaemia.

[00:07:00] Why care about haemoglobin?

[00:07:02] Haemoglobin's effect on athletic performance.

[00:09:56] Causal relationship between iron deficiency anaemia and aerobic capacity; Review: Haas, Jere D., and Thomas Brownlie IV. "Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship." The Journal of nutrition 131.2 (2001): 676S-690S.

[00:11:06] Haemoglobin and anaerobic threshold.

[00:12:10] Study of speed skaters: Kuipers, Harm, et al. "Hemoglobin levels and athletic performance in elite speed skaters during the olympic season 2006." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 17.2 (2007): 135-139

[00:12:16] Megan's outline for this podcast

[00:13:51] Fatigue and energy levels.

[00:14:33] Anaemia and quality of life issues.

[00:15:46] Anaemia during pregnancy.

[00:16:38] Potential causes of anaemia.

[00:30:14] Malcolm Kendrick podcast discussing sickle cell anaemia and endothelial damage: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World

[00:32:25] "Sports anaemia" ("pseudoanaemia"); Studies: 1. Eichner, E. RANDY. "Sports anemia, iron supplements, and blood doping." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 24.9 Suppl (1992): S315-8; 2. Weight, L. M., et al. "‘Sports Anemia’-A Real or Apparent Phenomenon in Endurance-Trained Athletes?." International journal of sports medicine 13.04 (1992): 344-347

[00:33:55] How to tell if it's a true anaemia: history, diet, symptoms, blood chemistry.

[00:34:16] Occult blood testing: test on 3-4 consecutive days.

[00:37:02] Blood chemistry markers that can reveal anaemia.

[00:40:54] Elevated MCV in athletes. (elevated = greater than 92 fL); Studies supporting reference range: 1. Anderson, Jeffrey L., et al. "Usefulness of a complete blood count-derived risk score to predict incident mortality in patients with suspected cardiovascular disease." The American journal of cardiology 99.2 (2007): 169-174 and 2. Mueller, Thomas, et al. "Association between erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume and peripheral arterial disease in male subjects: a case control study." Angiology 52.9 (2001): 605-613.

[00:43:55] Haemoglobin - optimal reference ranges: 13.0 - 14.5 g/dL (women) and 14.5 - 16 g/dL (men); Study supporting reference range: Fulks, Michael, Vera F. Dolan, and Robert L. Stout. "Hemoglobin Screening Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality." (2015): 75-80.

[00:44:22] Elevated haemoglobin and sleep apnea.

[00:45:23] Red blood cells (RBC) - optimal reference ranges: 4.4 to 4.8 m/cumm (women) and 4.8 to 5/5 m/cumm; Study: Kim, Yong Chul, et al. "The low number of red blood cells is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality in the general population." The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 227.2 (2012): 149-159

[00:46:40] RDW (optimal is up to 13%); Studies supporting reference range: 1. Anderson, Jeffrey L., et al. "Usefulness of a complete blood count-derived risk score to predict incident mortality in patients with suspected cardiovascular disease." The American journal of cardiology 99.2 (2007): 169-174; 2. Hou, Haifeng, et al. "An overall and dose-response meta-analysis of red blood cell distribution width and CVD outcomes." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 1-10; 3. Lippi, Giuseppe, et al. "Relation between red blood cell distribution width and inflammatory biomarkers in a large cohort of unselected outpatients." Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 133.4 (2009): 628-632; 4. Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin, et al. "Is increased red cell distribution width (RDW) indicating the inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD)?." Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 56.1 (2013): 50-54.

[00:48:02] Test reticulocytes to identify production, destruction, or loss.

[00:49:10] Iron panel: ferritin, serum iron, TIBC.

[00:50:10] What to do about anaemia?

[00:51:03] Review: Tardy, Anne-Laure, et al. "Vitamins and minerals for energy, fatigue and cognition: a narrative review of the biochemical and clinical evidence." Nutrients 12.1 (2020): 228

[00:51:22] Nutritionally dense foods list on the NBT forum. (Support NBT on Patreon to get access to the forum).

[00:55:24] Join our group program (blood test + bloodsmart report + forum + 4 group coaching session). 

[00:57:04] Josh Turknett's 4-quadrant model.

May 07, 2021
Diet and Lifting Q&A with Natural Bodybuilder, Eric Helms
01:03:08

Back on the podcast today is Eric Helms, PhD. Eric is a research fellow at the Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand at Auckland University of Technology, pursuing research in training, nutrition and psychology for strength and physique sport. He has a PhD in Strength and Conditioning with a research focus on autoregulating powerlifting, a masters with a research focus on protein and macronutrient manipulation for dieting bodybuilders, a second masters in exercise science and health promotion. Also an athlete, Eric earned pro status as a natural bodybuilder with the Professional Natural Bodybuilding Association in 2011 and is a powerlifter in the International Powerlifting Federation.

Today’s podcast is a Q&A, with Eric fielding questions on some of the best diet and weight lifting strategies. Eric offers an insider’s view on the psychological effects of dieting for competition and also describes some of the most popular non-linear eating strategies and who might benefit from them. He discusses the power of refeeds and diet breaks when it comes to maintaining weight loss, and explains why a flexible approach is more likely to result in long-term success. Eric also addresses the "repetitions in reserve" -based rating of perceived exertion and describes the benefit of using muscle and strength pyramids. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Eric Helms:


[00:02:00] Eric's home gym essentials.

[00:04:34] Previous NBT Podcast: The Nutrition and Science of Natural Bodybuilding, with Eric Helms.

[00:05:04] Athlete identity: Coping with injury, retirement, not being able to train.

[00:08:45] Diversifying your happiness portfolio.

[00:10:31] Simon Marshall PhD.

[00:13:55] Psychological effects of dieting and being super lean.

[00:18:33] Relative Energy Deficiency of Sport (RED-S); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay. 

[00:26:39] Therapists, dietitians as essential resources for bodybuilders.

[00:28:32] Non-linear dieting and it's efficacy.

[00:29:27] Time-restricted feeding, within-week intermittent caloric restriction, alternate-day fasting, 5:2 diet.

[00:30:38] Refeeds, diet breaks.

[00:36:25] Better retention of lean body mass with refeeds; Study: Campbell, Bill I., et al. "Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 5.1 (2020): 19.

[00:39:43] Prescribed breaks do not hamper weight loss efforts; Study: Wing, Rena R., and Robert W. Jeffery. "Prescribed “breaks” as a means to disrupt weight control efforts." Obesity research 11.2 (2003): 287-291.

[00:41:38] Flexible dieting.

[00:44:18] Black and white thinking towards food predicts stress and failure during weight loss; Study: Palascha, Aikaterini, Ellen Van Kleef, and Hans CM van Trijp. "How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?." Journal of health psychology 20.5 (2015): 638-648.

[00:47:01] Lifting heavy things: the “repetitions in reserve” -based rating of perceived exertion.

[00:51:03] Exercise oncology; Study: Fairman, Ciaran M., et al. "A scientific rationale to improve resistance training prescription in exercise oncology." Sports Medicine 47.8 (2017): 1457-1465

[00:54:48] Muscle and strength pyramids.

[00:57:18] Books by Eric Helms: The Muscle and Strength Pyramid: Training and The Muscle and Strength Pyramid: Nutrition.

[00:59:09] Best rap album of 2020.

[01:00:17] 3dmusclejourney.com.

Apr 30, 2021
Microdosing Psychedelics and the Placebo Effect
01:10:58

Computational neuroscientist and biomedical software engineer Balázs Szigeti, PhD. is on the podcast this week to talk about the science behind the increasingly popular practice of microdosing. Microdosing is broadly defined as the regular use of low-dose psychedelic substances such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms. Distinct from psychedelic therapy or common recreational use, microdosing involves using only around 10% of a typical dose of the drug. Balázs has collaborated with the Global Drug Survey to quantitatively study drug use patterns, and most recently he designed and led the Imperial College self-blinding microdose study published in the open-access journal eLife Sciences.

On this podcast, Balázs discusses the results of his study that examined whether psychedelic microdosing can improve cognitive function and psychological well-being. He reviews the existing clinical research on the topic and describes the innovative study design that enabled him to run the largest placebo-controlled study on psychedelics to date. Balázs also reveals the surprising results of the study, which suggest that expectation may play a significant role in feeling better.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Balázs Szigeti:

[00:00:17] Imperial College London Centre for Psychedelic Research.

[00:02:47] The current science on microdosing.

[00:04:12] Paper: Szigeti, Balázs, et al. "Self-blinding citizen science to explore psychedelic microdosing." ELife 10 (2021): e62878

[00:04:18] Citizen Science and self-blinding.

[00:16:26] Results of the study.

[00:21:39] Sourcing LSD and LSD analogues.

[00:22:24] Book: American Kingpin, by Nick Bilton.

[00:24:35] Existing clinical studies on microdosing: 1. Yanakieva, Steliana, et al. "The effects of microdose LSD on time perception: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Psychopharmacology 236.4 (2019): 1159-1170; 2. Hutten, Nadia RPW, et al. "Mood and cognition after administration of low LSD doses in healthy volunteers: A placebo controlled dose-effect finding study." European Neuropsychopharmacology 41 (2020): 81-91; 3. Bershad, Anya K., et al. "Acute subjective and behavioral effects of microdoses of lysergic acid diethylamide in healthy human volunteers." Biological psychiatry 86.10 (2019): 792-800.

[00:27:53] The key to a strong placebo response.

[00:29:36] Acute and post-acute outcomes.

[00:41:44] Book: Cure: A Journey into the Science of Mind Over Body by Jo Marchant.

[00:44:01] Hamilton Depression Scale

[00:52:13] Future directions and testing additional substances.

[00:54:44] examine.com.

[00:55:03] labdoor.com.

[00:55:52] mydelica.com for Balazs’ self-blinding microdose study 2.0.

[00:57:27] Limitations of the study.

[01:07:27] Selfblinding-microdose.org.

Apr 23, 2021
Recapture the Rapture: Rethinking God, Sex, and Death in a World That's Lost Its Mind
01:15:24

Jamie Wheal is an expert in peak performance and leadership, specializing in neuroanthropology - the intersection of culture, biology and psychology. He is the co-author of the global bestseller and Pulitzer Prize nominated book, Stealing Fire, and the founder of the Flow Genome Project, an international organization dedicated to the research and training of ultimate human performance. Since founding the organization in 2011, it has gone on to become a leading voice of evidence-based peak performance, counting award-winning academics, legendary professional athletes, special operations commanders, and Fortune 500 business leaders among the hundreds of thousands of people in its global community.

​On this podcast, Jamie discusses the “meaning crisis” that we’re suffering as a society, with fundamentalism and nihilism filling the vacuum. He offers a blunt and eye-opening perspective on where we are today as a culture, why it’s so hard to make sense of the world, and how our efforts to cope are likely making things worse. Jamie explains how best to bring about healing, inspiration, and connection, so we can wake up, grow up, and show up for a world that needs us all.

Jamie’s upcoming book, Recapture the Rapture, is set to release on April 27, 2021.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jamie Wheal:

[00:00:28] Book: Recapture the Rapture: Rethinking God, Sex, and Death in a World That's Lost Its Mind, by Jamie Wheal.

[00:00:51] Book: Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work, by Steven Kotler and Jamie Wheal.

[00:01:22] Jamie's journey: music, mushrooms, mountains, and marriage.

[00:10:10] Narcissism in the spiritual marketplace.

[00:13:57] A meaning crisis.

[00:17:22] Book: Omens of the Millennium: The Gnosis of Angels, Dreams, and Resurrection, by Harold Bloom. 

[00:24:01] Article: The Rise of Victimhood Culture by Conor Friedersdorf.

[00:24:10] Book: Outliers: The Story of Success, by Malcolm Gladwell.

[00:25:08] Books by Christopher Ryan: Civilized to Death and Sex at Dawn

[00:34:37] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes.

[00:40:32] Neuroanthropology + cultural architecture.

[00:41:33] Nitric Oxide.

[00:43:12] Neuroscientist Andrew Huberman. 

[00:46:22] Healing, inspiration, and connection.

[00:47:31] 5 forces: respiration, embodiment, sexuality, substances, music.

[00:52:23] Book: Stranger in a Strange Land, by Robert Heinlein.

[00:53:49] Dr. Nicole Prause.

[00:56:10] Psychedelics.

[01:08:02] The importance of self-organizing groups.

[01:08:41] Where trauma and talent intersect.

[01:11:36] Recapture the Rapture website.

[01:12:27] Get the audible version of Recapture the Rapture.

[01:12:50] Stay awake, build stuff, and help out.

Apr 16, 2021
The Compassion Project: The Power of Hope and Human Kindness
54:06

My guest today is Julian Abel, MD, the Director of Compassionate Communities UK. Julian was on the show a couple of years ago to discuss his innovative model for combating social isolation in the town of Frome in Somerset, UK.  The goal of his project was to improve health outcomes and quality of life, and a measurable difference was made, in both healthcare cost savings and reduced ER admissions. The work of Compassionate Communities has since spurred further initiatives and is now transforming perspectives on matters of healthcare and social wellbeing around the world. 

On this podcast Julian and I talk about the power of compassion, and how reason, emotion, and inspiration can help build connection and reduce loneliness. Julian shares how Compassionate Communities is growing as a social movement and talks about what each of us can do to make the world a kinder place. He also reveals plans for Compassionate Communities USA, set to launch in the next few months with a free and inclusive conference.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julian Abel:


[00:00:16] Previous podcasts with Julian: 1. Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, and 2. Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19.

[00:03:21] Compassion.

[00:05:28] Oxytocin is present throughout the animal kingdom.

[00:06:00] Film: My Octopus Teacher (available on Netflix).

[00:06:55] Book: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods. Podcast with Brian Hare: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity.

[00:07:07] Book: Humankind: A Hopeful History, by Rutger Bregman.

[00:09:03] Julian's study: Abel, Julian, et al. "Reducing emergency hospital admissions: a population health complex intervention of an enhanced model of primary care and compassionate communities." British Journal of General Practice 68.676 (2018): e803-e810.

[00:11:18] Julian’s Podcast: Survival of the Kindest

[00:11:25] Julian’s interview with Holly Prince: Dancing in the Field of End of Life Care.

[00:13:46] Compassionate Communities UK

[00:15:50] Review on social relationships and mortality: Holt-Lunstad, Julianne, Timothy B. Smith, and J. Bradley Layton. "Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review." PLoS medicine 7.7 (2010): e1000316.

[00:17:16] Book: Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, by Yuval Noah Harari.

[00:17:48] Book: Propaganda by Edward Bernays.

[00:21:01] Julian's interview with Waleed Nesyif: It's Never Too Late for Compassion

[00:22:28] Compassionate City Charter (and other tools).

[00:23:41] How to get people to be more compassionate - reason, emotion, and inspiration.

[00:23:52] James Maskell: podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, and book.

[00:26:46] Steps an individual can take.

[00:33:36] Podcasts: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe. with Stephen Porges, PhD., and Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”, with Sue Carter, PhD.

[00:33:57] The people you spend time with affect your health outcomes; Book: Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives, by Nicholas A. Christakis and James Fowler.

[00:34:03] Article: Threats to causal inference in an increasingly connected world.

[00:35:51] People who are fiercely independent or resistant.

[00:39:57] Enhancing naturally-occurring networks.

[00:42:10] Town planning.

[00:44:23] Subsidiarity (skin in the game).

[00:45:25] Compassionate Communities USA / Elevate Compassion (Coming Soon).

[00:48:10] Julian's book: The Compassion Project: A case for hope and humankindness from the town that beat loneliness.

[00:49:11] Resurgence & Ecologist Magazine article: Compassion is the best medicine, by Julian Abel and Lindsay Clarke.

[00:49:15] Guardian Article: The town that’s found a potent cure for illness – community, by George Monbiot.

Apr 10, 2021
Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy
53:07

Jessica Fern is a psychotherapist, author, public speaker and trauma and relationship expert. She has worked with individuals, couples and people in multiple-partner relationships to overcome reactive communication patterns rooted in insecure attachment and trauma. She is the author of Polysecure, a book that focuses on creating emotionally intimate and securely attached relationships with multiple partners.

On this podcast, Jessica talks about attachment theory, what it means to be securely attached, and how insecure attachment could be limiting your relationships. We discuss how to raise securely attached children and how to spot the different forms of insecure attachment. We also discuss polyamory and why the success of consensual non-monogamy hinges on the attachment status of the participants.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jessica Fern:

[00:00:09] La Ecovilla, Costa Rica.

[00:02:47] Down to Earth with Zac Efron: Episode 3: Costa Rica.

[00:03:22] Early interest in psychology.

[00:04:51] Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy.

[00:05:44] Attachment theory.

[00:08:40] Achieving secure attachment: ARE (Available, Responsible, Engaged).

[00:09:29] Daniel P. BrownQuiz on attachment styles.

[00:09:43] Expressed delight.

[00:11:47] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:13:32] Book: Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy, by Jessica Fern.

[00:14:57] Attachment styles and adult relationships.

[00:16:28] Insecure attachment styles.

[00:19:39] Trauma.

[00:23:32] Consensual non-monogamy.

[00:23:59] Book: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships, by Christopher Ryan; Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:28:16] Emotional and sexual exclusivity.

[00:31:01] Compersion.

[00:33:39] Justice jealousy.

[00:37:08] Metamour relationships.

[00:37:38] Polyamory structures.

[00:44:51] HEARTS acronym for secure attachment.

[00:48:31] Couples who argue (peacefully) are more likely to stay together; Study: Gottman, John Mordechai, and Robert Wayne Levenson. "The timing of divorce: Predicting when a couple will divorce over a 14‐year period." Journal of Marriage and Family 62.3 (2000): 737-745.

[00:49:10] Dr. John Gottman.

[00:49:42] Jessica’s website.

[00:50:13] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe. with Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:50:15] Podcast: Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”, with Sue Carter, PhD.

Apr 02, 2021
How to Fix Your Gut
01:19:11

More than 2,000 years ago, Hippocrates suggested all disease begins in the gut. He was mostly right, and we’ve talked about the gut many times on this podcast – in relation to athletic performance, optimising the gut microbiome, and even how to use probiotics. But a couple of weeks ago I realized that we’ve never talked specifically and in depth about exactly what to do when you have a gut problem. GI issues are where I started my health journey, and probably bring more clients through our doors than any other condition, and they can affect absolutely anyone - athlete or not.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are talking about the steps to take when your gut isn’t working right. We talk about how things tend to go awry in the first place, signs and symptoms that you have a gut problem, and the first things to try to get quick relief. Megan also discusses the most scientifically-validated lifestyle modifications, supplements, and lab tests to try, as well as the pros and cons of using antimicrobials.

Be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline for this podcast

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:


[00:00:58] How Megan fixed her gut.

[00:05:26] Why you should care about gut health.

[00:06:26] Podcasts with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick: 1. Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and 2. A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:07:30] Signs and symptoms of gut problems.

[00:10:00] How things go wrong.

[00:10:02] Podcast: The Athlete’s Gut: Why Things Go Wrong and What to Do About It.

[00:11:42] First line of defense interventions; Step 1 - Diet.

[00:13:57] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP)

[00:15:16] AIP recipes by Micky Trescott and Louise Hendon

[00:16:23] Low FODMAP diet lists: comprehensive listsimpler listapp.

[00:18:08] Low histamine diet; Podcast: Understanding Histamine Intolerance: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments.

[00:20:39] Carnivore diet.

[00:21:33] Pegan diet.

[00:22:12] Endotoxemia; Podcast: Postprandial Fatigue, Part II: Endotoxemia, Inflammation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

[00:24:54] Elemental diets: Physicians Elemental DietDr. Ruscio's Elemental Heal

[00:27:26] Podcast with Jason Hawrelak, PhD: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health.

[00:29:03] Polyphenols and fiber.

[00:30:38] Soluble vs insoluble fiber.

[00:31:29] Other potential triggers: coffee and alcohol.

[00:34:05] Eating in a parasympathetic state.

[00:34:33] Physiological sigh.

[00:35:32] Simon Marshall's stress audit; Podcast: How to Manage Stress.

[00:36:15] Social connection and isolation.

[00:36:45] Podcast with Julian Abel, MD: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health.

[00:37:18] Proper chewing.

[00:39:56] Food timing in relation to exercise and sleep.

[00:41:16] Bidirectional relationship between gut microbiome and circadian rhythm; Study: Mashaqi, Saif, and David Gozal. "“Circadian misalignment and the gut microbiome. A bidirectional relationship triggering inflammation and metabolic disorders”-a literature review." Sleep medicine 72 (2020): 93-108.

[00:41:43] Gut microbiome diversity is associated with better sleep; Study: Smith, Robert P., et al. "Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans." PLoS One 14.10 (2019): e0222394

[00:43:15] Probiotics.

[00:44:50] Visbiome/VSL #3; Study: Cheng, Fang-Shu, et al. "Probiotic mixture VSL# 3: An overview of basic and clinical studies in chronic diseases." World journal of clinical cases 8.8 (2020): 1361.

[00:46:08] Florastor; Study: Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka, Karolina, et al. "Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745: A Non-bacterial Microorganism Used as Probiotic Agent in Supporting Treatment of Selected Diseases." Current Microbiology 77 (2020): 1987-1996.

[00:46:55] Mutaflor; Study: Sonnenborn, Ulrich. "Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917—from bench to bedside and back: history of a special Escherichia coli strain with probiotic properties." FEMS Microbiology Letters 363.19 (2016).

[00:47:45] L. rhamnosis GG (LGG).

[00:49:06] Choosing a probiotic; Probiotic Advisor database.

[00:50:59] Digestive enzymes, digestive bitters, and tea.

[00:54:32] Other helpful supplements.

[00:54:50] General gut healing.

[00:55:25] Serum derived bovine immunoglobulins (SBIs); SBI Protect.

[00:56:14] ProButyrate.

[00:56:52] Megan's outline for this podcast

[00:56:58] Article: Singh, Vishal, Beng San Yeoh, and Matam Vijay-Kumar. "Feed your gut with caution!." Translational cancer research 5.Suppl 3 (2016): S507.

[00:58:28] Testing: GI-MAPGenova GI-EffectsDoctor's DataGutBioOrganic Acids Test (for yeast).

[01:05:03] Food intolerance testing.

[01:06:21] Blood chemistry: signs of gut trouble.

[01:07:36] Podcast: How to Interpret Your White Blood Cell Count.

[01:07:46] Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO): signs and symptoms, causes.

[01:08:30] SIBO indicates dysbiosis rather than overgrowth; Study: Saffouri, George B., et al. "Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders." Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-11.

[01:09:49] Pros and cons of using antimicrobials.

[01:10:05] Pomegranate husk powder; Jason Hawrelak’s coursecheat sheet.

[01:11:37] Bixa Pomegranate Peel Powder

[01:13:45] Binders.

[01:14:52] Dr. Josh Turknett's 4-quadrant modelVideos from his site.

[01:16:51] Schedule a free 15-minute call with Megan or Clay.

Mar 26, 2021
How to Build Confidence and Succeed at Dating
46:22

My guest today is dating and confidence coach, Nick Notas. For more than twelve years he has helped men conquer their fears, build self-esteem, and develop meaningful relationships. In the age of Tinder, dating can be a challenge, and Nick offers tons of practical advice to help in that arena. One thing I really appreciate about him is his deeper focus on building confidence and communication skills, which can certainly help with dating, but surely transforms all significant relationships and social networks.

On this podcast, Nick and I talk about considerations for modern-day dating. We discuss how lockdowns over the past year have affected the dating scene, and what’s likely to happen when restrictions are lifted. Nick shares some practical advice for using dating apps: how to make a good first impression, making that first message count, and giving compliments that don’t suck. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nick Notas:

[00:01:44] How Nick became a dating coach.

[00:03:21] Choosing to work with men.

[00:03:58] In-person retreats.

[00:08:12] How dating has changed during lockdown.

[00:09:47] The current state of online dating.

[00:13:40] The importance of good photos and how to get them.

[00:18:30] Dating apps: TinderBumbleHinge

[00:20:40] Generational differences in dating.

[00:21:04] Generation Z is having the least sex; Study: Ueda, Peter, et al. "Trends in frequency of sexual activity and number of sexual partners among adults aged 18 to 44 years in the US, 2000-2018." JAMA network open 3.6 (2020): e203833-e203833

[00:24:04] Mindset factors.

[00:24:17] Brad Stulberg; Book: Passion Paradox; Podcast The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life; NBT Podcast with Brad: How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout.

[00:25:02] Satisfaction within arranged marriage: Epstein, Robert, Mayuri Pandit, and Mansi Thakar. "How love emerges in arranged marriages: Two cross-cultural studies." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 44.3 (2013): 341-360.

[00:27:47] Creating opportunity to find connections.

[00:31:25] Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster, with Ellen Langer, PhD.  

[00:33:31] Article: How to Write a Good First Message in Online Dating

[00:39:25] How to give compliments that don't suck.

[00:42:32] Reconnected Dating on YouTubeDating 101.

Mar 19, 2021
Blood Flow Restriction Training: Science and Application
50:19

Stephen Patterson, PhD is an Associate Professor in Applied Exercise Physiology & Performance and the director of the Centre for Applied Performance Sciences at St. Mary’s University in London. Stephen has published more than 60 scientific research papers investigating strategies to improve performance in clinical groups and elite athletes, with a focus on the adaptation and response to exercise. He is currently investigating the use of blood flow restriction and ischemic preconditioning before and during exercise.

On this podcast, Stephen discusses blood flow restriction (BFR) training, including what it is, how it works, and who can benefit from it.  He shares the importance of using cuffs and properly measuring the pressure they apply, as well as things to look for when purchasing a set. He also shares some conclusions drawn from recent BFR research, including the optimal number of reps, effects of BFR on bone and tendons, and the most important factor when aiming for muscle hypertrophy.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephen Patterson:

[00:00:24] Stephen's background and interest in exercise physiology.

[00:01:45] Blood flow restriction (BFR) training.

[00:02:45] Questions from Eric HelmsMike T Nelson, and Greg Potter.

[00:03:16] Effects of BFR on athletic performance.

[00:05:32] BFR with aerobic exercise (cycling); Study: Christiansen, Danny, et al. "Cycling with blood flow restriction improves performance and muscle K+ regulation and alters the effect of anti‐oxidant infusion in humans." The Journal of physiology 597.9 (2019): 2421-2444.

[00:06:32] Why use BFR.

[00:07:54] The value of using cuffs.

[00:08:44] Use of BFR by practitioners; Study: Patterson, Stephen D., and Christopher R. Brandner. "The role of blood flow restriction training for applied practitioners: A questionnaire-based survey." Journal of sports sciences 36.2 (2018): 123-130.

[00:09:37] Jeremy Loenneke; Studies using elastic knee wraps: Loenneke, Jeremy P., et al. "The acute response of practical occlusion in the knee extensors." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24.10 (2010): 2831-2834Loenneke, Jeremy P., et al. "Blood flow–restricted walking does not result in an accumulation of metabolites." Clinical physiology and functional imaging 32.1 (2012): 80-82.

[00:11:58] Delfi's Personalized Tourniquet System for Blood Flow Restriction.

[00:12:56] What to look for when purchasing a BFR system.

[00:13:03] B Strong; Podcast with Jim Stray-Gundersen MD: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan.

[00:20:58] Aerobic exercise and BFR; Study: Ferguson, Richard A., et al. "Blood‐flow‐restricted exercise: Strategies for enhancing muscle adaptation and performance in the endurance‐trained athlete." Experimental Physiology (2021).

[00:23:08] Protocol for hypertrophy.

[00:23:55] 75 reps is often a recommended volume; more is not better.

[00:28:17] Releasing the cuffs between exercises.

[00:28:42] Potential effects on endothelium; Study: Credeur, Daniel P., Brandon C. Hollis, and Michael A. Welsch. "Effects of handgrip training with venous restriction on brachial artery vasodilation." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 42.7 (2010): 1296.

[00:30:19] BFR compared to other forms of training.

[00:30:47] Lifting to failure more important that amount of weight lifted; Study: Burd, Nicholas A., et al. "Bigger weights may not beget bigger muscles: evidence from acute muscle protein synthetic responses after resistance exercise." Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism 37.3 (2012): 551-554.

[00:32:55] Effects on bone density.

[00:34:49] Japanese study in 2006 found no effect on tendon thickness: Abe, T., et al. "Muscle, tendon, and somatotropin responses to the restriction of muscle blood flow induced by KAATSU‐walk training." Equine Veterinary Journal 38.S36 (2006): 345-348.

[00:34:58] Recent German study showed positive effects on tendon stiffness: Centner, Christoph, et al. "Low-load blood flow restriction training induces similar morphological and mechanical Achilles tendon adaptations compared with high-load resistance training." Journal of Applied Physiology 127.6 (2019): 1660-1667.

[00:35:16] Case studies demonstrating structural tendon improvements: Skovlund, Sebastian V., et al. "The effect of low‐load resistance training with blood flow restriction on chronic patellar tendinopathy—A case series." Translational Sports Medicine 3.4 (2020): 342-352.

[00:36:09] Combining BFR with ischemic preconditioning.

[00:41:36] Motor unit recruitment.

[00:42:53] Further research coming up.

[00:44:50] Effects on cognitive function.

[00:45:45] David Raichlen podcast: Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise.

[00:46:18] St. Mary’s University MSc program in Strength and Conditioning.

[00:47:13] Stephen's recent review: Patterson, Stephen D., et al. "Blood flow restriction exercise: considerations of methodology, application, and safety." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 533.

[00:47:22] Find Stephen on Twitter.

Mar 12, 2021
How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy
01:05:30

Herman Pontzer, PhD is an author and Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University. Through lab and field research, he investigates the physiology of humans and apes to understand how ecology, lifestyle, diet, and evolutionary history affect metabolism and health. In his new book, Burn, he reveals how human metabolism really works, based on his studies of energy expenditure in modern-day hunter-gatherers.

On this podcast, Herman and I discuss his groundbreaking research showing the effects of exercise on human metabolism, and their implications for obesity and disease prevention. He describes the astonishing results that emerged when directly measuring the metabolism of Tanzania’s highly active and healthy Hadza people while engaged in their daily activities. The conclusions he draws shed light on what people really need to do to lose weight and keep it off (and it’s not low-carb).

Here’s the outline of this interview with Herman Pontzer:

[00:00:35] Herman's background and interest in evolutionary anthropology.

[00:02:38] Dan Lieberman.

[00:03:09] Energy expenditure.

[00:03:58] Working with the Hadza people of Tanzania.

[00:06:24] Hadza researchers: Brian WoodFrank Marlowe, and David Raichlen. Podcast with David Raichlen: Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise.

[00:07:07] Paper: Pontzer, H., B. M. Wood, and David A. Raichlen. "Hunter‐gatherers as models in public health." Obesity Reviews 19 (2018): 24-35.

[00:08:15] Paper: Eaton, S. Boyd, Melvin Konner, and Marjorie Shostak. "Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective." The American journal of medicine 84.4 (1988): 739-749.

[00:08:47] What changed in modern culture.

[00:09:52] Wearable GPS devices on Hadza men and women.

[00:12:23] Video: The Intense 8 Hour Hunt, from David Attenborough’s Life of Mammals.

[00:16:32] How the Hadza think and feel.

[00:21:16] Book: Burn: New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy, by Herman Pontzer, PhD.

[00:24:35] The body adapts to the lifestyle.

[00:25:03] Constrained energy expenditure model.

[00:26:18] A fixed energy budget.

[00:29:08] Overtraining syndrome; Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS) and why eating more isn't the answer.

[00:31:23] Race Across the USA study: Thurber, Caitlin, et al. "Extreme events reveal an alimentary limit on sustained maximal human energy expenditure." Science advances 5.6 (2019): eaaw0341.

[00:37:00] Implications for obesity.

[00:37:59] Researcher Kevin D. Hall, PhD.

[00:41:25] Richard D. Feinman, PhD; Podcast: A Guide to Flawed Studies with Richard Feinman.

[00:43:48] How to lose weight: cut calories without being miserable.

[00:44:33] Why gastric bypass surgery works.

[00:45:42] Podcast: The Hungry Brain with Stephan Guyenet, PhD.

[00:47:50] Robb Wolf book: Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You; Podcast: Wired to Eat with Robb Wolf.

[00:48:07] Book: The Hungry Brain: Outsmarting the Instincts That Make Us Overeat, by Stephan Guyenet, PhD.

[00:50:31] Bodybuilding; Podcast: The Nutrition and Science of Natural Bodybuilding, with Eric Helms.

[00:54:40] Exercise to keep weight off.

[01:01:25] Where to find Herman: Pontzer Lab at DukeTwitter.

[01:01:55] hadzafund.org

[01:02:23] Curiositystream documentary on the Hadza: Growing Up Hadza.

Mar 05, 2021
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: The Best Sources, Benefits, and How To Get Enough
52:07

It would be hard to find any health practitioner - traditional, functional, or otherwise - who doesn’t acknowledge the importance of consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Supplements in the form of fish oil or krill oil are widely recommended and consumed, and come with claims of cardiovascular disease prevention, cognitive benefits, and anti-inflammatory properties. But is it really a good idea to get your omega-3s in a gel cap rather than from food? And do they really do everything the media would have you believe?

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I discuss omega-3 fatty acids: what they are, what they’re good for, and the best ways to get them. Megan outlines the different types of omega-3 and explains why some are better than others. She also explains why some health claims are overblown, and why buying fish oil supplements may not be the best health strategy.

Be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline for this podcast

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:


[00:04:30] Blood flow restriction (BFR) training; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan with Dr Jim Stray-Gundersen MD.

[00:04:51] Podcast: Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise, David Raichlen.

[00:05:41] What are omega-3 fatty acids?

[00:06:31] Picture of omega-3 fatty acids.

[00:08:40] Finding omega-3s in the diet; Review: Saini, Ramesh Kumar, and Young-Soo Keum. "Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Dietary sources, metabolism, and significance—A review." Life sciences 203 (2018): 255-267.

[00:09:16] Poor conversion from ALA to EPA/DHA: Gerster, Helga. "Can adults adequately convert a-linolenic acid (18: 3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3)?." International journal for vitamin and nutrition research 68.3 (1998): 159-173.

[00:10:56] Why EPA and DHA are important.

[00:11:38] Conditions associated with inadequate omega-3 intake.

[00:12:02] Whole foods vs. supplements; other micronutrients.

[00:12:42] Krill oil vs. fish oil; Studies: 1. Ulven, Stine M., et al. "Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers." Lipids 46.1 (2011): 37-46. 2. Schuchardt, Jan Philipp, et al. "Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations-a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil." Lipids in health and disease 10.1 (2011): 1-7. 3. Maki, Kevin C., et al. "Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women." Nutrition research 29.9 (2009): 609-615. 4. Mödinger, Yvonne, et al. "Plasma kinetics of choline and choline metabolites after a single dose of SuperbaBoostTM krill oil or choline bitartrate in healthy volunteers." Nutrients 11.10 (2019): 2548.

[00:16:59] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:18:21] Algae-based omega-3 supplements.

[00:19:40] Omega 6:3 ratio; Paper: Simopoulos, Artemis P. "The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids." Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy 56.8 (2002): 365-379.

[00:25:54] Should we be supplementing with grams of fish oil? Studies: 1. De Magalhães, João Pedro, et al. "Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging." Aging (Albany NY) 8.8 (2016): 1578. 2. Strong, Randy, et al. "Longer lifespan in male mice treated with a weakly estrogenic agonist, an antioxidant, an α‐glucosidase inhibitor or a Nrf2‐inducer." Aging cell 15.5 (2016): 872-884. 3. López-Domínguez, José A., et al. "The influence of dietary fat source on life span in calorie restricted mice." Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 70.10 (2015): 1181-1188.

[00:27:42] No support for omega-3 (fish oil) in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; Meta-analysis: Aung, Theingi, et al. "Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with cardiovascular disease risks: meta-analysis of 10 trials involving 77 917 individuals." JAMA cardiology 3.3 (2018): 225-233.

[00:29:12] Signs you're supplementing too much fish oil.

[00:30:26] Podcast: How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan

[00:30:43] Elevated blood glucose omega-3 supplementation; Study: Friday, Karen E., et al. "Elevated plasma glucose and lowered triglyceride levels from omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type II diabetes." Diabetes care 12.4 (1989): 276-281.

[00:31:01] Immunosuppressive effects of supplementing omega-3s: Fenton, Jenifer I., et al. "Immunomodulation by dietary long chain omega-3 fatty acids and the potential for adverse health outcomes." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 89.6 (2013): 379-390.

[00:34:17] Stages of life when omega-3s are especially important.

[00:34:48] Specialized pro-resolving mediators; STEM Talk podcast episode: David LeMay Talks About Countering Inflammation with SPMS.

[00:35:31] DHA to mitigate traumatic brain injury; Study: Bailes, Julian E., and Vimal Patel. "The potential for DHA to mitigate mild traumatic brain injury." Military medicine 179.suppl_11 (2014): 112-116.

[00:35:45] DHA for cognitive function and aging; Study: Weiser, Michael J., Christopher M. Butt, and M. Hasan Mohajeri. "Docosahexaenoic acid and cognition throughout the lifespan." Nutrients 8.2 (2016): 99.

[00:37:20] omega-3s for athletic performance; Review: Gammone, Maria Alessandra, et al. "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: benefits and endpoints in sport." Nutrients 11.1 (2019): 46.

[00:38:54] omega-3s during pregnancy; Studies: Greenberg, James A., Stacey J. Bell, and Wendy Van Ausdal. "Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy." Reviews in obstetrics and Gynecology 1.4 (2008): 162; 2. Braarud, Hanne Cecilie, et al. "Maternal DHA status during pregnancy has a positive impact on infant problem solving: a Norwegian prospective observation study." Nutrients 10.5 (2018): 529.

[00:39:44] Excess omega-3 consumption during pregnancy could be detrimental to offspring; Study: Church, M. W., et al. "Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring." Neurotoxicology and teratology 32.2 (2010): 171-181.

[00:40:12] Testing: The Omega Index test; Framingham Heart Study: Harris, William S., et al. "Erythrocyte long-chain omega-3 fatty acid levels are inversely associated with mortality and with incident cardiovascular disease: The Framingham Heart Study." Journal of clinical lipidology 12.3 (2018): 718-727.

[00:42:34] Bottom line: More may not be better.

[00:43:09] SMASH fish - sardines, mackerel, anchovies, salmon, herring (also black cod), 3-4x/week.

[00:49:30] Schedule a free 15 min call with Megan.

Feb 26, 2021
How to Use SOMA Breathwork to Relieve Stress and Improve Your Health and Performance
59:05

It’s been about five years since Advanced Biomechanics Coach Nigel McHollan last joined me on the podcast to talk about bike fit. Certified as a Primal Health Coach, a SOMA Breath Work Meditation Instructor, and Level 4 Strength and Conditioning Coach, Nigel has since developed and deepened his health and wellness practice. Also with us today is Certified Health Coach and SOMA Breathwork Instructor, Kara Lynn Kelly.

On this podcast, Nigel and Kara discuss breathwork and it’s many benefits including stress relief and improved overall health, as well as altered states of consciousness. We compare some of the different types of breathwork to choose from, and also look at some of the beneficial aspects of nasal breathing - yes, even during exercise and sport. Kara also guides us through a short breathwork session right here on the podcast so you can get a sense of it’s calming and centring effects. See how you feel after just a 10-minute session!

I’m excited to announce that Nourish Balance Thrive has partnered with Nigel and Kara to offer a live eight-week Energised Meditation breathwork group program beginning March 4, 2021. Click here to sign up.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nigel McHollan and Kara Kelly:

[00:00:11] Nigel’s previous appearance on the podcast: Bike fit done right with Nigel McHollan.

[00:00:47] Book: Back mechanic by Stuart McGill.

[00:01:08] Stuart McGill on STEM Talk and interviewed by Greg Potter.

[00:05:00] Soma breathwork.

[00:06:15] Kelly's introduction to breathwork.

[00:09:27] Influence of CO2 on the Default mode network (DMN). Study: Xu, Feng, et al. "The influence of carbon dioxide on brain activity and metabolism in conscious humans." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 31.1 (2011): 58-67.

[00:10:15] Anatomy of a breathwork session.

[00:12:30] Biochemistry behind breathwork experiences.

[00:15:12] Comparing different breathwork techniques.

[00:17:42] Setting of intentions.

[00:17:53] Stanislav GravHolotropic breathwork.

[00:18:09] Podcast: How to Fix Your Breathing to Improve Your Health, with James Nestor. Book: Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art, by James Nestor.

[00:18:15] Book: The Immortality Key: The Secret History of the Religion with No Name, by Brian C. Muraresku.

[00:18:53] Pranayama vs. Soma; Article: What Is Breathwork? Explanation Of Different Breathing Techniques Vs. Pranayama.

[00:19:19] Niraj Naik, founder of Soma.

[00:20:10] Progressive Muscle Relaxation

[00:20:54] Books by Yogani: Deep Meditation - Pathway to Personal Freedom and Spinal Breathing Pranayama - Journey to Inner Space.

[00:24:44] Joe Dispenza.

[00:25:13] Field Coherence.

[00:26:40] Muscular Bonding.

[00:29:54] Book: The story of the human body by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:30:59] Podcast: Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise, with David Raichlen, PhD.

[00:34:15] Mouth taping.

[00:34:47] Dr. Phil Maffetone.

[00:35:07] Patrick McKeown on nasal breathing. Book: The Oxygen Advantage: The simple, scientifically proven breathing technique that will revolutionise your health and fitness, by Patrick McKeown.

[00:36:04] Bohr effect.

[00:37:37] Sweet Beat App.

[00:39:15] Elite HRVCorSense.

[00:40:00] Sample breathwork session.

[00:53:22] Do a breath retention time test first thing in the AM.

[00:55:04] Sign up for the 8-week Energised Meditation group program.

[00:55:17] Find Kara on FacebookFind Nigel on Facebook/MessengerNigel’s website.

 
Feb 19, 2021
Why Sleep Is Critical for Immune Health
01:34:29

There’s no doubt this is a time of uncertainty. COVID-19 has changed the way most of us live, and it’s not clear when or if we’ll be able to resume the activities we took for granted just a year ago. Rather than waiting for the government to figure it all out, our best defence against infectious disease is optimising metabolic health and immune function. For that, sleep is arguably the keystone behaviour.

Today I’m joined again by our resident sleep expert, Greg Potter, PhD to talk about the effects of sleep on the immune system. Greg explains how poor sleep and sleep disorders profoundly impact the body’s ability to combat infections, including the common cold, pneumonia, and COVID-19. He also discusses the importance of getting enough sleep in the days leading up to vaccination and offers pandemic-specific tips for better sleep.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:02:01] Resilient NutritionLong Range Fuel.

[00:07:05] Changes in sleep since COVID.

[00:08:50] COVID dreams.

[00:11:19] Changes in sleep timing and patterns.

[00:11:45] Effects of COVID-19 lockdowns on sleep and activity; Study: Blume, Christine, Marlene H. Schmidt, and Christian Cajochen. "Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on human sleep and rest-activity rhythms." Current Biology 30.14 (2020): R795-R797.

[00:12:34] Changes in sleep behaviors amongst university students; Study: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Sleep in university students prior to and during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders." Current Biology 30.14 (2020): R797-R798.

[00:13:17] Sleep disorders; insomnia.

[00:13:36] Greg’s previous podcasts on entraining circadian rhythm: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health and time cues: Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes

[00:14:15] Sleep apnea.

[00:15:23] Sleep apnea associated with increased mortality due to COVID-19; Study: McSharry, David, Michael T. Lam, and Atul Malhotra. "OSA as a probable risk factor for severe COVID-19." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 16.9 (2020): 1649-1649.

[00:16:11] Sleep apnea treatment; continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

[00:21:13] How the immune system works.

[00:24:50] TNF-alpha blockers improve sleep in rheumatoid arthritis; Detert, Jacqueline, et al. "Effects of treatment with etanercept versus methotrexate on sleep quality, fatigue and selected immune parameters in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis." Clin Exp Rheumatol 34.5 (2016): 848-856.

[00:32:23] Cytokine storms.

[00:33:38] Mice more susceptible to infection administered during sleep hours; Study: Lundy, Stephanie R., et al. "Effect of time of day of infection on Chlamydia infectivity and pathogenesis." Scientific reports 9.1 (2019): 1-12.

[00:34:37] Better response to BCG vaccine when administered in the morning; Study: de Bree, L. Charlotte J., et al. "Circadian rhythm influences induction of trained immunity by BCG vaccination." The Journal of clinical investigation 130.10 (2020): 5603-5617.

[00:35:19] Different dimensions of sleep: SATED - satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, duration.

[00:37:58] Associations between sleep and chronic disease.

[00:39:20] People who report short sleep are at higher risk of metabolic syndrome; Meta analyses: 1. Xi, Bo, et al. "Short sleep duration predicts risk of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Sleep medicine reviews 18.4 (2014): 293-297; 2. Iftikhar, Imran H., et al. "Sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. An updated dose–risk metaanalysis." Annals of the American Thoracic Society 12.9 (2015): 1364-1372; 3. Lian, Ying, et al. "Association between sleep quality and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Psychiatry research 274 (2019): 66-74.

[00:40:02] Sleep disturbance as a risk factor for type-2 diabetes; Meta analysis: Wang, Fei, et al. "Sleep duration and patterns in Chinese patients with diabetes: A meta‐analysis of comparative studies and epidemiological surveys." Perspectives in psychiatric care 55.2 (2019): 344-353.

[00:41:04] The brain’s glymphatic system; Maiken Nedergaard, MD.

[00:41:53] Study: Fultz, Nina E., et al. "Coupled electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cerebrospinal fluid oscillations in human sleep." Science 366.6465 (2019): 628-631.

[00:43:45] Obstructive sleep apnea - 40% higher risk of developing cancer.

[00:46:27] Research on sleep deprivation in dogs; Study: Bentivoglio, Marina, and Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi. "The pioneering experimental studies on sleep deprivation." Sleep 20.7 (1997): 570-576.

[00:47:01] Sleep deprivation research with rats; Study: Rechtschaffen, Allan, et al. "Sleep deprivation in the rat: I. Conceptual issues." Sleep 12.1 (1989): 1-4.

[00:47:33] Sleep restriction research on fruit flies; Study: Geissmann, Quentin, Esteban J. Beckwith, and Giorgio F. Gilestro. "Most sleep does not serve a vital function: Evidence from Drosophila melanogaster." Science advances 5.2 (2019): eaau9253.

[00:48:23] Sleep deprivation leads to ROS accumulation in the fly and mouse gut; Study: Vaccaro, Alexandra, et al. "Sleep loss can cause death through accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the gut." Cell 181.6 (2020): 1307-1328.

[00:50:25] Effects of circadian disruption on risk of dying in mice: Davidson, A. J., et al. "Chronic jet-lag increases mortality in aged mice." Current biology 16.21 (2006): R914-R916. Likely due to immune disruption; Study: Stowie, Adam, et al. "A reductionist, in vitro model of environmental circadian disruption demonstrates SCN-independent and tissue-specific dysregulation of inflammatory responses." Plos one 14.5 (2019): e0217368.

[00:51:20] Sleep deprivation associated with DNA damage; Study: Carroll, Judith E., et al. "Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans." Brain, behavior, and immunity 51 (2016): 223-229.

[00:52:50] Poor sleep increases pneumonia risk; Study: Patel, Sanjay R., et al. "A prospective study of sleep duration and pneumonia risk in women." Sleep 35.1 (2012): 97-101.

[00:53:55] Sleep habits and susceptibility to colds; Study: Prather, Aric A., and Cindy W. Leung. "Association of insufficient sleep with respiratory infection among adults in the United States." JAMA internal medicine 176.6 (2016): 850-852.

[00:54:26] Swedish study finds no relationship between sleep and cold susceptibility: Ghilotti, Francesca, et al. "Physical activity, sleep and risk of respiratory infections: A Swedish cohort study." PloS one 13.1 (2018): e0190270.

[00:54:47] Sleeping less associated with increased susceptibility to cold virus; Study: Cohen, Sheldon, et al. "Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold." Archives of internal medicine 169.1 (2009): 62-67.

[00:55:47] Sleep (assessed with wrist devices) and susceptibility to the common cold; Study: Prather, Aric A., et al. "Behaviorally assessed sleep and susceptibility to the common cold." Sleep 38.9 (2015): 1353-1359.

[00:56:13] Timing of physical activity and sleep and COVID-19 risk; Study: Rowlands AV, Kloecker DE, Chudasama Y, et al. “Association of Timing and Balance of Physical Activity and Rest/Sleep With Risk of COVID-19: A UK Biobank Study.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2020.

[00:57:45] COVID-19 risk higher for shift workers; Study: Rizza, S., et al. "High body mass index and night shift work are associated with COVID-19 in health care workers." Journal of Endocrinological Investigation (2020): 1-5.

[00:58:37] Worse sleep in hospital associated with increased need for ICU (COVID-19); Study: Zhang, Jiancheng, et al. "Poor-sleep is associated with slow recovery from lymphopenia and an increased need for ICU care in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study." Brain, behavior, and immunity 88 (2020): 50-58.

[00:59:05] Accuracy of sleep monitoring devices. 

[01:01:02] Sleep and response to vaccination.

[01:01:40] Antibody response to vaccination reduced with sleep deprivation; Study: Spiegel, Karine, John F. Sheridan, and Eve Van Cauter. "Effect of sleep deprivation on response to immunization." Jama 288.12 (2002): 1471-1472.

[01:02:31] Sleep-deprived men have lower antibody levels 5 days after H1N1 vaccine: Benedict, Christian, et al. "Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza A H1N1 virus vaccination." BMC immunology 13.1 (2012): 1-5.

[01:03:01] Sleep enhances antibody response to vaccination; Studies: 1. Lange, Tanja, et al. "Sleep enhances the human antibody response to hepatitis A vaccination." Psychosomatic medicine 65.5 (2003): 831-835; 2. Lange, Tanja, et al. "Sleep after vaccination boosts immunological memory." The Journal of Immunology 187.1 (2011): 283-290.

[01:03:37] Less sleep associated with worse antibody production after Hep-B vaccine; Study: Prather, Aric A., et al. "Sleep and antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination." Sleep 35.8 (2012): 1063-1069.

[01:04:54] Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine reduce transmission of COVID-19; Study: Voysey, Merryn, et al. "Single dose administration, and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine." (2021).

[01:06:33] Syndemic, rather than pandemic; Article: Horton, Richard. "Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic." Lancet (London, England) 396.10255 (2020): 874.

[01:07:04] CDC: Narcolepsy Following 2009 Pandemrix Influenza Vaccination in Europe.

[01:10:48] Article (11/26/20): Peter Doshi: Pfizer and Moderna’s “95% effective” vaccines—let’s be cautious and first see the full data; Follow up article (1/4/21): Peter Doshi: Pfizer and Moderna’s “95% effective” vaccines—we need more details and the raw data.

[01:11:12] Paul Offit, MD on Peter Attia's podcast.

[01:12:14] Pandemic-specific tips to sleep better.

[01:12:25] Sleep apnea - STOP-Bang questionnaire; Meta-analysis: Chen, Lina, et al. "Validation of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for screening of obstructive sleep apnea in the general population and commercial drivers: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Sleep and Breathing (2021): 1-11.

[01:15:03] Worsened sleep quality - what to do.

[01:15:58] CBT-Insomnia therapy (CBTI) reduces C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; Study: Irwin, Michael R., et al. "Cognitive behavioral therapy and tai chi reverse cellular and genomic markers of inflammation in late-life insomnia: a randomized controlled trial." Biological psychiatry 78.10 (2015): 721-729.

[01:16:24] Stimulus control.

[01:17:53] Screen time; More smart phone use associated with worse sleep and mood problems; Study: Demirci, Kadir, Mehmet Akgönül, and Abdullah Akpinar. "Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students." Journal of behavioral addictions 4.2 (2015): 85-92.

[01:18:37] Avoiding phone use 30 minutes before bed leads to better sleep, mood, and memory; Study: He, Jing-wen, et al. "Effect of restricting bedtime mobile phone use on sleep, arousal, mood, and working memory: A randomized pilot trial." PloS one 15.2 (2020): e0228756.

[01:19:03] Problem-based coping strategies; scheduled worry time.

[01:20:32] Boosting your slow-wave sleep.

[01:20:53] Hot shower before bed helps with falling asleep faster; Study: Haghayegh, Shahab, et al. "Before-bedtime passive body heating by warm shower or bath to improve sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Sleep medicine reviews 46 (2019): 124-135.

[01:21:24] Lucid dreaming training.

[01:22:00] Managing insomnia using lucid dreaming; Study: Ellis, Jason G., Joseph De Koninck, and Celyne H. Bastien. "Managing Insomnia Using Lucid Dreaming Training: A Pilot Study." Behavioral sleep medicine (2020): 1-11.

[01:25:30] Napping.

[01:26:48] How to get better sleep in a noisy environment (e.g., a hospital).

[01:27:39] Melatonin supplementation.

[01:29:18] Strava 2020 Year in Sport report.

[01:29:43] David Nieman’s J-shaped model of relationship between varying amounts of exercise and risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI); Nieman, David C. "Risk of upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: an epidemiologic and immunologic perspective." Journal of athletic training 32.4 (1997): 344.

[01:30:39] Podcast: How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia, with Ashley Mason, PhD.

[01:30:48] Greg's articles on optimising sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast.

[01:31:32] Where to find Greg: InstagramGreg’s websiteResilient Nutrition, ebook on the Principles of Resilient Nutrition; Blog post: How to Fuel for an Ultramarathon: The Ultimate Guide.

Feb 12, 2021
How to Automatically Adapt Your Training Plan
51:34

Paul Laursen, PhD is an athlete, author, endurance coach, high-performance consultant and entrepreneur. He’s published over 125 peer-reviewed papers in exercise and sports science journals, and his work has been cited more than 8,000 times. We’ve had Paul on the podcast before to talk about High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), as described in his book and brought to life in his online course

On this podcast, Paul describes how he’s taken HIIT training to a new level by creating the Athletica software, to help athletes train smarter, not harder. Using the principles in his book, this software can adapt a plan based on your current fitness levels, goals, training sessions and life. As an athlete and software developer, I couldn’t resist asking Paul some tough questions about how it all works.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Paul Laursen:

[00:02:56] Paul's previous podcasts: Why Do and How to High Intensity Interval Training and Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training.

[00:03:08] Paul’s Book: Science and Application of High-Intensity Interval Training: Solutions to the Programming Puzzle and video training course.

[00:03:22] High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) - periods of exercise in your red zone.

[00:04:25] Why to do HIIT.

[00:05:41] Book:  Fast After 50: How to Race Strong for the Rest of Your Life, by Joe Friel.

[00:06:21] STEM Talk Podcast: Episode 116: Marcas Bamman on the many benefits of exercise and strength training.

[00:07:58] David Raichlen podcast: Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise.

[00:09:18] Athletica.ai.

[00:21:33] The role of the human coaching relationship.

[00:24:40] Figuring subjective experience into recommended training; Sentiment analysis.

[00:28:41] Integrating software.

[00:30:24] Strava 2020 Year in Sport report.

[00:31:42] Garmin ecosystem; Garmin Connect.

[00:35:04] Oura ringHRV4Training app.

[00:41:13] Book: The Best Interface is No Interface, by Golden Krishna.

[00:41:54] Sports serviced by the software.

[00:47:14] HIIT science website.

[00:48:05] Ambassador program.

Feb 05, 2021
Understanding Histamine Intolerance: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments
39:51

Over time we’ve seen an increasing number of clients come to us with symptoms of histamine intolerance, including seasonal allergies, headaches, skin issues and digestive problems. And although doctors would likely treat these as separate conditions, we believe common root causes are certainly at play. We’ve learned that histamine problems often originate in the gut, but environmental and lifestyle factors can definitely make them worse.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall and I discuss histamine intolerance, including causes, symptoms, and potential treatments. We talk about why this condition is difficult to diagnose, and some of the signs that suggest your “histamine bucket” is overflowing. Megan describes the best options for fixing the problem at the source, including diet, supplements, and environmental changes.

Be sure to see the show notes to get the outline Megan wrote to prepare for this podcast. It’s an excellent resource for anyone who has seasonal allergies or suspects they may have histamine intolerance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:01:10] Chris's history with histamine.

[00:03:32] Methylation.

[00:03:59] What is histamine?

[00:05:55] Symptoms of histamine intolerance.

[00:07:21] Causes of histamine intolerance.

[00:08:19] Enzymes that break down histamine.

[00:09:41] Outline for this podcast.

[00:11:04] Lucy Mailing, PhD.; Podcasts: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome and Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions.

[00:11:16] Lucy Mailing’s blog post: The oxygen-gut dysbiosis connection; Study: Schink, M., et al. "Microbial patterns in patients with histamine intolerance." J Physiol Pharmacol 69.4 (2018): 579-93.

[00:12:11] Effects of stress.

[00:13:49] The Coping Resilience and Mental Toughness Workshop with Simon Marshall, PhD and triathlete Lesley Paterson.

[00:14:05] Estrogen excess.

[00:15:59] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:16:41] Impact of genetic polymorphisms.

[00:17:37] The histamine "bucket" and individual tolerance.

[00:18:20] Testing for histamine intolerance.

[00:21:00] What to do if you're sensitive to histamine (or have allergies).

[00:21:28] Supplements: mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, DAO enzyme; Study: Schnedl, Wolfgang J., et al. "Diamine oxidase supplementation improves symptoms in patients with histamine intolerance." Food science and biotechnology 28.6 (2019): 1779-1784.

[00:22:24] Thorne Quercetin Phytosome; Study: Riva, Antonella, et al. "Improved oral absorption of quercetin from quercetin phytosome®, a new delivery system based on food grade lecithin." European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics 44.2 (2019): 169-177.

[00:23:05] Over the counter antihistamines.

[00:24:01] Dietary restriction (short term).

[00:24:33] No perfect food elimination list; Paper: Martin, I. San Mauro, S. Brachero, and E. Garicano Vilar. "Histamine intolerance and dietary management: A complete review." Allergologia et immunopathologia 44.5 (2016): 475-483.

[00:27:40] Stress; Study: Eutamene, Helene, et al. "Acute stress modulates the histamine content of mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract through interleukin‐1 and corticotropin‐releasing factor release in rats." The Journal of physiology 553.3 (2003): 959-966.

[00:29:08] High priority: fixing the gut.

[00:29:22] Paleo Diet; Book: The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat, by Loren Cordain.

[00:29:25] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:29:44] Gut testing.

[00:30:10] EnteromendGI-ReviveSBI Protect, herbal antimicrobials.

[00:31:41] What didn't work for Chris.

[00:34:22] Seasonal allergies.

[00:36:58] Review papers on histamine: Maintz, Laura, and Natalija Novak. "Histamine and histamine intolerance." The American journal of clinical nutrition 85.5 (2007): 1185-1196 and Comas-Basté, Oriol, et al. "Histamine intolerance: The current state of the art." Biomolecules 10.8 (2020): 1181.

[00:37:08] Book a free 15-minute starter session.

Jan 29, 2021
The Nutrition and Science of Natural Bodybuilding
47:39

Eric Helms, PhD is a New Zealand-based coach, athlete, author, and educator. A trainer since the early 2000s, he coaches drug-free strength and physique competitors at all levels. Eric has competed since the mid-2000s and earned pro status as a natural bodybuilder in 2011 and competes at international level events as an unequipped powerlifter. Eric has also published multiple peer-reviewed articles in exercise science and nutrition journals and writes for commercial fitness publications.

On this podcast, Eric gives us a glimpse into the world of natural bodybuilding, including the cyclical weight loss and regain pattern required for competition in the sport, and the rigorous controls in place to prevent banned substance use amongst competitors. Eric explains why most people should probably not eat like a bodybuilder, and offers tips for athletes interested in optimizing body composition. He also describes the mindset needed to attain sustainable results in fitness and sport.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Eric Helms:

[00:00:29] Mikki Williden, PhD; NBT Podcast: Women Athletes: Nutrition, Supplementation, and Hormones; Mikki’s podcast, Mikkipedia.

[00:00:31] Cliff Harvey, PhD; NBT Podcast: Finding a Carbohydrate-Appropriate Diet for Nutrition, Health, and Performance; Cliff’s podcast, The Carb-Appropriate Podcast.

[00:00:59] Eric’s podcast: Iron Culture PodcastMASS Research Review: Train Smarter With Science.

[00:02:28] Natural bodybuilding.

[00:09:28] Doping violations; Study: Engelberg, Terry, Stephen Moston, and James Skinner. "The final frontier of anti-doping: A study of athletes who have committed doping violations." Sport Management Review 18.2 (2015): 268-279.

[00:12:23] Questions from Mike T Nelson, Megan Hall, and Zach Moore; Mike T Nelson’s appearances on the podcast: 12345.

[00:12:40] Lifting performance vs. physique.

[00:16:17] Nutrition and exercise for body building vs. healthy body composition.

[00:22:42] Simultaneously losing fat and building muscle.

[00:26:05] Reverse dieting and recovery.

[00:32:16] Eating according to internal cues vs. tracking macros and calories.

[00:37:22] Intuitive eating vs. mindful eating.

[00:38:05] How much to eat to maintain or lose weight to avoid low energy availability.

[00:38:40] Mark Sisson.

[00:42:15] Video: The BEST Home Workout To Prevent Muscle Loss (And Even Build Some!) ft. Eric Helms.

[00:45:30] Find Eric on Instagram and at 3D Muscle Journey.

Jan 22, 2021
How to Develop Coping Resilience and Mental Toughness
57:06

These days it’s easy to find yourself feeling tense or anxious. If social distancing and the threat of a global pandemic aren’t enough, just add a dose of political mayhem or a strained relationship and you’ve got a recipe for stress. What I’ve learned from performance psychologist Simon Marshall is that your brain and nervous system manage everything about you, including your ability to cope and overcome the difficulties of life.

In this podcast, Simon and I are discussing some cutting edge ways to master your nervous system and manage stressful moments. Simon shares some evidence-based techniques that involve breathing, vocalization, and eye movement, to manage stress and help you avoid limbic system overwhelm. And as powerful as these practices are, I know they are just a few of the tools Simon has in his performance coaching arsenal.

If you enjoy this podcast, I hope you’ll consider joining us in the upcoming Coping Resilience and Mental Toughness Workshop, with Simon and world champion triathlete Lesley Paterson. The workshop content is approximately five hours of prerecorded video and is largely self-paced, along with four 30-minute live group coaching sessions with Simon and Les to answer questions and help you navigate real-world situations.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:01:49] Strava 2020 Year in Sport report.

[00:03:23] Benefits of outdoor exercise.

[00:03:42] Neuroscience research: 1. Yilmaz, Melis, and Andrew D. Huberman. "Fear: It’s All in Your Line of Sight." Current Biology 29.23 (2019): R1232-R1234; 2. González, Anabel, Lucía del Río-Casanova, and Ania Justo-Alonso. "Integrating neurobiology of emotion regulation and trauma therapy: Reflections on EMDR therapy." Reviews in the Neurosciences 28.4 (2017): 431-440.

[00:04:34] Self-generated optic flow.

[00:04:41] Neuroscientist Andrew Huberman; The Huberman Lab at Stanford.

[00:09:40] Physiologic sigh; Studies: 1. Li, Peng, et al. "The peptidergic control circuit for sighing." Nature 530.7590 (2016): 293-297; 2. Yackle, Kevin, et al. "Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice." Science 355.6332 (2017): 1411-1415; 3. Salay, Lindsey D., Nao Ishiko, and Andrew D. Huberman. "A midline thalamic circuit determines reactions to visual threat." Nature 557.7704 (2018): 183-189.

[00:14:56] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe, with Stephen Porges.

[00:22:50] Chimp Purge; Study: Lieberman, Matthew D., et al. "Putting feelings into words." Psychological science 18.5 (2007): 421-428.

[00:28:41] Podcast: How to Have Intimacy With Ease, with Jessa Zimmerman.

[00:28:51] Podcast: NBT People: Mark Alexander.

[00:30:34] Podcast: A Guide to Flawed Studies with Richard Feinman.

[00:36:33] Stress management; Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:38:23] Values guided action exercise; Russ Harris.

[00:38:37] Habit formation, habit stacking.

[00:41:49] Dopamine + noradrenaline =  motivated action.

[00:43:59] Leveraging physiology during unpleasant activities.

[00:44:27] Book: Radical Candor (Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.

[00:44:50] Getting and giving feedback.

[00:46:41] Motivational interviewing; helping people change their behavior.

[00:48:26] Book: Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depended on It, by Chris Voss.

[00:49:24] Book: Thank You for Arguing, Fourth Edition (Revised and Updated): What Aristotle, Lincoln, and Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion, by Jay Heinrichs.

[00:49:50] Book: The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure, by Jonathan Haidt.

[00:53:15] Sign up for the Coping Resilience and Mental Toughness Workshop.

[00:53:40] The Xterra Podcast.

Jan 15, 2021
Women Athletes: Nutrition, Supplementation, and Hormones
01:13:24

Mikki Williden, PhD is a Registered Nutritionist and a Senior Lecturer at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand. She runs an online nutrition coaching programme and has privately consulted with clients since 2006. Mikki co-hosts the Fitter Radio weekly endurance sports podcast and recently launched her own podcast, Mikkipedia, where she has conversations with experts in health and nutrition. She is also a runner and is passionate about health, longevity, nutrition, and activity. 

On the podcast today, Mikki talks with Megan Hall about nutritional and training considerations for women athletes. They discuss the timing of meals and supplements around training and preparing for race nutrition, with consideration given to cyclical hormonal fluctuations. Mikki discusses current research on fueling before exercise, and the importance of adequate protein (and what that actually means!). They also discuss the common problem of under-eating and chronic low energy availability.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Mikki Williden:

[00:00:21] Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:00:57] Mikki's background.

[00:02:26] Menstrual cycle, athletic performance, and nutrition.

[00:08:26] Meta analysis: McNulty, Kelly Lee, et al. "The effects of menstrual cycle phase on exercise performance in eumenorrheic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Sports medicine (2020): 1-15.

[00:14:04] Nutritional factors impacting bloating, cramping and cyclical inflammation.

[00:17:13] Protein as a focus for female athletes.

[00:20:28] Stuart PhillipsLuc Van Loon.

[00:22:33] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:23:21] The importance of biomedical testing.

[00:26:03] Underfueling early in the day.

[00:27:36] Meal timing and hormones; Studies: 1. Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl, et al. "Within‐day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 28.3 (2018): 1139-1146; 2. Torstveit, Monica Klungland, et al. "Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 28.4 (2018): 419-427.

[00:28:36] Low carb/ketogenic diets and fasting.

[00:35:03] Sleep low, train low.

[00:35:53] Study: Impey, Samuel G., et al. "Fuel for the work required: a theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis." Sports Medicine 48.5 (2018): 1031-1048.

[00:37:01] Study: Rothschild, Jeffrey A., Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews. "What Should I Eat before Exercise? Pre-Exercise Nutrition and the Response to Endurance Exercise: Current Prospective and Future Directions." Nutrients 12.11 (2020): 3473.

[00:38:16] Blog post: What to eat before training: a research update, by Mikki Williden, PhD.

[00:38:53] Fueling for training.

[00:41:08] Practicing for race nutrition.

[00:43:23] Timing of carbohydrate intake.

[00:47:19] Chronic/acute low energy availability.

[00:48:33] Eric Helms.

[00:54:21] Meeting an athlete’s nutritional needs.

[01:01:48] Peri- and post-menopausal training and nutritional considerations.

[01:04:40] Protein needs in isolation vs mixed meal; Study: Kim, Il-Young, et al. "The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults." American journal of physiology-endocrinology and metabolism 310.1 (2016): E73-E80.

[01:06:10] Hormonal fluctuations and gut health.

[01:07:07] Digestive enzymes.

[01:08:18] Branched-chain amino acids; Dr. Gabrielle Lyon.

[01:09:41] Where to find Mikki: mikkiwilliden.comFITTER Radio PodcastConsult with Mikkimeal plansFacebookMikkipedia Podcast.

Jan 08, 2021
Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise
48:55

David Raichlen, PhD. is a Professor of Human And Evolutionary Biology at the University of Southern California. His work explores how physical activity drove key aspects of human evolution, helping to explain how and why inactivity underlies many chronic diseases today. Combining aspects of biomechanics, physiology and neuroscience with analysis of movement patterns of ancient humans, his work helps to explain how we can use an evolutionary context to improve modern-day health.

On the podcast today, David talks about the links between human evolution, physical activity, and health across the lifespan. He discusses the impact of exercise on brain health and neurogenesis and explains why an active lifestyle may be critical for those genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease. He also describes the biological mechanism behind the “runner’s high” that suggests humans are “wired to run”.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with David Raichlen:

[00:00:11] Herman Pontzer, PhD; Book: Burn: New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy (coming out in March 2021).

[00:00:43] Paper: Pontzer, H., B. M. Wood, and David A. Raichlen. "Hunter‐gatherers as models in public health." Obesity Reviews 19 (2018): 24-35.

[00:01:27] Working with Hadza; Brian Wood, PhD, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at UCLA.

[00:02:07] Exercise and brain health.

[00:03:24] Neurogenesis.

[00:04:08] Rodents in enriched environments; Study: Kempermann, Gerd, H. Georg Kuhn, and Fred H. Gage. "More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment." Nature 386.6624 (1997): 493-495.

[00:05:10] Adaptive Capacity model; Paper: Raichlen, David A., and Gene E. Alexander. "Adaptive capacity: an evolutionary neuroscience model linking exercise, cognition, and brain health." Trends in neurosciences 40.7 (2017): 408-421.

[00:10:01] APOE4; Study: Raichlen, David A., and Gene E. Alexander. "Exercise, APOE genotype, and the evolution of the human lifespan." Trends in neurosciences 37.5 (2014): 247-255.

[00:12:20] Study: Trumble, Benjamin C., et al. "Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager‐horticulturalists with a high parasite burden." The FASEB Journal 31.4 (2017): 1508-1515.

[00:13:34] Resistance training.

[00:14:20] Megan Hall; Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:15:18] BDNF upregulation through exercise.

[00:16:28] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristin Hawkes.

[00:17:46] Structural associations of exercise in middle age. Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Differential associations of engagement in physical activity and estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with brain volume in middle-aged to older adults." Brain Imaging and Behavior (2019): 1-10.

[00:17:46] Brain connectivity associations among young athletes; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Differences in resting state functional connectivity between young adult endurance athletes and healthy controls." Frontiers in human neuroscience 10 (2016): 610.

[00:21:30] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:22:21] Optimal duration and intensity of exercise.

[00:23:38] Types of exercise that are most beneficial.

[00:25:32] Exercise-induced endocannabinoid system.

[00:27:20] Endocannabinoid upregulation following exercise in humans, dogs, and ferrets; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high’." Journal of Experimental Biology 215.8 (2012): 1331-1336.

[00:29:11] Self-generated optic flow; Articles: Yilmaz, Melis, and Andrew D. Huberman. "Fear: It’s All in Your Line of Sight." Current Biology 29.23 (2019): R1232-R1234 and González, Anabel, Lucía del Río-Casanova, and Ania Justo-Alonso. "Integrating neurobiology of emotion regulation and trauma therapy: Reflections on EMDR therapy." Reviews in the Neurosciences 28.4 (2017): 431-440.

[00:30:23] Minimizing environmental mismatch.

[00:30:39] Sitting in hunter gatherers; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117.13 (2020): 7115-7121.

[00:37:56] Exercise intensity and endocannabinoid signaling; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity." European journal of applied physiology 113.4 (2013): 869-875.

[00:41:14] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping, 3rd Edition, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:42:40] Scientific American article: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise, by David A. Raichlen and Gene E. Alexander.

[00:43:00] New Scientist article: How changing the way you sit could add years to your life, by Herman Pontzer and David Raichlen.

[00:45:45] Find David at University of Southern California’s Department of Biological Sciences.

Jan 01, 2021
Finding a Carbohydrate-Appropriate Diet for Nutrition, Health, and Performance
01:04:41

Cliff Harvey, PhD, is a New Zealand-based author, nutritionist, researcher, and speaker. He is also a Qualified Naturopath, a strength and nutrition coach of 20 years, and an IAWA Weightlifting World Champion (2004 & 2007). Over the years he has consulted for all types of athletes, from champion fighters and cyclists to yacht teams and rugby unions. He currently works with clients and conducts research at Auckland University of Technology, while also growing his online collection of educational videos on nutrition, health, and performance.

On this podcast, Cliff talks about the diagnosis that propelled him into studying nutrition and the critical lessons he learned while recovering. He talks about his research on the ketogenic diet, including what actually causes “keto flu” and how best to overcome it quickly. We also discuss carbohydrate-appropriate diets, and how to figure out the carb intake that’s right for you.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Cliff Harvey:

[00:00:38] Mikky Williden, PhD. Podcast featuring Mikki as interviewer: How I Used Ancestral Health to Boost My Energy and Start a Business.

[00:02:29] Diagnosed with Crohn's Disease.

[00:06:42] Studying nutrition.

[00:07:32] Crohn's in remission.

[00:08:31] Reducing stress and building a lifestyle conducive to health.

[00:13:22] Competitive weightlifting.

[00:18:43] Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.  Podcast with Brad Stulberg: How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout.

[00:22:15] Protein first; Ketogenic and low-carb diets.

[00:26:51] Paperpile.

[00:27:01] “Keto flu”; Study: Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., Grant M. Schofield, and Micalla Williden. "The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review." PeerJ 6 (2018): e4488.

[00:29:44] Effects of 3 low-carb diets; Study: Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., et al. "Low-carbohydrate diets differing in carbohydrate restriction improve cardiometabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults: A randomised clinical trial." PeerJ 7 (2019): e6273.

[00:31:01] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:32:24] Lessening symptoms of keto flu.

[00:34:58] Eric Helms, PhD; outcomes based nutrition.

[00:37:24] Eric Helms on Cliff’s podcast: The Bodybuilding Contest Prep Diet Debate.

[00:37:44] The Carb-Appropriate Podcast.

[00:39:48] Figuring out the carb intake that is appropriate for you.

[00:41:13] Book: The Carbohydrate Appropriate Diet: Go beyond low-carb diets to lose weight fast, and improve energy and performance, without counting calories, by Cliff Harvey; Other books by Cliff.

[00:45:03] Sami Inkinen, CEO and Founder of Virta Health.

[00:50:51] Cliff’s courses: The Holistic Performance Institute.

[00:53:24] Autoregulation.

[00:57:40] COVID situation in New Zealand; Cliff’s podcast with Simon Thornley, PhD: Are lockdowns effective for mitigating the effects of the COVID pandemic?

Dec 18, 2020
How to Avoid Chronic Pain, Improve Mobility and Feel 100% Confident in Your Lifting
01:00:44

Abel Romero, DPT, TPI, RYT 200 is a licensed physical therapist and movement coach with a Doctorate of Physical Therapy from UC San Francisco/San Francisco State University. He has worked with a wide range of clients, from high-performing athletes to women postpartum and seniors. He is fascinated not only with helping others achieve a high level of health and well-being, but also with the science and art of improving skill, preventing pain, and having fun through movement.

On this podcast, Abel and I discuss how humans evolved to move, and the role of pain in avoiding injury. Abel talks about some of the common issues that lead to pain in our culture and why moving harder and faster is critical for long-term fitness and healthspan. I’m excited to announce Abel has partnered with us to lead a group program in January 2021. He’ll be working with us on how to avoid chronic pain, improve mobility and feel total confidence in lifting through mindful movement practice, functional training, and plyometric and power training. By the end of the program, you’ll have greater control, ability to generate power, and awareness of how your body interacts with its environment.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Abel Romero:

[00:01:25] Early interest in movement and physical therapy.

[00:05:51] Book Free to Learn, by Peter Gray; Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray.

[00:07:29] Book: Play Anything: The Pleasure of Limits, the Uses of Boredom, and the Secret of Games, by Ian Bogost.

[00:11:24] Book: The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure, by Jonathan Haidt and Greg Lukianoff.

[00:13:00] Pain.

[00:18:26] Herman Pontzer, PhDDaniel Lieberman, PhD.

[00:19:32] Hadza of Tanzania squatting “better than a baby”.

[00:22:30] Videos: Why Things Hurt and The Pain Revolution with Lorimer Moseley.

[00:26:15] Common issues that lead to pain in our culture.

[00:29:37] Exercise.

[00:30:38] Doing things harder, faster, with more precision.

[00:36:42] How movement changed during pandemic.

[00:38:50] Simon Marshall, PhD; Self-generated optic flow as the basis of EMDR therapy.

[00:41:54] Posture.

[00:47:08] Katy Bowman; Podcast: Move Your DNA with Katy Bowman

[00:48:33] 4-quadrant model.

[00:50:12] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance, with Zac Cupples.

[00:50:55] Remote coaching with Abel.

[00:52:36] The value of group programs; Podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, with James Maskell.

[00:56:55] Sign up for the group program with Abel, beginning in January 2021.

[00:57:04] Abel’s websiteabel@moveintelligently.comInstagram.

Dec 11, 2020
How I Used Ancestral Health to Boost My Energy and Start a Business
01:19:03

Mikki Williden, PhD is a Registered Nutritionist in Auckland, New Zealand specializing in sports and performance nutrition. I met Mikki at the Ancestral Health Symposium in Boulder, Colorado in 2016, and she has recently launched a new podcast called Mikkipedia as an exploration of all things health, well being, fitness, food and nutrition. She kindly invited me on as a guest, which of course is a role reversal for me.

On this podcast, Mikki and I discuss my personal health journey and what motivated me to start NBT. We get into some detail, including what my life looked like before I knew anything about health and the specific steps that got me headed in the right direction. We talk about bike racing and business and how both have evolved for me, as well as the habits that I’ve built to maintain my current state of health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Mikki Williden:

[00:00:19] Christopher Kelly on Robb Wolf’s Paleo Solution podcast.

[00:01:50] Robb Wolf’s podcast, The Healthy Rebellion.

[00:02:24] Chris's health journey.

[00:03:18] Mikki’s interview with Greg Potter, on The Mikkipedia Podcast.

[00:04:21] Book: The Paleo Diet for Athletes: The Ancient Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance, by Loren Cordain and Joe Friel.

[00:05:38] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) diet.

[00:06:45] Chris Kelly on Ben Greenfield's podcast.

[00:11:36] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); with Nicky Keay.

[00:14:51] Mickey Trescott’s books on AIP.

[00:17:22] Framing interventions in terms of performance.

[00:20:43] Diet changes over time.

[00:20:59] Keto Summit; Jeremy and Louise Hendon.

[00:21:59] Dom D’Agostino, PhD.

[00:22:53] Problems with the Keto diet.

[00:24:15] Podcasts featuring Katie compton and Jeremy Powers.

[00:26:01] Racing and fueling.

[00:28:25] Changing goals: from performance to healthspan.

[00:30:51] Book: Tiny Habits: The Small Changes That Change Everything, by BJ Fogg, PhD.

[00:31:04] B Strong blood flow restriction training; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan, with Jim Stray-Gundersen, MD.

[00:35:33] NBT over time - changes in approach.

[00:37:44] Supervised machine learning; bloodsmart.ai.

[00:40:09] Stephen Genuis, PhD; Multiple studies on toxicants excreted in sweat.

[00:44:11] Identifying your values; Motivational interviewingAcceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

[00:45:49] Services offered by NBT; book a free 15-minute starter session.

[00:46:54] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:48:39] Intermountain Risk Score. Study: Horne BD, May HT, Muhlestein JB, Ronnow BS, Lappé DL, Renlund DG, et al. Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests. Am J Med. 2009;122: 550–558.

[00:48:57] PhenoAge; Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall.

[00:52:32] Supplements: Thorne Multi-Vitamin EliteThorne Creatine.

[00:54:56] A day in the life of Chris Kelly.

[00:56:30] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:59:49] California wildfires.

[01:02:28] Cliff Harvey.

[01:03:04] Influential podcast guests.

[01:03:41] Podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[01:04:38] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[01:04:48] Josh Turknett, MD, president of Physicians for Ancestral Health; Podcasts include The Migraine MiracleHow to Protect Your Brain from Decline, and How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development.

[01:05:51] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joe Henrich.

[01:06:44] My Migraine Miracle; Book: Migraine Miracle: A Sugar-Free, Gluten-Free Ancestral Diet to Reduce Inflammation and Relieve Your Headaches for Good; Video: Migraine as the Hypothalamic Distress Signal — Joshua Turknett, M.D. (AHS14).

[01:08:44] How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm - AHS19. Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution4-quadrant model.  

[01:14:05] NBT’s retainer program.

Dec 04, 2020
You Literally Bled for That Data. Now What?
01:04:35

It’s been about three years since NBT began using supervised machine learning to predict the results of more expensive or unattainable biomedical tests. With our bloodsmart.ai software, we can forecast infections and inflammation, xenobiotic and heavy metal toxicity, and metabolic health indicators like fatty liver and elevated insulin - all without directly testing these markers. As a result, we’ve dramatically shifted our clinical work away from direct testing, instead focusing on basic blood chemistry and supervised machine learning to guide decision making. It's one of the things I'm proudest of building.

Sometimes I get asked how bloodsmart.ai compares to other blood chemistry programs. I used the other programs for years before coding my own, and rather than ML, they use what I call “hand-rolled algorithms.” For example, if alkaline phosphatase is low, then it must be a zinc deficiency. Unfortunately, biology is way more complicated than that, and supplementing with zinc with just one indicator never helps.

On this podcast, my Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are discussing how to interpret the forecast on a bloodsmart.ai report and how we use the results in our work with clients. We talk a little about how the algorithms work under the hood and how we know the forecasts have predictive value. We also explain what might be going on when the forecasts don’t match direct testing. 

To get the most out of this podcast, be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Megan Hall:

[00:04:39] bloodsmart.ai software.

[00:04:47] Supervised machine learning.

[00:06:36] Pain as the amazing protectometer; Video: Pain, the brain and your amazing protectometer - Lorimer Moseley.

[00:08:25] Karl Friston.

[00:09:38] eLife podcast and eLife Journal.

[00:10:06] Machine learning in embryology: Bormann, Charles L., et al. "Performance of a deep learning based neural network in the selection of human blastocysts for implantation." Elife 9 (2020): e55301.

[00:12:16] Machine learning for identifying prostate cancer: Hood, Simon P., et al. "Identifying prostate cancer and its clinical risk in asymptomatic men using machine learning of high dimensional peripheral blood flow cytometric natural killer cell subset phenotyping data." Elife 9 (2020): e50936.

[00:13:18] Podcast: How to Interpret Your White Blood Cell Count with Megan Hall.

[00:14:38] Paper: Wood, Thomas R., et al. "An interpretable machine learning model of biological age." F1000Research 8.17 (2019): 17.

[00:14:53] Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall. 

[00:15:24] How do we know the models have skill? Article: A Gentle Introduction to k-fold Cross-Validation.

[00:17:40] What the forecasts are and what they’re not.

[00:19:18] A "cloudy crystal ball".

[00:23:21] Using bloodsmart.ai forecasts in clinical practice.

[00:24:25] Book: How to Decide: Simple Tools for Making Better Choices, by Annie Duke.

[00:26:17] The “Archer's Mindset”: The value of taking aim.

[00:28:09] Podcast: Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome, with Jodi Flaws, PhD. 

[00:28:45] Article: How to do better at darts and life

[00:32:33] Health history and symptoms; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) (example).

[00:35:30] 7 minute analysis.

[00:36:53] bloodsmart.ai bar chart (example).

[00:37:56] Food journaling.

[00:42:27] Environmental Working Group’s Skin Deep and Healthy Living AppThink Dirty Shop Clean App.

[00:43:03] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:44:23] Titanium bottle kickstarter: Keego.

[00:46:04] Discrepancies between forecast and directly measured marker.

[00:48:42] Forecasts that tend to be seen together.

[00:53:34] Forecast detail view (example).

[00:55:30] Josh Turknett's 4-Quadrant Model

[00:58:22] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[01:01:38] Book a free 15-minute starter session.

Nov 27, 2020
Health Coaching: How to Get Trained and Build a Business
01:01:55

My guests today are certified Primal Health Coaches Laura Rupsis and Erin Power. Both maintain successful private practices while training others through Mark Sisson’s Primal Health Coach Institute (PHCI) and collaborating as hosts of the Health Coach Radio podcast. As the admissions director for PHCI, Laura is also behind the friendly voice you’ll reach when you’re seeking information about training as a health coach.

On this podcast Laura, Erin and I are talking about becoming a health coach: the training, the clients, and strategies for growing a successful practice. We look at some of the recent developments in the field, including national board certification and the new PHCI Level 2 Certification Course, recently introduced to meet the board requirements. We also discuss finding your niche, getting clients, and a realistic timeline for building a coaching business.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Laura Rupsis and Erin Power:

[00:02:26] Mark Sisson.

[00:01:20] Erin's health journey.

[00:03:02] Laura's health journey.

[00:10:43] Simon Marshall, PhD and triathlete Lesley PatersonValues Guided Actions Worksheet.

[00:12:47] Podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, with James Maskell.

[00:16:07] Do you need a credential to be a health coach?

[00:19:21] Information does not cause change.

[00:20:29] National Board for Health and Wellness Coaching (NBHWC).

[00:23:48] Primal Health Coach Level 2 Certification Course.

[00:31:07] Getting clients as a health coach, finding your niche.

[00:40:25] Dr. Jade Teta, women's hormone specialist.

[00:45:51] Building your coaching practice.

[00:48:55] Getting traffic; problems with Facebook.

[00:51:06] Superhuman email interface.

[00:52:44] Is health coaching scalable?

[00:54:36] Toastmasters for public speaking.

[00:57:43] Primal Health Coach InstituteBook a call with LauraFacebookInstagram.

[00:58:19] Health Coaching Success Virtual MasterclassEnroll here.

[00:58:40] Health Coach Radio podcast.

 
Nov 20, 2020
The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together
51:30

Author, speaker and entrepreneur James Maskell is passionate about healthcare transformation. He is the co-founder of the Functional Forum, the world’s largest integrative medicine conference. He lectures internationally, and has been featured on TEDMED, Huffpost Live, TEDx and more, and is a contributor to Huffington Post, KevinMD, thedoctorblog and MindBodyGreen. He also serves on the faculty of George Washington University’s Metabolic Medicine Institute.

On this podcast, James discusses the importance of disrupting the current state of medicine and accelerating its future. He describes his goal to empower clinicians to transition to a functional medicine model and to become leaders and change agents toward healthcare that is preventative and sustainable. We also talk about the importance of community and it’s critical role in avoiding chronic illness.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Maskell:

[00:01:34] Living in a commune in Colorado.

[00:03:16] Book: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, by James Maskell.

[00:05:00] Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD.

[00:08:10] Making functional medicine the standard of care.

[00:10:05] Functional Forum.

[00:10:43] Problems with scaling up functional medicine.

[00:13:22] Micropractice.

[00:15:19] Solving the problem of loneliness.

[00:15:50] Video: George Slavich, PhD: How Much Does Social Stress and Isolation Affect Health?

[00:19:23] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John T. Cacioppo & William Patrick.

[00:20:30] Nuclear families as the current norm.

[00:20:45] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman; “dysevolution”.

[00:25:44] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joseph Henrich.

[00:30:32] Organizing health coaches and the value of groups.

[00:35:35] Simon Marshall, PhD and world champion triathlete Lesley Paterson.

[00:37:19] Podcasts featuring Julian Abel, MD: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health and Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19.

[00:37:31] How a practitioner can start utilizing groups.

[00:41:28] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP); Mickey Trescott at Autoimmune Wellness; Podcast: The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: Applying the Autoimmune Protocol.

[00:42:14] Health sharing systems.

[00:46:00] Knew Health health sharing; Liberty Health Share.

[00:48:46] Evolution of MedicineThe Community CureInstagram.

Nov 13, 2020
How to Interpret Your White Blood Cell Count
45:01

There’s a common misconception that you need to run expensive advanced biomedical tests to fix your health. Over the years we’ve found just the opposite, that you can learn much of what you need to know from basic blood chemistry. Perhaps the best example is the information gained from a Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential. As the most common blood test, it is widely used to assess general health status, screen for disorders, and to evaluate nutritional status.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are talking about leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), as critical elements of the CBC blood test. Megan discusses the various types of leukocytes and what it means when your count is outside the reference range. We talk about what leukocytes tell you about your nutritional status, why some people “never get sick” as well as signs you’ve got chronic inflammation or physiological stress. Megan also discusses how to use this information to determine the next steps in your health journey.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:01:04] Forum post: Chronically Low White Blood Cell Count. Get access when you support us on Patreon.

[00:01:45] Leukocytes = White Blood Cells (WBCs) found on CBC with differential blood test.

[00:02:58] Different types of white blood cells.

[00:04:18] Phagocytosis video.

[00:06:10] Absolute vs relative counts of WBCs.

[00:09:15] Optimal range of WBCs in relation to all-cause mortality.

[00:11:25] Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging: Ruggiero, Carmelinda, et al. "White blood cell count and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 49.18 (2007): 1841-1850

[00:12:57] Study: Shah, Anoop Dinesh, et al. "White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand." BMJ open 7.2 (2017): e013100. 

[00:15:30] bloodsmart.ai.

[00:18:00] Why WBCs might be high: Leukocytosis.

[00:18:45] Paper: WBCs are predictive of all cause mortality: Crowell, Richard J., and Jonathan M. Samet. "Invited commentary: why does the white blood cell count predict mortality?." American Journal of Epidemiology 142.5 (1995): 499-501

[00:20:00] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:21:57] Association of leukocytosis with metabolic syndrome; Study: Babio, Nancy, et al. "White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study." PloS one 8.3 (2013): e58354.

[00:22:15] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:22:41] What to do if you have elevated WBC counts.

[00:22:54] Impact of stress; Studies: 1. Nishitani, Naoko, and Hisataka Sakakibara. "Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers." Industrial health 52.6 (2014): 531-534. and 2. Jasinska, Anna J., et al. "Immunosuppressive effect and global dysregulation of blood transcriptome in response to psychosocial stress in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)." Scientific reports 10.1 (2020): 1-12

[00:23:32] Dr. Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson; Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:24:08] Reasons WBC counts might be low; Leukopenia.

[00:27:57] "I never get sick".

[00:30:40] What to do if your WBCs are low.

[00:30:56] Effects of low energy availability: Studies: 1. Johannsen, Neil M., et al. "Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC) and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW." PloS one 7.2 (2012): e31319. and 2. Sarin, Heikki V., et al. "Molecular pathways mediating immunosuppression in response to prolonged intensive physical training, low-energy availability, and intensive weight loss." Frontiers in immunology 10 (2019): 907. 

[00:31:44] Articles by Megan on energy availability and underfueling: 1. Why Your Ketogenic Diet Isn’t Working Part One: Underfueling and Overtraining; 2. How to Prevent Weight Loss (or Gain Muscle) on a Therapeutic Ketogenic Diet; 3. What We Eat and How We Train Part 1: Coach and Ketogenic Diet Researcher, Megan Roberts; 4. How to Carbo Load the Right Way

[00:31:52] Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:33:03] Ranges may slightly differ by ethnicity; 1. Haddy, Theresa B., Sohail R. Rana, and Oswaldo Castro. "Benign ethnic neutropenia: what is a normal absolute neutrophil count?." Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 133.1 (1999): 15-22; 2. Palmblad, Jan, and Petter Höglund. "Ethnic benign neutropenia: a phenomenon finds an explanation." Pediatric blood & cancer 65.12 (2018): e27361; 3. Grann, Victor R., et al. "Neutropenia in 6 ethnic groups from the Caribbean and the US." Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society 113.4 (2008): 854-860

[00:34:39] Absolute Neutrophil to absolute Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as indicator of systemic inflammation; Studies: 1. Gürağaç, Ali, and Zafer Demirer. "The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in clinical practice." Canadian Urological Association Journal 10.3-4 (2016): 141-2; 2. Fest, Jesse, et al. "The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with mortality in the general population: The Rotterdam Study." European journal of epidemiology 34.5 (2019): 463-470

[00:36:19] Elevated NLR associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Studies: 1. Yang, Ai-Ping, et al. "The diagnostic and predictive role of NLR, d-NLR and PLR in COVID-19 patients." International immunopharmacology (2020): 106504; 2. Ciccullo, Arturo, et al. "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and clinical outcome in COVID-19: a report from the Italian front line." International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020); 3. Liu, Jingyuan, et al. "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts critical illness patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in the early stage." Journal of Translational Medicine 18 (2020): 1-12. 

[00:37:41] NLR predicts mortality in medical inpatients: Isaac, Vivian, et al. "Elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts mortality in medical inpatients with multiple chronic conditions." Medicine 95.23 (2016)

[00:38:21] What to do if NLR is out of range.

[00:39:23] NLR on bloodsmart.ai (found on the Marker Detail View page).

[00:40:01] NLR as a marker of physiological stress: 1. Onsrud, M., and E. Thorsby. "Influence of in vivo hydrocortisone on some human blood lymphocyte subpopulations: I. Effect on natural killer cell activity." Scandinavian journal of immunology 13.6 (1981): 573-579; 2. PulmCrit: Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR): Free upgrade to your WBC.

[00:41:59] Schedule a 15-minute Starter Session.

Nov 06, 2020
How to Have Intimacy With Ease
51:31

Jessa Zimmerman, MA is a licensed couples counsellor and nationally certified sex therapist based in Seattle, Washington. She specializes in helping couples who find that sex has become stressful, negative, disappointing, or pressured. In her practice, she counsels and supports couples through an experiential process that allows them real-world practice in changing their relationship and their sex life. She is also the author of the book, Sex without stress; a couple’s guide to overcoming disappointment, avoidance, and pressure, and hosts The Better Sex Podcast.

On this podcast, Jessa and I discuss the all-too-common struggles encountered by couples in long-term relationships who are experiencing a disconnect in sexual desire. She debunks some of the myths about sexual desire that often leave people feeling broken and confused once the initial flame of a relationship dies down. Jessa also shares one of her most powerful exercises for couples to start reconnecting if they’ve been avoiding sex.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jessa Zimmerman:

[00:00:44] Kelly Casperson; Class: You Are Not Broken.

[00:01:13] Jessa's background.

[00:02:46] Sex positivity.

[00:04:40] The Better Sex Podcast.

[00:05:17] Book: Sex Without Stress: A couple's guide to overcoming disappointment, avoidance and pressure, by Jessa Zimmerman.

[00:06:29] The WEIRD perspective - Westernized, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic; Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:07:54] Monogamy; Anthropologist Helen Fisher; The neurological effects of being in love: Fisher, Helen E., Arthur Aron, and Lucy L. Brown. "Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 361.1476 (2006): 2173-2186.

[00:09:48] Podcast: How to Talk to Your Kids About Sex and Pornography, with Megan Maas, PhD.

[00:10:01] The role of pornography.

[00:12:21] Defining sex.

[00:13:38] Brad Stulberg; Book: The Passion Paradox; Podcast: How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout

[00:17:20] The giver/receiver exercise.

[00:21:39] Spontaneous vs reactive sexual desire.

[00:22:00] Rosemary Basson on the sexual response cycle; Basson, Rosemary. "The female sexual response: A different model." Journal of Sex &Marital Therapy 26.1 (2000): 51-65.

[00:22:11] Emily Nagoski.

[00:26:22] Only 6% of women lack both spontaneous and responsive desire; Study: Hendrickx, Lies, Luk Gijs, and Paul Enzlin. "Prevalence rates of sexual difficulties and associated distress in heterosexual men and women: Results from an Internet survey in Flanders." Journal of sex research 51.1 (2014): 1-12.

[00:27:11] Growth mindset; Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck; Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:30:11] Beverly Whipple, PhD; Book: The G Spot: And Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality.

[00:33:10] Measuring sexual excitability and inhibition. Emily Nagoski’s assessment tools.

[00:35:43] You are responsible for your pleasure.

[00:37:34] Vulnerability vs openness.

[00:38:57] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe, with Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:40:36] Books: Will I Ever Be Good Enough?: Healing the Daughters of Narcissistic Mothers, by Karyl McBride, PhD. and Radical Acceptance: Embracing Your Life With the Heart of a Buddha, by Tara Brach, PhD.

[00:40:51] Chimp purge exercise; Article: Lieberman, Matthew D., et al. "Putting feelings into words." Psychological science 18.5 (2007): 421-428.

[00:43:05] Book: The Chimp Paradox: The Mind Management Program to Help You Achieve Success, Confidence, and Happiness, by Steve Peters.

[00:43:23]  The Elephant and the Rider, an analogy introduced by Psychologist Jonathan Haidt.

[00:45:54] Jessa’s online course: Intimacy with Ease.

[00:46:35] Webinar - How to Help Your Partner Want More Sex.

[00:48:55] Facebook, Instagram.

Oct 30, 2020
Male Optimization: How to Keep Your Edge as you Age
52:35

Returning to the podcast today is speaker, NY Times bestselling author, coach, and lifelong athlete Brad Kearns. Decades removed from his status as a #3 world-ranked pro triathlete, Brad has now turned his attention to broader fitness goals aligned with healthspan. Always finding new ways to challenge himself, In 2018 Brad broke the Guinness World Record for the fastest single hole of golf ever played, and this year he ranked #1 in the USA and #3 in the world for Masters Track & Field high jump, age 55-59.

On this podcast, Brad and I discuss what it takes to preserve competitive intensity throughout life. Brad talks about his current focus on male optimization - the MOFO movement - created for men who don’t want to get old and soft on the sidelines of life. We also recall some of the most informative guests Brad has interviewed on his podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brad Kearns:

[00:04:03] Cold exposure.

[00:04:03] Brad’s previous NBT podcast: How to Win More by Training Less; Video: Brad’s speed golf world record.

[00:05:02] Dr. Steve Jeffs.

[00:09:22] Jeff Kendal Weed; YouTube, NBT podcast: How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love.

[00:13:23] Mark Sisson.

[00:15:20] Article: HIIT Versus HIRT by Dr. Craig Marker.

[00:18:43] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training, with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:20:05] The Get Over Yourself podcast.

[00:22:13] Books by Brad Kearns.

[00:23:46] Lessons learned from Brad’s podcast guests.

[00:24:28] Books by Mark Manson: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life, and Everything Is F*cked: A Book About Hope. On the Get Over Yourself podcast: Mark Manson: The Subtle Art Of Connecting With Your Emotional Brain, Seeing Yourself With Honesty and Vulnerability, And Connecting The Emotional Brain With The Rational Brain.

[00:25:48] Peter Attia, on NBT podcast: The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan; On the Get Over Yourself podcast: Peter Attia: Longevity, Diet, And Finding The Drive.

[00:26:15] Rip Esselstyn on the Get Over Yourself podcast: Rip Esselstyn: The Plant Strong Movement, Challenging Your Beliefs, And The Magical Peak Performance State Called “The Feel”.

[00:28:58] The inverse power of praise; Article: How Not to Talk to Your Kids, by Po Bronson.

[00:29:10] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:29:13] Books by Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman: NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children, and Top Dog: The Science of Winning and Losing.

[00:32:24] Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:33:15] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:35:14] Cate Shanahan, MD; Book: The Fatburn Fix: Boost Energy, End Hunger, and Lose Weight by Using Body Fat for Fuel, Get Over Yourself podcast: Dr. Cate Shanahan – The Fatburn Fix.

[00:37:49] Book: Two Meals a Day - coming in 2021.

[00:38:12] Books by Ben Greenfield: Boundless: Upgrade Your Brain, Optimize Your Body & Defy Aging, and The Christian Gratitude Journal.

[00:40:31] NBT Podcast: Ready to Run with Kelly Starrett; Get Over Yourself Podcast: Dr. Kelly Starrett: Mobility King.

[00:42:20] Book: Keto for Life: Reset Your Biological Clock in 21 Days and Optimize Your Diet for Longevity, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns.

[00:44:02] Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD; Book: Free to Learn.

[00:44:23] Katy Bowman.

[00:47:23] bradkearns.com; MOFO mission.

[00:48:20] Free ebook: Becoming a Modern Day Mofo.

[00:48:50] Brad’s nutbutter.

Oct 23, 2020
How to Use Biomedical Testing to Find Problems Inside Your Body
58:41

Back when we first started working with clients we ordered all the fancy tests for everyone who walked in the door. We tested the gut (not one test, but two), hormones, cortisol, and organic acids, to name a few. It got to be pretty expensive but it seemed to be the best way to figure out exactly what to do next. Our process has evolved over the years, and now we start with just simple, inexpensive blood chemistry. This saves our clients a ton of money and time, and they still get great results.

On the podcast today, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall and I discuss the advanced (and not-so-advanced) biomedical tests we’ve run for clients over the years. We talk about the ones we still use and the ones we quit - and why. Megan explains why you should be sceptical of genetic testing, and the wealth of information you can derive from basic blood chemistry. We also talk about bloodsmart.ai, the software we use at NBT to give personalised predictions of problems in your body that can help you decide on further testing and/or actions you want to take. We also talk about some software improvements I’ve made recently.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:02:23] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:02:39] Testing in the early days on NBT.

[00:05:43] Chris and Jamie on Ben Greenfield’s podcast in 2014: 7 Signs Your Cortisol And Adrenals Are Broken.

[00:06:32] Ben Greenfield podcasts with Christopher Kelly: The Little-Known Test That Tells You Everything You Need To Know About Your Metabolism and Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!

[00:07:00] Gut tests.

[00:07:42] NBT podcasts featuring Lucy Mailing, PhD: 1. How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome and 2. Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions.

[00:09:00] Hormone testing.

[00:09:25] Books by Robert Sapolsky: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition, and Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst.

[00:10:07] Hans Selye.

[00:13:37] Entraining circadian rhythm; Podcasts: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD; Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology), with Bill Lagakos, PhD, How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health, and Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes, with Greg Potter, PhD.

[00:16:09] Genetic testing.

[00:17:31] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:18:38] Direct to consumer genetic testing: 40% of variants in raw data were false positives; Study: Tandy-Connor, Stephany, et al. "False-positive results released by direct-to-consumer genetic tests highlight the importance of clinical confirmation testing for appropriate patient care." Genetics in Medicine 20.12 (2018): 1515.

[00:18:59] Promethease.

[00:19:46] 95% of the genome is "non-coding".

[00:21:59] Growth mindset; Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck; Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:24:19] Jeff Kendall-Weed; Podcast: How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love.

[00:25:06] Andrew D Huberman on Joe Rogan, Rich Rolls, Instagram.

[00:27:06] Glycomark.

[00:28:34] NutriSense; Podcast: Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan, with Kara Collier, RDN.

[00:29:59] Salivary 1,5-anhydroglucitol inversely related to dental caries in children; Study: Syed, Sadatullah, et al. "Salivary 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol and Vitamin Levels in Relation to Caries Risk in Children." BioMed research international 2019 (2019).

[00:30:34] Tests that have stood the test of time.

[00:33:32] Josh Turknett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:34:48] bloodsmart.ai.

[00:36:02] The value of a basic blood chemistry.

[00:38:23] NBT podcasts featuring Ivor Cummins: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:38:33] NBT podcasts featuring Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:39:26] CAC scan: Find a scan centre near you; Widowmaker movie; Irish Heart Disease Awareness website.

[00:43:02] Items that can be forecast by bloodsmart.ai, with their sensitivity and specificity.

[00:43:45] PhenoAge (example); Podcast; How to Measure Your Biological Age.

[00:44:17] Optimal vs Standard reference ranges.

[00:48:41] Testing: the future.

[00:50:02] Recent bloodsmart.ai software updates.

[00:50:32] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 9/24/20 press release: Recommendations About the Use of Dental Amalgam in Certain High-Risk Populations: FDA Safety Communication.

[00:51:43] Take the 7-minute analysis.

[00:54:48] Email us with your ideas for bloodsmart.ai.

[00:55:24] Book a free 15-minute starter session.

Oct 16, 2020
Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease
01:23:41

Researcher and educator C. Arden Pope, III, PhD is the Mary Lou Fulton Professor of Economics at Brigham Young University. Contributing to over three decades of published research, he is one of the world's most cited and recognised experts on the health effects of air pollution. He has taught and published on various natural resource and environmental issues and collaborated on a series of seminal studies on the human health effects of air pollution.

On this podcast, Dr Pope and I discuss the harmful effects of air pollution on health and longevity. He describes the impact of fine particulate matter generated from industrial processes and explains what makes some forms of pollution much worse than others. He also describes the disastrous effects of air pollution on endothelial function and the cardiovascular system and offers advice for limiting exposure and taking action.

Here’s the outline of this interview with C. Arden Pope:

[00:01:26] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World

[00:02:21] Studies describing effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system: 1. Pope III, C. Arden, et al. "Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with endothelial injury and systemic inflammation." Circulation research 119.11 (2016): 1204-1214; 2. Pope III, C. Arden, Aaron J. Cohen, and Richard T. Burnett. "Cardiovascular disease and fine particulate matter: lessons and limitations of an integrated exposure–response approach." Circulation research 122.12 (2018): 1645-1647.

[00:05:13] Hospital admissions in Utah Valley related to steel mill; Pope 3rd, C. A. "Respiratory disease associated with community air pollution and a steel mill, Utah Valley." American journal of public health 79.5 (1989): 623-628

[00:11:17] Air pollution as the 5th leading contributor to global burden of disease.

[00:11:48] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:17:26] Book: The Big Smoke, by Nathan Srith.

[00:19:05] The Great Smog of London, 1952.

[00:19:56] Respiratory physiologist, David Bates.

[00:23:53] Harvard six cities study: Dockery, Douglas W., et al. "An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities." New England journal of medicine 329.24 (1993): 1753-1759, and the American Cancer Society Cohort Studies.

[00:24:22] PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter) and adverse health outcomes.

[00:31:20] Large vs small particles in the air.

[00:39:37] Inflammatory effects of fine particulate matter; slide from this talk.

[00:43:26] Air pollution associated with increases in inflammatory markers.

[00:47:29] Peter Backx, PhD; Podcast: Arrhythmias in Endurance Athletes.

[00:49:21] Wildfires; Air pollution from wood smoke vs "urban dirt".

[00:58:47] Air pollution and life expectancy; Pope, C. Arden, and Douglas W. Dockery. "Air pollution and life expectancy in China and beyond." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.32 (2013): 12861-12862.

[01:00:14] How to reduce exposure.

[01:06:24] Elementary school absences related to air pollution in Park City, UT; Study: Hales, Nicholas M., et al. "A quasi-experimental analysis of elementary school absences and fine particulate air pollution." Medicine 95.9 (2016).

[01:10:12] Global burden of disease attributable to air pollution; Study: Cohen, Aaron J., et al. "Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015." The Lancet 389.10082 (2017): 1907-1918.

[01:13:16] Supporting the Clean Air Act.

[01:15:15] Dr Pope’s CV and publications.

[01:20:45] Video: Keynote: Air Pollution and Human Health—Science, Public Policy, and Controversy. See here for additional videos featuring Dr Pope.

Oct 09, 2020
The Flex Diet: A Science-Based Guide to Metabolic Flexibility
01:11:23

We’ve got exercise physiologist Mike T. Nelson, PhD, MSME, CSCS, CISSN back on the podcast today. Mike’s areas of expertise include metabolic flexibility, heart rate variability, and human performance. He’s an adjunct professor for the Carrick Institute of Functional Neurology and the American College of Sports Medicine and has published research in both physiology and engineering journals. He also works 1 on 1 with clients seeking to optimise their performance.

On today’s podcast, Mike and I talk about his new Flex Diet Certification, a metabolic flexibility course for trainers, coaches, gym owners and fitness enthusiasts. Mike discusses some of the different components of his 8-week course, as well as why he created it and who should (and should not) take it. We also talk about recent developments and research in the areas of cannabidiol, heart rate variability, and blood flow restriction training.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mike T. Nelson:

[00:05:10] Mike's previous appearances on NBT podcast: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:05:23] Cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:05:43] DEA prohibits synthetically-produced Delta-8, as of August 2020.

[00:06:41] Sleep and CBD.

[00:07:31] Review of cannabinoids in the treatment of PTSD: Cohen, Jacob, et al. "Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 37.1 (2020): 28-34.

[00:08:28] Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

[00:08:41] HRV fails to predict readiness to train; Studies: 1. De Oliveira, Ramon Martins, et al. "Effect of individualized resistance training prescription with heart rate variability on individual muscle hypertrophy and strength responses." European journal of sport science 19.8 (2019): 1092-1100; 2. Thamm, Antonia, et al. "Can heart rate variability determine recovery following distinct strength loadings? A randomized cross-over trial." International journal of environmental research and public health 16.22 (2019): 4353.

[00:14:17] Oura Ring.

[00:16:49] Oura Ring’s ability to differentiate sleep stages; Study: de Zambotti, Massimiliano, et al. "The sleep of the ring: comparison of the ŌURA sleep tracker against polysomnography." Behavioral sleep medicine 17.2 (2019): 124-136.

[00:20:57] Flex diet certification.

[00:31:55] Book: The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It, by John Tierney.

[00:34:01] Physiology flexibility.

[00:37:46] Wim Hof breathing exercises.

[00:43:05] Exercise training can alter how the body handles a large meal; Review: Goodpaster, Bret H., and Lauren M. Sparks. "Metabolic flexibility in health and disease." Cell metabolism 25.5 (2017): 1027-1036.

[00:44:06] Pop tart test.

[00:45:19] Article: The Porcelain Doll Diet.

[00:48:55] Breathing as a homeostatic regulator.

[00:52:18] Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) training; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan, with Jim Stray-Gundersen, MD.

[00:55:12] Hypertrophy from walking using BFR training; Study: Abe, Takashi, Charles F. Kearns, and Yoshiaki Sato. "Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training." Journal of applied physiology 100.5 (2006): 1460-1466.

[00:55:31] Moxy muscle oxygen monitor.

[00:57:10] Fat Gripz.

[00:57:15] Supplements.

[00:58:07] Beta-alanine; Meta-analysis: Dolan, Eimear, et al. "A systematic risk assessment and meta-analysis on the use of oral β-alanine supplementation." Advances in Nutrition 10.3 (2019): 452-463.

[00:59:45] Sodium bicarbonate.

[01:01:14] Lactate; Cytosport’s Cytomax.

[01:01:46] Recent study evaluating IV lactate: Ellekjaer, Karen L., et al. "Lactate versus acetate buffered intravenous crystalloid solutions: a scoping review." British Journal of Anaesthesia (2020).

[01:03:21] Flex Diet Podcast, hosted by Dr Mike T Nelson.

[01:04:31] Dom D’agostino on the Flexdiet Podcast: Dr Dom D'Agostino on Red Light, Ketones, Fasting, Zapping Monkeys and More. Dominic on the NBT podcast: Dominic D'Agostino: Researcher and Athlete on the Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet.

[01:05:52] flexdiet.com; miketnelson.com.

Oct 02, 2020
The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe
59:36

Stephen W. Porges, PhD. is Distinguished University Scientist at Indiana University where he is the founding director of the Traumatic Stress Research Consortium. In 1994 he proposed the Polyvagal Theory, a theory that links the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system to social behaviour and emphasises the importance of physiological state in the expression of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. He has published more than 300 peer-reviewed papers across numerous behavioural and neurobiological disciplines.

On this podcast, Dr Porges explains the Polyvagal Theory, including the biological effects of perceived safety or danger and the resulting impact on our social behaviour. He describes his music-based intervention, the Safe and Sound Protocol, that is used by more than 1,400 therapists to reduce hearing sensitivities and increase emotional control and behavioural organisation. He also discusses how the threat of COVID-19 can impact neurophysiology, and he shares practical strategies for creating feelings of safety.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephen Porges:

[00:00:14] Sue carter podcast: Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”.

[00:02:25] Book: The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology), by Stephen Porges.

[00:02:38] Book: The Pocket Guide to the Polyvagal Theory: The Transformative Power of Feeling Safe (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology), by Stephen Porges.

[00:04:06] Polyvagal theory, described.

[00:12:28] Social behaviour as a noninvasive vagal nerve stimulator.

[00:14:36] Book: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life: Life-Changing Tools for Healthy Relationships, by Marshall B. Rosenberg.

[00:14:44] Book: I Hear You: The Surprisingly Simple Skill Behind Extraordinary Relationships, by Michael S. Sorensen.

[00:15:05] Biological rudeness.

[00:15:57] Argument as a shift in physiological state.

[00:16:38] We are terrible listeners.

[00:21:43] Humor - the violation of expectancy within the containment of safety.

[00:25:46] It's not what you say, it's how you say it.

[00:27:13] Extracting human voices.

[00:29:41] Sociality is a product of our body feeling safe.

[00:30:57] Auditory hypersensitivity in autism.

[00:34:22] The Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP).

[00:38:57] Study validating SSP: Porges, Stephen W., et al. "Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorder: preliminary findings evaluating the listening project protocol." Frontiers in Pediatrics 2 (2014): 80.

[00:39:29] Polyvagal Study Group on Facebook.

[00:41:15] COVID-19, the effect on neurophysiology; Article: Porges, S. W. "The COVID-19 Pandemic is a paradoxical challenge to our nervous system: a Polyvagal Perspective." Clin Neuropsychiatry 17 (2020): 135-8.

[00:46:53] Creating feelings of safety.

[00:50:50] Posture, dance; Yoga: Sullivan, Marlysa B., et al. "Yoga therapy and polyvagal theory: The convergence of traditional wisdom and contemporary neuroscience for self-regulation and resilience." Frontiers in human neuroscience 12 (2018): 67.

[00:51:37] Article: Porges, Stephen W. "Vagal pathways: Portals to compassion." The Oxford handbook of compassion science (2017): 189-204.

[00:54:41] Youtube videos featuring Stephen Porges.

[00:55:24] Deb Dana, LCSW.

[00:56:23] Stanford University’s The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE); Videos: 1. CCARE Science of Compassion 2014: The Psychophysiology of Compassion, 2. The Science of Compassion: Origins, Measures, and Interventions - Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:56:56] Video on spirituality: Dr Stephen Porges speaks about spirituality concepts from a Polyvagal perspective.

[00:57:00] Article in Spectrum Newsletter: Brain-body connection may ease autistic people’s social problems, by Stephen Porges.

[00:58:00] Dr Porges’s website.

Sep 25, 2020
Long Range Fuel for Sustainable Performance and Productivity
01:02:42

Many of our listeners and clients are concerned about how best to fuel for longer events or training. While many athletes are downing sports gels and high carb drinks we have always advocated for alternatives that keep you competitive while helping you maintain consistent energy levels. Overall diet composition plays a big role in preparing for competition, as does meal timing, but for long events or a busy lifestyle, it also helps to be able to pack the right fuel to keep going.

Joining me this week is Greg Potter, PhD. Greg has been on the podcast numerous times to talk about sleep, chronotypes, and chrononutrition. Today he is with us as the Chief Science Officer of Resilient Nutrition, a company that has created Long Range Fuel, a new line of nut-butter based nutrition products for fueling sustainable performance. Greg talks about how an early version of Long Range Fuel helped power a world record-breaking trans-Atlantic rowing event in 2019. He also shares the science behind the specific ingredients they’ve included to boost your workout, keep you calm, and support your recovery and strength.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:17] Joshua Fields Milburn of The Minimalists: "Love people, use things."

[00:05:10] Rowers Max Thorpe and Chris Williams; TEDx Talk: Fire & Water:The Value of Control Amid Chaos.

[00:06:36] Long Range Fuel.

[00:05:51] Preparing Dave Spelman and Max Thorpe for their world record-breaking rowing event in 2019.

[00:07:50] Fueling the Talisker Whisky Atlantic Challenge

[00:20:35] Creatine supplementation.

[00:22:15] World Champion triathlete Lesley Paterson. Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:24:54] Effects of creatine on sleep; Study: Dworak, Markus, et al. "Creatine supplementation reduces sleep need and homeostatic sleep pressure in rats." Journal of sleep research 26.3 (2017): 377-385.

[00:25:54] Effects of caffeine and creatine on athletic performance; Study: Cook, Christian J., et al. "Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation-a randomized placebo-controlled trial." Journal of the international society of sports nutrition 8.1 (2011): 1-8.

[00:26:50] When/how to dose creatine.

[00:27:54] Creatine vs. creatinine.

[00:28:49] Creapure creatine monohydrate found in many creatine supplements.

[00:30:59] Ultra-endurance athlete, Claire Smith.

[00:33:48] 4 Different types of long-range fuel: Energise, Energise & Rebuild, Calm, Calm & Rebuild.

[00:40:36] L-leucine enhances the anabolic effects of whey; Study: Churchward-Venne, Tyler A., et al. "Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 99.2 (2014): 276-286.

[00:41:21] Caffeine and L-theanine.

[00:41:49] Meta-analyses of caffeine and exercise performance; Umbrella review: Grgic, Jozo, et al. "Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance—an umbrella review of 21 published meta-analyses." British Journal of Sports Medicine 54.11 (2020): 681-688.

[00:43:09] Caffeine enhances cognition - vigilance, attention, reaction time, mood. Review: McLellan, Tom M., John A. Caldwell, and Harris R. Lieberman. "A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 71 (2016): 294-312.

[00:44:20] L-theanine reduces anxiety and stress; Review: Sakamoto, Filipe Lopes, et al. "Psychotropic effects of L-theanine and its clinical properties: From the management of anxiety and stress to a potential use in schizophrenia." Pharmacological Research 147 (2019): 104395.

[00:44:40] Complementary effects of caffeine and L-theanine; Review: Bryan, Janet. "Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine." Nutrition reviews 66.2 (2008): 82-90.

[00:49:06] Dosing Long Range Fuel.

[00:55:04] Resilient Nutrition.

[00:57:24] Behavior change; Professor Susan Michie, PhD.; Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:57:52] 93 different behavior change techniques; Study: Michie, Susan, et al. "The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions." Annals of behavioral medicine 46.1 (2013): 81-95.

[00:58:21] Find Resilient Nutrition on Instagram and Facebook.

Sep 18, 2020
How to Measure Your Biological Age
01:02:16

There’s more than one way to measure how fast you’re ageing. There’s chronological age - the number of years you’ve been alive - and then there’s biological age, which you can think of as the total damage your body has accumulated over the years. Your chronological age may differ from your biological age, in which case it’s interesting to understand why. The good news is you can reduce your biological age by improving your lifestyle, which in turn can lengthen lifespan and healthspan. The question is, then, how to quantify biological age?

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall talks about PhenoAge: a measure of biological age that can be determined by analyzing a shortlist of common blood markers. We talk about why PhenoAge is important and valid as a reliable measure of biological status, and how you can get your PhenoAge score. Megan also offers tips for improving your PhenoAge once you’ve got your baseline. This episode has a ton of information, so be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:25] Arden Pope, PhD; Studies on the effects of air pollution on human health.

[00:01:15] Puppy update.

[00:05:54] Is ageing a disease? Article: Bulterijs, Sven, et al. "It is time to classify biological aging as a disease." Frontiers in genetics 6 (2015): 205.  

[00:06:35] Primary vs secondary ageing.

[00:08:02] Book: Lifespan: Why We Age - and Why We Don't Have To, by David A. Sinclair PhD.

[00:08:16] Ken Ford; STEM-Talk Podcast. Ken Ford on the NBT Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More.

[00:09:19] Measuring ageing.

[00:13:09] Theories of ageing - more than 300 theories; Articles: Tosato, Matteo, et al. "The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy." Clinical interventions in aging 2.3 (2007): 401. 2. da Costa, Joao Pinto, et al. "A synopsis on aging—Theories, mechanisms and future prospects." Ageing research reviews 29 (2016): 90-112. 3. Jin, Kunlin. "Modern biological theories of aging." Aging and disease 1.2 (2010): 72

[00:13:34] Grandmother hypothesis; Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:14:48] Program Theories and Damage Theories.

[00:17:45] Epigenetic clock theory of aging; Steven Horvath; Study: Horvath, Steve, and Kenneth Raj. "DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing." Nature Reviews Genetics 19.6 (2018): 371

[00:19:02] Steven Horvath's TEDx talk: Epigenetic Clocks Help to Find Anti-Aging Treatments.

[00:20:47] Book: Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture, by David Kushner.

[00:21:43] DNA methylation; Article: Horvath, Steve. "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types." Genome biology 14.10 (2013): 3156.

[00:23:13] Offspring of semi-supercentenarians have lower epigenetic age; Study: Horvath, Steve, et al. "Decreased epigenetic age of PBMCs from Italian semi-supercentenarians and their offspring." Aging (Albany NY) 7.12 (2015): 1159

[00:23:36] Methylation based biological age associated with: 1.  breast cancer risk: Kresovich, Jacob K., et al. "Methylation-based biological age and breast cancer risk." JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 111.10 (2019): 1051-1058. 2. Frailty: Breitling, Lutz Philipp, et al. "Frailty is associated with the epigenetic clock but not with telomere length in a German cohort." Clinical epigenetics 8.1 (2016): 21; 3. All-cause mortality: Marioni, Riccardo E., et al. "DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life." Genome biology 16.1 (2015): 1-12 and Christiansen, Lene, et al. "DNA methylation age is associated with mortality in a longitudinal Danish twin study." Aging cell 15.1 (2016): 149-154.

[00:24:46] PhenoAge as a biomarker of ageing for lifespan and healthspan; Study: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "An epigenetic biomarker of aging for lifespan and healthspan." Aging (Albany NY) 10.4 (2018): 573.

[00:29:06] Nine blood markers that make up PhenoAge.

[00:29:57] PhenoAge related to COVID-19; Study: Kuo, Chia-Ling, et al. "COVID-19 severity is predicted by earlier evidence of accelerated aging." medRxiv (2020)

[00:30:34] Combining PhenoAge with DNA methylation data as a predictor of mortality.

[00:33:28] Episode 59 of HumanOS podcast: Are You Biologically Older or Younger Than Your Chronological Age?

[00:33:58] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:34:00] Lifestyle factors that accelerate ageing: Sleep: Li, Xiaoyu, et al. "Association between sleep disordered breathing and epigenetic age acceleration: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis." EBioMedicine 50 (2019): 387-394; Socioeconimic status, childhood and adult adversity: Liu, Zuyun, et al. "Associations of genetics, behaviors, and life course circumstances with a novel aging and healthspan measure: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study." PLoS medicine 16.6 (2019): e1002827; Education: Zhao, Wei, et al. "Education and lifestyle factors are associated with DNA methylation clocks in older African Americans." International journal of environmental research and public health 16.17 (2019): 3141.

[00:35:59] Protein; Podcast: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure), with Megan Hall.

[00:36:50] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-term Health, by Justin Sonnenburg and Erica Sonnenburg.

[00:37:23] Bloodsmart.ai.

[00:38:35] Patreon: nbt.link

[00:39:33] Age reversal possible in humans? Study: Fahy, Gregory M., et al. "Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans." Aging cell 18.6 (2019): e13028

[00:40:15] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:41:00] Interpreting your blood markers to understand PhenoAge.

[00:46:11] PhenoAge vs Predicted Age.

Sep 11, 2020
Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”
01:17:24

Dr. Sue Carter is a Distinguished University Scientist and Rudy Professor Emerita of Biology at Indiana University. A career biologist, Dr Carter has studied the endocrinology of love and social bonds for more than three decades. Her research on pair bonding helped lay the foundation for further work on the behavioural and developmental effects of oxytocin and vasopressin in humans. Recently, she has been examining the role of these neuropeptides in psychiatric and neurological disorders such as autism and depression.

In this podcast, Dr Carter discusses the many ways oxytocin is integral to our development, physiological health, and social behaviour. She explains how too much or too little can be detrimental and describes her long-standing concern regarding the consequences of using synthetic oxytocin to induce labour during pregnancy. She talks about some of the recently discovered developmental functions of oxytocin and vasopressin, including muscle and bone synthesis and regeneration, and shares what you can do to increase the oxytocin your body produces naturally.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sue Carter:

[00:00:15] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, by Robert M. Sapolsky.

[00:01:01] Studying prairie voles.

[00:07:51] Thomas Insel, Larry Young, and Zuoxin Wang at Emory University.

[00:14:13] Book: Sperm Wars: Infidelity, Sexual Conflict, and Other Bedroom Battles, by Robin Baker.

[00:14:36] Sarah Hrdy; Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding.

[00:17:29] Effects of early life stress on oxytocin and vasopressin.

[00:26:15] "Cry it out" sleep training.

[00:28:04] Oxytocin and autism.

[00:30:13] Oxytocin being studied in treatment of autism; Reviews: 1. Benner, Seico, and Hidenori Yamasue. "Clinical potential of oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder: current issues and future perspectives." Behavioural Pharmacology 29.1 (2018): 1-12; 2. Okamoto, Yuko, et al. "The potential of nasal oxytocin administration for remediation of autism spectrum disorders." CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders) 15.5 (2016): 564-577.

[00:31:57] Pitocin (synthetic oxytocin).

[00:34:06] Just the right amount of oxytocin is required; too much and the system is disrupted. (Study mentioned by Sue is not available).

[00:36:19] Postpartum depression.

[00:39:52] Oxytocin as anti-inflammatory.

[00:40:40] Higher oxytocin associated with faster wound healing; Study: Gouin, Jean-Philippe, et al. "Marital behavior, oxytocin, vasopressin, and wound healing." Psychoneuroendocrinology 35.7 (2010): 1082-1090.

[00:42:08] Optimizing your body's production of oxytocin.

[00:42:43] Oxytocin necessary for muscle regeneration; Study: Elabd, Christian, et al. "Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration." Nature communications 5.1 (2014): 1-11.

[00:43:35] Effect of exercise on oxytocin production.

[00:44:53] Oxytocin during exercise could prevent breast cancer; Study: Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad, et al. "Oxytocin mediates the beneficial effects of the exercise training on breast cancer." Experimental physiology 103.2 (2018): 222-235.

[00:46:30] Dr. Josh Turknett on minimizing environmental mismatch; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:46:38] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:46:41] Article: Evolved to Exercise, by Herman Pontzer.

[00:50:22] Potential use in treating COVID-19; Commentary: Oxytocin, a possible treatment for COVID-19? Everything to Gain, Nothing to Lose.

[00:55:03] Effects of adversity on oxytocin and vasopressin.

[00:56:02] Dr. Stephen Porges; Book: The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology).

[00:57:58] Possible downsides of oxytocin; Creating intergroup bias: De Dreu, Carsten KW, et al. "Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108.4 (2011): 1262-1266.

[00:58:26] Vasopressin implicated in out-group phenomenon; Review: Kavaliers, Martin, and Elena Choleris. "Out-group threat responses, in-group bias, and nonapeptide involvement are conserved across vertebrates:(A Comment on Bruintjes et al.,“Out-Group Threat Promotes Within-Group Affiliation in a Cooperative Fish”)." The American Naturalist 189.4 (2017): 453-458. (On SciHub).

[00:59:18] Podcast: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, with Brian Hare, PhD.

[01:02:42] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[01:04:13] The value of breastfeeding.

[01:09:54] Review paper: Is Oxytocin “Nature’s Medicine”? Not yet published. Please contact Sue if you would like a copy.

[01:11:15] Where to find Sue: Indiana University; Kinsey Institute; Pubmed.

Sep 04, 2020
How to Talk to Your Kids About Sex and Pornography
01:13:10

Megan Maas, PhD, is an assistant professor in Human Development and Family Studies. Her work sits at the intersection of sexual violence prevention and sexual health promotion. Her award-winning research, recognized by the American Psychological Association, focuses on adolescent sexual socialization, with an emphasis on the bi-directional role that social media, sexting, and online pornography play in the development of attitudes and behaviour related to sexuality and gender. For the last 10 years, she has been invited to talk on this subject for audiences of students, parents, and teachers at universities and organizations across the US. 

On this podcast, Dr Maas discusses the allure of pornography and its impact on relationships and young people. She talks about gender differences with regard to how pornography is perceived and research that suggests it has become a popular medium for both men and women. She discusses the societal influences that cause many people to associate danger with romance, morality and ethics in the porn industry, and how best to talk to your children about sex and sexual imagery on the Internet.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Maas:

[00:01:32] Megan's background.

[00:04:04] The allure of pornography.

[00:05:57] Book: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships, by Christopher Ryan; Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:07:51] Anthropologist Helen Fisher.

[00:09:46] The history of porn.

[00:14:19] The role of erotic literature; Book: 50 Shades of Grey, by E.L. James.

[00:15:00] Audio porn: women aroused by sound.

[00:16:13] Women’s arousal not limited by gender; Study: Chivers, Meredith L., Michael C. Seto, and Ray Blanchard. "Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films." Journal of personality and social psychology 93.6 (2007): 1108.

[00:17:17] Women enjoy gay male pornography; Paper: Neville, Lucy. "Male gays in the female gaze: Women who watch m/m pornography." Porn Studies 2.2-3 (2015): 192-207.

[00:17:40] Coolidge effect; Studied in humans: Hughes, Susan M., et al. "Experimental Evidence for Sex Differences in Sexual Variety Preferences: Support for the Coolidge Effect in Humans." Archives of Sexual Behavior (2020).

[00:19:32] Women are as likely to cheat as men, especially when ovulating; Studies: 1. Mark, Kristen P., Erick Janssen, and Robin R. Milhausen. "Infidelity in heterosexual couples: Demographic, interpersonal, and personality-related predictors of extradyadic sex." Archives of sexual behavior 40.5 (2011): 971-982; 2.  Haselton, Martie G., and Steven W. Gangestad. "Conditional expression of women's desires and men's mate guarding across the ovulatory cycle." Hormones and behavior 49.4 (2006): 509-518.

[00:20:41] Egg may have a preference for a particular sperm; Study: Fitzpatrick, John L., et al. "Chemical signals from eggs facilitate cryptic female choice in humans." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287.1928 (2020): 20200805.

[00:21:19] Oral birth control can affect who you’re attracted to; Study: Roberts, S. Craig, et al. "Relationship satisfaction and outcome in women who meet their partner while using oral contraception." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279.1732 (2012): 1430-1436.

[00:22:14] Romance has become associated with drama and danger; Megan’s Huffington Post article, 'Boys Will Be Boys': The Lie That Keeps It All Going; Blog post: Love hurts: What we learn from Beauty & the Beast, Twilight, and Fifty Shades of Grey;

[00:24:49] Sex education.

[00:29:55] How porn affects relationships - is it improving things or hurting?

[00:32:17] Simon Marshall, PhD; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Books by Russ Harris.

[00:32:35] Morality and ethics in the porn industry.

[00:37:39] Megan’s TED Talk: How the Evolution of Porn Changed Adolescence | Megan Maas | TEDxMSU; Interview with Megan on YouTube

[00:39:58] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:40:54] Advice for parents.

[00:43:25] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:43:47] Podcasts with Ashley Mason: 1. Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD, Mindfulness and Cognitive; 2.  Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems; 3. How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:45:59] Talking to kids about sex.

[00:46:27] Books Megan recommends.

[00:47:23] Book: Good Pictures Bad Pictures: Porn-Proofing Today's Young Kids, by Kristen Jenson.

[00:49:02] E-book: Talking with Kids about...Porn: A Guide

[00:54:07] People who are more religious use more porn; Study: Whitehead, Andrew L., and Samuel L. Perry. "Unbuckling the Bible belt: A state-level analysis of religious factors and Google searches for porn." The Journal of Sex Research 55.3 (2018): 273-283.

[00:54:54] Book: The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind, by Alison Gopnik.

[01:00:20] Sam Harris Podcast: #213 - The Worst Epidemic.

[01:07:56] Megan’s website: meganmaas.com.

Aug 28, 2020
Postprandial Fatigue, Part II: Endotoxemia, Inflammation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
49:45

A few weeks ago NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I met up to discuss the causes of postprandial fatigue, commonly known as “food coma”. We talked about two common causes, both associated with glucose dysregulation. Megan described some of the mechanisms causing hypoglycemia, including accelerated gastric emptying, periods of increased insulin sensitivity, and low hormonal states, while hyperglycemia is often associated with insulin resistance. This was such a big topic we only covered about half of it the first time around, so we’re continuing the conversation today.

On this podcast, Megan and I discuss three additional causes of postprandial fatigue: endotoxin, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Megan describes each of these scenarios in detail, discussing some of the upstream causes that can be targeted early on to avoid problems. She also provides practical steps you can take if you’re one of the millions dozing off after lunch every day. Be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline for this podcast

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:01:42] Previous podcast: Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch? 

[00:03:20] Hans Vink; Hyperglycemia reduces glycocalyx volume while NAC infusion prevents the reduction. Nieuwdorp, Max, et al. "Loss of endothelial glycocalyx during acute hyperglycemia coincides with endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation in vivo." Diabetes 55.2 (2006): 480-486.

[00:03:51] Malcolm Kendrick on the glycocalyx; Podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:04:51] NBT Strength and Conditioning Coach Zach Moore; Podcast: How to Strength Train Without a Gym.

[00:06:21] Postprandial endotoxemia (PPE): definition, causes, downstream effects; Study: Kelly, Caleb J., Sean P. Colgan, and Daniel N. Frank. "Of microbes and meals: the health consequences of dietary endotoxemia." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 27.2 (2012): 215-225

[00:11:04] What to do about PPE.

[00:11:56] Probiotics; Podcasts: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome and Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing, PhD; How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:12:10] Megasporebiotic; Study: McFarlin, Brian K., et al. "Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers." World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 8.3 (2017): 117.

[00:12:36] Chris' sister's story.

[00:13:51] S. boulardii - may help with gut barrier function; Study: Terciolo, Chloe, Michel Dapoigny, and Frederic Andre. "Beneficial effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on clinical disorders associated with intestinal barrier disruption." Clinical and experimental gastroenterology 12 (2019): 67.

[00:14:23] Additional supplements that may help with gut: Enteromend, Permaclear, GI Revive, SBI Protect.

[00:17:09] Dietary interventions for PPE.

[00:17:14] Plant polyphenols; Studies: 1. Wong, Ximena, et al. "Polyphenol extracts interfere with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro and decrease postprandial endotoxemia in human volunteers." Journal of Functional Foods 26 (2016): 406-417; 2. González‐Sarrías, Antonio, et al. "The endotoxemia marker lipopolysaccharide‐binding protein is reduced in overweight‐obese subjects consuming pomegranate extract by modulating the gut microbiota: A randomized clinical trial." Molecular nutrition & food research 62.11 (2018): 1800160; 3. Kolehmainen, Marjukka, et al. "Bilberries reduce low‐grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome." Molecular nutrition & food research 56.10 (2012): 1501-1510

[00:17:36] Sulforaphane; Studies: 1. Yanaka, Akinori, Junya Sato, and Shun Ohmori. "Sulforaphane protects small intestinal mucosa from aspirin/NSAID-induced injury by enhancing host defense systems against oxidative stress and by inhibiting mucosal invasion of anaerobic enterobacteria." Current pharmaceutical design 19.1 (2013): 157-162. 2. Yanaka, Akinori. "Role of sulforaphane in protection of gastrointestinal tract against H. pylori and NSAID-induced oxidative stress." Current pharmaceutical design 23.27 (2017): 4066-4075.

[00:17:53] Hormetea.

[00:20:20] Dietary oil composition plays a role in endotoxin transport; Study: Mani, Venkatesh, James H. Hollis, and Nicholas K. Gabler. "Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia." Nutrition & metabolism 10.1 (2013): 6.

[00:21:55] Supporting detoxification; Studies: 1. Fox, Eben S., Peter Thomas, and Selwyn A. Broitman. "Hepatic mechanisms for clearance and detoxification of bacterial endotoxins." The journal of nutritional biochemistry 1.12 (1990): 620-628 (SciHub); 2. Munford, Robert S. "Invited review: detoxifying endotoxin: time, place and person." Journal of endotoxin research 11.2 (2005): 69-84.

[00:22:20] Enterosgel.

[00:24:04] Inflammation; Study: Mo, Zhenzhen, et al. "Endotoxin May Not Be the Major Cause of Postprandial Inflammation in Adults Who Consume a Single High-Fat or Moderately High-Fat Meal." The Journal of Nutrition 150.5 (2020): 1303-1312.

[00:25:51] Lucy Mailing on gut barrier integrity: Article: Is a high-fat or ketogenic diet bad for your gut? Discussed on NBT Forum post.

[00:26:26] Food sensitivities; Studies: 1. Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu. "Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation." Pediatrics International 57.1 (2015): 22-29; 2. Wilders-Truschnig, M., et al. "IgG antibodies against food antigens are correlated with inflammation and intima media thickness in obese juveniles." Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes 116.4 (2008): 241.

[00:27:58] IL-1 and postprandial fatigue; Study: Lehrskov, Louise L., et al. "The role of IL-1 in postprandial fatigue." Molecular metabolism 12 (2018): 107-112.

[00:29:05] Mitochondrial dysfunction and glucose dysregulation; Study: Sergi, Domenico, et al. "Mitochondrial (dys) function and insulin resistance: From pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to the impact of diet." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 532.

[00:29:54] Normal vs pathological biochemistry.

[00:32:53] TCA cycle and electron transport chain.

[00:33:21] Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism; Study: Hoehn, Kyle L., et al. "Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.42 (2009): 17787-17792.

[00:35:02] Blood sugar dysregulation and mito dysfunction; Studies: 1. Stefano, George B., Sean Challenger, and Richard M. Kream. "Hyperglycemia-associated alterations in cellular signaling and dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics in human metabolic disorders." European journal of nutrition 55.8 (2016): 2339-2345; 2. Rolo, Anabela P., and Carlos M. Palmeira. "Diabetes and mitochondrial function: role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress." Toxicology and applied pharmacology 212.2 (2006): 167-178; 3. Kaikini, Aakruti Arun, et al. "Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction for the treatment of diabetic complications: pharmacological interventions through natural products." Pharmacognosy Reviews 11.22 (2017): 128.

[00:36:26] How to support mitochondria.

[00:36:46] Low-carb diet; Study: Miller, Vincent J., Frederick A. Villamena, and Jeff S. Volek. "Nutritional ketosis and mitohormesis: potential implications for mitochondrial function and human health." Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2018 (2018).

[00:37:04] Exercise; Studies: 1. Oliveira, Ashley N., and David A. Hood. "Exercise is mitochondrial medicine for muscle." Sports Medicine and Health Science 1.1 (2019): 11-18; 2. Memme, Jonathan M., et al. "Exercise and mitochondrial health." The Journal of Physiology (2019); 3. Huertas, Jesus R., et al. "Stay fit, stay young: mitochondria in movement: the role of exercise in the new mitochondrial paradigm." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019 (2019).

[00:37:31] TRE or fasting, CR; Study: Lettieri-Barbato, Daniele, et al. "Time-controlled fasting prevents aging-like mitochondrial changes induced by persistent dietary fat overload in skeletal muscle." PloS one 13.5 (2018): e0195912.

[00:38:03] Dietary polyphenols; Studies: 1. Sun, Chongde, et al. "Dietary polyphenols as antidiabetic agents: Advances and opportunities." Food Frontiers 1.1 (2020): 18-44; 2. Teixeira, José, et al. "Dietary polyphenols and mitochondrial function: role in health and disease." Current medicinal chemistry 26.19 (2019): 3376-3406.

[00:38:47] Eat berries before a carb rich meal; 1. Törrönen, Riitta, et al. "Berries reduce postprandial insulin responses to wheat and rye breads in healthy women." The Journal of nutrition 143.4 (2013): 430-436; 2. Xiao, Di, et al. "Attenuation of postmeal metabolic indices with red raspberries in individuals at risk for diabetes: A randomized controlled trial." Obesity 27.4 (2019): 542-550.

[00:39:34] Eat fatty fish; Studies: Lanza, Ian R., et al. "Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 304.12 (2013): E1391-E1403; 2. de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto, et al. "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mitochondria, back to the future." Trends in food science & technology 67 (2017): 76-92.

[00:39:53] Sleep; Studies: 1. Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa, et al. "Short-term sleep deprivation with exposure to nocturnal light alters mitochondrial bioenergetics in Drosophila." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 120 (2018): 395-406; 2. Schmitt, Karen, et al. "Circadian control of DRP1 activity regulates mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics." Cell metabolism 27.3 (2018): 657-666.

[00:40:16] Supplements to support mitochondria; Study: Wesselink, E., et al. "Feeding mitochondria: potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence." Clinical nutrition 38.3 (2019): 982-995.

[00:42:22] Outline for this podcast

[00:42:25] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:44:47] 35% of pharmaceuticals cause mito dysfunction; Studies: 1. Meyer, Joel N., and Sherine SL Chan. "Sources, mechanisms, and consequences of chemical-induced mitochondrial toxicity." (2017): 2-4; and 2. Dykens, James A., and Yvonne Will. "The significance of mitochondrial toxicity testing in drug development." Drug discovery today 12.17-18 (2007): 777-785.

[00:45:08] Environmental pollutants; Podcast: Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome, with Jodi Flaws, PhD.

[00:45:22] Psychological stress; Podcast: Germline Exposures with Jill Escher.

[00:46:35] Support NBT on Patreon.

[00:46:51] Book a free 15-minute starter session with one of our coaches.

Aug 21, 2020
How to Fix Your Breathing to Improve Your Health
45:48

James Nestor is a San Francisco-based author and journalist who has written for Scientific American, Outside Magazine, The New York Times, The Atlantic, National Public Radio, and more. His latest book, Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art was released in May 2020 and became an instant New York Times and Wall Street Journal Top 10 bestseller. In it, he explores the history of how we have lost the ability to breathe properly and why we’re suffering from a long list of maladies as a result. These include snoring, sleep apnea, asthma, autoimmune disease, and allergies.

On this podcast James explains how changing the way you breathe can have a profound effect on your emotional and physical health. He relates how his research led him to understanding and practising ancient breathing methods, even enlisting in a 21-day Stanford University experiment to have his nasal cavities and his mouth taped shut. He also describes a simple and inexpensive breathing technique that can quickly produce significant returns in health and performance. 

Interviewing James this week is my NBT colleague Clay Higgins. Clay is a mountain biker, fourth-generation funeral homeowner, and was a client back in 2014. After transforming his health using ancestral health, Clay is now helping other people do the same. If you come to the front page of our website at nourishbalancethrive.com you’ll find a button to book a free starter session with Clay. During the session, he'll take a look at your history and share how we'd work with you. If you’re not in the US, don’t worry! Since we always work remotely, we can help you almost anywhere in the world.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Nestor:

[00:00:20] Book: Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art, by James Nestor.

[00:01:57] Freediving; Book: Deep: Freediving, Renegade Science, and What the Ocean Tells Us about Ourselves, by James Nestor.

[00:03:43] Jayakar V. Nayak, MD, PhD at Stanford.

[00:05:13] Mouth breathing for 10 days.

[00:08:21] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:11:47] Why don't we prioritize how we breathe?

[00:15:05] Video: Josh Turknett - How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm - AHS19; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:16:00] Book: Upstream: The Quest to Solve Problems Before They Happen, by Dan Heath.

[00:19:08] Effects of breathing on skull shape; Studies: 1. Muñoz, Isabel Chung Leng, and Paola Beltri Orta. "Comparison of cephalometric patterns in mouth breathing and nose breathing children." International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 78.7 (2014): 1167-1172; 2. Chambi‐Rocha, Annel, Ma Eugenia Cabrera‐Domínguez, and Antonia Domínguez‐Reyes. "Breathing mode influence on craniofacial development and head posture." Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português) 94.2 (2018): 123-130 3. Jefferson, Yosh. "Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior." Gen Dent 58.1 (2010): 18-25.

[00:21:54] Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.

[00:23:52] Benefits of nasal breathing.

[00:25:02] Study: Nasal breathing coordinates brain network interactions; Study: Zelano, Christina, et al. "Nasal respiration entrains human limbic oscillations and modulates cognitive function." Journal of Neuroscience 36.49 (2016): 12448-12467.

[00:25:22] High percentage of kids with ADHD are mouth breathers. Study: Bonuck, Karen, et al. "Sleep-disordered breathing in a population-based cohort: behavioral outcomes at 4 and 7 years." Pediatrics 129.4 (2012): e857-e865.

[00:25:02] Mouth breathing associated with emotional problems and ADHD. Study: Susan Shur‐Fen, G. A. U. "Prevalence of sleep problems and their association with inattention/hyperactivity among children aged 6–15 in Taiwan." Journal of Sleep Research 15.4 (2006): 403-414.

[00:26:37] Dr. John Douillard, Dr. Phil Maffetone; MAF method.

[00:31:13] Dr. Steven Park.

[00:31:58] Mouth taping; James recommends 3M Micropore Hypoallergenic Tape.

[00:37:11] Stanford’s Dr. Ann Kearney.

[00:37:43] Video: James Nestor interviewing Dr. Mark Burhenne on mouth taping.

[00:39:03] Studies on James’ website

[00:41:46] Mrjamesnestor.com; Breath resources; Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn.

Aug 14, 2020
Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan
01:05:51

Dr Jim Stray-Gundersen MD is Board Certified in General Surgery and a world-renowned expert in sports medicine, exercise physiology and training for sports performance. He has worked for 35+ years with Olympic and professional athletes, including the US, Norwegian, German, and Canadian national teams, as well as with NASA, Special Forces, and all levels of the US Military. Jim currently serves as the sports science advisor for the US Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) and is the founder of the SG Performance Medicine Center in Park City, Utah.

On this podcast, Dr Stray-Gundersen defines the mechanisms and application of Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) training and its effect on overall health, performance, power, and strength. He explains how BFR can deliver muscle gains identical to traditional strength training but with less weight, reduced risk of injury and faster recovery, making it a viable training option for people of all ages and fitness levels. He discusses the safety of BFR and the potential of this technique to revolutionise training and rehabilitation, particularly at this time when many of us no longer have access to a gym.

Train harder and safer than you were before the gym shut down! Head over to bstrong.training before Aug 31, 2020, and use the discount code Performbetter to save 20% on the BFR system we talk about in this interview.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jim Stray-Gundersen:

[00:00:19] Olympic skier Todd Lodwick's 2014 injury and recovery.

[00:11:09] How blood flow restriction (BFR) works.

[00:18:58] STEM-talk podcast: Episode 34: Jim Stray-Gundersen explains how blood flow restriction training builds muscle and improves performance.

[00:19:04] IHMC lecture: Jim Stray-Gundersen - Blood Flow Restriction Training: Anti-aging medicine for the busy baby boomer.

[00:19:08] Increased fast-twitch muscle fibers with BFR training; Study: Yasuda, T., et al. "Muscle fiber cross-sectional area is increased after two weeks of twice daily KAATSU-resistance training." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 1.2 (2005): 65-70.

[00:22:50] Improvement in strength and muscle mass with walking and other low-load training; Meta-Analysis: Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy in Older Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

[00:23:35] Increases in VO2max with BFR; Meta-Analysis: Formiga, Magno F., et al. "Effect of Aerobic exercise training with and without blood flow restriction on aerobic capacity in healthy young adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 15.2 (2020): 175.

[00:30:34] Safety of BFR; Study: Nakajima, T., et al. "Use and safety of KAATSU training: results of a national survey." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 2.1 (2006): 5-13.

[00:39:24] B Strong vs. Kaatsu.

[00:40:50] Contraindications for BFR.

[00:43:35] BFR for varicose veins.

[00:46:49] How to train.

[00:48:48] 9-minute workout.

[00:51:23] Measuring progress.

[00:56:24] BFR for elite athletes.

[00:57:51] Increased growth hormone and benefits for bone health; Studies: 1. Takarada, Yudai, et al. "Rapid increase in plasma growth hormone after low-intensity resistance exercise with vascular occlusion." Journal of applied physiology 88.1 (2000): 61-65. 2. Sato, Y., and T. Abe. "KAATSU-walk training increases serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in young men." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 1.2 (2005): 77-81.

[00:59:10] Why haven't we heard of this?

[01:02:00] B Strong; Instagram, Twitter, Facebook.

Aug 07, 2020
Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan
58:29

Kara Collier, RDN, CNSC is a Registered Dietitian, Nutritionist and Certified Nutrition Support Clinician who specializes in glucose control and metabolism. She’s also the Director of Nutrition for Nutrisense, a company that uses continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to help their clients become aware of the factors impacting their blood sugar. Kara oversees a team of dietitians leveraging CGM data to build tailored nutrition and lifestyle plans.

On this podcast, Kara talks about the value of using CGM to optimize metabolic health, prevent disease, and improve healthspan. She discusses how CGM captures critical information missed by traditional glucose screening tests and how the data can then guide lifestyle changes. We discuss optimal fasting and peak glucose ranges, the accuracy of CGM, and the 5 lifestyle pillars that tend to have a significant impact on blood glucose.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kara Collier:

[00:02:54] Nutrisense; Continuous glucose monitors (CGM).

[00:05:38] Article: The Rise of Nutritionism, by Kara Collier; Michael Pollan.

[00:06:54] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:08:12] Chris Masterjohn.

[00:10:07] Why measure blood glucose.

[00:12:07] Freestyle Libre.

[00:13:51] Podcast: Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch? with Megan Hall.

[00:14:05] Glycocalyx: Podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World; Podcast with Ivor Cummins: Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:14:18] Micrograph images of glycocalyx after a high-carb meal.

[00:15:39] Importance of peak glucose values (

Jul 31, 2020
Chrononutrition and Early Time-Restricted Eating for Metabolic Health
01:06:40

Before it became so easy for us to stay up at night, cross time zones in a single afternoon, and eat at any time of the day, humans were inclined to live in accordance with natural light/dark cycles. It’s probably no accident that along with these lifestyle changes we’ve entered an era marked by chronic illness - the so-called mismatch diseases. Metabolic disorders are often attributed to eating too much or consuming the wrong kinds of food. But fascinating research from just the last several years suggests we’re also eating at the wrong time of the day.

With me today on the podcast is writer, speaker, and researcher Greg Potter, PhD. to talk about chrononutrition - how the foods we eat and the times we eat them impact our inner clocks and metabolic health. Greg discusses how changing when you eat can have profound effects, including reduced blood glucose, insulin, and appetite, and even better outcomes with COVID-19. He breaks down specific macronutrients to eat, when to eat them, and in what order, to optimise the body’s inner timekeeper. 

If you enjoy this podcast, be sure to read Greg’s articles on chrononutrition over at HumanOS: Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:12] Metagenics Institute Podcast with Nathan Rose

[00:03:24] Early time-restricted eating (eTRE).

[00:04:18] A review of the circadian system.

[00:06:41] Consuming food earlier in the day leads to lower postprandial glucose and insulin; Meta analysis: Leung, Gloria KW, et al. "Time of day difference in postprandial glucose and insulin responses: Systematic review and meta-analysis of acute postprandial studies." Chronobiology International 37.3 (2020): 311-326.

[00:06:58] Time of day changes in immune function; Study: Abele, Sydney H., et al. "Focus: Clocks and Cycles: Time is on the Immune System’s Side, Yes it is." The Yale journal of biology and medicine 92.2 (2019): 225.

[00:10:51] How changing food timing can affect your health.

[00:12:34] TRE associated with better health outcomes; Study: Gill, Shubhroz, et al. "Time-restricted feeding attenuates age-related cardiac decline in Drosophila." Science 347.6227 (2015): 1265-1269.

[00:13:15] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:13:23] High-fat diet leads to changes in circadian rhythm in mice; Study: Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L., et al. "Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge." Cell 155.7 (2013): 1464-1478.

[00:16:03] Definitions - TRE vs IF (intermittent fasting).

[00:17:00] Different types of fasting: Alternate Day Fasting, Modified ADF, 5:2 Diet, Modified 5:2, nutrient restriction.

[00:18:30] Fasting Mimicking Diet.

[00:21:27] Intermountain Risk Score and calculator; Changes in blood chemistry with fasting.

[00:22:19] Time of day and macronutrient intake.

[00:22:34] Eating earlier in the day beneficial for metabolic health; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women." Obesity 21.12 (2013): 2504-2512.

[00:23:40] Three meals and a big breakfast better than 6 small meals; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "Reduction in glycated hemoglobin and daily insulin dose alongside circadian clock upregulation in patients with type 2 diabetes consuming a three-meal diet: a randomized clinical trial." Diabetes Care 42.12 (2019): 2171-2180.

[00:25:34] Eat your carbs last; Study: Shukla, Alpana P., et al. "Food order has a significant impact on postprandial glucose and insulin levels." Diabetes care 38.7 (2015): e98-e99.

[00:32:11] Possible genetic impact on circadian system; Study: Lopez-Minguez, Jesus, et al. "Circadian system heritability as assessed by wrist temperature: a twin study." Chronobiology international 32.1 (2015): 71-80.

[00:38:59] Early TRE better but perceived as more difficult; Study: Parr, Evelyn B., et al. "A delayed morning and earlier evening time-restricted feeding protocol for improving glycemic control and dietary adherence in men with overweight/obesity: a randomized controlled trial." Nutrients 12.2 (2020): 505.

[00:41:53] Early TRE improves metabolic markers and reduces appetite; Study: Sutton, Elizabeth F., et al. "Early time-restricted feeding improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and oxidative stress even without weight loss in men with prediabetes." Cell metabolism 27.6 (2018): 1212-1221.

[00:48:23] Diet timing and COVID-19 mortality; Study: Verd, Sergio, et al. "Early dinner or “dinner like a pauper”: Evidence, the habitual time of the largest meal of the day–dinner–is predisposing to severe COVID-19 outcome–death." Chronobiology International (2020): 1-5.

[00:53:51] Chris Kelly’s approach to circadian timing.

[00:57:14] How much protein to eat? 0.4g protein/Kg body mass of high-quality protein per dietary event.

[00:57:46] Digestible indispensable amino acid score.

[00:59:12] Podcast: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure), with Megan Hall.

[00:59:53] Resilient Nutrition (website coming soon).

[01:03:37] Resilient Nutrition on Instagram and Facebook.

Jul 24, 2020
Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity
01:17:20

Dr Brian Hare is a scientist and the New York Times bestselling author of The Genius of Dogs. He received his PhD from Harvard University and is now a Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University. Brian founded the Hominoid Psychology Research Group while at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and subsequently founded the Duke Canine Cognition Center. His publications on dog cognition are among the most heavily cited papers on dog behaviour and intelligence.

In this podcast, Brian talks about his new book, Survival of the Friendliest, which masterfully applies research on the psychology of dogs, chimps and bonobos to our understanding of human benevolence and cruelty. He explains why identifying with a group can result in hostility to others, and why species that find a way to cooperate tend to dominate. He also offers innovative solutions for reducing divisiveness and increasing cooperative behaviour in our contemporary society. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brian Hare:

[00:00:16] Book: The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods.

[00:00:48] Book: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods.

[00:01:16] Shared intentionality.

[00:05:18] Dognition assessment; online course.

[00:07:29] Duke Canine Cognition Center publications.

[00:13:45] Chimps and bonobos.

[00:18:33] Analysis comparing chimps and bonobos on lethal aggression: Wilson, Michael L., et al. "Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts." Nature 513.7518 (2014): 414-417.

[00:19:58] Friendliness pays huge dividends.

[00:24:32] Sue Carter, PhD on oxytocin.

[00:25:27] Sexual behavior of bonobo females helps form alliances; Article: Parish, Amy Randall. "Female relationships in bonobos (Pan paniscus)." Hu Nat 7.1 (1996): 61-96.

[00:27:24] Book: The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution, by Richard Wrangham.

[00:31:08] Jane Goodall; Documentary: Jane.

[00:31:18] Claudine Andre; Documentary: Bonobos: Back to the Wild.

[00:32:23] Louis Leakey funded Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birutė Galdikas (The Trimates) to study hominids.

[00:38:41] Books: The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man, by Charles Darwin.

[00:39:45] Michael Tomasello, PhD.

[00:47:14] Group identity.

[00:53:47] Paul Bloom, PhD.

[00:59:06] Increasing friendliness; Contact hypothesis.

[00:59:41] Policy recommendations and innovations to increase friendliness.

[01:06:40] Book: The Decline and Rise of Democracy: A Global History from Antiquity to Today, by David Stasavage.

[01:09:17] Brian on Twitter.

[01:09:52] Getting a dog: refer to the Humane Society website.

[01:10:51] Hypoallergenic dogs have the same amount of dander; Study: Nicholas, Charlotte E., et al. "Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs." American journal of rhinology & allergy 25.4 (2011): 252-256.

[01:11:50] American Kennel Club.

Jul 17, 2020
Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch?
53:31

We get a lot of questions from our clients about postprandial fatigue. Never heard of it? Well you’ve certainly familiar with the term “food coma” - and perhaps with the experience of being in one. What causes this phenomenon and why does it affect some people more than others? Is it normal to need a nap after lunch? 

On this podcast I’m joined by NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall to talk about postprandial fatigue - the sleepiness, difficulty focusing, and even dizziness or nausea that strikes after consuming a meal. Megan talks about some of the biological processes behind the need for a post-meal snooze, and when to suspect a deeper pathology. She also offers practical tips to help you resolve your own postprandial fatigue.

Thank you everyone who so generously supports this podcast on Patreon - without your support, we wouldn’t be able to keep this podcast independent and free of ads. So thank you. And just a reminder - as a Patreon supporter - not only do you have our eternal gratitude, but also...

You get some awesome gifts - including 20-35% discounts on all supplements we recommend when working with clients, which saves many of our supporters $50-$100 a month over what they were previously paying on Amazon. So by supporting the podcast, they’re actually spending LESS money each month.

In addition to that, you can also get access to our Office Hours, where Megan answers questions twice a week. You can submit all your own questions, as well as listen to all the replays, covering everything from krill oil to mitochondrial support.

We’ve worked really hard to make sure that the bonuses you get are actually way more valuable than what you pay whatever level you choose to support us at. So if you’d like to support the podcast and get access to the discounts and Office Hours, just head over to NBT.link and sign up there.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:04:25] Common symptoms of postprandial fatigue.

[00:05:46] Reactive hypoglycemia; Study: Johnson, Debra D., Kay E. Dorr, and Wendell M. Swenson. "Reactive hypoglycemia." JAMA 243.11 (1980): 1151-1155. 

[00:06:35] Diagnosing reactive hypoglycemia; Study: CHALEW, STUART, et al. "Diagnosis of reactive hypoglycemia: pitfalls in the use of the oral glucose tolerance test." Southern Medical Journal 79.3 (1986): 285-287.

[00:09:00] Symptoms and causes of hypoglycemia.

[00:09:37] Increased insulin sensitivity; Studies: 1. Brun, J. F., et al. "Increased insulin sensitivity and basal insulin effectiveness in postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia." Acta Diabetologica 33.1 (1996): 1-6; 2. Vexiau, P., B. Legoff, and G. Cathelineau. "Insulin and cortisol secretion during OGTT in patients with reactive hypoglycaemia with or without clinical symptoms." Hormone and metabolic research 15.09 (1983): 419-421.

[00:09:47] Hypocortisolism; Studies: 1. Meyer, Gesine, et al. "Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)." Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 14.5 (2012): 386-388; 2. Christiansen, Jens Juel, et al. "Effects of cortisol on carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism: studies of acute cortisol withdrawal in adrenocortical failure." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92.9 (2007): 3553-3559.

[00:10:05] Hypothyroidism; Studies: 1. Kalra, Sanjay, Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, and Rakesh Sahay. "The hypoglycemic side of hypothyroidism." Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 18.1 (2014): 1; 2. Yadav, Tek Chand, et al. "Recurrent hypoglycemia: An unusual finding of hypothyroidism." Thyroid Research and Practice 14.3 (2017): 127.

[00:10:53] What to do about hypoglycemia.

[00:13:09] Accelerated gastric emptying.

[00:16:20] Reactive hypoglycemia after exercise.

[00:18:51] Postprandial hyperglycemia; Study: Gerich, John E. "Clinical significance, pathogenesis, and management of postprandial hyperglycemia." Archives of internal medicine 163.11 (2003): 1306-1316.

[00:20:38] Problems associated with hyperglycemia; Studies: 1. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Meal-induced oxidative stress and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in diabetes: the possible role of hyperglycemia." Metabolism 48.12 (1999): 1503-1508; 2. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Meal-generated oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients." Diabetes care 21.9 (1998): 1529-1533; 3. Cavalot, F. "Do data in the literature indicate that glycaemic variability is a clinical problem? Glycaemic variability and vascular complications of diabetes." Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 15.s2 (2013): 3-8; 4. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Evidence for an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress generation: effects of short-and long-term simvastatin treatment." Circulation 106.10 (2002): 1211-1218; 5. Tibaldi, Joseph. "Importance of postprandial glucose levels as a target for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes." Southern medical journal 102.1 (2009): 60-66.

[00:21:24] Insulin resistance.

[00:21:39] Video: PAH 2016 - A systems analysis approach to insulin resistance, with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:23:02] What to do: Look at diet; 1. Krebs, Jeremy D., et al. "Improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity with a low-carbohydrate diet in obese patients with type 2 diabetes." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 32.1 (2013): 11-17; 2. Lin, Po-Ju, and Katarina T. Borer. "Third exposure to a reduced carbohydrate meal lowers evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and HOMA-IR estimate of insulin resistance." PloS one 11.10 (2016): e0165378; 3. MacDonald, Ian A. "A review of recent evidence relating to sugars, insulin resistance and diabetes." European journal of nutrition 55.2 (2016): 17-23; 4. Bradley, Una, et al. "Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial." Diabetes 58.12 (2009): 2741-2748.

[00:28:46] Mediterranean diet; Study: Guasch-Ferré, Marta, et al. "Dietary polyphenols, Mediterranean diet, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes: a narrative review of the evidence." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017 (2017).

[00:29:56] Endotoxemia and insulin resistance 1. Moreira, AP Boroni, and R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas. "The influence of endotoxemia on the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance." Nutrición hospitalaria 27.2 (2012): 382-390; 2. Cani, Patrice D., et al. "Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance." Diabetes 56.7 (2007): 1761-1772.

[00:30:24] Megan's outline for this podcast. 

[00:31:19] When fatigue after a meal might be normal.

[00:33:08] Article: Why a pandemic flu shot caused narcolepsy.

[00:33:49] Both high fat and high carb meals can cause sleepiness; Study: Wells, Anita S., et al. "Effects of meals on objective and subjective measures of daytime sleepiness." Journal of applied physiology 84.2 (1998): 507-515.

[00:33:56] Intestinal stimulation can cause sleepiness; Kukorelli, Tibor, and Gábor Juhász. "Electroencephalographic synchronization induced by stimulation of small intestine and splanchnic nerve in cats." Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 41.5 (1976): 491-500.

[00:34:20] Sleepiness after eating vs. just chewing; Study: MJ Harnish, SR Greenleaf, WC Orr, “A comparison of feeding to cephalic stimulation on postprandial sleepiness.” Physiology & behavior 64.1 (1998):93-96.

[00:34:38] Cholecystokinin (CCK) may affect the alert centers in the brain; Study: Wells, Anita S., et al. "Influences of fat and carbohydrate on postprandial sleepiness, mood, and hormones." Physiology & behavior 61.5 (1997): 679-686.

[00:37:13] Thermogenesis; Study: Zammit, Gary K., et al. "Postprandial sleep and thermogenesis in normal men." Physiology & behavior 52.2 (1992): 251-259.

[00:37:40] Summary: How to fix the problem.

[00:38:43] Nutrisense for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

[00:46:29] Timing your walk with glucose peak; Study: Reynolds, Andrew N., and Bernard J. Venn. "The timing of activity after eating affects the glycaemic response of healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial." nutrients 10.11 (2018): 1743.

[00:51:01] Support NBT on Patreon to access the forum.  

Jul 10, 2020
Measuring Breath Ketones to Evaluate Your Low Carb Diet
49:37

Trey Suntrup, PhD is a product engineer who earned his doctorate in physics and electrical engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2015. He is currently the Head of Product at Readout Health, the St. Louis startup that recently launched the Biosense breath ketone meter. Following a successful clinical trial in the autumn of 2019, Biosense has entered the consumer, clinical, and research market as a tool to help those wanting to lose weight or manage blood glucose with a ketogenic diet.

On this podcast, Trey discusses breath acetone testing and how it can be used to improve health outcomes. He shares the results of the clinical trial supporting the Biosense meter, including the finding that measurements must be collected multiple times daily to truly evaluate the benefit of a ketogenic or intermittent fasting plan. He also describes some of the advantages of breath testing over blood ketone measurement. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Trey Suntrup:

[00:00:15] James McCarter; Podcasts: How to Reverse Insulin Resistant Type Two Diabetes in 100 Million People in Less Than 10 Years and Nutritional Ketosis and Guided Behavior Change to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

[00:00:20] Virta Health.

[00:00:23] Douglas Hilbert; Podcast: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor.

[00:01:02] Trey's background.

[00:04:16] NBT Podcasts on ketosis and ketones with Dominic D'Agostino, Ken Ford, Brianna Stubbs 1, 2, 3, 4; Catherine Crofts, Megan Hall.

[00:04:29] Megan Hall’s Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:04:52] Types of ketones and methods for measuring them.

[00:10:03] Study of endurance runners in ketosis: Edwards, Kate H., Bradley T. Elliott, and Cecilia M. Kitic. "Carbohydrate intake and ketosis in self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon runners." Journal of Sports Sciences 38.4 (2020): 366-374.

[00:11:37] Problems with measuring BHB blood ketones.

[00:15:49] Deriving meaning from acetone meter results; The ACEs Unit.

[00:21:49] Clinical trial: Suntrup, Donald J., et al. "Characterization of a high-resolution breath acetone meter for ketosis monitoring." medRxiv (2020). Interpretation of trial results.

[00:26:15] Ken Ford on the signalling properties of ketones: STEM-Talk Podcast Episode 50: Ken Ford Talks about Ketosis, Optimizing Exercise, and the Future Direction of Science, Technology, and Culture.

[00:26:26] Ketogains: Chase results, not ketones.

[00:29:29] Early Time-Restricted Eating, Intermittent Fasting. Review: Mattson, Mark P., Valter D. Longo, and Michelle Harvie. "Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes." Ageing research reviews 39 (2017): 46-58.

[00:32:43] Biosense blog post: The Effects and Impact of Ketones and Fasting.

[00:33:13] Marty Kendall’s blog post: Is the acetone:glucose ratio the Holy Grail of tracking optimal ketosis levels?

[00:33:56] Continuous glucose monitors (CGM).

[00:35:16] Integration with Cronometer.

[00:35:48] Heads up Health; NBT podcast w/ founder David Korsunsky: How to Use Data to Take Control of Your Health.

[00:38:25] Senza app.

[00:40:52] Getting the biosense meter: Biosense website.

[00:42:10] Upcoming clinical trials.

[00:46:45] Find Trey on LinkedIn

Jun 26, 2020
Ingroups and Outgroups: Understanding Racial Bias in America
01:23:28

T. K. Coleman is the Director of Entrepreneurial Education at the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) and the host of The Revolution of One podcast. As a member of the FEE faculty, he is a prolific writer and speaker and leads workshops on themes related to entrepreneurship, economics, and education. I met T.K. through our friends at The Minimalists podcast, where T.K. is a regular guest.

On this podcast, T.K. and I are talking about race relations in America. This topic has made headlines recently, but the stress of being black in the US is nothing new for people who cope every day with a society that refuses to fully accept them. T.K. is one of the best speakers I’ve ever heard describe the struggles facing young people of colour in a system that is biased to favour some over others. He discusses the fundamental fears that keep us divided, the reasons COVID-19 disproportionately affects African Americans and some of the key factors that can help us overcome our differences.

Here’s the outline of this interview with T.K. Coleman:

[00:00:32] The Minimalists podcast.

[00:01:08] The fall of CrossFit founder and CEO Greg Glassman.

[00:03:38] Peter Gray; Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play; Book: Free to Learn.

[00:04:19] Foundation for Economic Education (FEE).

[00:05:27] Cofounded the Praxis apprenticeship program with Isaac Morehouse. Praxis introductory video.

[00:09:11] Nicholas Taleb.

[00:12:12] Race relations.

[00:17:25] Video: Sapolsky on Depression in U.S.

[00:18:22] Struggles: white students vs black students.

[00:23:18] Book: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life: Life-Changing Tools for Healthy Relationships, by Marshall Rosenberg.

[00:23:53] Book: Language and the Pursuit of Happiness, by Chalmers Brothers.

[00:24:43] Book: How to Win Friends and Influence People, by Dale Carnegie.

[00:27:57] How to know yourself.

[00:28:58] Article: Taking a Walk as a Revolutionary Act by T.K. Coleman and Isaac Morehouse.

[00:29:28] Book: Journey of Awakening by Ram Dass.

[00:31:06] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Russell Harris article on ACT: Embracing Your Demons: An Overview of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

[00:31:16] Book: The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion, by Jonathan Haidt.

[00:32:58] Article: The coronavirus is infecting and killing black Americans at an alarmingly high rate.

[00:34:19] Economic, educational, and cultural factors.

[00:39:51] The West Memphis Three.

[00:42:26] Video: Heartland Future Talks 2019: Robert Sapolsky & Lone Frank.

[00:42:35] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:44:16] The war on drugs.

[00:46:17] A16Z podcast: What We Can’t Reveal We Can’t Heal.

[00:57:33] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst; Video: Robert Sapolsky.

[01:08:26] Exposing kids to diversity.

[01:13:05] Increasing opportunity rather than giving preferential treatment based on demographic.

[01:18:28] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley.

[01:18:33] Video: Nassim Nicholas Taleb: "Localism and its Application to Lebanon".

[01:18:51] The rich always fear the poor.

[01:20:02] Follow T.K.’s work.

Jun 19, 2020
Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome
01:01:32

Jodi Flaws is a Professor of Comparative Biosciences and the Principal Investigator at the Reproductive Toxicology Laboratory in the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Illinois. Her lab studies the effects of environmental pollutants on the development and function of the human body, specifically relating to endocrine and reproductive health. Joining her is Karen Chiu, a PhD student whose work focuses on the impact and mechanism of various chemicals on the gut microbiome.

On the podcast today Dr. Flaws and Karen Chiu discuss some of the health-damaging chemicals that have become ubiquitous in our food supply, personal care items, and even our carpeting and mattresses. They describe some of the physiological effects of these pollutants, including potentially deleterious changes to the gut microbiota and early reproductive aging. They also share tips for reducing and mitigating exposure to these compounds.

After recording this podcast Karen talked with me a bit about organic foods - are they worth the additional cost to avoid some of these toxic chemicals? It turns out that while they are exposed to fewer pesticides, hormones, and antibiotics than conventional foods, it’s not true that organic foods are totally free of these contaminants. If you see the "USDA Organic" label, you can assume the food is at least 95% organic, while a product that claims to be “made with” organic ingredients is at least 70% organic. In her opinion, organic foods and products are the way to go when possible, given their lighter chemical load. It’s always a good idea to wash your produce to get as much of the pesticide residues off whether it be organic or conventional.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jodi Flaws and Karen Chiu:

[00:00:30] Paper: Chiu, Karen, et al. "The Impact of Environmental Chemicals on the Gut Microbiome." Toxicological Sciences (2020).

[00:01:25] Background and interest in environmental chemicals.

[00:03:35] Endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

[00:04:37] Phthalates and how they affect the body.

[00:06:08] Effects of Phthalates on the microbiome.

[00:07:15] Butyrate; Podcast: Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing, PhD.

[00:08:58] Potential effects of pesticides: increased lipid accumulation, decreased glucose tolerance, increased expression of adipogenic genes; Review: Xiao, Xiao, John M. Clark, and Yeonhwa Park. "Potential contribution of insecticide exposure and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes." Food and Chemical Toxicology 105 (2017): 456-474.

[00:10:44] Reducing exposure to phthalates.

[00:12:26] Environmental Working Group (EWG) database.

[00:14:09] Bisphenols.

[00:16:51] "BPA-free" - not necessarily safer.

[00:18:13] Effects of bisphenols on the gut microbiome.

[00:18:43] Bisphenol exposure in mice, effects on microbiome; Study: Javurek, Angela B., et al. "Effects of exposure to bisphenol A and ethinyl estradiol on the gut microbiota of parents and their offspring in a rodent model." Gut Microbes 7.6 (2016): 471-485.

[00:19:00] Akkermansia beneficial for intestinal immunity; Study: Ottman, Noora, et al. "Pili-like proteins of Akkermansia muciniphila modulate host immune responses and gut barrier function." PloS one 12.3 (2017).

[00:20:24] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:21:12] Persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Perfluorochemicals (PFCs), flame retardants and their adverse health effects.

[00:24:42] Exercise can attenuate change in the gut microbiome caused by PCBs; Study: Choi, Jeong June, et al. "Exercise attenuates PCB-induced changes in the mouse gut microbiome." Environmental health perspectives 121.6 (2013): 725-730.

[00:25:54] Hepcidin; Podcast: The Athlete’s Gut: Why Things Go Wrong and What to Do About It, with Megan Hall.

[00:27:20] Strategies for limiting exposure.

[00:29:20] Heavy Metals - lead, cadmium, arsenic and their effects on the microbiome.

[00:32:49] Higher arsenic levels can lead to higher Citrobacter population; Study: Wu, Fen, et al. "The role of gut microbiome and its interaction with arsenic exposure in carotid intima-media thickness in a Bangladesh population." Environment international 123 (2019): 104-113.

[00:33:29] Arsenic exposure increases TMAO; Study: Kuroda, Kaoru Yoshida Yoshinori Inoue Koichi, Hua Chen Hideki Wanibuchi Shoji Fukushima, and Ginji Endo. "Urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites after long-term oral administration of various arsenic compounds to rats." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 54.3 (1998): 179-192.

[00:34:18] Chris Masterjohn and Chris Kressor on TMAO.

[00:34:40] Glyphosate alters gut microbiota; Studies: Blot, Nicolas, et al. "Glyphosate, but not its metabolite AMPA, alters the honeybee gut microbiota." PloS one 14.4 (2019) and Aitbali, Yassine, et al. "Glyphosate based-herbicide exposure affects gut microbiota, anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice." Neurotoxicology and teratology 67 (2018): 44-49.

[00:40:33] Pig GI tract similar to humans; Dr. Sharon Donovan.

[00:42:34] Siloxanes (silicone products).

[00:43:52] Siloxanes; Associated with hypothyroid in cats: Poutasse, Carolyn M., et al. "Silicone pet tags associate tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) phosphate exposures with feline hyperthyroidism." Environmental science & technology 53.15 (2019): 9203-9213; associated with age of menopause: Chow, Erika T., and Shruthi Mahalingaiah. "Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?." Fertility and sterility 106.4 (2016): 978-990.

[00:45:03] Nicolas Taleb; Incerto series.

[00:45:31] Hot flashes and potential causes.

[00:45:51] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:47:23] Link between phthalate exposure and hot flashes (research coming soon).

[00:50:29] Genetic mutation in sperm linked to autism risk. Study: Breuss, Martin W., et al. "Autism risk in offspring can be assessed through quantification of male sperm mosaicism." Nature Medicine 26.1 (2020): 143-150.

[00:50:45] Effects of phthalates on men include early reproductive aging; Study: Barakat, Radwa, et al. "Prenatal exposure to DEHP induces premature reproductive senescence in male mice." Toxicological Sciences 156.1 (2017): 96-108.

[00:51:14] Things to do to reduce exposure; CertiPUR-US.

[00:55:17] Contact Dr. Flaws. Instagram.

[00:57:13] heeds.org for information on endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

Jun 12, 2020
Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play
01:11:59

Peter Gray, Ph.D., a research professor at Boston College, has conducted and published research in comparative, evolutionary, developmental, and educational psychology. His current research and writing focus primarily on children's natural ways of learning and the life-long value of play, concepts discussed in his book, Free to Learn. Dr. Gray is also president of the nonprofit Alliance for Self-Directed Education and a founding board member of the nonprofit Let Grow

On this podcast, Dr. Gray draws evidence from anthropology, psychology, and history to argue that we must entrust children to steer their own learning and development. He shares the story of his own son’s behavioural difficulties, which led the family to explore alternatives to traditional education. He also describes his own research on the long-term outcomes of children who are unschooled and addresses some of the main concerns parents have about informal education.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Peter Gray:

[00:00:10] Book: Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life, by Peter Gray.

[00:00:44] The story of Peter’s son, Scott.

[00:04:40] Sudbury Valley School in Framingham, MA. 

[00:12:42] Podcast: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:13:13] Education in hunter gatherer populations.

[00:19:42] Biological theory of education.

[00:21:45] Book: The Art of Tracking, the Origin of Science, by Louis Liebenberg.

[00:25:11] Agriculture as catalyst for change.

[00:31:06] Book: Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, by James C Scott.

[00:32:48] The importance of play.

[00:33:52] Curiosity and playfulness.

[00:37:07] Books: The Play of Animals and The Play of Man, by Karl Groos.

[00:41:51] Book: The Moral Judgement of the Child, by Jean Piaget.

[00:43:37] Unschooling.

[00:44:14] Agile Learning Centers.

[00:45:03] The Alliance for Self-Directed Education.

[00:46:38] Unschooling rising in popularity among homeschoolers.

[00:49:19] Study of 232 unschooling families: Gray, Peter, and Gina Riley. "The challenges and benefits of unschooling, according to 232 families who have chosen that route." Journal of Unschooling & Alternative Learning 7.14 (2013).

[00:49:42] Study of 75 adults who were unschooled: Gray, Peter, and Gina Riley. "The challenges and benefits of unschooling, according to 232 families who have chosen that route." Journal of Unschooling & Alternative Learning 7.14 (2013).

[00:51:21] Getting into college.

[00:55:24] Age mixing and scaffolding.

[01:01:00] "Please Trespass" sign.

[01:01:30] Book: Playborhood: Turn Your Neighborhood Into a Place for Play, by Mike Lanza.

[01:06:36] Peters Blog: Freedom to Learn.

[01:07:13] Find Peter on Facebook

[01:08:40] The hole in the wall project.

Jun 05, 2020
The Pleiotropic Effects of Sunlight
45:59

With summer right around the corner, huge kiosks of sunscreen are on display at stores everywhere, reminding us to fear the sun. We’ve been told for years that sunlight is something to guard against - and, of course, most of us know someone who’s had a suspicious mole removed. But we also know the sun is needed for vitamin D production - plus, it just feels great on our skin! And obviously our ancestors weren’t slathering on Coppertone when they left the cave.

It seems to be a no-win situation until you learn the facts about sunlight. NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall is with me today to talk about the critical role of sunlight for health and wellness. She outlines the many benefits of sun exposure that go far beyond vitamin D production and sets the record straight on UVA vs UVB rays, skin cancer, and how sunscreen is actually working against you. Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:11] Megan's new puppy.

[00:03:35] Podcast w/ Kira Furie: Breaking Through the Diet Culture: Medical Care for Every Size.

[00:05:42] Vitamin D and conditions associated with low levels.

[00:07:40] Book: Hidden Valley Road: Inside the Mind of an American Family, by Robert Kolker.

[00:08:22] Optimal Levels and dosing of Vitamin D.

[00:12:55] Vitamin D Calculator.

[00:13:47] COVID-19 and Vitamin D; Studies: 1. Glicio, El James. "Vitamin D Level of Mild and Severe Elderly Cases of COVID-19: A Preliminary Report." Available at SSRN 3593258 (2020); 2. De Smet, Dieter, et al. "Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics." medRxiv (2020); 3. D’Avolio, Antonio, et al. "25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2." Nutrients 12.5 (2020): 1359; 4. Meltzer, David O., et al. "Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Treatment with COVID-19 Incidence." medRxiv (2020).

[00:15:20] Vitamin D and ACE2.

[00:17:46] Benefits of sunshine beyond vitamin D.

[00:18:01] Circadian rhythm.

[00:18:29] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:18:30] Bill Lagakos; Podcast: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:18:35] Nitric oxide.

[00:19:01] Malcolm Kendrick; Podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:19:25] Homocysteine; glycocalyx.

[00:21:20] Ivor Cummins; Podcasts with Ivor: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:22:24] UV exposure suppresses symptoms of metabolic syndrome; Study: Geldenhuys, Sian, et al. "Ultraviolet radiation suppresses obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome independently of vitamin D in mice fed a high-fat diet." Diabetes 63.11 (2014): 3759-3769.

[00:22:54] Melatonin.

[00:25:39] Serotonin; Study: Lambert, Gavin W., et al. "Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain." The Lancet 360.9348 (2002): 1840-1842.

[00:26:26] Immunomodulation.

[00:26:45] Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis; Reduced risk of MS: van der Mei, Ingrid AF, et al. "Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study." Bmj 327.7410 (2003): 316; Reduced risk of depression and fatigue: Knippenberg, S., et al. "Higher levels of reported sun exposure, and not vitamin D status, are associated with less depressive symptoms and fatigue in multiple sclerosis." Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 129.2 (2014): 123-131; MRI neurodegeneration scores inversely associated with sun exposure: Zivadinov, Robert, et al. "Interdependence and contributions of sun exposure and vitamin D to MRI measures in multiple sclerosis." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84.10 (2013): 1075-1081.

[00:27:20] UV treatment increased glucagon-stimulated insulin secretion; Study: Colas, C., et al. "Insulin secretion and plasma 1, 25-(OH) 2D after UV-B irradiation in healthy adults." Hormone and metabolic research 21.3 (1989): 154-155.

[00:27:27] Prevention and treatment of skin conditions; Study: Søyland, E., et al. "Sun exposure induces rapid immunological changes in skin and peripheral blood in patients with psoriasis." British Journal of Dermatology 164.2 (2011): 344-355.

[00:27:49] Sun exposure related to life expectancy; Study: Lindqvist, Pelle G., et al. "Avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for major causes of death: a competing risk analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort." Journal of internal medicine 280.4 (2016): 375-387

[00:30:14] Outline of this interview.

[00:31:04] UVA and UVB rays; UVB needed for Vitamin D Production: Wacker, Matthias, and Michael F. Holick. "Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health." Dermato-endocrinology 5.1 (2013): 51-108.

[00:31:31] Inverse correlation between dose of UVB and melanoma: Study: Godar, Dianne E., Madhan Subramanian, and Stephen J. Merrill. "Cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed worldwide by sex, age, and skin type over personal Ultraviolet-B dose shows no role for sunburn but implies one for Vitamin D3." Dermato-endocrinology 9.1 (2017): e1267077.

[00:33:43] Sunscreens; coral bleaching: Downs, Craig A., et al. "Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone-3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the US Virgin Islands." Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 70.2 (2016): 265-288

[00:43:20] Join the discussion on the NBT forum when you support us on Patreon.

May 29, 2020
Breaking Through the Diet Culture: Medical Care for Every Size
40:20

Kira Furie earned her BS in Biological Sciences and her BA in Dance, graduating from UC Santa Barbara in 2018. She spent time dancing professionally in New York City and is currently working on a research project with an Addiction Medicine MD based in Los Angeles, California. Her interdisciplinary background, personal experience with injuries, yoga teaching, and research have given her a specific interest in Integrative Medicine, which she hopes to implement in her future medical practice.

On this podcast, Megan Hall interviews Kira about the series of injuries that led to her interest in physical therapy and later to medicine. Influenced heavily by the prevalence of eating disorders and the Health at Every Size movement, Kira discusses her current plans to bring prevention and wellness aspects to medical practice, while promoting a body-positive environment. She also describes “thin privilege” - an aspect of the current medical system that many of us take for granted.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kira Furie:

[00:01:23] Kira's background and interest in medicine.

[00:05:27] An untreated hip injury leading to more problems.

[00:10:40] Video: Brené Brown on Empathy.

[00:11:10] Psychology and yoga.

[00:12:39] The Minimalists Podcast.

[00:13:47] Sports and Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD

[00:14:20] Prevention.

[00:14:43] Jeffery N. Wilkins, MD, Addiction Medicine Specialist in LA.

[00:15:17] Primary vs. Secondary Prevention.

[00:17:34] Lack of connection as the greatest factor leading to addiction.

[00:19:00] The importance of connection; Podcasts on social connection: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, and Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19, both with Julian Abel.

[00:19:37] Health at Every Size (HAES).

[00:19:51] Book: Intuitive Eating, 4th Edition: A Revolutionary Anti-Diet Approach, by Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch.

[00:19:57] Book: Body Respect: What Conventional Health Books Get Wrong, Leave Out, and Just Plain Fail to Understand About Weight, by Linda Bacon, PhD. and Lucy Aphramor, PhD. Read the intro to the book.

[00:21:11] Lindo Bacon (formerly Linda); Review: Bacon, Linda, and Lucy Aphramor. "Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift." Nutrition journal 10.1 (2011): 9.

[00:23:22] Thin privilege.

[00:25:19] Body Mass Index (BMI) as a health marker.

[00:26:40] People in "overweight" category live longer; Study approved by CDC: Flegal, Katherine M., et al. "Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity." Jama 293.15 (2005): 1861-1867.

[00:28:14] Looking ahead as a future physician.

[00:32:41] Physicians for Ancestral Health.

May 22, 2020
Gutsy Decisions - Addressing Athlete Fatigue, Insomnia, and More
01:03:28

This week, something slightly different, an episode first published on the new XTERRA Podcast hosted by our friends Dr Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson. If you haven’t done so already, you might want to take a moment to add the XTERRA podcast in your app. In particular, I’d like to draw your attention to the second episode where they talk to experts about how to cope with COVID-19 and share their own stories of dealing with uncertainty, the good and bad of social media, and how the concept of ‘structure, routine, and reward’ can help.

Back to the episode, you’re about to hear. If you’re an endurance athlete and complain of fatigue, insomnia, hormone problems, anxiety, depression, bloating, or other gut issues – you are not alone. In this episode of the XTERRA Podcast five-time off-road triathlon World Champ Lesley Paterson and her husband, sports psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, talk about their own struggle-journey through the aforementioned health issues and share what they learned along the way.

 
May 17, 2020
How to Strength Train Without a Gym
01:04:22

There are so many great reasons to do resistance training - even for endurance athletes and self-described non-athletes who simply want to increase healthspan. We know that strength training improves quality of life, bone health, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and neurological health. However, in this uncertain era of COVID-19, commercial gyms are almost universally closed and many people are challenged to find new ways to maintain their training regimen.

On this podcast, NBT Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore, CSCS is with me to discuss the best strategies for adapting your strength training routine - or starting one - when you don’t have a gym. He describes creative ways to use bodyweight and household items to challenge yourself and load muscles and shares his favourite online resources to refer to for proper form. If you're just considering adding strength training to your routine, Zach also offers a simple way to get started.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zach Moore:

[00:03:44] Outline for this podcast.  

[00:04:07] 4-quadrant model.

[00:04:32] Study: Westcott, Wayne L. "Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health." Current sports medicine reports 11.4 (2012): 209-216.

[00:04:44] The importance of type II muscle fibers as we age; Study: Nilwik, Rachel, et al. "The decline in skeletal muscle mass with aging is mainly attributed to a reduction in type II muscle fiber size." Experimental gerontology 48.5 (2013): 492-498

[00:06:53] Joe Friel; Podcast: Joe Friel: World-Class Coach of Elite Athletes; Book: Fast After 50: How to Race Strong for the Rest of Your Life.

[00:07:57] Subjective quality of life; Study: Hart, Peter D., and Diona J. Buck. "The effect of resistance training on health-related quality of life in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis." Health promotion perspectives 9.1 (2019): 1.

[00:09:26] Bone health; Studies: 1. Chen, Hung‐Ting, et al. "Effects of different types of exercise on body composition, muscle strength, and IGF‐1 in the elderly with sarcopenic obesity." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 65.4 (2017): 827-832. 2. Hong, A. Ram, and Sang Wan Kim. "Effects of resistance exercise on bone health." Endocrinology and Metabolism 33.4 (2018): 435-444.

[00:11:35] Muscle as a glucose sink and improvement of insulin sensitivity; Studies: 1. Han, Seung Jin, et al. "Association of thigh muscle mass with insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese Americans." Diabetes & metabolism journal 42.6 (2018): 488-495. 2. Croymans, Daniel M., et al. "Resistance training improves indices of muscle insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in overweight/obese, sedentary young men." Journal of applied physiology 115.9 (2013): 1245-1253.

[00:13:11] Body Composition.

[00:14:47] Fewer injuries in athletes; Study: Fleck, Steven J., and Jeff E. Falkel. "Value of resistance training for the reduction of sports injuries." Sports Medicine 3.1 (1986): 61-68

[00:15:47] Resistance exercise results in fewer injuries than other sports, especially if someone is there to teach proper form. Studies: Aasa, Ulrika, et al. "Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review." Br J Sports Med 51.4 (2017): 211-219; Faigenbaum, Avery D., and Gregory D. Myer. "Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects." British journal of sports medicine 44.1 (2010): 56-63.

[00:16:40] Improved endurance performance; Study: Blagrove, Richard C., Glyn Howatson, and Philip R. Hayes. "Effects of strength training on the physiological determinants of middle-and long-distance running performance: a systematic review." Sports medicine 48.5 (2018): 1117-1149

[00:16:50] Podcast: The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, with Mike T. Nelson. Podcast: The Importance of Strength and Mobility for Mountain Bikers, with James Wilson.

[00:17:02] Neurocognitive health; Study: Herold, Fabian, et al. "Functional and/or structural brain changes in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive improvements–a systematic review." European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 16.1 (2019): 10.

[00:18:19] Strength training when the gym is closed.

[00:21:58] Incorporating movement into your day.

[00:22:19] Habit stacking; Podcast: How to Get Motivated, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:28:35] Strength training for endurance athletes.

[00:30:58] Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[00:32:43] Simple workout structure: 2x/week, lower body + upper body push + upper body pull.

[00:37:57] Why some people struggle with strength training.

[00:40:01] Zach’s recommended strength training YouTube channels: Jerry Teixeira for bodyweight exercises; Alan Thrall for barbell exercises when you’re back at the gym.

[00:41:11] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance, with Zac Cupples.

[00:42:08] Exercise videos: pistol squat, Nordic hamstring curl, rows using a table, one-arm pushups.

[00:46:29] Podcast: How to Protect Your Brain from Decline, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:48:11] Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:49:40] Blood flow restriction training.

[00:53:03] The XTERRA Podcast, with Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:53:56] Recovery.

[00:54:49] Podcasts on sleep: with Greg Potter: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health; Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes; What to Do When You Can’t Sleep; Better Sleep for Athletes; and Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors; with Ashley Mason:  Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems; and How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:55:07] Sleep important for muscular adaptation with strength training; Study: Jåbekk, Pål, et al. "A randomized controlled pilot trial of sleep health education on body composition changes following 10 weeks resistance exercise." The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness (2020). Also, see this graph.

[00:55:23] Diet: protein, anti-inflammatory whole foods.

[00:56:49] Getting the people you live with involved.

[01:01:27] Support NBT on Patreon.

May 08, 2020
Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19
01:13:34

This week we’re doing something a little different, and sharing with you the latest Endurance Planet podcast, hosted by holistic health and endurance sports coach, Tawnee Prazak Gibson, MS, SCSC, CISSN. The episode features Julian Abel, MD, the Director of Compassionate Communities UK, who has been on the podcast before describing the social, financial, and health benefits that come with integrating social support into healthcare. I also participated in this podcast with Tawnee and Julian, and I thoroughly enjoyed the conversation.

On this podcast, the three of us discuss the importance of social connection during this era of physical distancing and uncertainty. Many of us have had our daily routine sufficiently shaken. With this can come feelings of isolation and loneliness, yet it can also yield insight into what truly makes us happy. Julian, Tawnee and I talk about maintaining relationships during this challenging time, as well as reintegrating with others as lockdown mandates are lifted. We also discuss cohousing and alloparenting, and what my family is doing to build a stronger community.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julian Abel and Tawnee Gibson:

[00:00:20] Endurance Planet Podcast.

[00:00:31] Previous podcast with Julian Abel: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health.

[00:01:41] Dr. Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson at Braveheart Coaching.

[00:03:00] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F--k Down and Rise to the Occasion.

[00:03:02] Endurance Planet Podcast: Simon Marshall, PhD, and Lesley Paterson: How To Be A Brave Athlete By Managing Your Brain.

[00:03:16] Uncertainty and loneliness related to COVID-19.

[00:07:24] Calming anxiety.

[00:11:59] Deficit model of happiness.

[00:13:03] Working from home.

[00:13:21] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World; Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World.

[00:13:44] Stimulus control; Podcast with Ashley Mason: How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:15:07] XTERRA podcast with Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:15:22] Creating certainty in an uncertain world.

[00:15:31] Book: Willpower by Roy Baumeister; Atomic Habits by James Clear.

[00:16:02] External sources of happiness vs. focusing on what's important.

[00:17:22] Book: Propaganda, by Edward Bernays.

[00:21:22] Maintaining relationships during physical distancing.

[00:24:39] Brad Kearns podcasts on parenting: Surprising Parenting Tips, Part 1 (Inverse Power of Praise) and Surprising Parenting Tips, Part 2 (The Importance of Perseverance Through Struggle).

[00:25:26] Books: The Drama of the Gifted Child, by Alice Miller; Will I Ever Be Good Enough? By Dr. Karyl McBride.

[00:30:35] Cordon sanitaire: restriction of movement.

[00:34:54] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John T. Cacioppo.

[00:36:06] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[00:36:36] Article: The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake, by David Brooks.

[00:38:12] Podcast: The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: Babies and Beyond, with Megan Sanctuary.

[00:38:41] Podcast: Contemplating Cohousing: A Paradigm for Modern Day Tribal Living, with Julie Kelly.

[00:41:28] Solitude Deficiency.

[00:43:31] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy

 by Sarah Hrdy.

[00:50:43] Public Health Palliative Care International (PHPCI) COVID19 resources.

[00:52:44] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes.

[00:59:47] Book: Rebel Ideas: The Power of Diverse Thinking, by Matthew Syed.

[01:01:06] Reintegrating with others after lockdown.

[01:03:53] Article: The Coronation, by Charles Eisenstein.

[01:04:00] Book: The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It, by John Tierney and Roy Baumeister.

[01:05:09] Article: Abel, Julian, et al. "Circles of care: should community development redefine the practice of palliative care?." BMJ supportive & palliative care 3.4 (2013): 383-388.

[01:06:52] Harvard Study of Adult Development.

[01:08:50] Christopher Ryan; Book: Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress and podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[01:09:33] Book: Running with Sherman: The Donkey with the Heart of a Hero, by Christopher McDougall.

May 01, 2020
How to Protect Your Brain from Decline
01:03:50

Back on the podcast today is our favourite neurologist, writer, podcaster, speaker and banjo player, Josh Turknett, MD. Josh’s many current projects include his Brainjo neuroscience-based educational courses, the Intelligence Unshackled podcast, and his virtual neurology practice.  He has recently authored two new books, Keto for Migraine and The Laws of Brainjo, with more on the way later this year. 

On this podcast, Josh talks about his working theory of cognitive decline and how to best avoid it. He calls it the Demand Driven Decline Theory and explains why we need to build up our brain’s ability to repair and recover while also mitigating cognitive damage. Josh shares the best strategies to do this, and it’s simpler (and more fun) than you think. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:33] Previous podcast with Josh on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development.

[00:00:44] Masters of Scale Podcast; episode with Nancy Lublin from the Crisis Text Line.

[00:02:20] Supporting cognitive function as we age.

[00:02:31] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes.

[00:08:52] Modern hunter-gatherers and cognitive decline.

[00:11:26] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, 4-quadrant model.

[00:13:20] Cognitive activity protective against neurodegenerative disease; The nun study: Iacono, D., et al. "The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life." Neurology 73.9 (2009): 665-673.

[00:15:19] Cognitive reserve.

[00:16:03] Rats in enriched environments have structurally superior brains; Study: Torasdotter, Marita, et al. "Environmental enrichment results in higher levels of nerve growth factor mRNA in the rat visual cortex and hippocampus." Behavioural brain research 93.1-2 (1998): 83-90.

[00:16:40] Auditory training program with rats reversed over 20 auditory processing deficits in the adult brain; Study: de Villers-Sidani, Etienne, et al. "Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.31 (2010): 13900-13905.

[00:17:21] Intelligence Unshackled Podcast: Pioneer of Plasticity Dr. Michael Merzenich.

[00:22:54] Maintaining cognitive activity as a predictor of physical activity; Study: Cheval, Boris, et al. "Relationship between decline in cognitive resources and physical activity." Health Psychology (2020).

[00:25:29] Demand-driven decline theory.

[00:26:20] Retiring earlier associated with higher mortality; Study: Wu, Chenkai, et al. "Association of retirement age with mortality: a population-based longitudinal study among older adults in the USA." J Epidemiol Community Health 70.9 (2016): 917-923.

[00:27:00] “Widowhood effect” - 66% increased chance of death in the first three months after your spouse dies. Study: Moon, J. Robin, et al. "Short-and long-term associations between widowhood and mortality in the United States: longitudinal analyses." Journal of public health 36.3 (2014): 382-389.

[00:29:56] The "better off dead" rule. 

[00:32:32] Why the young are protected from cognitive decline: early demands on the nervous system.

[00:37:57] How schools may undermine cognitive development.

[00:40:03] What to do: recreate the demands on the nervous system of youth.

[00:45:06] Book: The Laws of Brainjo: The Art & Science of Molding a Musical Mind, by Josh Turknett.

[00:48:19] Teaching children - what should learning look like?

[00:54:15] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:56:34] jturk.net.

[00:56:45] Derek Sivers.

[00:57:27] Transitioning to a virtual clinic.
Apr 24, 2020
The Athlete’s Gut: Why Things Go Wrong and What to Do About It
01:10:34

Years ago, my own gut problems motivated me to seek answers outside the existing medical establishment, and with the help of my wife Julie I was able to get my diet and health back on track. Having now worked with thousands of athletes on their own health challenges and performance goals, it’s clear there are specific pitfalls that can accompany a high-level training regimen.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall is with me to discuss the latest science and clinical practice on the athlete’s gut. She talks about the importance of having a healthy GI system, why athletes struggle in this area, and specifically what to do when problems arise. We also discuss what I did to regain my own gut health.

Be sure to see the end of the show notes for the outline Megan wrote to prepare for this podcast. It’s an excellent resource for anyone seeking solutions for their own gut problems.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:54] Podcast: Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:01:40] The importance of gut health.

[00:03:13] Podcasts focusing on gut health, with Michael Ruscio, Jason Hawrelak, and Lauren Petersen.

[00:03:51] Study: Lupien-Meilleur, Joseph, et al. "The interplay between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal peptides: potential outcomes on the regulation of glucose control." Canadian Journal of Diabetes (2019).

[00:04:12] Gut-muscle axis; Studies: Ticinesi, Andrea, et al. "Aging gut microbiota at the cross-road between nutrition, physical frailty, and sarcopenia: is there a gut–muscle axis?." Nutrients 9.12 (2017): 1303; and Lustgarten, Michael Sandy. "The role of the gut microbiome on skeletal muscle mass and physical function: 2019 update." Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 1435

[00:05:43] Why athletes struggle with gut health; Studies: Costa, R. J. S., et al. "Systematic review: exercise‐induced gastrointestinal syndrome—implications for health and intestinal disease." Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 46.3 (2017): 246-265; and Clark, Allison, and Núria Mach. "Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 13.1 (2016): 43.

[00:06:59] Article: de Oliveira, Erick P. "Runner's diarrhea: what is it, what causes it, and how can it be prevented?." Current opinion in gastroenterology 33.1 (2017): 41-46.

[00:07:27] The 3 main causes of exercise-induced diarrhea: GI ischemia and reperfusion, mechanical and nutritional.

[00:13:25] UCAN SuperStarch.

[00:15:03] FODMAP fibers can increase gut symptoms; Study: Lis, Dana M., et al. "Low FODMAP: a preliminary strategy to reduce gastrointestinal distress in athletes." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 50.1 (2018): 116-123.

[00:17:30] Exercise-induced endotoxemia and ischemic injuries; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

[00:18:08] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:19:05] Nutrition and immune system in athletes; Studies: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:20:03] Common gut symptoms we see.

[00:21:37] Nutrient deficiencies and overloads: zinc, magnesium, iron.

[00:22:27] Iron overload impedes cardiovascular benefits of exercise; Study: Rossi, Emilly Martinelli, et al. "Chronic Iron Overload Restrains the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise to the Vasculature." Biological Trace Element Research (2020): 1-14.

[00:25:08] Hepcidin; exercise increases hepcidin, which can lead to iron deficiency; Study: Goto, Kazushige, et al. "Resistance exercise causes greater serum hepcidin elevation than endurance (cycling) exercise." Plos one 15.2 (2020): e0228766.

[00:27:55] What to do about GI symptoms.

[00:28:07] Dr. Josh Turknett’s 4-Quadrant Model, described in this podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:28:19] Dietary manipulations; Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:29:30] How Chris fixed his gut.

[00:30:07] Book: The Paleo Diet for Athletes by Loren Cordain, PhD.

[00:32:41] Lundburg rice tests for arsenic.

[00:32:59] Training fuel: Carb + protein + fat vs. simple carbs alone.

[00:37:18] Ultramarathon runners still in ketosis with up to 600g carbohydrate per day; Study: Edwards, Kate H., Bradley T. Elliott, and Cecilia M. Kitic. "Carbohydrate intake and ketosis in self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon runners." Journal of Sports Sciences 38.4 (2020): 366-374.

[00:38:00] Team Sky’s James P Morton on promoting endurance training adaptation in skeletal muscle by nutritional manipulation; Study: Hawley, John A., and James P. Morton. "Ramping up the signal: promoting endurance training adaptation in skeletal muscle by nutritional manipulation." Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 41.8 (2014): 608-613. Also see article: The IRONMAN Guide to Ketosis, by Megan Hall and Tommy Wood.

[00:38:24] “Sleep-low” strategy; Study: Marquet, Laurie-Anne, et al. "Enhanced endurance performance by periodization of carbohydrate intake:“sleep low” strategy." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48.4 (2016): 663-672.

[00:40:23] Probiotics; Study: Wosinska, Laura, et al. "The Potential Impact of Probiotics on the Gut Microbiome of Athletes." Nutrients 11.10 (2019): 2270; Serum-derived Bovine Immunoglobulin in SBI Protect.

[00:40:57] Testing if all else fails: blood, stool, Organic Acids Test (OAT).

[00:43:05] Basic blood chemistry tests for gut health.

[00:47:32] Gut microbiome testing; Onegevity Gutbio test.

[00:48:44] Treatment for gut pathology.

[00:49:08] Jason Hawrelak’s Probiotic Advisor.

[00:49:48] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:50:52] Dietary fat causing intestinal permeability.

[00:52:04] Blog post: Is a high-fat or ketogenic diet bad for your gut? by Lucy Mailing.

[00:54:44] Getting enough calories.

[00:55:00] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:55:10] Studies on the detrimental effects of energy deficiency in athletes: 1. Torstveit, Monica Klungland, et al. "Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes." International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 28.4 (2018): 419-427 and 2. Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl, et al. "Within‐day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 28.3 (2018): 1139-1146.

[00:56:35] Study: Hough, John, et al. "Daily running exercise may induce incomplete energy intake compensation: a 7-day crossover trial." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 45.4 (2020): 446-449.

[01:00:18] Fiber - timing and type.

[01:02:27] Orthorexia.

[01:05:02] Only 12% of Americans are metabolically healthy; Study: Araújo, Joana, Jianwen Cai, and June Stevens. "Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016." Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17.1 (2019): 46-52.

[01:06:40]  Become an NBT Patron and gain access to the Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[01:07:05] Megan's outline for this podcast.

Apr 17, 2020
Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions
01:06:55

Microbiome researcher and scholar of integrative gut health Lucy Mailing, PhD. is back on the podcast with me today. Lucy just completed her doctoral degree at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she studied the effects of diet and exercise on the gut microbiome in states of health and disease. She has authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and recently won the Young Scientist Award at the International Scientific Conference on Probiotics, Prebiotics, Gut Microbiota, and Health in 2019.

On this podcast, Lucy discusses her recent talk at the 2020 IHH-UCSF Symposium on Nutrition and Functional Medicine. The topic is myths and misconceptions about the microbiome - and some of these are quite surprising! We discuss gut testing methods and why some are better than others. Lucy explains why you consider skipping probiotics after a course of antibiotics and shares what to do instead to support repopulation of a healthy microbiota. She also discusses some of the best and worst gut-health supplements.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lucy Mailing:

[00:00:30] Why care about the gut microbiome?

[00:01:37] Previous podcast with Lucy: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome.

[00:03:52] Unschooling and self-directed learning.

[00:04:40] Book: The Carpenter and the Gardener by Alison Gopnik.

[00:05:45] Podcast on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:06:16] Lucy speaking at UCSF: Microbiome Myths & Misconceptions (on Facebook). Slides from her talk.

[00:07:46] Lucy's talk at the Ancestral Health Symposium 2019: Modulating the gut microbiome for health: Evidence-based testing & therapeutic strategies.

[00:09:06] Myth: Culture-based stool testing is accurate.

[00:11:00] Companies currently using 16S: Thryve and BiomeFx.

[00:11:28] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak.

[00:12:16] Diagnostic Solutions GI-MAP.

[00:14:34] Metagenomics; Onegevity.

[00:14:56] Doctors Data and Genova have now added PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to their tests.

[00:15:33] Parasites Blastocystis and Dientamoeba fragilis.

[00:17:35] Jason Hawrelak’s course: Blastocystis & Dientamoeba: Gastrointestinal Pathogens or Commensal Symbionts?

[00:17:39] Blastocystis.net. Book: Thoughts on Blastocystis, by Christen Rune Stensvold.

[00:18:45] Gut dysbiosis is driven by oxygen leaking into the gut; Study: Rivera-Chávez, Fabian, Christopher A. Lopez, and Andreas J. Bäumler. "Oxygen as a driver of gut dysbiosis." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 105 (2017): 93-101.

[00:19:04] Blastocystis might buffer oxygen influx, preventing the overgrowth of other pathogens. Study: Tsaousis, Anastasios D., et al. "The human gut colonizer Blastocystis respires using Complex II and alternative oxidase to buffer transient oxygen fluctuations in the gut." Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 8 (2018): 371.

[00:19:40] Blastocystis colonization correlates with a higher bacterial diversity; Study: Audebert, Christophe, et al. "Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota." Scientific reports 6 (2016): 25255; And the opposite result: Nourrisson, Céline, et al. "Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects." PloS one 9.11 (2014).

[00:20:02] Myth: We know what a “healthy” gut microbiome looks like.

[00:20:06] Lucy's blog on the elusive “healthy microbiome”: A new framework for microbiome research.

[00:22:43] Microbial signatures of dysbiosis.

[00:26:06] Myth: Everyone needs comprehensive gut testing.

[00:27:37] Ivor Cummins and Malcom Kendrick podcasts: Should You get a CAC Heart Scan or Not? Part 1 and Part 2.

[00:28:14] Myth: Breath testing is a reliable way to test for SIBO.

[00:28:27] Lucy's blog posts on testing for SIBO: What the latest research reveals about SIBO and All about SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

[00:29:40] Culture-based testing methods underestimate the number of bacteria in the small intestine by about a hundredfold; Study: Sundin, O. H., et al. "Does a glucose‐based hydrogen and methane breath test detect bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum?." Neurogastroenterology & Motility 30.11 (2018): e13350.

[00:30:53] Orocecal transit time ranges from ten to 220 minutes; Study: Connolly, Lynn, and Lin Chang. "Combined orocecal scintigraphy and lactulose hydrogen breath testing demonstrate that breath testing detects orocecal transit, not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome." Gastroenterology 141.3 (2011): 1118-1121.

[00:32:43] SIBO might not produce enough hydrogen to result in a positive breath test. Sundin, O. H., et al. "Does a glucose‐based hydrogen and methane breath test detect bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum?" Neurogastroenterology & Motility 30.11 (2018): e13350.

[00:34:36] Myth: Most bloating, distension, gas is from SIBO (and we neeed to kill the overgrowth).

[00:34:45] Small intestinal dysbiosis, not bacterial overgrowth is what underlies a lot of gut symptoms; Study: Saffouri, George B., et al. "Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders." Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-11.

[00:36:09] Mark Pimentel's research group.

[00:37:04] How to support the gut ecosystem; serum bovine immunoglobulins (SBI).

[00:38:25] Orthomolecular SBI Protect.

[00:38:38] Myth: A high-fat diet is bad for the gut.

[00:38:52] Misconceptions from the scientific literature on high-fat diets.

[00:39:54] Diet alters the gut microbiome composition within 48 hours; Study: David, Lawrence A., et al. "Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome." Nature 505.7484 (2014): 559-563.

[00:41:06] The Hadza hunter-gatherer microbiota cycles with the seasons; Study: Smits, Samuel A., et al. "Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania." Science 357.6353 (2017): 802-806.

[00:42:41] Ketones may support gut barrier function. Study: Peng, Luying, et al. "Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers." The Journal of nutrition 139.9 (2009): 1619-1625.

[00:44:45] Myth: More exercise is always better. 

[00:46:05] Zinc carnosine may reduce exercise-induced gut permeability; Study: Davison, Glen, et al. "Zinc carnosine works with bovine colostrum in truncating heavy exercise–induced increase in gut permeability in healthy volunteers." The American journal of clinical nutrition 104.2 (2016): 526-536.

[00:46:45] Myth: You should always take probiotics after antibiotics.

[00:47:51] Probiotics can delay the restoration of the native microbiota after antibiotics; Study: Suez, Jotham, et al. "Post-antibiotic gut mucosal microbiome reconstitution is impaired by probiotics and improved by autologous FMT." Cell 174.6 (2018): 1406-1423.

[00:49:20] A better strategy: supporting the gut epithelial cell with butyrate; Study: Rivera-Chávez, Fabian, et al. "Depletion of butyrate-producing Clostridia from the gut microbiota drives an aerobic luminal expansion of Salmonella." Cell host & microbe 19.4 (2016): 443-454.

[00:51:37] Myth: Prebiotics work the same for everyone and always feed good bacteria.

[00:52:45] Blog post: Resistant Starch: Is it Actually Good for Gut Health?

[00:53:12] Cooking food affects microbiome; Study: Carmody, Rachel N., et al. "Cooking shapes the structure and function of the gut microbiome." Nature Microbiology 4.12 (2019): 2052-2063.

[00:54:27] Variable glycemic responses to Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Galactooligosaccharide (GOS); Study: Liu, Feitong, et al. "Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) increase Bifidobacterium but reduce butyrate producing bacteria with adverse glycemic metabolism in healthy young population." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 1-12.

[00:55:32] Myth: All herbal antimicrobials are safe and effective.

[00:56:13] Grapefruit seed extract inhibits a broad spectrum of bacteria and is toxic; Study: Heggers, John P., et al. "The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity." The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8.3 (2002): 333-340. Presentation by Jason Hawrelak, PhD: Phytotherapy in the Treatment of Dysbiosis of the Small and Large Bowel.

[00:57:03] Herbs that have been found to be useful: Atrantil, Iberogast, triphala.

[01:00:44] Current projects: blogging, consultation, creating training courses.

[01:03:02] Lucy’s website, support Lucy’s work on Patreon.

Apr 10, 2020
The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History
01:31:36

Kristen Hawkes, PhD is a Distinguished Professor at the University of Utah, where she has taught in the Department of Anthropology for over four decades. She is also a collaborative scientist with the Yerkes National Primate Research Center and has authored over 120 scientific publications. She lectures internationally on our grandmothering life history and menopause as a uniquely human evolutionary advantage.

On this podcast, Dr. Hawkes discusses the grandmother hypothesis and the environment that likely propelled human evolution. When savanna youngsters couldn’t yet manage to feed themselves, grandmothers were there to help forage,  supporting dependent grandchildren as their own fertility was ending. In the meantime, still-fertile females could invest less in each offspring and have more babies sooner. More robust older females could subsidize more descendants, favouring mutations that enhanced postmenopausal longevity. The research of Dr. Hawkes and her colleagues can help us better understand the critical role of intergenerational support, and how modern individualism has caused us to veer off track.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kristen Hawkes:

[00:01:22] Becoming interested in grandmothering.

[00:04:17] James O'Connell, Kim Hill, PhD, Eric L. Charnov.

[00:16:00]  The economics of the grandmother role.

[00:17:10] Chimpanzee babies learn to forage and feed themselves while nursing; Studies: Bădescu, Iulia, et al. "A novel fecal stable isotope approach to determine the timing of age‐related feeding transitions in wild infant chimpanzees." American journal of physical anthropology 162.2 (2017): 285-299; and Bray, Joel, et al. "The development of feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)." American journal of physical anthropology 165.1 (2018): 34-46.

[00:20:01] Book: Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution), by Eric L. Charnov.

[00:22:19] Mathematical biologist Peter Kim

[00:26:33] Why humans are unique amongst primates: Slower development and earlier weaning.

[00:31:49] Cognitive neuroscientist Barbara Finlay.

[00:34:28] Anthropologist Sarah Hrdy; the cognitive ecology of human babies.

[00:36:14] Nancy Howell, demographer for the Harvard Kalahari Project.

[00:38:18] Life expectancy statistics based on an average; childhood and infant mortality historically skews results.

[00:38:33] Demographic studies of foraging populations; Books: Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (Foundations of Human Behavior) by A. Magdalena Hurtado and Kim Hill

Demography of the Dobe !Kung (Evolutionary Foundations of Human Behavior), by Nancy Howell; Demography and Evolutionary Ecology of Hadza Hunter-Gatherers, by Nicholas Blurton Jones.

[00:39:27] Life expectancy data, by country; Study:  Oeppen, Jim, and James W. Vaupel. "Broken limits to life expectancy." (2002): 1029-1031.

[00:42:36] Estrogen and hormone replacement therapy.

[00:44:35] Estrogen is converted from DHEA, DHEAS after menopause.

[00:47:17] High testosterone is missing among the Ache of Paraguay; Study: Bribiescas, Richard G. "Testosterone levels among Aché hunter-gatherer men." Human Nature 7.2 (1996): 163-188.

[00:48:36] Evaluating menopausal symptoms in different populations; Lynnette Leidy Sievert.

[00:52:16] Having a grandmother vastly increases chances that a child will survive.

[00:53:51] Female fertility begins to decline in late 20s.

[00:54:11] Utah Population Database for Utah demographic information.

[00:56:12] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[01:00:07] Cognitive skills: orangutans, chimpanzees and human children; Study: Herrmann, Esther, et al. "Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: The cultural intelligence hypothesis." science 317.5843 (2007): 1360-1366.

[01:02:34] The Infant Cognition Center at Yale;  Babies prefer individuals who help to one who hinders another; Study: Hamlin, J. Kiley, Karen Wynn, and Paul Bloom. "Social evaluation by preverbal infants." Nature 450.7169 (2007): 557-559.

[01:03:51] We're all grownup babies; Book: The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind, by Alison Gopnik.

[01:14:40] Books by Barbara Ehrenreich: Natural Causes, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America

 and Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking Is Undermining America.

[01:18:50] Cooperation because of self-domestication; Book: The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution; Study: Hare, Brian, Victoria Wobber, and Richard Wrangham. "The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression." Animal Behaviour 83.3 (2012): 573-585.

[01:19:07] Books: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods; Dognition assessment and analysis.

[01:20:55] Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior; Study: Wobber, Victoria, Richard Wrangham, and Brian Hare. "Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior and cognition relative to chimpanzees." Current Biology 20.3 (2010): 226-230.

[01:21:57] Bonobos prefer individuals who hinder over those that help; Study: Krupenye, Christopher, and Brian Hare. "Bonobos prefer individuals that hinder others over those that help." Current Biology 28.2 (2018): 280-286.

[01:27:22] You can contact Kristen at the University of Utah, Department of Anthropology.

Apr 02, 2020
The Braveheart Highland Games: Catching up with Lesley Paterson and Simon Marshall
53:16

World champion triathlete Lesley Paterson and performance psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD are the forces behind Braveheart Coaching and the authors of The Brave Athlete. I managed to pin them down for an interview after participating in the last event of their 5th annual Braveheart Highland Games Triathlon Camp, recently held in San Diego, California. Their following for this event has been growing in popularity and appeals to athletes from all over the world and of all ability levels.

On this podcast, Lesley and Simon give us the insider’s view of organizing a weekend training camp for triathletes. They fill us in on their latest creative endeavours, including screenwriting and their new podcast with XTERRA. We also talk about fun and adventuring, and how to prevent rewarding experiences from becoming predictable.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lesley Paterson and Simon Marshall: 

[00:00:00] Previous podcast with Lesley: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums; Previous podcasts with Simon: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

[00:00:11] Braveheart Highland Games Triathlon Camp.

[00:08:07] The investigative health hustle.

[00:13:22] Brad Stulberg, author of Peak Performance and The Passion Paradox

[00:15:40] Writing screenplays.

[00:20:47] Article: Chinese Researcher Who Created Gene-Edited Babies Sentenced To 3 Years In Prison.

[00:21:23] The role of cheating in sport.

[00:23:38] Recommended films: Jo Jo Rabbit, Parasite, Leave No Trace.

[00:26:02] New podcast projects with XTERRA.

[00:29:36] The rise of Tough Mudder and obstacle course racing.

[00:29:45] Dr. Mark Falcous at University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand; studying the warriorization of sport.

[00:31:32] Article: Why Do Rich People Love Endurance Sports?

[00:33:01] Article: Kids’ Gaming Obsession Isn’t Really About the Games.

[00:35:21] Paula Reid - adventure psychologist.

[00:37:13] The fun scale in adventuring.

[00:40:03] Mood change during exercise; Study: Magnan, Renee E., Bethany M. Kwan, and Angela D. Bryan. "Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: Physical and social–cognitive mechanisms." Psychology & health 28.4 (2013): 418-433.

[00:41:56] The deficit model of happiness.

[00:43:40] Hedonic adaptation.

[00:45:35] Preventing hedonic adaptation.

[00:47:59] XTERRA Podcast Powered by Braveheart.

Mar 17, 2020
Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors
01:07:23

Back on the podcast with me this week is sleep expert, Greg Potter, PhD. Through his articles, podcasts and live talks, Greg is helping an international audience understand the critical role sleep plays in health and wellbeing. Most recently, Greg has been studying the impact of circadian rhythm disruption, including sleep duration and meal timing, on the development of common cancers.

In this interview, Greg and I discuss Alexey Guzey’s scathing critique of Matthew Walker’s book, Why We Sleep. We also talk about some of the biological processes affected by sleep restriction, including cognition, immune health, athletic performance, and appetite. Greg shares some of the ways poor sleep is associated with cancer formation, including the damaging effects of sleep restriction on DNA and metabolism.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:09] Greg's 4-part series of articles on sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better; 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night; 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast; 4. Sleep for athletes: are athletes a different breed?

[00:00:28] Greg's previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health; Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes; What to Do When You Can’t Sleep; Better Sleep for Athletes.

[00:01:11] 2020 Metagenics International Congress on Natural Medicine.

[00:03:36] Book: Why We Sleep, by Matthew Walker, PhD.

[00:03:38] Article: Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors, by Alexey Guzey.

[00:04:12] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:10:23] Dimensions of sleep; Article: Buysse, Daniel J. "Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter?." Sleep 37.1 (2014): 9-17.

[00:12:34] The transtheoretical model of behavior change.

[00:16:34] Stephan Guyenet’s Red Pen Reviews.

[00:18:40] Chronotypes and the Sentinel Hypothesis.

[00:19:39] Are people not sleeping enough?

[00:21:56] Sleep duration in the US might be increasing; Study: Basner, Mathias, and David F. Dinges. "Sleep duration in the United States 2003–2016: first signs of success in the fight against sleep deficiency?." Sleep 41.4 (2018): zsy012.

[00:26:12] People overestimate their sleep duration; Study: Lauderdale, Diane S., et al. "Self-reported and measured sleep duration: how similar are they?." Epidemiology (2008): 838-845.

[00:28:29] Insulin sensitivity and testosterone higher after extended sleep; Killick, Roo, et al. "Metabolic and hormonal effects of ‘catch‐up’sleep in men with chronic, repetitive, lifestyle‐driven sleep restriction." Clinical endocrinology 83.4 (2015): 498-507.

[00:29:00] Plasma IL-6 higher after sleep restriction; Study: Pejovic, Slobodanka, et al. "Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 305.7 (2013): E890-E896.

[00:29:25] Better cognitive function with more sleep; Study: Kazem, Yusr MI, et al. "Sleep deficiency is a modifiable risk factor for obesity and cognitive impairment and associated with elevated visfatin." Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences 3.2 (2015): 315.

[00:29:37] Effects of sleep on appetite; Study: Al Khatib, H. K., et al. "The effects of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance: a systematic review and meta-analysis." European journal of clinical nutrition 71.5 (2017): 614-624.

[00:30:02] Sleep extension and exercise performance; Study: Mah, Cheri D., et al. "The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players." Sleep 34.7 (2011): 943-950.

[00:32:45] Assessing current sleep status.

[00:33:11] Podcast with Ashley Mason: How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:36:14] WHO (five) Well-Being Index; Short Form 12; Short Form 36.

[00:38:55] NBT’s Health Assessment Questionnaire.

[00:39:57] Sleep and all-cause mortality.

[00:46:56] Sleep restriction leads to worse performance; Van Dongen, Hans, et al. "The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation." Sleep 26.2 (2003): 117-126.

[00:47:31] Josh Turknett's 4-Quadrant Model; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:48:30] Sleep duration and cancer.

[00:49:20] Short sleep duration associated with cancer among asians; long sleep duration associated with colorectal cancer; Study: Chen, Yuheng, et al. "Sleep duration and the risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship." BMC cancer 18.1 (2018): 1149.

[00:51:02] Sleep deprivation and DNA damage: Study: Cheung, V., et al. "The effect of sleep deprivation and disruption on DNA damage and health of doctors." Anaesthesia 74.4 (2019): 434-440; and Carroll, Judith E., et al. "Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans." Brain, behavior, and immunity 51 (2016): 223-229.

[00:51:16] Article: Seyfried, Thomas N., et al. "Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics." Carcinogenesis 35.3 (2014): 515-527.

[00:56:22] Matthew Walker's website.

[00:59:47] Greg’s website; Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn.

[01:02:55] Sleepio. (SHUTi no longer available).

Mar 10, 2020
How to Stay Consistent
32:54

When I analyzed the responses to your most significant health challenges, it became clear that one of the top barriers to achieving health goals is consistency. We live in an imperfect world where the wind isn’t always at our backs and progress doesn’t always match effort. How can we maintain good habits when life is unpredictable, or when the journey doesn’t meet our expectations?

In this interview, Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD and I talk about some of the ideas and situations that cause us to get derailed when working toward long-term goals. We discuss planning ahead for the inevitable imperfect days, coping with injury, and using behavioural principles to overcome the all-or-nothing mentality that keeps us stuck. If you find this podcast helpful, you’ll love Simon’s new training course, Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching where he teaches the new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:01:17] Behavioural consistency, expectations.

[00:01:34] Expectancy Theory of Motivation.

[00:03:36] Permission to be imperfect.

[00:04:32] Catastrophizing.

[00:07:00] Cheat days.

[00:08:24] Traffic light analogy.

[00:13:07] Coping with injury successfully.

[00:14:20] Appraisal process.

[00:15:42] Investigative health hustle.

[00:18:13] Delusion funnel.

[00:19:09] Symptom journal.

[00:20:40] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:21:03] Performance profile.

[00:23:40] Behaviour change when busy.

[00:25:36] Biology of motivation; creating momentum.

[00:26:29] PowerDot muscle stimulation.

[00:26:53] Study: Paillard, Thierry, et al. "Effects of two types of neuromuscular electrical stimulation training on vertical jump performance." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 22.4 (2008): 1273-1278.

[00:27:28] Habit stacking.

[00:28:40] Essentialism; Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg McKeown.

[00:30:00] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Feb 28, 2020
Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure)
52:06

At NBT, one of the first things our clients do is complete a food diary. This helps us quickly identify any problems with macronutrients, micronutrients, and meal timing. What we’ve seen over the years is that few people - even those eating a Paleo-type diet - are consuming enough protein. This can have immense consequences on longevity, blood glucose management, and maintaining a healthy weight.

In this interview, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I talk about the importance of getting adequate dietary protein. Megan discusses the current recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein compared to optimal levels needed to support muscle mass and strength as we age. We talk about protein myths and misconceptions and outline protein requirements for specific populations, including athletes and those following weight-loss diets.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:02:16] Why protein is so important.

[00:02:28] Muscle mass and strength as a powerful predictor of longevity; Studies: 1. Rantanen, Taina, et al. "Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort." Age 34.3 (2012): 563-570; 2. Srikanthan, Preethi, and Arun S. Karlamangla. "Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults." The American journal of medicine 127.6 (2014): 547-55; 3. McLeod, Michael, et al. "Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing." Biogerontology 17.3 (2016): 497-510; 4. Burd, Nicholas A., et al. "Dietary protein quantity, quality, and exercise are key to healthy living: a muscle-centric perspective across the lifespan." Frontiers in nutrition 6 (2019): 83.

[00:05:30] Glucose disposal.

[00:06:22] Maintaining a healthy weight; Protein leverage hypothesis. Study: Simpson, Stephen J., and David Raubenheimer. "Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis." obesity reviews 6.2 (2005): 133-142.

[00:07:38] Dr. Ted Naiman; Protein dilution.

[00:08:18] Protein recommendations; Current RDA vs. optimal intake.

[00:11:02] How protein is prepared matters; Study: Pennings, Bart, et al. "Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, resulting in greater postprandial protein retention in older men." The American journal of clinical nutrition 98.1 (2013): 121-128

[00:13:00] Fasting and protein restriction could be detrimental for older population.

[00:13:43] Protein needs for athletes.

[00:15:06] Protein needs for individuals following weight loss/calorie deficit diets.

[00:16:02] Ideal timing for protein intake.

[00:16:25] Protein spread evenly throughout the day is ideal; Study: Areta, José L., et al. "Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis." The Journal of physiology 591.9 (2013): 2319-2331

[00:16:46] Leucine threshold; 3 grams is required to stimulate mTOR.

[00:17:56] Myths about protein consumption.

[00:18:28] Effect of protein on kidneys; high BUN blood marker.

[00:19:42] Effects of high protein diets on bone health.

[00:20:31] Myth that mTOR stimulation is bad. Study by Valter Longo: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population." Cell metabolism 19.3 (2014): 407-417

[00:22:50] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-term Health, by Justin Sonnenberg and Erica Sonnenberg.

[00:24:25] Myth: Animal protein is bad for the environment.

[00:24:36] Podcast: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat, with Diana Rodgers.

[00:24:59] Podcast: The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters, with James Estes, PhD.

[00:26:00] Myth: BCAAs are necessary.

[00:26:34] Myth: Too much protein will kick you out of ketosis; Video: Dr. Benjamin Bikman - 'Insulin vs. Glucagon: The relevance of dietary protein'.

[00:29:31] Myth: the body can only use 20-25g of protein at a time; Study: Schoenfeld, Brad Jon, and Alan Albert Aragon. "How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 15.1 (2018): 1-6.

[00:31:20] What we often see with our NBT clients.

[00:33:12] How Megan and Chris gets their protein throughout the day.

[00:36:05] Keeping quick protein around and ready to go.

[00:36:43] High vs. low quality protein; plant protein vs. animal protein.

[00:41:00] Arsenic in baby food made from rice; Report: What’s in my baby’s food?

[00:42:49] Resistance exercise as a critical part of healthy aging.

[00:44:29] Podcast: How to Get Motivated, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:46:18] Eat the protein first for glucose regulation and appetite control; Study: Nesti, Lorenzo, Alessandro Mengozzi, and Domenico Tricò. "Impact of nutrient type and sequence on glucose tolerance: physiological insights and therapeutic implications." Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 144.

[00:47:26] NBT on Patreon.

Feb 21, 2020
How to Get Motivated
39:58

I've got Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD. with me today to talk about motivation. Our analysis of thousands of responses to the most significant health challenges you've been facing suggests that this is a crucial factor for many people. You know what you want to do, and you're well aware of why you want to do it. So why does your motivation fall apart when it's time to get up early from a warm bed or when you're offered that glass of wine you know you shouldn't have?

In this interview, Simon explains why forming new habits can be so difficult, and what you can do instead to adopt behaviours that support your health goals. This show is full of actionable steps you can take - simple strategies to arrange your environment, adjust your routine, and plan ahead for challenging moments. If you find this podcast helpful you’ll love Simon’s new training course, Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching where he teaches the new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:53] Motivation vs. commitment.

[00:04:47] Motivational contagion.

[00:05:41] There is no try, only do.

[00:07:39] Counting; limited channel capacity.

[00:09:41] Sleeping in running gear.

[00:10:40] Strengthening relationship between intention and action; implementation intentions.

[00:12:31] Creating habits.

[00:12:43] Book: The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business, by Charles Duhigg.

[00:13:14] Trigger, routine, reward.

[00:16:31] Substituting the routine.

[00:17:23] Manipulating the trigger (stimulus control).

[00:19:30] The function of habits.

[00:21:40] Habit stacking.

[00:23:09] Start small.

[00:23:54] Expectancy theory; Victor Vroom, PhD.

[00:25:00] Instrumentality.

[00:25:43] Goal disengagement: knowing when to quit.

[00:29:59] Habit prioritization strategy; planning ahead.

[00:33:55] Accountability challenges; forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:34:20] Social conformity as motivation.

[00:36:23] Loser avoidance bias.

[00:38:04] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Feb 15, 2020
The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters
01:04:18

Dr. James A. Estes, PhD is a researcher, author, and professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. For the past 50 years, he has been studying the ecology of coastal marine communities and keystone species. He has authored nearly 200 scientific publications with a primary focus on sea otters and their impact on surrounding sea life. He currently oversees research projects in the Aleutian Islands, central California, the Channel Islands, and New Zealand. 

In this interview, Dr. Estes describes the massive ecological shift that can be observed when reducing the numbers of a single critical species. He shares the moment he recognized the cascading effects resulting from diminished sea otter populations in the Aleutian Islands, which then spurred decades of research. He also discusses the effect humans have had on the balance of the Earth’s ecosystems with industries including the fur trade, whaling and agriculture. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Estes:

[00:00:25] Dr. Estes: background and interest in ecology.

[00:06:31] Bob Paine; Aleutian Islands.

[00:13:27] 1960 paper: Hairston, Nelson G., Frederick E. Smith, and Lawrence B. Slobodkin. "Community structure, population control, and competition." The american naturalist 94.879 (1960): 421-425.

[00:15:54] Book: Serendipity: An Ecologist's Quest to Understand Nature, by James A. Estes.

[00:16:24] Starfish experiments; The Serengeti Rules documentary on PBS Nature and the BBC.

[00:24:35] Bob Paine's foundational paper (1966): Paine, Robert T. "Food web complexity and species diversity." The American Naturalist 100.910 (1966): 65-75.

[00:27:00] James’ 1974 paper: Estes, James A., and John F. Palmisano. "Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities." Science 185.4156 (1974): 1058-1060.

[00:31:48] Otters become victim to Killer Whales; Study: Estes, James A., et al. "Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems." science 282.5388 (1998): 473-476.

[00:36:45] Megafaunal collapse hypothesis leading to the trophic cascade.

[00:37:40] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[00:39:38] Study on whaling industry: Springer, Alan M., et al. "Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling?." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100.21 (2003): 12223-12228.

[00:45:31] Tony Sinclair; The invasion of rinderpest into East Africa.

[00:47:52] Book: The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters, by Sean B. Carroll.

[00:48:14] Effects on the ecosystem when wildebeests repopulated.

[00:50:35] Bison in Yellowstone and their impact on their environment; Study: Geremia, Chris, et al. "Migrating bison engineer the green wave." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116.51 (2019): 25707-25713.

[00:56:31] Chris Wilmers, Terrie Williams at UC-Santa Cruz; Puma Project.

[00:58:19] Short version of the documentary: Some Animals Are More Equal than Others: Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades (20 min).

[01:00:00] Curiosity Stream.

Feb 07, 2020
How to Effectively Manage Time
54:54

In this interview, Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD is with me to discuss one of the most common obstacles to meeting health and fitness goals - time management. For most of us, our days are filled with work and family obligations, leaving just a few precious unscheduled minutes at the end of the day.  It can seem nearly impossible to carve out the time needed for meditating, exercising, or cooking healthy meals at home.

There are biological reasons we find it harder to follow through with our good intentions as the day goes on. Fortunately, there are simple things that can be done to build better habits and strengthen our commitments. If you’re struggling to make it all work, Simon offers solutions for assessing your time-management problem and freeing up the time you need.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:50] The underlying struggle.

[00:03:56] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:05:30] Motivation and commitment to change.

[00:06:32] Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg McKeown.

[00:10:44] Substituting rather than adding.

[00:11:08] Self-determination.

[00:12:03] Sleep.

[00:14:45] Setting boundaries.

[00:17:05] The willpower bank account.

[00:17:53] Do harder things earlier in the day.

[00:20:29] Early time-restricted eating; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Dr. Satchin Panda.

[00:21:34] Habits; changing the environment.

[00:23:20] Podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:26:43] Chronic sleep deficit.

[00:27:00] When you can't sleep.

[00:27:10] Inappropriate light exposure, not enough light during the day; Podcast: Why Your Diet Isn't Working: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm.

[00:29:35] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:30:37] Track how you spend your time.

[00:31:55] Scheduling breaks.

[00:34:06] Why people resist time-use diaries.

[00:34:52] Book:Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity, by David Allen.

[00:35:17] Reactivity bias.

[00:36:06] Ecological momentary assessment (EMA).

[00:39:22] Reduce things vying for your attention.

[00:40:00] OneTab Chrome Extension.

[00:41:06] Inbox Zero.

[00:41:53] inbox.google.com.

[00:44:12] Email suicide.

[00:46:10] Batching.

[00:47:37] Decision fatigue.

[00:52:55] Accountability challenges.

[00:54:14] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Jan 31, 2020
Contemplating Cohousing: A Paradigm for Modern Day Tribal Living
01:12:12

Recently we’ve had remarkable guests on the podcast highlighting areas of evolutionary mismatch. It’s clear our society has disconnected from real food and good sleep, but we’ve also detoured from what’s optimal in how we congregate, educate, and support one another. We’ve divided ourselves into nuclear families, often leaving our children in the care of strangers so we can go to a job we don’t care about, in order to earn money to pay for our segregated lifestyle. Social isolation has become so common we barely realize the madness of it - until we need help and find that there’s no one nearby.

In this interview, I’m joined by my wife, food scientist Julie Kelly to talk about how our society could benefit from a cohousing model, transcending the current paradigm that leaves parents exhausted and young adults unable to afford housing. We discuss our own living situation and that of neighbours and friends, many of whom could benefit from living with others to share resources and skills. We’re in the contemplation stage of actually doing something about this, and would love to hear from you about experiences you’ve had - good or bad! - with cohousing or communal living. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julie Kelly:

[00:00:34] Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress? with Christopher Ryan.

[00:01:07] Stephanie Welch podcasts 1. Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision (she discusses the concept of nuclear family at the 55:13 minute mark), 2. The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World, focusing more exclusively on cohousing.

[00:03:07] Whole 30.

[00:03:52] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:05:08] Book: Lifespan: Why We Age―and Why We Don't Have To by David A. Sinclair, PhD.

[00:05:46] STEM-Talk Podcast: Episode 98: Steven Austad talks about aging and preserving human health.  

[00:05:46] Blue zone fraud; Study: Newman, Saul Justin. "Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans." bioRxiv (2019): 704080.

[00:06:22] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:07:08] Alloparents.

[00:13:00] Attachment theory.

[00:26:42] Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:30:59] Book: Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose, by Tony Hsieh.

[00:33:40] Podcast on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:36:00] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:37:31] Strategies and tactics of cohousing.

[00:39:45] Contact me if you have experience with cohousing: chris@nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:42:30] Patreon; Forum thread on cohousing.

[00:42:48] Cohousing resources: Why Denmark dominates the World Happiness Report rankings year after year; Pocket Neighborhoods; The New Generation of Self-Created Utopias; My working cohousing Google doc.

[00:43:15] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:47:19] Starcity.

[00:49:56] Grandmother hypothesis.

[00:54:05] Cooperative breeding.

[00:58:07] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck.

[00:58:12] Book: Radical candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.

[01:01:08] Book: Chop Wood Carry Water: How to Fall in Love with the Process of Becoming Great, by Joshua Medcalf.

[01:01:39] Podcast: Ketones for Performance, Cognition, and Cardiovascular Health, with Brianna Stubbs, PhD.

[01:03:18] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[01:06:05] Podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, with Julian Abel, MD.
Jan 24, 2020
Online Training for Killing It In the Gym
01:10:06

Strength and conditioning coach James Cerbie is the founder of Rebel Performance and host of the podcast by the same name. He’s on a mission to forge a new breed of athlete while giving that athlete a tribe and a competitive outlet.  What’s amazing is not just that he and a squad of other experts are developing a training library and launching competitions, but that they’re doing it all online. Only those interested in becoming complete freak athletes need apply.

In this interview, James and I talk about his remote coaching model, and how he manages to create a sense of community amongst athletes living great distances apart.  He discusses his 6 pillars of athletic performance (strength, hypertrophy, power, endurance, movement IQ, and fusion) and how his team of experts deliver results in these areas. He also shares his no-nonsense nutrition recommendations and talks about how Crossfit measures up to his approach.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Cerbie:

[00:00:57] Zac Cupples; Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance.

[00:01:46] Physical Therapist and coach Bill Hartman.

[00:02:30] Background in health and performance.

[00:06:29] 6 pillars of athletic performance.

[00:09:16] Ben House, PhD. Podcasts: Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica (2/6/19); How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes (1/21/18).

[00:12:48] Postural Restoration Institute (PRI).

[00:12:54] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype? (11/1/19); How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use (7/19/18); The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes (3/2/17); High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea… (12/30/16).

[00:15:22] Pat Davidson, PhD.

[00:21:55] Academia vs business.

[00:26:55] Rebel Performance.

[00:29:33] Comparison to Crossfit.

[00:31:28] Incorporating community and competition into training.

[00:36:42] Christopher Ryan, PhD. Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:37:28] Remote coaching model.

[00:41:43] Nutrition recommendations.

[00:48:22] In person meet-ups.

[00:49:38] The Top Strength Project, run by Steve Tripp.

[00:50:41] Rebel Performance Radio.

[00:54:49] Physiological need for stressors.

[00:56:26] Doug Hilbert from Virta; Podcasts with Doug: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor, and Ancestral Health Symposium ‘18 Recap.

[00:56:26] Study on biological age: Lehallier, Benoit, et al. "Undulating changes in human plasma proteome profiles across the lifespan." Nature Medicine 25.12 (2019): 1843-1850.

[01:05:55] Compete at train.rebel-performance.com; Silverback Training Project.

Jan 17, 2020
How to Manage Stress
49:36

At the root of our obstacles to better health, and indeed a cause of many health problems is stress. It’s not hard to find advice for coping with stress - many people will recommend meditation or yoga, and these are a great place to start. But what you might not know is that managing stress for the long term is a challenge that is best met with a balance of two specific approaches.

In this podcast Performance Psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. describes the two best strategies for managing the stress of life, along with a simple way to determine which one you’ve been relying on (often to the exclusion of the other). We also discuss some of the most common social stressors and ways for you to detach from stressful thoughts and feelings.

Sign up for the 2020 Braveheart Highland Games in San Diego, CA.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:19] Many dimensions to health.

[00:03:02] Headspace.

[00:04:13] Book: Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl.

[00:06:35] Stressor vs stress response.

[00:07:22] Task-focused coping.

[00:09:04] Emotion-focused coping.

[00:13:47] Wherever you go, there you are.

[00:16:25] Limits of emotion-focused coping.

[00:17:50] Gaining new skills.

[00:18:53] Progressive muscle relaxation.

[00:21:18] Audit tasks and emotions: identify your strategies.

[00:22:13] Book: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life, by Mark Manson.

[00:23:45] Book: The Happiness Trap: How to Stop Struggling and Start Living: A Guide to ACT,

by Russ Harris.

[00:24:02] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).

[00:27:07] Diffusion, detachment.

[00:30:58] Detachment strategies.

[00:33:38] Exercise dependence.

[00:34:50] Social stressors; social comparison.

[00:39:52] Strava.

[00:41:28] Zwift.

[00:43:35] Moderation vs. abstinence.

[00:44:50] Summary.

[00:45:49] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com for audit examples.

Jan 10, 2020
Better Sleep for Athletes
01:03:35

Sleep researcher, writer and international speaker Greg Potter, PhD is with us once again to continue our conversation about improving your sleep. In my last interview with Greg, we discussed practical steps to take when sleep eludes you, as well as preventing sleep problems in the first place. We’ve circled back around today to take a closer look at some of the most promising interventions for insomnia as well as special considerations for athletes with regard to sleep.

In this interview, Greg describes Sleep Restriction Therapy and Intensive Sleep Retraining in detail, two approaches to fixing insomnia that sound counterintuitive at first but which can pay off quickly with more restful sleep. Greg talks about mindfulness and meditation, sharing tips for using these practices to reduce insomnia and overall stress. We also discuss sleep considerations specific to athletes, including sleep timing, training load, and travel.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:03:35] Documentary: Who Killed the Neanderthals?

[00:04:35] Greg’s last podcast with us: What to Do When You Can’t Sleep (11/22/19); Previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health (7/4/18); Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes (1/27/19); Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top (as interviewer, 10/25/19).

[00:05:11] Greg's articles on optimising sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast

[00:05:44] Sleep restriction therapy.

[00:10:18] Sleepio.

[00:10:42] Intensive Sleep Retraining (ISR).

[00:12:18] ISR Study: ISR Study: Harris, Jodie, et al. "Intensive sleep retraining treatment for chronic primary insomnia: a preliminary investigation." Journal of sleep research 16.3 (2007): 276-284.

[00:13:18] Thim smart ring device.

[00:16:52] Coursera.

[00:17:24] Josh Turknett, MD on Patreon for ukelele lessons.

[00:18:23] Mindfulness and meditation.

[00:23:26] Book: Mindfulness: An Eight-Week Plan for Finding Peace in a Frantic World, by Mark Williams and Danny Penman.

[00:23:25] Book: Wherever You Go There You Are, by Jon Kabat-Zinn.

[00:23:41] Insight timer.

[00:23:56] Sam Harris' Waking Up app.

[00:26:28] Marko Lepik; Website: EQversity.

[00:27:17] Books by Russ Harris: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap

[00:27:42] Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster, with Ellen Langer.

[00:29:27] Try the bull’s eye (page 3) and/or the Life Compass (page 5) exercise(s) in this resource by Russ Harris.

[00:29:54] Matthew Walker.

[00:32:12] Sleep considerations for athletes.

[00:34:33] Shifting sleep timing.

[00:36:10] Phase-response curve for exercise; Study: Youngstedt, Shawn D., Jeffrey A. Elliott, and Daniel F. Kripke. "Human circadian phase–response curves for exercise." The Journal of physiology 597.8 (2019): 2253-2268

[00:38:47] Training load.

[00:39:00] Overreaching in athletes and worsened sleep; Study: Hausswirth, Christophe, et al. "Evidence of disturbed sleep and increased illness in overreached endurance athletes." Medicine and science in sports and exercise (2014).

[00:40:47] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); podcast with Nicky Keay: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

[00:44:31] Intensity of training and its effect on circadian rhythm.

[00:48:33] Obstructive sleep apnea.

[00:49:42] Concussion.

[00:50:34] The effect of travel on sleep.

[00:51:33] Jet lag strategies: diet, light exposure, melatonin supplementation; Jet Lag Rooster

[01:00:24] Find Greg on Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn.

[01:01:33] Greg’s recent speaking events: Greg’s recent speaking events: 2019 Health Optimization Summit (London), Biohacking Conference Moskow, Wellness & Biohacking Conference 2019 in Guadalajara, Biohacker Summit (Helsinki).

Jan 03, 2020
Ketones for Performance, Cognition, and Cardiovascular Health
55:34

Researcher and elite athlete Brianna Stubbs is back on the podcast today, checking in before her recent Ironman competition in Santa Cruz, California. Since we last talked with Brianna she’s left HVMN and joined the Buck Institute for Research on Aging as Lead Translational Scientist. There she’ll be studying ketone biology and collaborating on some of the best research being conducted today with the mission of living better, longer.

In this interview, Brianna and I talk about some of the latest studies on ketone metabolism, which continues to show promise for athletic performance, cognition, and cardiovascular health. She also notes where the research in this area is lacking and even contradictory. Brianna also shares her personal strategy for dosing the ketone monoester she helped bring to the marketplace. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:00] Brianna’s previous podcasts: World Champion Rower and Ketone Monoester Researcher Brianna Stubbs, The D-BHB Ketone Monoester Is Here, Women in Science: Bridging the Gender Gap, and The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers.

[00:02:00] Racing Ironman.

[00:05:10] Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:06:57] Dosing the ketone ester during the triathlon.

[00:09:55] Ketone ester as a tool to to evaluate perception of exercise; Study: Faull, Olivia Kate, et al. "Beyond RPE: The perception of exercise under normal and ketotic conditions." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 229

[00:11:09] Lead Translational Scientist at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

[00:13:01] Dale Bredesen, MD; Eric Verdin, MD.

[00:13:36] Review on ketone metabolism: Newman, John C., and Eric Verdin. "Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 25.1 (2014): 42-52.

[00:14:56] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD

[00:18:07] STEM-Talk Podcast: Episode 92 with Megan Roberts and Episode 94 with John Newman.

[00:19:27] β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB), as an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor; Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[00:21:42] HVMN.

[00:22:59] Epigenetic effects of ketones.

[00:27:27] BHB can affect vascular senescence; Study: Han, Young-min, et al. "β-Hydroxybutyrate prevents vascular senescence through hnRNP A1-mediated upregulation of Oct4." Molecular cell 71.6 (2018): 1064-1078.

[00:30:24] BHB inactivates the NLRP3 inflammasome; Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263.

[00:31:02] BHB protects against muscle protein wasting; Study: Thomsen, Henrik H., et al. "Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies." The American journal of clinical nutrition 108.4 (2018): 857-867.

[00:32:11] Increased inflammatory response with ketone ester; Study: Neudorf, Helena, et al. "Oral Ketone Supplementation Acutely Increases Markers of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Monocytes." Molecular nutrition & food research (2019): 1801171.

[00:35:52] Ketogenic diet and exogenous ketones reduce epileptiform spikes associated with Alzheimer’s: Newman, John C., et al. "Ketogenic diet or BHB improves epileptiform spikes, memory, survival in Alzheimer's model." bioRxiv (2017): 136226.

[00:36:51] Kenneth Ford, PhD.; Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford

[00:37:57] Cardiovascular effects of ketone infusions in humans; Studies: 1. Nielsen, Roni, et al. "Cardiovascular effects of treatment with the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in chronic heart failure patients." Circulation 139.18 (2019): 2129-2141. 2. Gormsen, Lars C., et al. "Ketone Body Infusion With 3‐Hydroxybutyrate Reduces Myocardial Glucose Uptake and Increases Blood Flow in Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study." Journal of the American Heart Association 6.3 (2017): e005066.

[00:38:06] Ketone infusions in a paced model of cardiac failure in dogs. Study: Horton, Julie L., et al. "The failing heart utilizes 3-hydroxybutyrate as a metabolic stress defense." JCI insight 4.4 (2019).

[00:43:05] Ketogenic diet and gut health.

[00:44:31] Exogenous ketones affect stem cell regeneration and differentiation; Study: Cheng, Chia-Wei, et al. "Ketone Body Signaling Mediates Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis and Adaptation to Diet." Cell 178.5 (2019): 1115-1131. (We don’t have access to the Supplementary Methods, which contain Brianna’s favorite molecule!)

[00:46:02] Performance enhancing effects of lactate/propionate: Scheiman, Jonathan, et al. "Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism." Nature Medicine (2019): 1.

[00:47:22] Lucy Mailing; Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome.

[00:50:24] Improved performance with the ketone monoester; Study: Cox, Pete J., et al. "Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes." Cell metabolism 24.2 (2016): 256-268

[00:50:30] No performance benefit with ketone monoester supplement; Study: Evans, Mark, et al. "No Benefit of Ingestion of a Ketone Monoester Supplement on 10-km Running Performance." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 51.12 (2019): 2506-2515.

[00:52:00] Dr. Stephen Cunnane’s studies correlating blood ketone level and changing cognitive function and brain ketone uptake: Cunnane, Stephen C., et al. "Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during aging and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease." Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 9 (2016): 53; 2. Fortier, Mélanie, et al. "A ketogenic drink improves brain energy and some measures of cognition in mild cognitive impairment." Alzheimer's & Dementia 15.5 (2019): 625-634.

[00:52:40] Breath ketone meters.

[00:57:03] Find Brianna on Twitter.

Dec 27, 2019
NBT People: Anastassia Laskey
49:04

Anastassia Laskey is a consultant living in Atlanta, and she’s been a member of NBT’s Elite Performance Program for the past 3 years. Since then she’s overcome health challenges that were significantly affecting her quality of life, including numerous gut infections, food sensitivities and fatigue.

On this podcast, Anastassia talks with NBT coach and Scientific Director Megan Roberts about her healing journey from a state of severe illness to one in which she’s gained control over her well-being. She shares about her decision to go overseas for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and the impact this procedure had on her recovery. She also discusses the habit-forming strategies and lifestyle changes she implemented to maintain her improved state of health.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Anastassia Laskey:

[00:00:31] Why Ana came to Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:03:32] Diet changes.

[00:03:45] Book: The Primal Blueprint, by Mark Sisson.

[00:04:11] Clostridium difficile (C-diff).

[00:06:30] Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

[00:07:48] Taymount Clinic.

[00:09:17] Improvement with FMT.

[00:12:20] H. pylori, Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).

[00:13:32] Current diet.

[00:14:57] Getting enough protein.

[00:16:47] Tips for getting more protein: Wild Planet Sardines with lemon; European bacon, Chudabeef beef jerky.

[00:19:18] Learning to eat intuitively.

[00:21:03] Healthy at Every Size and Intuitive Eating; "body neutrality".

[00:22:58] The effect of emotional stress on health.

[00:26:21] Creating habits and making them stick.

[00:30:36] Physical activity without a gym.

[00:32:08] Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) or farm box subscription; Fresh Harvest.

[00:34:05] Important levers: sleep; reducing environmental stressors, reducing sugar.

[00:37:37] "Cured" vs. maintaining new lifestyle habits.

[00:42:34] The value of accountability.

Dec 20, 2019
How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
01:13:40

Ashley Mason, PhD., Licensed Clinical Psychologist and Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at UCSF, is back on the podcast this week. Ashley is an expert in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), a structured program that helps people overcome the underlying causes of sleep problems. She’s passionate about her clinical work with small groups, and there’s clearly a demand for her services - her schedule is booked for the next 8 months.

In this interview, Ashley shares her step-by-step formula for helping her patients fix their sleep. She describes some lesser-known strategies that help re-establish restful sleep patterns, including sleep restriction, scheduled worry time, and identifying cognitive distortions. She also talks about the pitfalls people encounter when recovering from insomnia, and how to avoid them.

Please consider supporting Ashley’s work.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ashley Mason:

[00:00:13] Book: Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker, PhD.

[00:02:15] Dr. Kirk Parsley; Podcasts: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD (2016), and Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top.

[00:03:22] Book: Quiet Your Mind and Get to Sleep: Solutions to Insomnia for Those with Depression, Anxiety or Chronic Pain, by Colleen Carney, PhD. and Rachel Manber, PhD.

[00:03:35] Dick Bootzin.

[00:05:03] Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I).

[00:06:43] Treatment process.

[00:09:05] 5 weekly group sessions, sleep diary.

[00:12:26] Bed is for sleep and sex only.

[00:17:17] Sleep restriction.

[00:19:03] Cognitive tools for dealing with anxiety and worry.

[00:19:32] Scheduling worry time.

[00:20:15] Book: Mind Over Mood, Second Edition: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think, by Dennis Greenberger, PhD., and Christine A Padesky, PhD.

[00:20:32] How to worry effectively.

[00:22:10] Behavioral activation.

[00:23:20] Identifying disempowering thoughts.

[00:24:52] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Russ Harris books: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap.

[00:25:44] Cognitive distortions and troublesome thoughts.

[00:38:30] Bob Newhart’s “Stop It” video.

[00:38:40] New York Times article on how to use sunglasses when traveling: Yes, Your Sleep Schedule is Making You Sick.

[00:38:45] Jet Lag Rooster; Podcast: Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top.

[00:40:00] Stimulus control.

[00:48:12] Cal Newport; podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:50:42] Bill Lagakos on Patreon.

[00:52:00] Pitfalls people encounter when recovering from insomnia.

[00:54:33] Variations in Melatonin bottle contents; Study: Erland, Lauren AE, and Praveen K. Saxena. "Melatonin natural health products and supplements: presence of serotonin and significant variability of melatonin content." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13.02 (2017): 275-281.

[01:00:39] Wall Street Journal Article: Is It Healthy to Sleep in a Hammock?; Study: Kompotis, Konstantinos, et al. "Rocking promotes sleep in mice through rhythmic stimulation of the vestibular system." Current Biology 29.3 (2019): 392-401.

[01:02:11] Article: [The American College of Physicians] Recommends CBTI as Initial Treatment for Chronic Insomnia.

[01:02:40] Dr. Josh Turknett’s 4-quadrant model (Go to minute 21:20 for a visual of the 4-quadrant model.); Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution

[01:06:20] Sleepio app.

[01:07:41] UCSF Sea Lab. Ashley’s sleep clinic and her current research

[01:08:16] Contact Ashley to support her work. Listen to Ashley’s previous NBT podcasts: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD (2014) and Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems (2019).

Dec 13, 2019
Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?
01:40:24

Christopher Ryan, PhD. is an author, speaker, and podcast host, as well as an excellent storyteller. With his New York Times best-selling book, Sex at Dawn, he became known for challenging the standard cultural narratives around sex and social organization. His new book, Civilized to Death, questions whether civilization has been a net benefit to our species. On his podcast Tangentially Speaking, Chris welcomes a mix of unconventional guests including famous comics, bank robbers, drug smugglers, porn stars, and rattlesnake experts.

In this interview, Chris offers a challenging perspective on how humans have strayed from egalitarian tribal living, instead adopting customs that don’t match our biological drives and social needs. He focuses on the disruptive role of agriculture in human history, marking that as the period during which we veered off course. Chris also shares humorous and touching stories from interviews and travels in his van, Scarlett Jovansson.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Christopher Ryan:

[00:00:17] Tangentially Speaking podcast: Interview with Bruce Parry.

[00:00:49] Film from Bruce Parry: Tawai: A Voice from the Forest.

[00:01:01] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World

[00:02:50] Book: The Red Queen by Matt Ridley.

[00:03:03] Book: Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress, by Christopher Ryan.

[00:04:50] Spain to lead the world in life expectancy. Study: Foreman, Kyle J., et al. "Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes of death: reference and alternative scenarios for 2016–40 for 195 countries and territories." The Lancet 392.10159 (2018): 2052-2090.

[00:11:37] Show: Tribe, hosted by Bruce Parry.

[00:11:52] Film: Cannibals and Crampons, with Bruce Parry and Mark Anstice.

[00:14:26] Book: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What it Means for Modern Relationships, by Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá.

[00:18:28] Sarah Hrdy, author of books on alloparenting.

[00:20:37] Article: Sex at Dusk by David Barash.

[00:23:30] Agriculture as the catalyst for a profound revolution in the way human beings organize themselves.

[00:27:27] Book: Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, by James C. Scott.

[00:29:08] Thomas Malthus and Thomas Hobbes.

[00:44:17] Anthropologist Nurit Bird-David.

[00:46:43] Critics of Chris’s position on cultural evolution: Matt Ridley, Steven Pinker, Richard Dawkins, David Buss, Helen Fisher.

[00:55:39] Book: Opening Up: A Guide To Creating and Sustaining Open Relationships, by Tristan Taormino.

[00:58:09] Dan Savage.

[01:02:50] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[01:07:28] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[01:09:59] Think globally, act locally.

[01:18:14] Kenneth Ford, Director of the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC); Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford

[01:22:35] Tangentially Speaking podcast. Get a T-shirt.

[01:27:03] Podcast with the woman who took ayahuasca: Mandy.

[01:30:27] Podcast with rattlesnake expert: John Porter.

[01:30:46] Jeff Leach.

[01:37:19] See more of Chris at his website and his TED talk.

Dec 06, 2019
The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: Applying the Autoimmune Protocol
58:25

Mickey Trescott, NTP is a Nutritional Therapy Practitioner, blogger, author, and advocate for those taking recovery from autoimmune disease into their own hands. Mickey has a special place in my heart because her first book was the resource that my wife, Julie, used to help me recover my own health. She’s now written a second book, The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen, emphasizing the healing aspects of the highly nutritious foods available within the Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) template.

In this interview, Mickey and I discuss her journey to finally being diagnosed with Hashimoto’s and celiac diseases, and the lifestyle factors that may have contributed to her illness. She discusses some of the pitfalls encountered by people following AIP, and the clinical trials being done to empirically validate AIP as a treatment for autoimmune disease.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mickey Trescott:

[00:00:10] Nutrient density, defined.

[00:01:13] Book: The Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook: An Allergen-Free Approach to Managing Chronic Illness, by Mickey Trescott.

[00:02:00] Autoimmune Protocol; Mickey’s website: Autoimmune Wellness.

[00:02:20] Journey to diagnoses of Hashimoto's and Celiac.

[00:06:42] Veganism and vegetarianism; nutrient deficiencies.

[00:09:27] Which autoimmune conditions respond best to AIP?

[00:12:13] Why AIP works.

[00:15:32] Book: The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: 125 Autoimmune Paleo Recipes for Deep Healing and Vibrant Health.

[00:16:13] Common mistakes within the AIP community.

[00:19:12] Recipe: Bacon Beef Liver Pâté with Rosemary and Thyme.

[00:23:10] Studies showing efficacy of AIP using Angie Alt’s program: Abbott, Robert D., Adam Sadowski, and Angela G. Alt. "Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet as Part of a Multi-disciplinary, Supported Lifestyle Intervention for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis." (2019) and Konijeti, Gauree G., et al. "Efficacy of the autoimmune protocol diet for inflammatory bowel disease." Inflammatory bowel diseases 23.11 (2017): 2054-2060.

[00:23:35] Angie Alt’s group health coaching program: SAD to AIP in 6.

[00:25:25] Seeds Journal; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:26:11] Gretchen Rubin's Four Tendencies.

[00:28:20] Loser avoidance bias; Fitness startup that failed due to avoidance bias.

[00:29:48] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:30:25] Groups for in-person AIP meetups - Find Your AIP Community.

[00:33:08] Learning to cook.

[00:36:52] Cultured Caveman in Portland, OR.

[00:37:36] Reintroducing food on AIP.

[00:43:04] Eating at restaurants.

[00:45:43] Getting glutened; Gluten-free Ground Breaker beer.

[00:48:35] Blog: Gluten in Beer: Test Results of Gluten Levels in Beer.

[00:54:06] Eczema-psoriasis study (enrollment has ended since this podcast was recorded).

[00:55:09] Rob Abbott, MD. Podcast: How to Treat Hashimoto’s using the Autoimmune Protocol.

Nov 29, 2019
What to Do When You Can’t Sleep
01:05:01

Sleep researcher Greg Potter, PhD, is back on the podcast today with practical help for those suffering from insomnia. Greg’s research at the University of Leeds on sleep, diet, and metabolic health captured the attention of both scientific and mainstream news outlets on several continents. He is currently an international public speaker, science writer, and consultant, focusing in particular on circadian rhythms, exercise, nutrition, sleep and stress. 

In this podcast, Greg talks about different types of insomnia, and how chronic sleep difficulties create barriers to personal safety and health for 10-15% of adults at any given time. He discusses the best things to do when you’re lying in bed, unpleasantly awake. He also talks about routines and tools for preventing sleep disruption in the first place.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:02:21] Greg's articles on optimising sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast

[00:02:37] Acute vs chronic insomnia.

[00:07:00] Effects of genes on sleep needs.

[00:07:55] Keneth Wright Jr. camping studies: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle." Current Biology 23.16 (2013): 1554-1558; Follow up study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:08:38] Tracking sleep data - wearables, diaries; online diary at thebettersleepproject.com.

[00:11:30] Re-establishing association between bed and sleep.

[00:11:51] Ashley Mason, PhD. Podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:12:56] Therapeutic sleep restriction.

[00:15:29] 20-minute rule.

[00:18:33] Things to do when you can't sleep: Meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, music therapy.

[00:23:05] Paradoxical intention; Book: Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl.

[00:24:54] Books: Homo Deus and Sapiens, by Yuval Noah Harari.

[00:25:38] Metabolic dysregulation as possible cause of sleep disruption.

[00:29:09] Early dinner associated with better appetite regulation; Study: Ravussin, Eric, et al. "Early Time‐Restricted Feeding Reduces Appetite and Increases Fat Oxidation But Does Not Affect Energy Expenditure in Humans." Obesity 27.8 (2019): 1244-1254.

[00:31:13] Considerations when buying a mattress: comfort, durability, and support.

[00:33:31] ChiliPad; Ooler Sleep System.

[00:35:52] BRYTE bed.

[00:37:51] Paper: Hekler, Eric B., et al. "Why we need a small data paradigm." BMC medicine 17.1 (2019): 1-9.

[00:39:20] Hammocks

[00:42:54] Rich Roll and Paul Saladino on The Minimalists Podcast: Minimalist Diets.

[00:45:45] Managing ambient temperature for optimal sleep.

[00:48:54] Raising skin temperature before bed.

[00:50:15] Pre-bed skin temperature raising activities and sleep; Meta-analysis: Haghayegh, Shahab, et al. "Before-bedtime passive body heating by warm shower or bath to improve sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Sleep medicine reviews (2019).

[00:54:03] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World; Book: Digital Minimalism; Cal’s blog

[00:57:29] Find Greg on Twitter and Instagram, @gdmpotter.

[00:58:44] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick, MD.

[01:01:07] Greg’s previous NBT podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health (7/4/18); Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes (1/27/19); Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top (as interviewer, 10/25/19)

Nov 22, 2019
NBT People: Tim Harsch
52:31

Tim Harsch is the CEO and Co-Founder of Owler, a business insights company based in San Mateo, California. He’s a lifelong athlete, having played soccer, lacrosse and rugby in his younger years and more recently competing in triathlons. He also has type 1 diabetes (T1D), diagnosed at the relatively late age of 17. We’ve had the pleasure of working with Tim over the past year as a member of our Elite Performance Program.

On this podcast, Tim talks about the tools he uses to manage his diabetes, including a low-carb diet and a continuous glucose monitor. He also discusses the benefits he’s found in working with the NBT team, including weight loss, strength gains, and improved sleep and stress management. He describes the dietary changes that have helped him the most over the last year and his best advice for others living with T1D.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tim Harsch:

[00:00:32] Cal Newport; Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:01:13] Owler.

[00:04:02] Y Combinator.

[00:07:31] Coping with stress; Stress audit.

[00:09:18] Sleep, exercise, eating, drinking, stress management (SEEDS) method; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:10:31] SEEDS Journal.

[00:10:43] Diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) at age 17.

[00:17:46] Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM).

[00:19:44] Estimation of RBC lifespan from the reticulocyte count: RBC survival (days) = 100/[Reticulocytes (percent) / RLS (days)], where RLS = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 days at hematocrits of 45, 35, 25, and 15 percent, respectively. 

[00:22:43] Previous podcasts featuring guests with T1D: 1. How to Achieve Near-Normal Blood Sugar with Type 1 Diabetes with Keith Runyan, MD; 2. NBT People: Will Catterson.

[00:23:46] Managing carbohydrates with T1D.

[00:24:59] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:27:22] Reasons for rejecting the insulin pump.

[00:30:37] Dexcom G6 CGM.

[00:31:35] Factors affecting insulin sensitivity.

[00:32:56] NBT’s Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore, CSCS; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching, with Zach Moore.

[00:35:03] Building a strength-based exercise regimen.

[00:36:30] Bro Research Radio - podcast of Ben House, PhD. Ben’s appearances on NBT’s podcast: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, and Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[00:39:09] NBT Coach Clay Higgins; Podcast: NBT People: Clay Higgins.

[00:40:50] Fixing the gut: Ditching the bulletproof coffee, avoiding dairy.

[00:48:48] Type 1 Diabetes group on Facebook.

[00:48:49] Diabetes resources: diaTribe; Book: Bright Spots & Landmines: The Diabetes Guide I Wish Someone Had Handed Me, by Adam Brown.

[00:49:21] Find Tim on LinkedIn, at Owler, or contact him by email.

Nov 15, 2019