Nourish Balance Thrive

By Nourish Balance Thrive

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Description

The Nourish Balance Thrive podcast is designed to help you perform better. Christopher Kelly, your host, is co-founder of Nourish Balance Thrive, an online clinic using advanced biochemical testing to optimize performance in athletes. On the podcast, Chris interviews leading minds in medicine, nutrition and health, as well as world-class athletes and members of the NBT team, to give you up-to-date information on the lifestyle changes and personalized techniques being used to make people go faster – from weekend warriors to Olympians and world champions.

Episode Date
Women Athletes: Nutrition, Supplementation, and Hormones
01:13:24

Mikki Williden, PhD is a Registered Nutritionist and a Senior Lecturer at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand. She runs an online nutrition coaching programme and has privately consulted with clients since 2006. Mikki co-hosts the Fitter Radio weekly endurance sports podcast and recently launched her own podcast, Mikkipedia, where she has conversations with experts in health and nutrition. She is also a runner and is passionate about health, longevity, nutrition, and activity. 

On the podcast today, Mikki talks with Megan Hall about nutritional and training considerations for women athletes. They discuss the timing of meals and supplements around training and preparing for race nutrition, with consideration given to cyclical hormonal fluctuations. Mikki discusses current research on fueling before exercise, and the importance of adequate protein (and what that actually means!). They also discuss the common problem of under-eating and chronic low energy availability.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Mikki Williden:

[00:00:21] Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:00:57] Mikki's background.

[00:02:26] Menstrual cycle, athletic performance, and nutrition.

[00:08:26] Meta analysis: McNulty, Kelly Lee, et al. "The effects of menstrual cycle phase on exercise performance in eumenorrheic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Sports medicine (2020): 1-15.

[00:14:04] Nutritional factors impacting bloating, cramping and cyclical inflammation.

[00:17:13] Protein as a focus for female athletes.

[00:20:28] Stuart PhillipsLuc Van Loon.

[00:22:33] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:23:21] The importance of biomedical testing.

[00:26:03] Underfueling early in the day.

[00:27:36] Meal timing and hormones; Studies: 1. Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl, et al. "Within‐day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 28.3 (2018): 1139-1146; 2. Torstveit, Monica Klungland, et al. "Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 28.4 (2018): 419-427.

[00:28:36] Low carb/ketogenic diets and fasting.

[00:35:03] Sleep low, train low.

[00:35:53] Study: Impey, Samuel G., et al. "Fuel for the work required: a theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis." Sports Medicine 48.5 (2018): 1031-1048.

[00:37:01] Study: Rothschild, Jeffrey A., Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews. "What Should I Eat before Exercise? Pre-Exercise Nutrition and the Response to Endurance Exercise: Current Prospective and Future Directions." Nutrients 12.11 (2020): 3473.

[00:38:16] Blog post: What to eat before training: a research update, by Mikki Williden, PhD.

[00:38:53] Fueling for training.

[00:41:08] Practicing for race nutrition.

[00:43:23] Timing of carbohydrate intake.

[00:47:19] Chronic/acute low energy availability.

[00:48:33] Eric Helms.

[00:54:21] Meeting an athlete’s nutritional needs.

[01:01:48] Peri- and post-menopausal training and nutritional considerations.

[01:04:40] Protein needs in isolation vs mixed meal; Study: Kim, Il-Young, et al. "The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults." American journal of physiology-endocrinology and metabolism 310.1 (2016): E73-E80.

[01:06:10] Hormonal fluctuations and gut health.

[01:07:07] Digestive enzymes.

[01:08:18] Branched-chain amino acids; Dr. Gabrielle Lyon.

[01:09:41] Where to find Mikki: mikkiwilliden.comFITTER Radio PodcastConsult with Mikkimeal plansFacebookMikkipedia Podcast.

Jan 08, 2021
Wired to Run: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise
48:55

David Raichlen, PhD. is a Professor of Human And Evolutionary Biology at the University of Southern California. His work explores how physical activity drove key aspects of human evolution, helping to explain how and why inactivity underlies many chronic diseases today. Combining aspects of biomechanics, physiology and neuroscience with analysis of movement patterns of ancient humans, his work helps to explain how we can use an evolutionary context to improve modern-day health.

On the podcast today, David talks about the links between human evolution, physical activity, and health across the lifespan. He discusses the impact of exercise on brain health and neurogenesis and explains why an active lifestyle may be critical for those genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease. He also describes the biological mechanism behind the “runner’s high” that suggests humans are “wired to run”.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with David Raichlen:

[00:00:11] Herman Pontzer, PhD; Book: Burn: New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy (coming out in March 2021).

[00:00:43] Paper: Pontzer, H., B. M. Wood, and David A. Raichlen. "Hunter‐gatherers as models in public health." Obesity Reviews 19 (2018): 24-35.

[00:01:27] Working with Hadza; Brian Wood, PhD, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at UCLA.

[00:02:07] Exercise and brain health.

[00:03:24] Neurogenesis.

[00:04:08] Rodents in enriched environments; Study: Kempermann, Gerd, H. Georg Kuhn, and Fred H. Gage. "More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment." Nature 386.6624 (1997): 493-495.

[00:05:10] Adaptive Capacity model; Paper: Raichlen, David A., and Gene E. Alexander. "Adaptive capacity: an evolutionary neuroscience model linking exercise, cognition, and brain health." Trends in neurosciences 40.7 (2017): 408-421.

[00:10:01] APOE4; Study: Raichlen, David A., and Gene E. Alexander. "Exercise, APOE genotype, and the evolution of the human lifespan." Trends in neurosciences 37.5 (2014): 247-255.

[00:12:20] Study: Trumble, Benjamin C., et al. "Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager‐horticulturalists with a high parasite burden." The FASEB Journal 31.4 (2017): 1508-1515.

[00:13:34] Resistance training.

[00:14:20] Megan Hall; Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:15:18] BDNF upregulation through exercise.

[00:16:28] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristin Hawkes.

[00:17:46] Structural associations of exercise in middle age. Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Differential associations of engagement in physical activity and estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with brain volume in middle-aged to older adults." Brain Imaging and Behavior (2019): 1-10.

[00:17:46] Brain connectivity associations among young athletes; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Differences in resting state functional connectivity between young adult endurance athletes and healthy controls." Frontiers in human neuroscience 10 (2016): 610.

[00:21:30] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:22:21] Optimal duration and intensity of exercise.

[00:23:38] Types of exercise that are most beneficial.

[00:25:32] Exercise-induced endocannabinoid system.

[00:27:20] Endocannabinoid upregulation following exercise in humans, dogs, and ferrets; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high’." Journal of Experimental Biology 215.8 (2012): 1331-1336.

[00:29:11] Self-generated optic flow; Articles: Yilmaz, Melis, and Andrew D. Huberman. "Fear: It’s All in Your Line of Sight." Current Biology 29.23 (2019): R1232-R1234 and González, Anabel, Lucía del Río-Casanova, and Ania Justo-Alonso. "Integrating neurobiology of emotion regulation and trauma therapy: Reflections on EMDR therapy." Reviews in the Neurosciences 28.4 (2017): 431-440.

[00:30:23] Minimizing environmental mismatch.

[00:30:39] Sitting in hunter gatherers; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117.13 (2020): 7115-7121.

[00:37:56] Exercise intensity and endocannabinoid signaling; Study: Raichlen, David A., et al. "Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity." European journal of applied physiology 113.4 (2013): 869-875.

[00:41:14] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping, 3rd Edition, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:42:40] Scientific American article: Why Your Brain Needs Exercise, by David A. Raichlen and Gene E. Alexander.

[00:43:00] New Scientist article: How changing the way you sit could add years to your life, by Herman Pontzer and David Raichlen.

[00:45:45] Find David at University of Southern California’s Department of Biological Sciences.

Jan 01, 2021
Finding a Carbohydrate-Appropriate Diet for Nutrition, Health, and Performance
01:04:41

Cliff Harvey, PhD, is a New Zealand-based author, nutritionist, researcher, and speaker. He is also a Qualified Naturopath, a strength and nutrition coach of 20 years, and an IAWA Weightlifting World Champion (2004 & 2007). Over the years he has consulted for all types of athletes, from champion fighters and cyclists to yacht teams and rugby unions. He currently works with clients and conducts research at Auckland University of Technology, while also growing his online collection of educational videos on nutrition, health, and performance.

On this podcast, Cliff talks about the diagnosis that propelled him into studying nutrition and the critical lessons he learned while recovering. He talks about his research on the ketogenic diet, including what actually causes “keto flu” and how best to overcome it quickly. We also discuss carbohydrate-appropriate diets, and how to figure out the carb intake that’s right for you.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Cliff Harvey:

[00:00:38] Mikky Williden, PhD. Podcast featuring Mikki as interviewer: How I Used Ancestral Health to Boost My Energy and Start a Business.

[00:02:29] Diagnosed with Crohn's Disease.

[00:06:42] Studying nutrition.

[00:07:32] Crohn's in remission.

[00:08:31] Reducing stress and building a lifestyle conducive to health.

[00:13:22] Competitive weightlifting.

[00:18:43] Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.  Podcast with Brad Stulberg: How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout.

[00:22:15] Protein first; Ketogenic and low-carb diets.

[00:26:51] Paperpile.

[00:27:01] “Keto flu”; Study: Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., Grant M. Schofield, and Micalla Williden. "The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review." PeerJ 6 (2018): e4488.

[00:29:44] Effects of 3 low-carb diets; Study: Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., et al. "Low-carbohydrate diets differing in carbohydrate restriction improve cardiometabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults: A randomised clinical trial." PeerJ 7 (2019): e6273.

[00:31:01] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:32:24] Lessening symptoms of keto flu.

[00:34:58] Eric Helms, PhD; outcomes based nutrition.

[00:37:24] Eric Helms on Cliff’s podcast: The Bodybuilding Contest Prep Diet Debate.

[00:37:44] The Carb-Appropriate Podcast.

[00:39:48] Figuring out the carb intake that is appropriate for you.

[00:41:13] Book: The Carbohydrate Appropriate Diet: Go beyond low-carb diets to lose weight fast, and improve energy and performance, without counting calories, by Cliff Harvey; Other books by Cliff.

[00:45:03] Sami Inkinen, CEO and Founder of Virta Health.

[00:50:51] Cliff’s courses: The Holistic Performance Institute.

[00:53:24] Autoregulation.

[00:57:40] COVID situation in New Zealand; Cliff’s podcast with Simon Thornley, PhD: Are lockdowns effective for mitigating the effects of the COVID pandemic?

Dec 18, 2020
How to Avoid Chronic Pain, Improve Mobility and Feel 100% Confident in Your Lifting
01:00:44

Abel Romero, DPT, TPI, RYT 200 is a licensed physical therapist and movement coach with a Doctorate of Physical Therapy from UC San Francisco/San Francisco State University. He has worked with a wide range of clients, from high-performing athletes to women postpartum and seniors. He is fascinated not only with helping others achieve a high level of health and well-being, but also with the science and art of improving skill, preventing pain, and having fun through movement.

On this podcast, Abel and I discuss how humans evolved to move, and the role of pain in avoiding injury. Abel talks about some of the common issues that lead to pain in our culture and why moving harder and faster is critical for long-term fitness and healthspan. I’m excited to announce Abel has partnered with us to lead a group program in January 2021. He’ll be working with us on how to avoid chronic pain, improve mobility and feel total confidence in lifting through mindful movement practice, functional training, and plyometric and power training. By the end of the program, you’ll have greater control, ability to generate power, and awareness of how your body interacts with its environment.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Abel Romero:

[00:01:25] Early interest in movement and physical therapy.

[00:05:51] Book Free to Learn, by Peter Gray; Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray.

[00:07:29] Book: Play Anything: The Pleasure of Limits, the Uses of Boredom, and the Secret of Games, by Ian Bogost.

[00:11:24] Book: The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure, by Jonathan Haidt and Greg Lukianoff.

[00:13:00] Pain.

[00:18:26] Herman Pontzer, PhDDaniel Lieberman, PhD.

[00:19:32] Hadza of Tanzania squatting “better than a baby”.

[00:22:30] Videos: Why Things Hurt and The Pain Revolution with Lorimer Moseley.

[00:26:15] Common issues that lead to pain in our culture.

[00:29:37] Exercise.

[00:30:38] Doing things harder, faster, with more precision.

[00:36:42] How movement changed during pandemic.

[00:38:50] Simon Marshall, PhD; Self-generated optic flow as the basis of EMDR therapy.

[00:41:54] Posture.

[00:47:08] Katy Bowman; Podcast: Move Your DNA with Katy Bowman

[00:48:33] 4-quadrant model.

[00:50:12] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance, with Zac Cupples.

[00:50:55] Remote coaching with Abel.

[00:52:36] The value of group programs; Podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, with James Maskell.

[00:56:55] Sign up for the group program with Abel, beginning in January 2021.

[00:57:04] Abel’s websiteabel@moveintelligently.comInstagram.

Dec 11, 2020
How I Used Ancestral Health to Boost My Energy and Start a Business
01:19:03

Mikki Williden, PhD is a Registered Nutritionist in Auckland, New Zealand specializing in sports and performance nutrition. I met Mikki at the Ancestral Health Symposium in Boulder, Colorado in 2016, and she has recently launched a new podcast called Mikkipedia as an exploration of all things health, well being, fitness, food and nutrition. She kindly invited me on as a guest, which of course is a role reversal for me.

On this podcast, Mikki and I discuss my personal health journey and what motivated me to start NBT. We get into some detail, including what my life looked like before I knew anything about health and the specific steps that got me headed in the right direction. We talk about bike racing and business and how both have evolved for me, as well as the habits that I’ve built to maintain my current state of health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Mikki Williden:

[00:00:19] Christopher Kelly on Robb Wolf’s Paleo Solution podcast.

[00:01:50] Robb Wolf’s podcast, The Healthy Rebellion.

[00:02:24] Chris's health journey.

[00:03:18] Mikki’s interview with Greg Potter, on The Mikkipedia Podcast.

[00:04:21] Book: The Paleo Diet for Athletes: The Ancient Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance, by Loren Cordain and Joe Friel.

[00:05:38] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) diet.

[00:06:45] Chris Kelly on Ben Greenfield's podcast.

[00:11:36] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); with Nicky Keay.

[00:14:51] Mickey Trescott’s books on AIP.

[00:17:22] Framing interventions in terms of performance.

[00:20:43] Diet changes over time.

[00:20:59] Keto Summit; Jeremy and Louise Hendon.

[00:21:59] Dom D’Agostino, PhD.

[00:22:53] Problems with the Keto diet.

[00:24:15] Podcasts featuring Katie compton and Jeremy Powers.

[00:26:01] Racing and fueling.

[00:28:25] Changing goals: from performance to healthspan.

[00:30:51] Book: Tiny Habits: The Small Changes That Change Everything, by BJ Fogg, PhD.

[00:31:04] B Strong blood flow restriction training; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan, with Jim Stray-Gundersen, MD.

[00:35:33] NBT over time - changes in approach.

[00:37:44] Supervised machine learning; bloodsmart.ai.

[00:40:09] Stephen Genuis, PhD; Multiple studies on toxicants excreted in sweat.

[00:44:11] Identifying your values; Motivational interviewingAcceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

[00:45:49] Services offered by NBT; book a free 15-minute starter session.

[00:46:54] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:48:39] Intermountain Risk Score. Study: Horne BD, May HT, Muhlestein JB, Ronnow BS, Lappé DL, Renlund DG, et al. Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests. Am J Med. 2009;122: 550–558.

[00:48:57] PhenoAge; Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall.

[00:52:32] Supplements: Thorne Multi-Vitamin EliteThorne Creatine.

[00:54:56] A day in the life of Chris Kelly.

[00:56:30] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:59:49] California wildfires.

[01:02:28] Cliff Harvey.

[01:03:04] Influential podcast guests.

[01:03:41] Podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[01:04:38] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[01:04:48] Josh Turknett, MD, president of Physicians for Ancestral Health; Podcasts include The Migraine MiracleHow to Protect Your Brain from Decline, and How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development.

[01:05:51] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joe Henrich.

[01:06:44] My Migraine Miracle; Book: Migraine Miracle: A Sugar-Free, Gluten-Free Ancestral Diet to Reduce Inflammation and Relieve Your Headaches for Good; Video: Migraine as the Hypothalamic Distress Signal — Joshua Turknett, M.D. (AHS14).

[01:08:44] How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm - AHS19. Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution4-quadrant model.  

[01:14:05] NBT’s retainer program.

Dec 04, 2020
You Literally Bled for That Data. Now What?
01:04:35

It’s been about three years since NBT began using supervised machine learning to predict the results of more expensive or unattainable biomedical tests. With our bloodsmart.ai software, we can forecast infections and inflammation, xenobiotic and heavy metal toxicity, and metabolic health indicators like fatty liver and elevated insulin - all without directly testing these markers. As a result, we’ve dramatically shifted our clinical work away from direct testing, instead focusing on basic blood chemistry and supervised machine learning to guide decision making. It's one of the things I'm proudest of building.

Sometimes I get asked how bloodsmart.ai compares to other blood chemistry programs. I used the other programs for years before coding my own, and rather than ML, they use what I call “hand-rolled algorithms.” For example, if alkaline phosphatase is low, then it must be a zinc deficiency. Unfortunately, biology is way more complicated than that, and supplementing with zinc with just one indicator never helps.

On this podcast, my Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are discussing how to interpret the forecast on a bloodsmart.ai report and how we use the results in our work with clients. We talk a little about how the algorithms work under the hood and how we know the forecasts have predictive value. We also explain what might be going on when the forecasts don’t match direct testing. 

To get the most out of this podcast, be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Megan Hall:

[00:04:39] bloodsmart.ai software.

[00:04:47] Supervised machine learning.

[00:06:36] Pain as the amazing protectometer; Video: Pain, the brain and your amazing protectometer - Lorimer Moseley.

[00:08:25] Karl Friston.

[00:09:38] eLife podcast and eLife Journal.

[00:10:06] Machine learning in embryology: Bormann, Charles L., et al. "Performance of a deep learning based neural network in the selection of human blastocysts for implantation." Elife 9 (2020): e55301.

[00:12:16] Machine learning for identifying prostate cancer: Hood, Simon P., et al. "Identifying prostate cancer and its clinical risk in asymptomatic men using machine learning of high dimensional peripheral blood flow cytometric natural killer cell subset phenotyping data." Elife 9 (2020): e50936.

[00:13:18] Podcast: How to Interpret Your White Blood Cell Count with Megan Hall.

[00:14:38] Paper: Wood, Thomas R., et al. "An interpretable machine learning model of biological age." F1000Research 8.17 (2019): 17.

[00:14:53] Podcast: How to Measure Your Biological Age, with Megan Hall. 

[00:15:24] How do we know the models have skill? Article: A Gentle Introduction to k-fold Cross-Validation.

[00:17:40] What the forecasts are and what they’re not.

[00:19:18] A "cloudy crystal ball".

[00:23:21] Using bloodsmart.ai forecasts in clinical practice.

[00:24:25] Book: How to Decide: Simple Tools for Making Better Choices, by Annie Duke.

[00:26:17] The “Archer's Mindset”: The value of taking aim.

[00:28:09] Podcast: Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome, with Jodi Flaws, PhD. 

[00:28:45] Article: How to do better at darts and life

[00:32:33] Health history and symptoms; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) (example).

[00:35:30] 7 minute analysis.

[00:36:53] bloodsmart.ai bar chart (example).

[00:37:56] Food journaling.

[00:42:27] Environmental Working Group’s Skin Deep and Healthy Living AppThink Dirty Shop Clean App.

[00:43:03] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:44:23] Titanium bottle kickstarter: Keego.

[00:46:04] Discrepancies between forecast and directly measured marker.

[00:48:42] Forecasts that tend to be seen together.

[00:53:34] Forecast detail view (example).

[00:55:30] Josh Turknett's 4-Quadrant Model

[00:58:22] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[01:01:38] Book a free 15-minute starter session.

Nov 27, 2020
Health Coaching: How to Get Trained and Build a Business
01:01:55

My guests today are certified Primal Health Coaches Laura Rupsis and Erin Power. Both maintain successful private practices while training others through Mark Sisson’s Primal Health Coach Institute (PHCI) and collaborating as hosts of the Health Coach Radio podcast. As the admissions director for PHCI, Laura is also behind the friendly voice you’ll reach when you’re seeking information about training as a health coach.

On this podcast Laura, Erin and I are talking about becoming a health coach: the training, the clients, and strategies for growing a successful practice. We look at some of the recent developments in the field, including national board certification and the new PHCI Level 2 Certification Course, recently introduced to meet the board requirements. We also discuss finding your niche, getting clients, and a realistic timeline for building a coaching business.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Laura Rupsis and Erin Power:

[00:02:26] Mark Sisson.

[00:01:20] Erin's health journey.

[00:03:02] Laura's health journey.

[00:10:43] Simon Marshall, PhD and triathlete Lesley PatersonValues Guided Actions Worksheet.

[00:12:47] Podcast: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, with James Maskell.

[00:16:07] Do you need a credential to be a health coach?

[00:19:21] Information does not cause change.

[00:20:29] National Board for Health and Wellness Coaching (NBHWC).

[00:23:48] Primal Health Coach Level 2 Certification Course.

[00:31:07] Getting clients as a health coach, finding your niche.

[00:40:25] Dr. Jade Teta, women's hormone specialist.

[00:45:51] Building your coaching practice.

[00:48:55] Getting traffic; problems with Facebook.

[00:51:06] Superhuman email interface.

[00:52:44] Is health coaching scalable?

[00:54:36] Toastmasters for public speaking.

[00:57:43] Primal Health Coach InstituteBook a call with LauraFacebookInstagram.

[00:58:19] Health Coaching Success Virtual MasterclassEnroll here.

[00:58:40] Health Coach Radio podcast.

 
Nov 20, 2020
The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together
51:30

Author, speaker and entrepreneur James Maskell is passionate about healthcare transformation. He is the co-founder of the Functional Forum, the world’s largest integrative medicine conference. He lectures internationally, and has been featured on TEDMED, Huffpost Live, TEDx and more, and is a contributor to Huffington Post, KevinMD, thedoctorblog and MindBodyGreen. He also serves on the faculty of George Washington University’s Metabolic Medicine Institute.

On this podcast, James discusses the importance of disrupting the current state of medicine and accelerating its future. He describes his goal to empower clinicians to transition to a functional medicine model and to become leaders and change agents toward healthcare that is preventative and sustainable. We also talk about the importance of community and it’s critical role in avoiding chronic illness.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Maskell:

[00:01:34] Living in a commune in Colorado.

[00:03:16] Book: The Community Cure: Transforming Health Outcomes Together, by James Maskell.

[00:05:00] Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD.

[00:08:10] Making functional medicine the standard of care.

[00:10:05] Functional Forum.

[00:10:43] Problems with scaling up functional medicine.

[00:13:22] Micropractice.

[00:15:19] Solving the problem of loneliness.

[00:15:50] Video: George Slavich, PhD: How Much Does Social Stress and Isolation Affect Health?

[00:19:23] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John T. Cacioppo & William Patrick.

[00:20:30] Nuclear families as the current norm.

[00:20:45] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman; “dysevolution”.

[00:25:44] Book: The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous, by Joseph Henrich.

[00:30:32] Organizing health coaches and the value of groups.

[00:35:35] Simon Marshall, PhD and world champion triathlete Lesley Paterson.

[00:37:19] Podcasts featuring Julian Abel, MD: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health and Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19.

[00:37:31] How a practitioner can start utilizing groups.

[00:41:28] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP); Mickey Trescott at Autoimmune Wellness; Podcast: The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: Applying the Autoimmune Protocol.

[00:42:14] Health sharing systems.

[00:46:00] Knew Health health sharing; Liberty Health Share.

[00:48:46] Evolution of MedicineThe Community CureInstagram.

Nov 13, 2020
How to Interpret Your White Blood Cell Count
45:01

There’s a common misconception that you need to run expensive advanced biomedical tests to fix your health. Over the years we’ve found just the opposite, that you can learn much of what you need to know from basic blood chemistry. Perhaps the best example is the information gained from a Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential. As the most common blood test, it is widely used to assess general health status, screen for disorders, and to evaluate nutritional status.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I are talking about leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), as critical elements of the CBC blood test. Megan discusses the various types of leukocytes and what it means when your count is outside the reference range. We talk about what leukocytes tell you about your nutritional status, why some people “never get sick” as well as signs you’ve got chronic inflammation or physiological stress. Megan also discusses how to use this information to determine the next steps in your health journey.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:01:04] Forum post: Chronically Low White Blood Cell Count. Get access when you support us on Patreon.

[00:01:45] Leukocytes = White Blood Cells (WBCs) found on CBC with differential blood test.

[00:02:58] Different types of white blood cells.

[00:04:18] Phagocytosis video.

[00:06:10] Absolute vs relative counts of WBCs.

[00:09:15] Optimal range of WBCs in relation to all-cause mortality.

[00:11:25] Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging: Ruggiero, Carmelinda, et al. "White blood cell count and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 49.18 (2007): 1841-1850

[00:12:57] Study: Shah, Anoop Dinesh, et al. "White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand." BMJ open 7.2 (2017): e013100. 

[00:15:30] bloodsmart.ai.

[00:18:00] Why WBCs might be high: Leukocytosis.

[00:18:45] Paper: WBCs are predictive of all cause mortality: Crowell, Richard J., and Jonathan M. Samet. "Invited commentary: why does the white blood cell count predict mortality?." American Journal of Epidemiology 142.5 (1995): 499-501

[00:20:00] Podcast: Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease, with Arden Pope, PhD.

[00:21:57] Association of leukocytosis with metabolic syndrome; Study: Babio, Nancy, et al. "White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study." PloS one 8.3 (2013): e58354.

[00:22:15] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:22:41] What to do if you have elevated WBC counts.

[00:22:54] Impact of stress; Studies: 1. Nishitani, Naoko, and Hisataka Sakakibara. "Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers." Industrial health 52.6 (2014): 531-534. and 2. Jasinska, Anna J., et al. "Immunosuppressive effect and global dysregulation of blood transcriptome in response to psychosocial stress in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)." Scientific reports 10.1 (2020): 1-12

[00:23:32] Dr. Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson; Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:24:08] Reasons WBC counts might be low; Leukopenia.

[00:27:57] "I never get sick".

[00:30:40] What to do if your WBCs are low.

[00:30:56] Effects of low energy availability: Studies: 1. Johannsen, Neil M., et al. "Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC) and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW." PloS one 7.2 (2012): e31319. and 2. Sarin, Heikki V., et al. "Molecular pathways mediating immunosuppression in response to prolonged intensive physical training, low-energy availability, and intensive weight loss." Frontiers in immunology 10 (2019): 907. 

[00:31:44] Articles by Megan on energy availability and underfueling: 1. Why Your Ketogenic Diet Isn’t Working Part One: Underfueling and Overtraining; 2. How to Prevent Weight Loss (or Gain Muscle) on a Therapeutic Ketogenic Diet; 3. What We Eat and How We Train Part 1: Coach and Ketogenic Diet Researcher, Megan Roberts; 4. How to Carbo Load the Right Way

[00:31:52] Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:33:03] Ranges may slightly differ by ethnicity; 1. Haddy, Theresa B., Sohail R. Rana, and Oswaldo Castro. "Benign ethnic neutropenia: what is a normal absolute neutrophil count?." Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 133.1 (1999): 15-22; 2. Palmblad, Jan, and Petter Höglund. "Ethnic benign neutropenia: a phenomenon finds an explanation." Pediatric blood & cancer 65.12 (2018): e27361; 3. Grann, Victor R., et al. "Neutropenia in 6 ethnic groups from the Caribbean and the US." Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society 113.4 (2008): 854-860

[00:34:39] Absolute Neutrophil to absolute Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as indicator of systemic inflammation; Studies: 1. Gürağaç, Ali, and Zafer Demirer. "The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in clinical practice." Canadian Urological Association Journal 10.3-4 (2016): 141-2; 2. Fest, Jesse, et al. "The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with mortality in the general population: The Rotterdam Study." European journal of epidemiology 34.5 (2019): 463-470

[00:36:19] Elevated NLR associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Studies: 1. Yang, Ai-Ping, et al. "The diagnostic and predictive role of NLR, d-NLR and PLR in COVID-19 patients." International immunopharmacology (2020): 106504; 2. Ciccullo, Arturo, et al. "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and clinical outcome in COVID-19: a report from the Italian front line." International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020); 3. Liu, Jingyuan, et al. "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts critical illness patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in the early stage." Journal of Translational Medicine 18 (2020): 1-12. 

[00:37:41] NLR predicts mortality in medical inpatients: Isaac, Vivian, et al. "Elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts mortality in medical inpatients with multiple chronic conditions." Medicine 95.23 (2016)

[00:38:21] What to do if NLR is out of range.

[00:39:23] NLR on bloodsmart.ai (found on the Marker Detail View page).

[00:40:01] NLR as a marker of physiological stress: 1. Onsrud, M., and E. Thorsby. "Influence of in vivo hydrocortisone on some human blood lymphocyte subpopulations: I. Effect on natural killer cell activity." Scandinavian journal of immunology 13.6 (1981): 573-579; 2. PulmCrit: Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR): Free upgrade to your WBC.

[00:41:59] Schedule a 15-minute Starter Session.

Nov 06, 2020
How to Have Intimacy With Ease
51:31

Jessa Zimmerman, MA is a licensed couples counsellor and nationally certified sex therapist based in Seattle, Washington. She specializes in helping couples who find that sex has become stressful, negative, disappointing, or pressured. In her practice, she counsels and supports couples through an experiential process that allows them real-world practice in changing their relationship and their sex life. She is also the author of the book, Sex without stress; a couple’s guide to overcoming disappointment, avoidance, and pressure, and hosts The Better Sex Podcast.

On this podcast, Jessa and I discuss the all-too-common struggles encountered by couples in long-term relationships who are experiencing a disconnect in sexual desire. She debunks some of the myths about sexual desire that often leave people feeling broken and confused once the initial flame of a relationship dies down. Jessa also shares one of her most powerful exercises for couples to start reconnecting if they’ve been avoiding sex.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jessa Zimmerman:

[00:00:44] Kelly Casperson; Class: You Are Not Broken.

[00:01:13] Jessa's background.

[00:02:46] Sex positivity.

[00:04:40] The Better Sex Podcast.

[00:05:17] Book: Sex Without Stress: A couple's guide to overcoming disappointment, avoidance and pressure, by Jessa Zimmerman.

[00:06:29] The WEIRD perspective - Westernized, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic; Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:07:54] Monogamy; Anthropologist Helen Fisher; The neurological effects of being in love: Fisher, Helen E., Arthur Aron, and Lucy L. Brown. "Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 361.1476 (2006): 2173-2186.

[00:09:48] Podcast: How to Talk to Your Kids About Sex and Pornography, with Megan Maas, PhD.

[00:10:01] The role of pornography.

[00:12:21] Defining sex.

[00:13:38] Brad Stulberg; Book: The Passion Paradox; Podcast: How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout

[00:17:20] The giver/receiver exercise.

[00:21:39] Spontaneous vs reactive sexual desire.

[00:22:00] Rosemary Basson on the sexual response cycle; Basson, Rosemary. "The female sexual response: A different model." Journal of Sex &Marital Therapy 26.1 (2000): 51-65.

[00:22:11] Emily Nagoski.

[00:26:22] Only 6% of women lack both spontaneous and responsive desire; Study: Hendrickx, Lies, Luk Gijs, and Paul Enzlin. "Prevalence rates of sexual difficulties and associated distress in heterosexual men and women: Results from an Internet survey in Flanders." Journal of sex research 51.1 (2014): 1-12.

[00:27:11] Growth mindset; Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck; Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:30:11] Beverly Whipple, PhD; Book: The G Spot: And Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality.

[00:33:10] Measuring sexual excitability and inhibition. Emily Nagoski’s assessment tools.

[00:35:43] You are responsible for your pleasure.

[00:37:34] Vulnerability vs openness.

[00:38:57] Podcast: The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe, with Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:40:36] Books: Will I Ever Be Good Enough?: Healing the Daughters of Narcissistic Mothers, by Karyl McBride, PhD. and Radical Acceptance: Embracing Your Life With the Heart of a Buddha, by Tara Brach, PhD.

[00:40:51] Chimp purge exercise; Article: Lieberman, Matthew D., et al. "Putting feelings into words." Psychological science 18.5 (2007): 421-428.

[00:43:05] Book: The Chimp Paradox: The Mind Management Program to Help You Achieve Success, Confidence, and Happiness, by Steve Peters.

[00:43:23]  The Elephant and the Rider, an analogy introduced by Psychologist Jonathan Haidt.

[00:45:54] Jessa’s online course: Intimacy with Ease.

[00:46:35] Webinar - How to Help Your Partner Want More Sex.

[00:48:55] Facebook, Instagram.

Oct 30, 2020
Male Optimization: How to Keep Your Edge as you Age
52:35

Returning to the podcast today is speaker, NY Times bestselling author, coach, and lifelong athlete Brad Kearns. Decades removed from his status as a #3 world-ranked pro triathlete, Brad has now turned his attention to broader fitness goals aligned with healthspan. Always finding new ways to challenge himself, In 2018 Brad broke the Guinness World Record for the fastest single hole of golf ever played, and this year he ranked #1 in the USA and #3 in the world for Masters Track & Field high jump, age 55-59.

On this podcast, Brad and I discuss what it takes to preserve competitive intensity throughout life. Brad talks about his current focus on male optimization - the MOFO movement - created for men who don’t want to get old and soft on the sidelines of life. We also recall some of the most informative guests Brad has interviewed on his podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brad Kearns:

[00:04:03] Cold exposure.

[00:04:03] Brad’s previous NBT podcast: How to Win More by Training Less; Video: Brad’s speed golf world record.

[00:05:02] Dr. Steve Jeffs.

[00:09:22] Jeff Kendal Weed; YouTube, NBT podcast: How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love.

[00:13:23] Mark Sisson.

[00:15:20] Article: HIIT Versus HIRT by Dr. Craig Marker.

[00:18:43] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training, with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:20:05] The Get Over Yourself podcast.

[00:22:13] Books by Brad Kearns.

[00:23:46] Lessons learned from Brad’s podcast guests.

[00:24:28] Books by Mark Manson: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life, and Everything Is F*cked: A Book About Hope. On the Get Over Yourself podcast: Mark Manson: The Subtle Art Of Connecting With Your Emotional Brain, Seeing Yourself With Honesty and Vulnerability, And Connecting The Emotional Brain With The Rational Brain.

[00:25:48] Peter Attia, on NBT podcast: The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan; On the Get Over Yourself podcast: Peter Attia: Longevity, Diet, And Finding The Drive.

[00:26:15] Rip Esselstyn on the Get Over Yourself podcast: Rip Esselstyn: The Plant Strong Movement, Challenging Your Beliefs, And The Magical Peak Performance State Called “The Feel”.

[00:28:58] The inverse power of praise; Article: How Not to Talk to Your Kids, by Po Bronson.

[00:29:10] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:29:13] Books by Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman: NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children, and Top Dog: The Science of Winning and Losing.

[00:32:24] Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:33:15] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:35:14] Cate Shanahan, MD; Book: The Fatburn Fix: Boost Energy, End Hunger, and Lose Weight by Using Body Fat for Fuel, Get Over Yourself podcast: Dr. Cate Shanahan – The Fatburn Fix.

[00:37:49] Book: Two Meals a Day - coming in 2021.

[00:38:12] Books by Ben Greenfield: Boundless: Upgrade Your Brain, Optimize Your Body & Defy Aging, and The Christian Gratitude Journal.

[00:40:31] NBT Podcast: Ready to Run with Kelly Starrett; Get Over Yourself Podcast: Dr. Kelly Starrett: Mobility King.

[00:42:20] Book: Keto for Life: Reset Your Biological Clock in 21 Days and Optimize Your Diet for Longevity, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns.

[00:44:02] Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play, with Peter Gray, PhD; Book: Free to Learn.

[00:44:23] Katy Bowman.

[00:47:23] bradkearns.com; MOFO mission.

[00:48:20] Free ebook: Becoming a Modern Day Mofo.

[00:48:50] Brad’s nutbutter.

Oct 23, 2020
How to Use Biomedical Testing to Find Problems Inside Your Body
58:41

Back when we first started working with clients we ordered all the fancy tests for everyone who walked in the door. We tested the gut (not one test, but two), hormones, cortisol, and organic acids, to name a few. It got to be pretty expensive but it seemed to be the best way to figure out exactly what to do next. Our process has evolved over the years, and now we start with just simple, inexpensive blood chemistry. This saves our clients a ton of money and time, and they still get great results.

On the podcast today, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall and I discuss the advanced (and not-so-advanced) biomedical tests we’ve run for clients over the years. We talk about the ones we still use and the ones we quit - and why. Megan explains why you should be sceptical of genetic testing, and the wealth of information you can derive from basic blood chemistry. We also talk about bloodsmart.ai, the software we use at NBT to give personalised predictions of problems in your body that can help you decide on further testing and/or actions you want to take. We also talk about some software improvements I’ve made recently.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:02:23] Megan's outline for this podcast.

[00:02:39] Testing in the early days on NBT.

[00:05:43] Chris and Jamie on Ben Greenfield’s podcast in 2014: 7 Signs Your Cortisol And Adrenals Are Broken.

[00:06:32] Ben Greenfield podcasts with Christopher Kelly: The Little-Known Test That Tells You Everything You Need To Know About Your Metabolism and Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!

[00:07:00] Gut tests.

[00:07:42] NBT podcasts featuring Lucy Mailing, PhD: 1. How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome and 2. Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions.

[00:09:00] Hormone testing.

[00:09:25] Books by Robert Sapolsky: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition, and Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst.

[00:10:07] Hans Selye.

[00:13:37] Entraining circadian rhythm; Podcasts: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD; Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology), with Bill Lagakos, PhD, How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health, and Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes, with Greg Potter, PhD.

[00:16:09] Genetic testing.

[00:17:31] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:18:38] Direct to consumer genetic testing: 40% of variants in raw data were false positives; Study: Tandy-Connor, Stephany, et al. "False-positive results released by direct-to-consumer genetic tests highlight the importance of clinical confirmation testing for appropriate patient care." Genetics in Medicine 20.12 (2018): 1515.

[00:18:59] Promethease.

[00:19:46] 95% of the genome is "non-coding".

[00:21:59] Growth mindset; Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck; Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:24:19] Jeff Kendall-Weed; Podcast: How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love.

[00:25:06] Andrew D Huberman on Joe Rogan, Rich Rolls, Instagram.

[00:27:06] Glycomark.

[00:28:34] NutriSense; Podcast: Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan, with Kara Collier, RDN.

[00:29:59] Salivary 1,5-anhydroglucitol inversely related to dental caries in children; Study: Syed, Sadatullah, et al. "Salivary 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol and Vitamin Levels in Relation to Caries Risk in Children." BioMed research international 2019 (2019).

[00:30:34] Tests that have stood the test of time.

[00:33:32] Josh Turknett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:34:48] bloodsmart.ai.

[00:36:02] The value of a basic blood chemistry.

[00:38:23] NBT podcasts featuring Ivor Cummins: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:38:33] NBT podcasts featuring Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:39:26] CAC scan: Find a scan centre near you; Widowmaker movie; Irish Heart Disease Awareness website.

[00:43:02] Items that can be forecast by bloodsmart.ai, with their sensitivity and specificity.

[00:43:45] PhenoAge (example); Podcast; How to Measure Your Biological Age.

[00:44:17] Optimal vs Standard reference ranges.

[00:48:41] Testing: the future.

[00:50:02] Recent bloodsmart.ai software updates.

[00:50:32] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 9/24/20 press release: Recommendations About the Use of Dental Amalgam in Certain High-Risk Populations: FDA Safety Communication.

[00:51:43] Take the 7-minute analysis.

[00:54:48] Email us with your ideas for bloodsmart.ai.

[00:55:24] Book a free 15-minute starter session.

Oct 16, 2020
Air Pollution Is a Cause of Endothelial Injury, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease
01:23:41

Researcher and educator C. Arden Pope, III, PhD is the Mary Lou Fulton Professor of Economics at Brigham Young University. Contributing to over three decades of published research, he is one of the world's most cited and recognised experts on the health effects of air pollution. He has taught and published on various natural resource and environmental issues and collaborated on a series of seminal studies on the human health effects of air pollution.

On this podcast, Dr Pope and I discuss the harmful effects of air pollution on health and longevity. He describes the impact of fine particulate matter generated from industrial processes and explains what makes some forms of pollution much worse than others. He also describes the disastrous effects of air pollution on endothelial function and the cardiovascular system and offers advice for limiting exposure and taking action.

Here’s the outline of this interview with C. Arden Pope:

[00:01:26] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World

[00:02:21] Studies describing effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system: 1. Pope III, C. Arden, et al. "Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with endothelial injury and systemic inflammation." Circulation research 119.11 (2016): 1204-1214; 2. Pope III, C. Arden, Aaron J. Cohen, and Richard T. Burnett. "Cardiovascular disease and fine particulate matter: lessons and limitations of an integrated exposure–response approach." Circulation research 122.12 (2018): 1645-1647.

[00:05:13] Hospital admissions in Utah Valley related to steel mill; Pope 3rd, C. A. "Respiratory disease associated with community air pollution and a steel mill, Utah Valley." American journal of public health 79.5 (1989): 623-628

[00:11:17] Air pollution as the 5th leading contributor to global burden of disease.

[00:11:48] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:17:26] Book: The Big Smoke, by Nathan Srith.

[00:19:05] The Great Smog of London, 1952.

[00:19:56] Respiratory physiologist, David Bates.

[00:23:53] Harvard six cities study: Dockery, Douglas W., et al. "An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities." New England journal of medicine 329.24 (1993): 1753-1759, and the American Cancer Society Cohort Studies.

[00:24:22] PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter) and adverse health outcomes.

[00:31:20] Large vs small particles in the air.

[00:39:37] Inflammatory effects of fine particulate matter; slide from this talk.

[00:43:26] Air pollution associated with increases in inflammatory markers.

[00:47:29] Peter Backx, PhD; Podcast: Arrhythmias in Endurance Athletes.

[00:49:21] Wildfires; Air pollution from wood smoke vs "urban dirt".

[00:58:47] Air pollution and life expectancy; Pope, C. Arden, and Douglas W. Dockery. "Air pollution and life expectancy in China and beyond." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.32 (2013): 12861-12862.

[01:00:14] How to reduce exposure.

[01:06:24] Elementary school absences related to air pollution in Park City, UT; Study: Hales, Nicholas M., et al. "A quasi-experimental analysis of elementary school absences and fine particulate air pollution." Medicine 95.9 (2016).

[01:10:12] Global burden of disease attributable to air pollution; Study: Cohen, Aaron J., et al. "Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015." The Lancet 389.10082 (2017): 1907-1918.

[01:13:16] Supporting the Clean Air Act.

[01:15:15] Dr Pope’s CV and publications.

[01:20:45] Video: Keynote: Air Pollution and Human Health—Science, Public Policy, and Controversy. See here for additional videos featuring Dr Pope.

Oct 09, 2020
The Flex Diet: A Science-Based Guide to Metabolic Flexibility
01:11:23

We’ve got exercise physiologist Mike T. Nelson, PhD, MSME, CSCS, CISSN back on the podcast today. Mike’s areas of expertise include metabolic flexibility, heart rate variability, and human performance. He’s an adjunct professor for the Carrick Institute of Functional Neurology and the American College of Sports Medicine and has published research in both physiology and engineering journals. He also works 1 on 1 with clients seeking to optimise their performance.

On today’s podcast, Mike and I talk about his new Flex Diet Certification, a metabolic flexibility course for trainers, coaches, gym owners and fitness enthusiasts. Mike discusses some of the different components of his 8-week course, as well as why he created it and who should (and should not) take it. We also talk about recent developments and research in the areas of cannabidiol, heart rate variability, and blood flow restriction training.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mike T. Nelson:

[00:05:10] Mike's previous appearances on NBT podcast: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:05:23] Cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:05:43] DEA prohibits synthetically-produced Delta-8, as of August 2020.

[00:06:41] Sleep and CBD.

[00:07:31] Review of cannabinoids in the treatment of PTSD: Cohen, Jacob, et al. "Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 37.1 (2020): 28-34.

[00:08:28] Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

[00:08:41] HRV fails to predict readiness to train; Studies: 1. De Oliveira, Ramon Martins, et al. "Effect of individualized resistance training prescription with heart rate variability on individual muscle hypertrophy and strength responses." European journal of sport science 19.8 (2019): 1092-1100; 2. Thamm, Antonia, et al. "Can heart rate variability determine recovery following distinct strength loadings? A randomized cross-over trial." International journal of environmental research and public health 16.22 (2019): 4353.

[00:14:17] Oura Ring.

[00:16:49] Oura Ring’s ability to differentiate sleep stages; Study: de Zambotti, Massimiliano, et al. "The sleep of the ring: comparison of the ŌURA sleep tracker against polysomnography." Behavioral sleep medicine 17.2 (2019): 124-136.

[00:20:57] Flex diet certification.

[00:31:55] Book: The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It, by John Tierney.

[00:34:01] Physiology flexibility.

[00:37:46] Wim Hof breathing exercises.

[00:43:05] Exercise training can alter how the body handles a large meal; Review: Goodpaster, Bret H., and Lauren M. Sparks. "Metabolic flexibility in health and disease." Cell metabolism 25.5 (2017): 1027-1036.

[00:44:06] Pop tart test.

[00:45:19] Article: The Porcelain Doll Diet.

[00:48:55] Breathing as a homeostatic regulator.

[00:52:18] Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) training; Podcast: Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan, with Jim Stray-Gundersen, MD.

[00:55:12] Hypertrophy from walking using BFR training; Study: Abe, Takashi, Charles F. Kearns, and Yoshiaki Sato. "Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training." Journal of applied physiology 100.5 (2006): 1460-1466.

[00:55:31] Moxy muscle oxygen monitor.

[00:57:10] Fat Gripz.

[00:57:15] Supplements.

[00:58:07] Beta-alanine; Meta-analysis: Dolan, Eimear, et al. "A systematic risk assessment and meta-analysis on the use of oral β-alanine supplementation." Advances in Nutrition 10.3 (2019): 452-463.

[00:59:45] Sodium bicarbonate.

[01:01:14] Lactate; Cytosport’s Cytomax.

[01:01:46] Recent study evaluating IV lactate: Ellekjaer, Karen L., et al. "Lactate versus acetate buffered intravenous crystalloid solutions: a scoping review." British Journal of Anaesthesia (2020).

[01:03:21] Flex Diet Podcast, hosted by Dr Mike T Nelson.

[01:04:31] Dom D’agostino on the Flexdiet Podcast: Dr Dom D'Agostino on Red Light, Ketones, Fasting, Zapping Monkeys and More. Dominic on the NBT podcast: Dominic D'Agostino: Researcher and Athlete on the Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet.

[01:05:52] flexdiet.com; miketnelson.com.

Oct 02, 2020
The Neurophysiology of Safety and How to Feel Safe
59:36

Stephen W. Porges, PhD. is Distinguished University Scientist at Indiana University where he is the founding director of the Traumatic Stress Research Consortium. In 1994 he proposed the Polyvagal Theory, a theory that links the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system to social behaviour and emphasises the importance of physiological state in the expression of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. He has published more than 300 peer-reviewed papers across numerous behavioural and neurobiological disciplines.

On this podcast, Dr Porges explains the Polyvagal Theory, including the biological effects of perceived safety or danger and the resulting impact on our social behaviour. He describes his music-based intervention, the Safe and Sound Protocol, that is used by more than 1,400 therapists to reduce hearing sensitivities and increase emotional control and behavioural organisation. He also discusses how the threat of COVID-19 can impact neurophysiology, and he shares practical strategies for creating feelings of safety.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephen Porges:

[00:00:14] Sue carter podcast: Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”.

[00:02:25] Book: The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology), by Stephen Porges.

[00:02:38] Book: The Pocket Guide to the Polyvagal Theory: The Transformative Power of Feeling Safe (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology), by Stephen Porges.

[00:04:06] Polyvagal theory, described.

[00:12:28] Social behaviour as a noninvasive vagal nerve stimulator.

[00:14:36] Book: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life: Life-Changing Tools for Healthy Relationships, by Marshall B. Rosenberg.

[00:14:44] Book: I Hear You: The Surprisingly Simple Skill Behind Extraordinary Relationships, by Michael S. Sorensen.

[00:15:05] Biological rudeness.

[00:15:57] Argument as a shift in physiological state.

[00:16:38] We are terrible listeners.

[00:21:43] Humor - the violation of expectancy within the containment of safety.

[00:25:46] It's not what you say, it's how you say it.

[00:27:13] Extracting human voices.

[00:29:41] Sociality is a product of our body feeling safe.

[00:30:57] Auditory hypersensitivity in autism.

[00:34:22] The Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP).

[00:38:57] Study validating SSP: Porges, Stephen W., et al. "Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorder: preliminary findings evaluating the listening project protocol." Frontiers in Pediatrics 2 (2014): 80.

[00:39:29] Polyvagal Study Group on Facebook.

[00:41:15] COVID-19, the effect on neurophysiology; Article: Porges, S. W. "The COVID-19 Pandemic is a paradoxical challenge to our nervous system: a Polyvagal Perspective." Clin Neuropsychiatry 17 (2020): 135-8.

[00:46:53] Creating feelings of safety.

[00:50:50] Posture, dance; Yoga: Sullivan, Marlysa B., et al. "Yoga therapy and polyvagal theory: The convergence of traditional wisdom and contemporary neuroscience for self-regulation and resilience." Frontiers in human neuroscience 12 (2018): 67.

[00:51:37] Article: Porges, Stephen W. "Vagal pathways: Portals to compassion." The Oxford handbook of compassion science (2017): 189-204.

[00:54:41] Youtube videos featuring Stephen Porges.

[00:55:24] Deb Dana, LCSW.

[00:56:23] Stanford University’s The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE); Videos: 1. CCARE Science of Compassion 2014: The Psychophysiology of Compassion, 2. The Science of Compassion: Origins, Measures, and Interventions - Stephen Porges, PhD.

[00:56:56] Video on spirituality: Dr Stephen Porges speaks about spirituality concepts from a Polyvagal perspective.

[00:57:00] Article in Spectrum Newsletter: Brain-body connection may ease autistic people’s social problems, by Stephen Porges.

[00:58:00] Dr Porges’s website.

Sep 25, 2020
Long Range Fuel for Sustainable Performance and Productivity
01:02:42

Many of our listeners and clients are concerned about how best to fuel for longer events or training. While many athletes are downing sports gels and high carb drinks we have always advocated for alternatives that keep you competitive while helping you maintain consistent energy levels. Overall diet composition plays a big role in preparing for competition, as does meal timing, but for long events or a busy lifestyle, it also helps to be able to pack the right fuel to keep going.

Joining me this week is Greg Potter, PhD. Greg has been on the podcast numerous times to talk about sleep, chronotypes, and chrononutrition. Today he is with us as the Chief Science Officer of Resilient Nutrition, a company that has created Long Range Fuel, a new line of nut-butter based nutrition products for fueling sustainable performance. Greg talks about how an early version of Long Range Fuel helped power a world record-breaking trans-Atlantic rowing event in 2019. He also shares the science behind the specific ingredients they’ve included to boost your workout, keep you calm, and support your recovery and strength.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:17] Joshua Fields Milburn of The Minimalists: "Love people, use things."

[00:05:10] Rowers Max Thorpe and Chris Williams; TEDx Talk: Fire & Water:The Value of Control Amid Chaos.

[00:06:36] Long Range Fuel.

[00:05:51] Preparing Dave Spelman and Max Thorpe for their world record-breaking rowing event in 2019.

[00:07:50] Fueling the Talisker Whisky Atlantic Challenge

[00:20:35] Creatine supplementation.

[00:22:15] World Champion triathlete Lesley Paterson. Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:24:54] Effects of creatine on sleep; Study: Dworak, Markus, et al. "Creatine supplementation reduces sleep need and homeostatic sleep pressure in rats." Journal of sleep research 26.3 (2017): 377-385.

[00:25:54] Effects of caffeine and creatine on athletic performance; Study: Cook, Christian J., et al. "Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation-a randomized placebo-controlled trial." Journal of the international society of sports nutrition 8.1 (2011): 1-8.

[00:26:50] When/how to dose creatine.

[00:27:54] Creatine vs. creatinine.

[00:28:49] Creapure creatine monohydrate found in many creatine supplements.

[00:30:59] Ultra-endurance athlete, Claire Smith.

[00:33:48] 4 Different types of long-range fuel: Energise, Energise & Rebuild, Calm, Calm & Rebuild.

[00:40:36] L-leucine enhances the anabolic effects of whey; Study: Churchward-Venne, Tyler A., et al. "Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 99.2 (2014): 276-286.

[00:41:21] Caffeine and L-theanine.

[00:41:49] Meta-analyses of caffeine and exercise performance; Umbrella review: Grgic, Jozo, et al. "Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance—an umbrella review of 21 published meta-analyses." British Journal of Sports Medicine 54.11 (2020): 681-688.

[00:43:09] Caffeine enhances cognition - vigilance, attention, reaction time, mood. Review: McLellan, Tom M., John A. Caldwell, and Harris R. Lieberman. "A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 71 (2016): 294-312.

[00:44:20] L-theanine reduces anxiety and stress; Review: Sakamoto, Filipe Lopes, et al. "Psychotropic effects of L-theanine and its clinical properties: From the management of anxiety and stress to a potential use in schizophrenia." Pharmacological Research 147 (2019): 104395.

[00:44:40] Complementary effects of caffeine and L-theanine; Review: Bryan, Janet. "Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine." Nutrition reviews 66.2 (2008): 82-90.

[00:49:06] Dosing Long Range Fuel.

[00:55:04] Resilient Nutrition.

[00:57:24] Behavior change; Professor Susan Michie, PhD.; Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:57:52] 93 different behavior change techniques; Study: Michie, Susan, et al. "The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions." Annals of behavioral medicine 46.1 (2013): 81-95.

[00:58:21] Find Resilient Nutrition on Instagram and Facebook.

Sep 18, 2020
How to Measure Your Biological Age
01:02:16

There’s more than one way to measure how fast you’re ageing. There’s chronological age - the number of years you’ve been alive - and then there’s biological age, which you can think of as the total damage your body has accumulated over the years. Your chronological age may differ from your biological age, in which case it’s interesting to understand why. The good news is you can reduce your biological age by improving your lifestyle, which in turn can lengthen lifespan and healthspan. The question is, then, how to quantify biological age?

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall talks about PhenoAge: a measure of biological age that can be determined by analyzing a shortlist of common blood markers. We talk about why PhenoAge is important and valid as a reliable measure of biological status, and how you can get your PhenoAge score. Megan also offers tips for improving your PhenoAge once you’ve got your baseline. This episode has a ton of information, so be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:25] Arden Pope, PhD; Studies on the effects of air pollution on human health.

[00:01:15] Puppy update.

[00:05:54] Is ageing a disease? Article: Bulterijs, Sven, et al. "It is time to classify biological aging as a disease." Frontiers in genetics 6 (2015): 205.  

[00:06:35] Primary vs secondary ageing.

[00:08:02] Book: Lifespan: Why We Age - and Why We Don't Have To, by David A. Sinclair PhD.

[00:08:16] Ken Ford; STEM-Talk Podcast. Ken Ford on the NBT Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More.

[00:09:19] Measuring ageing.

[00:13:09] Theories of ageing - more than 300 theories; Articles: Tosato, Matteo, et al. "The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy." Clinical interventions in aging 2.3 (2007): 401. 2. da Costa, Joao Pinto, et al. "A synopsis on aging—Theories, mechanisms and future prospects." Ageing research reviews 29 (2016): 90-112. 3. Jin, Kunlin. "Modern biological theories of aging." Aging and disease 1.2 (2010): 72

[00:13:34] Grandmother hypothesis; Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:14:48] Program Theories and Damage Theories.

[00:17:45] Epigenetic clock theory of aging; Steven Horvath; Study: Horvath, Steve, and Kenneth Raj. "DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing." Nature Reviews Genetics 19.6 (2018): 371

[00:19:02] Steven Horvath's TEDx talk: Epigenetic Clocks Help to Find Anti-Aging Treatments.

[00:20:47] Book: Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture, by David Kushner.

[00:21:43] DNA methylation; Article: Horvath, Steve. "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types." Genome biology 14.10 (2013): 3156.

[00:23:13] Offspring of semi-supercentenarians have lower epigenetic age; Study: Horvath, Steve, et al. "Decreased epigenetic age of PBMCs from Italian semi-supercentenarians and their offspring." Aging (Albany NY) 7.12 (2015): 1159

[00:23:36] Methylation based biological age associated with: 1.  breast cancer risk: Kresovich, Jacob K., et al. "Methylation-based biological age and breast cancer risk." JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 111.10 (2019): 1051-1058. 2. Frailty: Breitling, Lutz Philipp, et al. "Frailty is associated with the epigenetic clock but not with telomere length in a German cohort." Clinical epigenetics 8.1 (2016): 21; 3. All-cause mortality: Marioni, Riccardo E., et al. "DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life." Genome biology 16.1 (2015): 1-12 and Christiansen, Lene, et al. "DNA methylation age is associated with mortality in a longitudinal Danish twin study." Aging cell 15.1 (2016): 149-154.

[00:24:46] PhenoAge as a biomarker of ageing for lifespan and healthspan; Study: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "An epigenetic biomarker of aging for lifespan and healthspan." Aging (Albany NY) 10.4 (2018): 573.

[00:29:06] Nine blood markers that make up PhenoAge.

[00:29:57] PhenoAge related to COVID-19; Study: Kuo, Chia-Ling, et al. "COVID-19 severity is predicted by earlier evidence of accelerated aging." medRxiv (2020)

[00:30:34] Combining PhenoAge with DNA methylation data as a predictor of mortality.

[00:33:28] Episode 59 of HumanOS podcast: Are You Biologically Older or Younger Than Your Chronological Age?

[00:33:58] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:34:00] Lifestyle factors that accelerate ageing: Sleep: Li, Xiaoyu, et al. "Association between sleep disordered breathing and epigenetic age acceleration: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis." EBioMedicine 50 (2019): 387-394; Socioeconimic status, childhood and adult adversity: Liu, Zuyun, et al. "Associations of genetics, behaviors, and life course circumstances with a novel aging and healthspan measure: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study." PLoS medicine 16.6 (2019): e1002827; Education: Zhao, Wei, et al. "Education and lifestyle factors are associated with DNA methylation clocks in older African Americans." International journal of environmental research and public health 16.17 (2019): 3141.

[00:35:59] Protein; Podcast: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure), with Megan Hall.

[00:36:50] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-term Health, by Justin Sonnenburg and Erica Sonnenburg.

[00:37:23] Bloodsmart.ai.

[00:38:35] Patreon: nbt.link

[00:39:33] Age reversal possible in humans? Study: Fahy, Gregory M., et al. "Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans." Aging cell 18.6 (2019): e13028

[00:40:15] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:41:00] Interpreting your blood markers to understand PhenoAge.

[00:46:11] PhenoAge vs Predicted Age.

Sep 11, 2020
Oxytocin: More Than Just a “Love Hormone”
01:17:24

Dr. Sue Carter is a Distinguished University Scientist and Rudy Professor Emerita of Biology at Indiana University. A career biologist, Dr Carter has studied the endocrinology of love and social bonds for more than three decades. Her research on pair bonding helped lay the foundation for further work on the behavioural and developmental effects of oxytocin and vasopressin in humans. Recently, she has been examining the role of these neuropeptides in psychiatric and neurological disorders such as autism and depression.

In this podcast, Dr Carter discusses the many ways oxytocin is integral to our development, physiological health, and social behaviour. She explains how too much or too little can be detrimental and describes her long-standing concern regarding the consequences of using synthetic oxytocin to induce labour during pregnancy. She talks about some of the recently discovered developmental functions of oxytocin and vasopressin, including muscle and bone synthesis and regeneration, and shares what you can do to increase the oxytocin your body produces naturally.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sue Carter:

[00:00:15] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, by Robert M. Sapolsky.

[00:01:01] Studying prairie voles.

[00:07:51] Thomas Insel, Larry Young, and Zuoxin Wang at Emory University.

[00:14:13] Book: Sperm Wars: Infidelity, Sexual Conflict, and Other Bedroom Battles, by Robin Baker.

[00:14:36] Sarah Hrdy; Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding.

[00:17:29] Effects of early life stress on oxytocin and vasopressin.

[00:26:15] "Cry it out" sleep training.

[00:28:04] Oxytocin and autism.

[00:30:13] Oxytocin being studied in treatment of autism; Reviews: 1. Benner, Seico, and Hidenori Yamasue. "Clinical potential of oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder: current issues and future perspectives." Behavioural Pharmacology 29.1 (2018): 1-12; 2. Okamoto, Yuko, et al. "The potential of nasal oxytocin administration for remediation of autism spectrum disorders." CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders) 15.5 (2016): 564-577.

[00:31:57] Pitocin (synthetic oxytocin).

[00:34:06] Just the right amount of oxytocin is required; too much and the system is disrupted. (Study mentioned by Sue is not available).

[00:36:19] Postpartum depression.

[00:39:52] Oxytocin as anti-inflammatory.

[00:40:40] Higher oxytocin associated with faster wound healing; Study: Gouin, Jean-Philippe, et al. "Marital behavior, oxytocin, vasopressin, and wound healing." Psychoneuroendocrinology 35.7 (2010): 1082-1090.

[00:42:08] Optimizing your body's production of oxytocin.

[00:42:43] Oxytocin necessary for muscle regeneration; Study: Elabd, Christian, et al. "Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration." Nature communications 5.1 (2014): 1-11.

[00:43:35] Effect of exercise on oxytocin production.

[00:44:53] Oxytocin during exercise could prevent breast cancer; Study: Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad, et al. "Oxytocin mediates the beneficial effects of the exercise training on breast cancer." Experimental physiology 103.2 (2018): 222-235.

[00:46:30] Dr. Josh Turknett on minimizing environmental mismatch; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:46:38] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:46:41] Article: Evolved to Exercise, by Herman Pontzer.

[00:50:22] Potential use in treating COVID-19; Commentary: Oxytocin, a possible treatment for COVID-19? Everything to Gain, Nothing to Lose.

[00:55:03] Effects of adversity on oxytocin and vasopressin.

[00:56:02] Dr. Stephen Porges; Book: The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology).

[00:57:58] Possible downsides of oxytocin; Creating intergroup bias: De Dreu, Carsten KW, et al. "Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108.4 (2011): 1262-1266.

[00:58:26] Vasopressin implicated in out-group phenomenon; Review: Kavaliers, Martin, and Elena Choleris. "Out-group threat responses, in-group bias, and nonapeptide involvement are conserved across vertebrates:(A Comment on Bruintjes et al.,“Out-Group Threat Promotes Within-Group Affiliation in a Cooperative Fish”)." The American Naturalist 189.4 (2017): 453-458. (On SciHub).

[00:59:18] Podcast: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, with Brian Hare, PhD.

[01:02:42] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[01:04:13] The value of breastfeeding.

[01:09:54] Review paper: Is Oxytocin “Nature’s Medicine”? Not yet published. Please contact Sue if you would like a copy.

[01:11:15] Where to find Sue: Indiana University; Kinsey Institute; Pubmed.

Sep 04, 2020
How to Talk to Your Kids About Sex and Pornography
01:13:10

Megan Maas, PhD, is an assistant professor in Human Development and Family Studies. Her work sits at the intersection of sexual violence prevention and sexual health promotion. Her award-winning research, recognized by the American Psychological Association, focuses on adolescent sexual socialization, with an emphasis on the bi-directional role that social media, sexting, and online pornography play in the development of attitudes and behaviour related to sexuality and gender. For the last 10 years, she has been invited to talk on this subject for audiences of students, parents, and teachers at universities and organizations across the US. 

On this podcast, Dr Maas discusses the allure of pornography and its impact on relationships and young people. She talks about gender differences with regard to how pornography is perceived and research that suggests it has become a popular medium for both men and women. She discusses the societal influences that cause many people to associate danger with romance, morality and ethics in the porn industry, and how best to talk to your children about sex and sexual imagery on the Internet.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Maas:

[00:01:32] Megan's background.

[00:04:04] The allure of pornography.

[00:05:57] Book: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships, by Christopher Ryan; Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:07:51] Anthropologist Helen Fisher.

[00:09:46] The history of porn.

[00:14:19] The role of erotic literature; Book: 50 Shades of Grey, by E.L. James.

[00:15:00] Audio porn: women aroused by sound.

[00:16:13] Women’s arousal not limited by gender; Study: Chivers, Meredith L., Michael C. Seto, and Ray Blanchard. "Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films." Journal of personality and social psychology 93.6 (2007): 1108.

[00:17:17] Women enjoy gay male pornography; Paper: Neville, Lucy. "Male gays in the female gaze: Women who watch m/m pornography." Porn Studies 2.2-3 (2015): 192-207.

[00:17:40] Coolidge effect; Studied in humans: Hughes, Susan M., et al. "Experimental Evidence for Sex Differences in Sexual Variety Preferences: Support for the Coolidge Effect in Humans." Archives of Sexual Behavior (2020).

[00:19:32] Women are as likely to cheat as men, especially when ovulating; Studies: 1. Mark, Kristen P., Erick Janssen, and Robin R. Milhausen. "Infidelity in heterosexual couples: Demographic, interpersonal, and personality-related predictors of extradyadic sex." Archives of sexual behavior 40.5 (2011): 971-982; 2.  Haselton, Martie G., and Steven W. Gangestad. "Conditional expression of women's desires and men's mate guarding across the ovulatory cycle." Hormones and behavior 49.4 (2006): 509-518.

[00:20:41] Egg may have a preference for a particular sperm; Study: Fitzpatrick, John L., et al. "Chemical signals from eggs facilitate cryptic female choice in humans." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287.1928 (2020): 20200805.

[00:21:19] Oral birth control can affect who you’re attracted to; Study: Roberts, S. Craig, et al. "Relationship satisfaction and outcome in women who meet their partner while using oral contraception." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279.1732 (2012): 1430-1436.

[00:22:14] Romance has become associated with drama and danger; Megan’s Huffington Post article, 'Boys Will Be Boys': The Lie That Keeps It All Going; Blog post: Love hurts: What we learn from Beauty & the Beast, Twilight, and Fifty Shades of Grey;

[00:24:49] Sex education.

[00:29:55] How porn affects relationships - is it improving things or hurting?

[00:32:17] Simon Marshall, PhD; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Books by Russ Harris.

[00:32:35] Morality and ethics in the porn industry.

[00:37:39] Megan’s TED Talk: How the Evolution of Porn Changed Adolescence | Megan Maas | TEDxMSU; Interview with Megan on YouTube

[00:39:58] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:40:54] Advice for parents.

[00:43:25] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:43:47] Podcasts with Ashley Mason: 1. Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD, Mindfulness and Cognitive; 2.  Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems; 3. How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:45:59] Talking to kids about sex.

[00:46:27] Books Megan recommends.

[00:47:23] Book: Good Pictures Bad Pictures: Porn-Proofing Today's Young Kids, by Kristen Jenson.

[00:49:02] E-book: Talking with Kids about...Porn: A Guide

[00:54:07] People who are more religious use more porn; Study: Whitehead, Andrew L., and Samuel L. Perry. "Unbuckling the Bible belt: A state-level analysis of religious factors and Google searches for porn." The Journal of Sex Research 55.3 (2018): 273-283.

[00:54:54] Book: The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind, by Alison Gopnik.

[01:00:20] Sam Harris Podcast: #213 - The Worst Epidemic.

[01:07:56] Megan’s website: meganmaas.com.

Aug 28, 2020
Postprandial Fatigue, Part II: Endotoxemia, Inflammation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
49:45

A few weeks ago NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I met up to discuss the causes of postprandial fatigue, commonly known as “food coma”. We talked about two common causes, both associated with glucose dysregulation. Megan described some of the mechanisms causing hypoglycemia, including accelerated gastric emptying, periods of increased insulin sensitivity, and low hormonal states, while hyperglycemia is often associated with insulin resistance. This was such a big topic we only covered about half of it the first time around, so we’re continuing the conversation today.

On this podcast, Megan and I discuss three additional causes of postprandial fatigue: endotoxin, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Megan describes each of these scenarios in detail, discussing some of the upstream causes that can be targeted early on to avoid problems. She also provides practical steps you can take if you’re one of the millions dozing off after lunch every day. Be sure to follow along with Megan’s outline for this podcast

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:01:42] Previous podcast: Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch? 

[00:03:20] Hans Vink; Hyperglycemia reduces glycocalyx volume while NAC infusion prevents the reduction. Nieuwdorp, Max, et al. "Loss of endothelial glycocalyx during acute hyperglycemia coincides with endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation in vivo." Diabetes 55.2 (2006): 480-486.

[00:03:51] Malcolm Kendrick on the glycocalyx; Podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:04:51] NBT Strength and Conditioning Coach Zach Moore; Podcast: How to Strength Train Without a Gym.

[00:06:21] Postprandial endotoxemia (PPE): definition, causes, downstream effects; Study: Kelly, Caleb J., Sean P. Colgan, and Daniel N. Frank. "Of microbes and meals: the health consequences of dietary endotoxemia." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 27.2 (2012): 215-225

[00:11:04] What to do about PPE.

[00:11:56] Probiotics; Podcasts: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome and Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing, PhD; How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:12:10] Megasporebiotic; Study: McFarlin, Brian K., et al. "Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers." World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 8.3 (2017): 117.

[00:12:36] Chris' sister's story.

[00:13:51] S. boulardii - may help with gut barrier function; Study: Terciolo, Chloe, Michel Dapoigny, and Frederic Andre. "Beneficial effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on clinical disorders associated with intestinal barrier disruption." Clinical and experimental gastroenterology 12 (2019): 67.

[00:14:23] Additional supplements that may help with gut: Enteromend, Permaclear, GI Revive, SBI Protect.

[00:17:09] Dietary interventions for PPE.

[00:17:14] Plant polyphenols; Studies: 1. Wong, Ximena, et al. "Polyphenol extracts interfere with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro and decrease postprandial endotoxemia in human volunteers." Journal of Functional Foods 26 (2016): 406-417; 2. González‐Sarrías, Antonio, et al. "The endotoxemia marker lipopolysaccharide‐binding protein is reduced in overweight‐obese subjects consuming pomegranate extract by modulating the gut microbiota: A randomized clinical trial." Molecular nutrition & food research 62.11 (2018): 1800160; 3. Kolehmainen, Marjukka, et al. "Bilberries reduce low‐grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome." Molecular nutrition & food research 56.10 (2012): 1501-1510

[00:17:36] Sulforaphane; Studies: 1. Yanaka, Akinori, Junya Sato, and Shun Ohmori. "Sulforaphane protects small intestinal mucosa from aspirin/NSAID-induced injury by enhancing host defense systems against oxidative stress and by inhibiting mucosal invasion of anaerobic enterobacteria." Current pharmaceutical design 19.1 (2013): 157-162. 2. Yanaka, Akinori. "Role of sulforaphane in protection of gastrointestinal tract against H. pylori and NSAID-induced oxidative stress." Current pharmaceutical design 23.27 (2017): 4066-4075.

[00:17:53] Hormetea.

[00:20:20] Dietary oil composition plays a role in endotoxin transport; Study: Mani, Venkatesh, James H. Hollis, and Nicholas K. Gabler. "Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia." Nutrition & metabolism 10.1 (2013): 6.

[00:21:55] Supporting detoxification; Studies: 1. Fox, Eben S., Peter Thomas, and Selwyn A. Broitman. "Hepatic mechanisms for clearance and detoxification of bacterial endotoxins." The journal of nutritional biochemistry 1.12 (1990): 620-628 (SciHub); 2. Munford, Robert S. "Invited review: detoxifying endotoxin: time, place and person." Journal of endotoxin research 11.2 (2005): 69-84.

[00:22:20] Enterosgel.

[00:24:04] Inflammation; Study: Mo, Zhenzhen, et al. "Endotoxin May Not Be the Major Cause of Postprandial Inflammation in Adults Who Consume a Single High-Fat or Moderately High-Fat Meal." The Journal of Nutrition 150.5 (2020): 1303-1312.

[00:25:51] Lucy Mailing on gut barrier integrity: Article: Is a high-fat or ketogenic diet bad for your gut? Discussed on NBT Forum post.

[00:26:26] Food sensitivities; Studies: 1. Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu. "Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation." Pediatrics International 57.1 (2015): 22-29; 2. Wilders-Truschnig, M., et al. "IgG antibodies against food antigens are correlated with inflammation and intima media thickness in obese juveniles." Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes 116.4 (2008): 241.

[00:27:58] IL-1 and postprandial fatigue; Study: Lehrskov, Louise L., et al. "The role of IL-1 in postprandial fatigue." Molecular metabolism 12 (2018): 107-112.

[00:29:05] Mitochondrial dysfunction and glucose dysregulation; Study: Sergi, Domenico, et al. "Mitochondrial (dys) function and insulin resistance: From pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to the impact of diet." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 532.

[00:29:54] Normal vs pathological biochemistry.

[00:32:53] TCA cycle and electron transport chain.

[00:33:21] Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism; Study: Hoehn, Kyle L., et al. "Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.42 (2009): 17787-17792.

[00:35:02] Blood sugar dysregulation and mito dysfunction; Studies: 1. Stefano, George B., Sean Challenger, and Richard M. Kream. "Hyperglycemia-associated alterations in cellular signaling and dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics in human metabolic disorders." European journal of nutrition 55.8 (2016): 2339-2345; 2. Rolo, Anabela P., and Carlos M. Palmeira. "Diabetes and mitochondrial function: role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress." Toxicology and applied pharmacology 212.2 (2006): 167-178; 3. Kaikini, Aakruti Arun, et al. "Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction for the treatment of diabetic complications: pharmacological interventions through natural products." Pharmacognosy Reviews 11.22 (2017): 128.

[00:36:26] How to support mitochondria.

[00:36:46] Low-carb diet; Study: Miller, Vincent J., Frederick A. Villamena, and Jeff S. Volek. "Nutritional ketosis and mitohormesis: potential implications for mitochondrial function and human health." Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2018 (2018).

[00:37:04] Exercise; Studies: 1. Oliveira, Ashley N., and David A. Hood. "Exercise is mitochondrial medicine for muscle." Sports Medicine and Health Science 1.1 (2019): 11-18; 2. Memme, Jonathan M., et al. "Exercise and mitochondrial health." The Journal of Physiology (2019); 3. Huertas, Jesus R., et al. "Stay fit, stay young: mitochondria in movement: the role of exercise in the new mitochondrial paradigm." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019 (2019).

[00:37:31] TRE or fasting, CR; Study: Lettieri-Barbato, Daniele, et al. "Time-controlled fasting prevents aging-like mitochondrial changes induced by persistent dietary fat overload in skeletal muscle." PloS one 13.5 (2018): e0195912.

[00:38:03] Dietary polyphenols; Studies: 1. Sun, Chongde, et al. "Dietary polyphenols as antidiabetic agents: Advances and opportunities." Food Frontiers 1.1 (2020): 18-44; 2. Teixeira, José, et al. "Dietary polyphenols and mitochondrial function: role in health and disease." Current medicinal chemistry 26.19 (2019): 3376-3406.

[00:38:47] Eat berries before a carb rich meal; 1. Törrönen, Riitta, et al. "Berries reduce postprandial insulin responses to wheat and rye breads in healthy women." The Journal of nutrition 143.4 (2013): 430-436; 2. Xiao, Di, et al. "Attenuation of postmeal metabolic indices with red raspberries in individuals at risk for diabetes: A randomized controlled trial." Obesity 27.4 (2019): 542-550.

[00:39:34] Eat fatty fish; Studies: Lanza, Ian R., et al. "Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 304.12 (2013): E1391-E1403; 2. de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto, et al. "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mitochondria, back to the future." Trends in food science & technology 67 (2017): 76-92.

[00:39:53] Sleep; Studies: 1. Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa, et al. "Short-term sleep deprivation with exposure to nocturnal light alters mitochondrial bioenergetics in Drosophila." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 120 (2018): 395-406; 2. Schmitt, Karen, et al. "Circadian control of DRP1 activity regulates mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics." Cell metabolism 27.3 (2018): 657-666.

[00:40:16] Supplements to support mitochondria; Study: Wesselink, E., et al. "Feeding mitochondria: potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence." Clinical nutrition 38.3 (2019): 982-995.

[00:42:22] Outline for this podcast

[00:42:25] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:44:47] 35% of pharmaceuticals cause mito dysfunction; Studies: 1. Meyer, Joel N., and Sherine SL Chan. "Sources, mechanisms, and consequences of chemical-induced mitochondrial toxicity." (2017): 2-4; and 2. Dykens, James A., and Yvonne Will. "The significance of mitochondrial toxicity testing in drug development." Drug discovery today 12.17-18 (2007): 777-785.

[00:45:08] Environmental pollutants; Podcast: Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome, with Jodi Flaws, PhD.

[00:45:22] Psychological stress; Podcast: Germline Exposures with Jill Escher.

[00:46:35] Support NBT on Patreon.

[00:46:51] Book a free 15-minute starter session with one of our coaches.

Aug 21, 2020
How to Fix Your Breathing to Improve Your Health
45:48

James Nestor is a San Francisco-based author and journalist who has written for Scientific American, Outside Magazine, The New York Times, The Atlantic, National Public Radio, and more. His latest book, Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art was released in May 2020 and became an instant New York Times and Wall Street Journal Top 10 bestseller. In it, he explores the history of how we have lost the ability to breathe properly and why we’re suffering from a long list of maladies as a result. These include snoring, sleep apnea, asthma, autoimmune disease, and allergies.

On this podcast James explains how changing the way you breathe can have a profound effect on your emotional and physical health. He relates how his research led him to understanding and practising ancient breathing methods, even enlisting in a 21-day Stanford University experiment to have his nasal cavities and his mouth taped shut. He also describes a simple and inexpensive breathing technique that can quickly produce significant returns in health and performance. 

Interviewing James this week is my NBT colleague Clay Higgins. Clay is a mountain biker, fourth-generation funeral homeowner, and was a client back in 2014. After transforming his health using ancestral health, Clay is now helping other people do the same. If you come to the front page of our website at nourishbalancethrive.com you’ll find a button to book a free starter session with Clay. During the session, he'll take a look at your history and share how we'd work with you. If you’re not in the US, don’t worry! Since we always work remotely, we can help you almost anywhere in the world.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Nestor:

[00:00:20] Book: Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art, by James Nestor.

[00:01:57] Freediving; Book: Deep: Freediving, Renegade Science, and What the Ocean Tells Us about Ourselves, by James Nestor.

[00:03:43] Jayakar V. Nayak, MD, PhD at Stanford.

[00:05:13] Mouth breathing for 10 days.

[00:08:21] Dr. Josh Turkett’s 4-quadrant model.

[00:11:47] Why don't we prioritize how we breathe?

[00:15:05] Video: Josh Turknett - How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm - AHS19; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:16:00] Book: Upstream: The Quest to Solve Problems Before They Happen, by Dan Heath.

[00:19:08] Effects of breathing on skull shape; Studies: 1. Muñoz, Isabel Chung Leng, and Paola Beltri Orta. "Comparison of cephalometric patterns in mouth breathing and nose breathing children." International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 78.7 (2014): 1167-1172; 2. Chambi‐Rocha, Annel, Ma Eugenia Cabrera‐Domínguez, and Antonia Domínguez‐Reyes. "Breathing mode influence on craniofacial development and head posture." Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português) 94.2 (2018): 123-130 3. Jefferson, Yosh. "Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior." Gen Dent 58.1 (2010): 18-25.

[00:21:54] Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.

[00:23:52] Benefits of nasal breathing.

[00:25:02] Study: Nasal breathing coordinates brain network interactions; Study: Zelano, Christina, et al. "Nasal respiration entrains human limbic oscillations and modulates cognitive function." Journal of Neuroscience 36.49 (2016): 12448-12467.

[00:25:22] High percentage of kids with ADHD are mouth breathers. Study: Bonuck, Karen, et al. "Sleep-disordered breathing in a population-based cohort: behavioral outcomes at 4 and 7 years." Pediatrics 129.4 (2012): e857-e865.

[00:25:02] Mouth breathing associated with emotional problems and ADHD. Study: Susan Shur‐Fen, G. A. U. "Prevalence of sleep problems and their association with inattention/hyperactivity among children aged 6–15 in Taiwan." Journal of Sleep Research 15.4 (2006): 403-414.

[00:26:37] Dr. John Douillard, Dr. Phil Maffetone; MAF method.

[00:31:13] Dr. Steven Park.

[00:31:58] Mouth taping; James recommends 3M Micropore Hypoallergenic Tape.

[00:37:11] Stanford’s Dr. Ann Kearney.

[00:37:43] Video: James Nestor interviewing Dr. Mark Burhenne on mouth taping.

[00:39:03] Studies on James’ website

[00:41:46] Mrjamesnestor.com; Breath resources; Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn.

Aug 14, 2020
Blood Flow Restriction Training for Improved Strength, Performance, and Healthspan
01:05:51

Dr Jim Stray-Gundersen MD is Board Certified in General Surgery and a world-renowned expert in sports medicine, exercise physiology and training for sports performance. He has worked for 35+ years with Olympic and professional athletes, including the US, Norwegian, German, and Canadian national teams, as well as with NASA, Special Forces, and all levels of the US Military. Jim currently serves as the sports science advisor for the US Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) and is the founder of the SG Performance Medicine Center in Park City, Utah.

On this podcast, Dr Stray-Gundersen defines the mechanisms and application of Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) training and its effect on overall health, performance, power, and strength. He explains how BFR can deliver muscle gains identical to traditional strength training but with less weight, reduced risk of injury and faster recovery, making it a viable training option for people of all ages and fitness levels. He discusses the safety of BFR and the potential of this technique to revolutionise training and rehabilitation, particularly at this time when many of us no longer have access to a gym.

Train harder and safer than you were before the gym shut down! Head over to bstrong.training before Aug 31, 2020, and use the discount code Performbetter to save 20% on the BFR system we talk about in this interview.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jim Stray-Gundersen:

[00:00:19] Olympic skier Todd Lodwick's 2014 injury and recovery.

[00:11:09] How blood flow restriction (BFR) works.

[00:18:58] STEM-talk podcast: Episode 34: Jim Stray-Gundersen explains how blood flow restriction training builds muscle and improves performance.

[00:19:04] IHMC lecture: Jim Stray-Gundersen - Blood Flow Restriction Training: Anti-aging medicine for the busy baby boomer.

[00:19:08] Increased fast-twitch muscle fibers with BFR training; Study: Yasuda, T., et al. "Muscle fiber cross-sectional area is increased after two weeks of twice daily KAATSU-resistance training." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 1.2 (2005): 65-70.

[00:22:50] Improvement in strength and muscle mass with walking and other low-load training; Meta-Analysis: Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy in Older Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

[00:23:35] Increases in VO2max with BFR; Meta-Analysis: Formiga, Magno F., et al. "Effect of Aerobic exercise training with and without blood flow restriction on aerobic capacity in healthy young adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 15.2 (2020): 175.

[00:30:34] Safety of BFR; Study: Nakajima, T., et al. "Use and safety of KAATSU training: results of a national survey." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 2.1 (2006): 5-13.

[00:39:24] B Strong vs. Kaatsu.

[00:40:50] Contraindications for BFR.

[00:43:35] BFR for varicose veins.

[00:46:49] How to train.

[00:48:48] 9-minute workout.

[00:51:23] Measuring progress.

[00:56:24] BFR for elite athletes.

[00:57:51] Increased growth hormone and benefits for bone health; Studies: 1. Takarada, Yudai, et al. "Rapid increase in plasma growth hormone after low-intensity resistance exercise with vascular occlusion." Journal of applied physiology 88.1 (2000): 61-65. 2. Sato, Y., and T. Abe. "KAATSU-walk training increases serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in young men." International Journal of KAATSU Training Research 1.2 (2005): 77-81.

[00:59:10] Why haven't we heard of this?

[01:02:00] B Strong; Instagram, Twitter, Facebook.

Aug 07, 2020
Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prevent Disease and Increase Healthspan
58:29

Kara Collier, RDN, CNSC is a Registered Dietitian, Nutritionist and Certified Nutrition Support Clinician who specializes in glucose control and metabolism. She’s also the Director of Nutrition for Nutrisense, a company that uses continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to help their clients become aware of the factors impacting their blood sugar. Kara oversees a team of dietitians leveraging CGM data to build tailored nutrition and lifestyle plans.

On this podcast, Kara talks about the value of using CGM to optimize metabolic health, prevent disease, and improve healthspan. She discusses how CGM captures critical information missed by traditional glucose screening tests and how the data can then guide lifestyle changes. We discuss optimal fasting and peak glucose ranges, the accuracy of CGM, and the 5 lifestyle pillars that tend to have a significant impact on blood glucose.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kara Collier:

[00:02:54] Nutrisense; Continuous glucose monitors (CGM).

[00:05:38] Article: The Rise of Nutritionism, by Kara Collier; Michael Pollan.

[00:06:54] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:08:12] Chris Masterjohn.

[00:10:07] Why measure blood glucose.

[00:12:07] Freestyle Libre.

[00:13:51] Podcast: Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch? with Megan Hall.

[00:14:05] Glycocalyx: Podcasts with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World; Podcast with Ivor Cummins: Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:14:18] Micrograph images of glycocalyx after a high-carb meal.

[00:15:39] Importance of peak glucose values (

Jul 31, 2020
Chrononutrition and Early Time-Restricted Eating for Metabolic Health
01:06:40

Before it became so easy for us to stay up at night, cross time zones in a single afternoon, and eat at any time of the day, humans were inclined to live in accordance with natural light/dark cycles. It’s probably no accident that along with these lifestyle changes we’ve entered an era marked by chronic illness - the so-called mismatch diseases. Metabolic disorders are often attributed to eating too much or consuming the wrong kinds of food. But fascinating research from just the last several years suggests we’re also eating at the wrong time of the day.

With me today on the podcast is writer, speaker, and researcher Greg Potter, PhD. to talk about chrononutrition - how the foods we eat and the times we eat them impact our inner clocks and metabolic health. Greg discusses how changing when you eat can have profound effects, including reduced blood glucose, insulin, and appetite, and even better outcomes with COVID-19. He breaks down specific macronutrients to eat, when to eat them, and in what order, to optimise the body’s inner timekeeper. 

If you enjoy this podcast, be sure to read Greg’s articles on chrononutrition over at HumanOS: Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:12] Metagenics Institute Podcast with Nathan Rose

[00:03:24] Early time-restricted eating (eTRE).

[00:04:18] A review of the circadian system.

[00:06:41] Consuming food earlier in the day leads to lower postprandial glucose and insulin; Meta analysis: Leung, Gloria KW, et al. "Time of day difference in postprandial glucose and insulin responses: Systematic review and meta-analysis of acute postprandial studies." Chronobiology International 37.3 (2020): 311-326.

[00:06:58] Time of day changes in immune function; Study: Abele, Sydney H., et al. "Focus: Clocks and Cycles: Time is on the Immune System’s Side, Yes it is." The Yale journal of biology and medicine 92.2 (2019): 225.

[00:10:51] How changing food timing can affect your health.

[00:12:34] TRE associated with better health outcomes; Study: Gill, Shubhroz, et al. "Time-restricted feeding attenuates age-related cardiac decline in Drosophila." Science 347.6227 (2015): 1265-1269.

[00:13:15] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:13:23] High-fat diet leads to changes in circadian rhythm in mice; Study: Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L., et al. "Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge." Cell 155.7 (2013): 1464-1478.

[00:16:03] Definitions - TRE vs IF (intermittent fasting).

[00:17:00] Different types of fasting: Alternate Day Fasting, Modified ADF, 5:2 Diet, Modified 5:2, nutrient restriction.

[00:18:30] Fasting Mimicking Diet.

[00:21:27] Intermountain Risk Score and calculator; Changes in blood chemistry with fasting.

[00:22:19] Time of day and macronutrient intake.

[00:22:34] Eating earlier in the day beneficial for metabolic health; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women." Obesity 21.12 (2013): 2504-2512.

[00:23:40] Three meals and a big breakfast better than 6 small meals; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "Reduction in glycated hemoglobin and daily insulin dose alongside circadian clock upregulation in patients with type 2 diabetes consuming a three-meal diet: a randomized clinical trial." Diabetes Care 42.12 (2019): 2171-2180.

[00:25:34] Eat your carbs last; Study: Shukla, Alpana P., et al. "Food order has a significant impact on postprandial glucose and insulin levels." Diabetes care 38.7 (2015): e98-e99.

[00:32:11] Possible genetic impact on circadian system; Study: Lopez-Minguez, Jesus, et al. "Circadian system heritability as assessed by wrist temperature: a twin study." Chronobiology international 32.1 (2015): 71-80.

[00:38:59] Early TRE better but perceived as more difficult; Study: Parr, Evelyn B., et al. "A delayed morning and earlier evening time-restricted feeding protocol for improving glycemic control and dietary adherence in men with overweight/obesity: a randomized controlled trial." Nutrients 12.2 (2020): 505.

[00:41:53] Early TRE improves metabolic markers and reduces appetite; Study: Sutton, Elizabeth F., et al. "Early time-restricted feeding improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and oxidative stress even without weight loss in men with prediabetes." Cell metabolism 27.6 (2018): 1212-1221.

[00:48:23] Diet timing and COVID-19 mortality; Study: Verd, Sergio, et al. "Early dinner or “dinner like a pauper”: Evidence, the habitual time of the largest meal of the day–dinner–is predisposing to severe COVID-19 outcome–death." Chronobiology International (2020): 1-5.

[00:53:51] Chris Kelly’s approach to circadian timing.

[00:57:14] How much protein to eat? 0.4g protein/Kg body mass of high-quality protein per dietary event.

[00:57:46] Digestible indispensable amino acid score.

[00:59:12] Podcast: Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure), with Megan Hall.

[00:59:53] Resilient Nutrition (website coming soon).

[01:03:37] Resilient Nutrition on Instagram and Facebook.

Jul 24, 2020
Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity
01:17:20

Dr Brian Hare is a scientist and the New York Times bestselling author of The Genius of Dogs. He received his PhD from Harvard University and is now a Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University. Brian founded the Hominoid Psychology Research Group while at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and subsequently founded the Duke Canine Cognition Center. His publications on dog cognition are among the most heavily cited papers on dog behaviour and intelligence.

In this podcast, Brian talks about his new book, Survival of the Friendliest, which masterfully applies research on the psychology of dogs, chimps and bonobos to our understanding of human benevolence and cruelty. He explains why identifying with a group can result in hostility to others, and why species that find a way to cooperate tend to dominate. He also offers innovative solutions for reducing divisiveness and increasing cooperative behaviour in our contemporary society. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brian Hare:

[00:00:16] Book: The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods.

[00:00:48] Book: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods.

[00:01:16] Shared intentionality.

[00:05:18] Dognition assessment; online course.

[00:07:29] Duke Canine Cognition Center publications.

[00:13:45] Chimps and bonobos.

[00:18:33] Analysis comparing chimps and bonobos on lethal aggression: Wilson, Michael L., et al. "Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts." Nature 513.7518 (2014): 414-417.

[00:19:58] Friendliness pays huge dividends.

[00:24:32] Sue Carter, PhD on oxytocin.

[00:25:27] Sexual behavior of bonobo females helps form alliances; Article: Parish, Amy Randall. "Female relationships in bonobos (Pan paniscus)." Hu Nat 7.1 (1996): 61-96.

[00:27:24] Book: The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution, by Richard Wrangham.

[00:31:08] Jane Goodall; Documentary: Jane.

[00:31:18] Claudine Andre; Documentary: Bonobos: Back to the Wild.

[00:32:23] Louis Leakey funded Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birutė Galdikas (The Trimates) to study hominids.

[00:38:41] Books: The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man, by Charles Darwin.

[00:39:45] Michael Tomasello, PhD.

[00:47:14] Group identity.

[00:53:47] Paul Bloom, PhD.

[00:59:06] Increasing friendliness; Contact hypothesis.

[00:59:41] Policy recommendations and innovations to increase friendliness.

[01:06:40] Book: The Decline and Rise of Democracy: A Global History from Antiquity to Today, by David Stasavage.

[01:09:17] Brian on Twitter.

[01:09:52] Getting a dog: refer to the Humane Society website.

[01:10:51] Hypoallergenic dogs have the same amount of dander; Study: Nicholas, Charlotte E., et al. "Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs." American journal of rhinology & allergy 25.4 (2011): 252-256.

[01:11:50] American Kennel Club.

Jul 17, 2020
Postprandial Fatigue: Is It Normal To Need A Nap After Lunch?
53:31

We get a lot of questions from our clients about postprandial fatigue. Never heard of it? Well you’ve certainly familiar with the term “food coma” - and perhaps with the experience of being in one. What causes this phenomenon and why does it affect some people more than others? Is it normal to need a nap after lunch? 

On this podcast I’m joined by NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall to talk about postprandial fatigue - the sleepiness, difficulty focusing, and even dizziness or nausea that strikes after consuming a meal. Megan talks about some of the biological processes behind the need for a post-meal snooze, and when to suspect a deeper pathology. She also offers practical tips to help you resolve your own postprandial fatigue.

Thank you everyone who so generously supports this podcast on Patreon - without your support, we wouldn’t be able to keep this podcast independent and free of ads. So thank you. And just a reminder - as a Patreon supporter - not only do you have our eternal gratitude, but also...

You get some awesome gifts - including 20-35% discounts on all supplements we recommend when working with clients, which saves many of our supporters $50-$100 a month over what they were previously paying on Amazon. So by supporting the podcast, they’re actually spending LESS money each month.

In addition to that, you can also get access to our Office Hours, where Megan answers questions twice a week. You can submit all your own questions, as well as listen to all the replays, covering everything from krill oil to mitochondrial support.

We’ve worked really hard to make sure that the bonuses you get are actually way more valuable than what you pay whatever level you choose to support us at. So if you’d like to support the podcast and get access to the discounts and Office Hours, just head over to NBT.link and sign up there.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:04:25] Common symptoms of postprandial fatigue.

[00:05:46] Reactive hypoglycemia; Study: Johnson, Debra D., Kay E. Dorr, and Wendell M. Swenson. "Reactive hypoglycemia." JAMA 243.11 (1980): 1151-1155. 

[00:06:35] Diagnosing reactive hypoglycemia; Study: CHALEW, STUART, et al. "Diagnosis of reactive hypoglycemia: pitfalls in the use of the oral glucose tolerance test." Southern Medical Journal 79.3 (1986): 285-287.

[00:09:00] Symptoms and causes of hypoglycemia.

[00:09:37] Increased insulin sensitivity; Studies: 1. Brun, J. F., et al. "Increased insulin sensitivity and basal insulin effectiveness in postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia." Acta Diabetologica 33.1 (1996): 1-6; 2. Vexiau, P., B. Legoff, and G. Cathelineau. "Insulin and cortisol secretion during OGTT in patients with reactive hypoglycaemia with or without clinical symptoms." Hormone and metabolic research 15.09 (1983): 419-421.

[00:09:47] Hypocortisolism; Studies: 1. Meyer, Gesine, et al. "Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)." Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 14.5 (2012): 386-388; 2. Christiansen, Jens Juel, et al. "Effects of cortisol on carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism: studies of acute cortisol withdrawal in adrenocortical failure." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92.9 (2007): 3553-3559.

[00:10:05] Hypothyroidism; Studies: 1. Kalra, Sanjay, Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, and Rakesh Sahay. "The hypoglycemic side of hypothyroidism." Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 18.1 (2014): 1; 2. Yadav, Tek Chand, et al. "Recurrent hypoglycemia: An unusual finding of hypothyroidism." Thyroid Research and Practice 14.3 (2017): 127.

[00:10:53] What to do about hypoglycemia.

[00:13:09] Accelerated gastric emptying.

[00:16:20] Reactive hypoglycemia after exercise.

[00:18:51] Postprandial hyperglycemia; Study: Gerich, John E. "Clinical significance, pathogenesis, and management of postprandial hyperglycemia." Archives of internal medicine 163.11 (2003): 1306-1316.

[00:20:38] Problems associated with hyperglycemia; Studies: 1. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Meal-induced oxidative stress and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in diabetes: the possible role of hyperglycemia." Metabolism 48.12 (1999): 1503-1508; 2. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Meal-generated oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients." Diabetes care 21.9 (1998): 1529-1533; 3. Cavalot, F. "Do data in the literature indicate that glycaemic variability is a clinical problem? Glycaemic variability and vascular complications of diabetes." Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 15.s2 (2013): 3-8; 4. Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "Evidence for an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress generation: effects of short-and long-term simvastatin treatment." Circulation 106.10 (2002): 1211-1218; 5. Tibaldi, Joseph. "Importance of postprandial glucose levels as a target for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes." Southern medical journal 102.1 (2009): 60-66.

[00:21:24] Insulin resistance.

[00:21:39] Video: PAH 2016 - A systems analysis approach to insulin resistance, with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:23:02] What to do: Look at diet; 1. Krebs, Jeremy D., et al. "Improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity with a low-carbohydrate diet in obese patients with type 2 diabetes." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 32.1 (2013): 11-17; 2. Lin, Po-Ju, and Katarina T. Borer. "Third exposure to a reduced carbohydrate meal lowers evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and HOMA-IR estimate of insulin resistance." PloS one 11.10 (2016): e0165378; 3. MacDonald, Ian A. "A review of recent evidence relating to sugars, insulin resistance and diabetes." European journal of nutrition 55.2 (2016): 17-23; 4. Bradley, Una, et al. "Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial." Diabetes 58.12 (2009): 2741-2748.

[00:28:46] Mediterranean diet; Study: Guasch-Ferré, Marta, et al. "Dietary polyphenols, Mediterranean diet, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes: a narrative review of the evidence." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017 (2017).

[00:29:56] Endotoxemia and insulin resistance 1. Moreira, AP Boroni, and R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas. "The influence of endotoxemia on the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance." Nutrición hospitalaria 27.2 (2012): 382-390; 2. Cani, Patrice D., et al. "Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance." Diabetes 56.7 (2007): 1761-1772.

[00:30:24] Megan's outline for this podcast. 

[00:31:19] When fatigue after a meal might be normal.

[00:33:08] Article: Why a pandemic flu shot caused narcolepsy.

[00:33:49] Both high fat and high carb meals can cause sleepiness; Study: Wells, Anita S., et al. "Effects of meals on objective and subjective measures of daytime sleepiness." Journal of applied physiology 84.2 (1998): 507-515.

[00:33:56] Intestinal stimulation can cause sleepiness; Kukorelli, Tibor, and Gábor Juhász. "Electroencephalographic synchronization induced by stimulation of small intestine and splanchnic nerve in cats." Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 41.5 (1976): 491-500.

[00:34:20] Sleepiness after eating vs. just chewing; Study: MJ Harnish, SR Greenleaf, WC Orr, “A comparison of feeding to cephalic stimulation on postprandial sleepiness.” Physiology & behavior 64.1 (1998):93-96.

[00:34:38] Cholecystokinin (CCK) may affect the alert centers in the brain; Study: Wells, Anita S., et al. "Influences of fat and carbohydrate on postprandial sleepiness, mood, and hormones." Physiology & behavior 61.5 (1997): 679-686.

[00:37:13] Thermogenesis; Study: Zammit, Gary K., et al. "Postprandial sleep and thermogenesis in normal men." Physiology & behavior 52.2 (1992): 251-259.

[00:37:40] Summary: How to fix the problem.

[00:38:43] Nutrisense for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

[00:46:29] Timing your walk with glucose peak; Study: Reynolds, Andrew N., and Bernard J. Venn. "The timing of activity after eating affects the glycaemic response of healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial." nutrients 10.11 (2018): 1743.

[00:51:01] Support NBT on Patreon to access the forum.  

Jul 10, 2020
Measuring Breath Ketones to Evaluate Your Low Carb Diet
49:37

Trey Suntrup, PhD is a product engineer who earned his doctorate in physics and electrical engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2015. He is currently the Head of Product at Readout Health, the St. Louis startup that recently launched the Biosense breath ketone meter. Following a successful clinical trial in the autumn of 2019, Biosense has entered the consumer, clinical, and research market as a tool to help those wanting to lose weight or manage blood glucose with a ketogenic diet.

On this podcast, Trey discusses breath acetone testing and how it can be used to improve health outcomes. He shares the results of the clinical trial supporting the Biosense meter, including the finding that measurements must be collected multiple times daily to truly evaluate the benefit of a ketogenic or intermittent fasting plan. He also describes some of the advantages of breath testing over blood ketone measurement. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Trey Suntrup:

[00:00:15] James McCarter; Podcasts: How to Reverse Insulin Resistant Type Two Diabetes in 100 Million People in Less Than 10 Years and Nutritional Ketosis and Guided Behavior Change to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

[00:00:20] Virta Health.

[00:00:23] Douglas Hilbert; Podcast: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor.

[00:01:02] Trey's background.

[00:04:16] NBT Podcasts on ketosis and ketones with Dominic D'Agostino, Ken Ford, Brianna Stubbs 1, 2, 3, 4; Catherine Crofts, Megan Hall.

[00:04:29] Megan Hall’s Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:04:52] Types of ketones and methods for measuring them.

[00:10:03] Study of endurance runners in ketosis: Edwards, Kate H., Bradley T. Elliott, and Cecilia M. Kitic. "Carbohydrate intake and ketosis in self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon runners." Journal of Sports Sciences 38.4 (2020): 366-374.

[00:11:37] Problems with measuring BHB blood ketones.

[00:15:49] Deriving meaning from acetone meter results; The ACEs Unit.

[00:21:49] Clinical trial: Suntrup, Donald J., et al. "Characterization of a high-resolution breath acetone meter for ketosis monitoring." medRxiv (2020). Interpretation of trial results.

[00:26:15] Ken Ford on the signalling properties of ketones: STEM-Talk Podcast Episode 50: Ken Ford Talks about Ketosis, Optimizing Exercise, and the Future Direction of Science, Technology, and Culture.

[00:26:26] Ketogains: Chase results, not ketones.

[00:29:29] Early Time-Restricted Eating, Intermittent Fasting. Review: Mattson, Mark P., Valter D. Longo, and Michelle Harvie. "Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes." Ageing research reviews 39 (2017): 46-58.

[00:32:43] Biosense blog post: The Effects and Impact of Ketones and Fasting.

[00:33:13] Marty Kendall’s blog post: Is the acetone:glucose ratio the Holy Grail of tracking optimal ketosis levels?

[00:33:56] Continuous glucose monitors (CGM).

[00:35:16] Integration with Cronometer.

[00:35:48] Heads up Health; NBT podcast w/ founder David Korsunsky: How to Use Data to Take Control of Your Health.

[00:38:25] Senza app.

[00:40:52] Getting the biosense meter: Biosense website.

[00:42:10] Upcoming clinical trials.

[00:46:45] Find Trey on LinkedIn

Jun 26, 2020
Ingroups and Outgroups: Understanding Racial Bias in America
01:23:28

T. K. Coleman is the Director of Entrepreneurial Education at the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) and the host of The Revolution of One podcast. As a member of the FEE faculty, he is a prolific writer and speaker and leads workshops on themes related to entrepreneurship, economics, and education. I met T.K. through our friends at The Minimalists podcast, where T.K. is a regular guest.

On this podcast, T.K. and I are talking about race relations in America. This topic has made headlines recently, but the stress of being black in the US is nothing new for people who cope every day with a society that refuses to fully accept them. T.K. is one of the best speakers I’ve ever heard describe the struggles facing young people of colour in a system that is biased to favour some over others. He discusses the fundamental fears that keep us divided, the reasons COVID-19 disproportionately affects African Americans and some of the key factors that can help us overcome our differences.

Here’s the outline of this interview with T.K. Coleman:

[00:00:32] The Minimalists podcast.

[00:01:08] The fall of CrossFit founder and CEO Greg Glassman.

[00:03:38] Peter Gray; Podcast: Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play; Book: Free to Learn.

[00:04:19] Foundation for Economic Education (FEE).

[00:05:27] Cofounded the Praxis apprenticeship program with Isaac Morehouse. Praxis introductory video.

[00:09:11] Nicholas Taleb.

[00:12:12] Race relations.

[00:17:25] Video: Sapolsky on Depression in U.S.

[00:18:22] Struggles: white students vs black students.

[00:23:18] Book: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life: Life-Changing Tools for Healthy Relationships, by Marshall Rosenberg.

[00:23:53] Book: Language and the Pursuit of Happiness, by Chalmers Brothers.

[00:24:43] Book: How to Win Friends and Influence People, by Dale Carnegie.

[00:27:57] How to know yourself.

[00:28:58] Article: Taking a Walk as a Revolutionary Act by T.K. Coleman and Isaac Morehouse.

[00:29:28] Book: Journey of Awakening by Ram Dass.

[00:31:06] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Russell Harris article on ACT: Embracing Your Demons: An Overview of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

[00:31:16] Book: The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion, by Jonathan Haidt.

[00:32:58] Article: The coronavirus is infecting and killing black Americans at an alarmingly high rate.

[00:34:19] Economic, educational, and cultural factors.

[00:39:51] The West Memphis Three.

[00:42:26] Video: Heartland Future Talks 2019: Robert Sapolsky & Lone Frank.

[00:42:35] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:44:16] The war on drugs.

[00:46:17] A16Z podcast: What We Can’t Reveal We Can’t Heal.

[00:57:33] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst; Video: Robert Sapolsky.

[01:08:26] Exposing kids to diversity.

[01:13:05] Increasing opportunity rather than giving preferential treatment based on demographic.

[01:18:28] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley.

[01:18:33] Video: Nassim Nicholas Taleb: "Localism and its Application to Lebanon".

[01:18:51] The rich always fear the poor.

[01:20:02] Follow T.K.’s work.

Jun 19, 2020
Environmental Pollutants and the Gut Microbiome
01:01:32

Jodi Flaws is a Professor of Comparative Biosciences and the Principal Investigator at the Reproductive Toxicology Laboratory in the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Illinois. Her lab studies the effects of environmental pollutants on the development and function of the human body, specifically relating to endocrine and reproductive health. Joining her is Karen Chiu, a PhD student whose work focuses on the impact and mechanism of various chemicals on the gut microbiome.

On the podcast today Dr. Flaws and Karen Chiu discuss some of the health-damaging chemicals that have become ubiquitous in our food supply, personal care items, and even our carpeting and mattresses. They describe some of the physiological effects of these pollutants, including potentially deleterious changes to the gut microbiota and early reproductive aging. They also share tips for reducing and mitigating exposure to these compounds.

After recording this podcast Karen talked with me a bit about organic foods - are they worth the additional cost to avoid some of these toxic chemicals? It turns out that while they are exposed to fewer pesticides, hormones, and antibiotics than conventional foods, it’s not true that organic foods are totally free of these contaminants. If you see the "USDA Organic" label, you can assume the food is at least 95% organic, while a product that claims to be “made with” organic ingredients is at least 70% organic. In her opinion, organic foods and products are the way to go when possible, given their lighter chemical load. It’s always a good idea to wash your produce to get as much of the pesticide residues off whether it be organic or conventional.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jodi Flaws and Karen Chiu:

[00:00:30] Paper: Chiu, Karen, et al. "The Impact of Environmental Chemicals on the Gut Microbiome." Toxicological Sciences (2020).

[00:01:25] Background and interest in environmental chemicals.

[00:03:35] Endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

[00:04:37] Phthalates and how they affect the body.

[00:06:08] Effects of Phthalates on the microbiome.

[00:07:15] Butyrate; Podcast: Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing, PhD.

[00:08:58] Potential effects of pesticides: increased lipid accumulation, decreased glucose tolerance, increased expression of adipogenic genes; Review: Xiao, Xiao, John M. Clark, and Yeonhwa Park. "Potential contribution of insecticide exposure and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes." Food and Chemical Toxicology 105 (2017): 456-474.

[00:10:44] Reducing exposure to phthalates.

[00:12:26] Environmental Working Group (EWG) database.

[00:14:09] Bisphenols.

[00:16:51] "BPA-free" - not necessarily safer.

[00:18:13] Effects of bisphenols on the gut microbiome.

[00:18:43] Bisphenol exposure in mice, effects on microbiome; Study: Javurek, Angela B., et al. "Effects of exposure to bisphenol A and ethinyl estradiol on the gut microbiota of parents and their offspring in a rodent model." Gut Microbes 7.6 (2016): 471-485.

[00:19:00] Akkermansia beneficial for intestinal immunity; Study: Ottman, Noora, et al. "Pili-like proteins of Akkermansia muciniphila modulate host immune responses and gut barrier function." PloS one 12.3 (2017).

[00:20:24] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:21:12] Persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Perfluorochemicals (PFCs), flame retardants and their adverse health effects.

[00:24:42] Exercise can attenuate change in the gut microbiome caused by PCBs; Study: Choi, Jeong June, et al. "Exercise attenuates PCB-induced changes in the mouse gut microbiome." Environmental health perspectives 121.6 (2013): 725-730.

[00:25:54] Hepcidin; Podcast: The Athlete’s Gut: Why Things Go Wrong and What to Do About It, with Megan Hall.

[00:27:20] Strategies for limiting exposure.

[00:29:20] Heavy Metals - lead, cadmium, arsenic and their effects on the microbiome.

[00:32:49] Higher arsenic levels can lead to higher Citrobacter population; Study: Wu, Fen, et al. "The role of gut microbiome and its interaction with arsenic exposure in carotid intima-media thickness in a Bangladesh population." Environment international 123 (2019): 104-113.

[00:33:29] Arsenic exposure increases TMAO; Study: Kuroda, Kaoru Yoshida Yoshinori Inoue Koichi, Hua Chen Hideki Wanibuchi Shoji Fukushima, and Ginji Endo. "Urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites after long-term oral administration of various arsenic compounds to rats." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 54.3 (1998): 179-192.

[00:34:18] Chris Masterjohn and Chris Kressor on TMAO.

[00:34:40] Glyphosate alters gut microbiota; Studies: Blot, Nicolas, et al. "Glyphosate, but not its metabolite AMPA, alters the honeybee gut microbiota." PloS one 14.4 (2019) and Aitbali, Yassine, et al. "Glyphosate based-herbicide exposure affects gut microbiota, anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice." Neurotoxicology and teratology 67 (2018): 44-49.

[00:40:33] Pig GI tract similar to humans; Dr. Sharon Donovan.

[00:42:34] Siloxanes (silicone products).

[00:43:52] Siloxanes; Associated with hypothyroid in cats: Poutasse, Carolyn M., et al. "Silicone pet tags associate tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) phosphate exposures with feline hyperthyroidism." Environmental science & technology 53.15 (2019): 9203-9213; associated with age of menopause: Chow, Erika T., and Shruthi Mahalingaiah. "Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?." Fertility and sterility 106.4 (2016): 978-990.

[00:45:03] Nicolas Taleb; Incerto series.

[00:45:31] Hot flashes and potential causes.

[00:45:51] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes, PhD.

[00:47:23] Link between phthalate exposure and hot flashes (research coming soon).

[00:50:29] Genetic mutation in sperm linked to autism risk. Study: Breuss, Martin W., et al. "Autism risk in offspring can be assessed through quantification of male sperm mosaicism." Nature Medicine 26.1 (2020): 143-150.

[00:50:45] Effects of phthalates on men include early reproductive aging; Study: Barakat, Radwa, et al. "Prenatal exposure to DEHP induces premature reproductive senescence in male mice." Toxicological Sciences 156.1 (2017): 96-108.

[00:51:14] Things to do to reduce exposure; CertiPUR-US.

[00:55:17] Contact Dr. Flaws. Instagram.

[00:57:13] heeds.org for information on endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

Jun 12, 2020
Free to Learn: Unleashing the Instinct to Play
01:11:59

Peter Gray, Ph.D., a research professor at Boston College, has conducted and published research in comparative, evolutionary, developmental, and educational psychology. His current research and writing focus primarily on children's natural ways of learning and the life-long value of play, concepts discussed in his book, Free to Learn. Dr. Gray is also president of the nonprofit Alliance for Self-Directed Education and a founding board member of the nonprofit Let Grow

On this podcast, Dr. Gray draws evidence from anthropology, psychology, and history to argue that we must entrust children to steer their own learning and development. He shares the story of his own son’s behavioural difficulties, which led the family to explore alternatives to traditional education. He also describes his own research on the long-term outcomes of children who are unschooled and addresses some of the main concerns parents have about informal education.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Peter Gray:

[00:00:10] Book: Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life, by Peter Gray.

[00:00:44] The story of Peter’s son, Scott.

[00:04:40] Sudbury Valley School in Framingham, MA. 

[00:12:42] Podcast: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:13:13] Education in hunter gatherer populations.

[00:19:42] Biological theory of education.

[00:21:45] Book: The Art of Tracking, the Origin of Science, by Louis Liebenberg.

[00:25:11] Agriculture as catalyst for change.

[00:31:06] Book: Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, by James C Scott.

[00:32:48] The importance of play.

[00:33:52] Curiosity and playfulness.

[00:37:07] Books: The Play of Animals and The Play of Man, by Karl Groos.

[00:41:51] Book: The Moral Judgement of the Child, by Jean Piaget.

[00:43:37] Unschooling.

[00:44:14] Agile Learning Centers.

[00:45:03] The Alliance for Self-Directed Education.

[00:46:38] Unschooling rising in popularity among homeschoolers.

[00:49:19] Study of 232 unschooling families: Gray, Peter, and Gina Riley. "The challenges and benefits of unschooling, according to 232 families who have chosen that route." Journal of Unschooling & Alternative Learning 7.14 (2013).

[00:49:42] Study of 75 adults who were unschooled: Gray, Peter, and Gina Riley. "The challenges and benefits of unschooling, according to 232 families who have chosen that route." Journal of Unschooling & Alternative Learning 7.14 (2013).

[00:51:21] Getting into college.

[00:55:24] Age mixing and scaffolding.

[01:01:00] "Please Trespass" sign.

[01:01:30] Book: Playborhood: Turn Your Neighborhood Into a Place for Play, by Mike Lanza.

[01:06:36] Peters Blog: Freedom to Learn.

[01:07:13] Find Peter on Facebook

[01:08:40] The hole in the wall project.

Jun 05, 2020
The Pleiotropic Effects of Sunlight
45:59

With summer right around the corner, huge kiosks of sunscreen are on display at stores everywhere, reminding us to fear the sun. We’ve been told for years that sunlight is something to guard against - and, of course, most of us know someone who’s had a suspicious mole removed. But we also know the sun is needed for vitamin D production - plus, it just feels great on our skin! And obviously our ancestors weren’t slathering on Coppertone when they left the cave.

It seems to be a no-win situation until you learn the facts about sunlight. NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall is with me today to talk about the critical role of sunlight for health and wellness. She outlines the many benefits of sun exposure that go far beyond vitamin D production and sets the record straight on UVA vs UVB rays, skin cancer, and how sunscreen is actually working against you. Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:11] Megan's new puppy.

[00:03:35] Podcast w/ Kira Furie: Breaking Through the Diet Culture: Medical Care for Every Size.

[00:05:42] Vitamin D and conditions associated with low levels.

[00:07:40] Book: Hidden Valley Road: Inside the Mind of an American Family, by Robert Kolker.

[00:08:22] Optimal Levels and dosing of Vitamin D.

[00:12:55] Vitamin D Calculator.

[00:13:47] COVID-19 and Vitamin D; Studies: 1. Glicio, El James. "Vitamin D Level of Mild and Severe Elderly Cases of COVID-19: A Preliminary Report." Available at SSRN 3593258 (2020); 2. De Smet, Dieter, et al. "Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics." medRxiv (2020); 3. D’Avolio, Antonio, et al. "25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2." Nutrients 12.5 (2020): 1359; 4. Meltzer, David O., et al. "Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Treatment with COVID-19 Incidence." medRxiv (2020).

[00:15:20] Vitamin D and ACE2.

[00:17:46] Benefits of sunshine beyond vitamin D.

[00:18:01] Circadian rhythm.

[00:18:29] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:18:30] Bill Lagakos; Podcast: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:18:35] Nitric oxide.

[00:19:01] Malcolm Kendrick; Podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:19:25] Homocysteine; glycocalyx.

[00:21:20] Ivor Cummins; Podcasts with Ivor: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:22:24] UV exposure suppresses symptoms of metabolic syndrome; Study: Geldenhuys, Sian, et al. "Ultraviolet radiation suppresses obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome independently of vitamin D in mice fed a high-fat diet." Diabetes 63.11 (2014): 3759-3769.

[00:22:54] Melatonin.

[00:25:39] Serotonin; Study: Lambert, Gavin W., et al. "Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain." The Lancet 360.9348 (2002): 1840-1842.

[00:26:26] Immunomodulation.

[00:26:45] Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis; Reduced risk of MS: van der Mei, Ingrid AF, et al. "Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study." Bmj 327.7410 (2003): 316; Reduced risk of depression and fatigue: Knippenberg, S., et al. "Higher levels of reported sun exposure, and not vitamin D status, are associated with less depressive symptoms and fatigue in multiple sclerosis." Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 129.2 (2014): 123-131; MRI neurodegeneration scores inversely associated with sun exposure: Zivadinov, Robert, et al. "Interdependence and contributions of sun exposure and vitamin D to MRI measures in multiple sclerosis." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84.10 (2013): 1075-1081.

[00:27:20] UV treatment increased glucagon-stimulated insulin secretion; Study: Colas, C., et al. "Insulin secretion and plasma 1, 25-(OH) 2D after UV-B irradiation in healthy adults." Hormone and metabolic research 21.3 (1989): 154-155.

[00:27:27] Prevention and treatment of skin conditions; Study: Søyland, E., et al. "Sun exposure induces rapid immunological changes in skin and peripheral blood in patients with psoriasis." British Journal of Dermatology 164.2 (2011): 344-355.

[00:27:49] Sun exposure related to life expectancy; Study: Lindqvist, Pelle G., et al. "Avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for major causes of death: a competing risk analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort." Journal of internal medicine 280.4 (2016): 375-387

[00:30:14] Outline of this interview.

[00:31:04] UVA and UVB rays; UVB needed for Vitamin D Production: Wacker, Matthias, and Michael F. Holick. "Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health." Dermato-endocrinology 5.1 (2013): 51-108.

[00:31:31] Inverse correlation between dose of UVB and melanoma: Study: Godar, Dianne E., Madhan Subramanian, and Stephen J. Merrill. "Cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed worldwide by sex, age, and skin type over personal Ultraviolet-B dose shows no role for sunburn but implies one for Vitamin D3." Dermato-endocrinology 9.1 (2017): e1267077.

[00:33:43] Sunscreens; coral bleaching: Downs, Craig A., et al. "Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone-3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the US Virgin Islands." Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 70.2 (2016): 265-288

[00:43:20] Join the discussion on the NBT forum when you support us on Patreon.

May 29, 2020
Breaking Through the Diet Culture: Medical Care for Every Size
40:20

Kira Furie earned her BS in Biological Sciences and her BA in Dance, graduating from UC Santa Barbara in 2018. She spent time dancing professionally in New York City and is currently working on a research project with an Addiction Medicine MD based in Los Angeles, California. Her interdisciplinary background, personal experience with injuries, yoga teaching, and research have given her a specific interest in Integrative Medicine, which she hopes to implement in her future medical practice.

On this podcast, Megan Hall interviews Kira about the series of injuries that led to her interest in physical therapy and later to medicine. Influenced heavily by the prevalence of eating disorders and the Health at Every Size movement, Kira discusses her current plans to bring prevention and wellness aspects to medical practice, while promoting a body-positive environment. She also describes “thin privilege” - an aspect of the current medical system that many of us take for granted.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kira Furie:

[00:01:23] Kira's background and interest in medicine.

[00:05:27] An untreated hip injury leading to more problems.

[00:10:40] Video: Brené Brown on Empathy.

[00:11:10] Psychology and yoga.

[00:12:39] The Minimalists Podcast.

[00:13:47] Sports and Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD

[00:14:20] Prevention.

[00:14:43] Jeffery N. Wilkins, MD, Addiction Medicine Specialist in LA.

[00:15:17] Primary vs. Secondary Prevention.

[00:17:34] Lack of connection as the greatest factor leading to addiction.

[00:19:00] The importance of connection; Podcasts on social connection: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, and Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19, both with Julian Abel.

[00:19:37] Health at Every Size (HAES).

[00:19:51] Book: Intuitive Eating, 4th Edition: A Revolutionary Anti-Diet Approach, by Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch.

[00:19:57] Book: Body Respect: What Conventional Health Books Get Wrong, Leave Out, and Just Plain Fail to Understand About Weight, by Linda Bacon, PhD. and Lucy Aphramor, PhD. Read the intro to the book.

[00:21:11] Lindo Bacon (formerly Linda); Review: Bacon, Linda, and Lucy Aphramor. "Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift." Nutrition journal 10.1 (2011): 9.

[00:23:22] Thin privilege.

[00:25:19] Body Mass Index (BMI) as a health marker.

[00:26:40] People in "overweight" category live longer; Study approved by CDC: Flegal, Katherine M., et al. "Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity." Jama 293.15 (2005): 1861-1867.

[00:28:14] Looking ahead as a future physician.

[00:32:41] Physicians for Ancestral Health.

May 22, 2020
Gutsy Decisions - Addressing Athlete Fatigue, Insomnia, and More
01:03:28

This week, something slightly different, an episode first published on the new XTERRA Podcast hosted by our friends Dr Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson. If you haven’t done so already, you might want to take a moment to add the XTERRA podcast in your app. In particular, I’d like to draw your attention to the second episode where they talk to experts about how to cope with COVID-19 and share their own stories of dealing with uncertainty, the good and bad of social media, and how the concept of ‘structure, routine, and reward’ can help.

Back to the episode, you’re about to hear. If you’re an endurance athlete and complain of fatigue, insomnia, hormone problems, anxiety, depression, bloating, or other gut issues – you are not alone. In this episode of the XTERRA Podcast five-time off-road triathlon World Champ Lesley Paterson and her husband, sports psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, talk about their own struggle-journey through the aforementioned health issues and share what they learned along the way.

 
May 17, 2020
How to Strength Train Without a Gym
01:04:22

There are so many great reasons to do resistance training - even for endurance athletes and self-described non-athletes who simply want to increase healthspan. We know that strength training improves quality of life, bone health, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and neurological health. However, in this uncertain era of COVID-19, commercial gyms are almost universally closed and many people are challenged to find new ways to maintain their training regimen.

On this podcast, NBT Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore, CSCS is with me to discuss the best strategies for adapting your strength training routine - or starting one - when you don’t have a gym. He describes creative ways to use bodyweight and household items to challenge yourself and load muscles and shares his favourite online resources to refer to for proper form. If you're just considering adding strength training to your routine, Zach also offers a simple way to get started.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zach Moore:

[00:03:44] Outline for this podcast.  

[00:04:07] 4-quadrant model.

[00:04:32] Study: Westcott, Wayne L. "Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health." Current sports medicine reports 11.4 (2012): 209-216.

[00:04:44] The importance of type II muscle fibers as we age; Study: Nilwik, Rachel, et al. "The decline in skeletal muscle mass with aging is mainly attributed to a reduction in type II muscle fiber size." Experimental gerontology 48.5 (2013): 492-498

[00:06:53] Joe Friel; Podcast: Joe Friel: World-Class Coach of Elite Athletes; Book: Fast After 50: How to Race Strong for the Rest of Your Life.

[00:07:57] Subjective quality of life; Study: Hart, Peter D., and Diona J. Buck. "The effect of resistance training on health-related quality of life in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis." Health promotion perspectives 9.1 (2019): 1.

[00:09:26] Bone health; Studies: 1. Chen, Hung‐Ting, et al. "Effects of different types of exercise on body composition, muscle strength, and IGF‐1 in the elderly with sarcopenic obesity." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 65.4 (2017): 827-832. 2. Hong, A. Ram, and Sang Wan Kim. "Effects of resistance exercise on bone health." Endocrinology and Metabolism 33.4 (2018): 435-444.

[00:11:35] Muscle as a glucose sink and improvement of insulin sensitivity; Studies: 1. Han, Seung Jin, et al. "Association of thigh muscle mass with insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese Americans." Diabetes & metabolism journal 42.6 (2018): 488-495. 2. Croymans, Daniel M., et al. "Resistance training improves indices of muscle insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in overweight/obese, sedentary young men." Journal of applied physiology 115.9 (2013): 1245-1253.

[00:13:11] Body Composition.

[00:14:47] Fewer injuries in athletes; Study: Fleck, Steven J., and Jeff E. Falkel. "Value of resistance training for the reduction of sports injuries." Sports Medicine 3.1 (1986): 61-68

[00:15:47] Resistance exercise results in fewer injuries than other sports, especially if someone is there to teach proper form. Studies: Aasa, Ulrika, et al. "Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review." Br J Sports Med 51.4 (2017): 211-219; Faigenbaum, Avery D., and Gregory D. Myer. "Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects." British journal of sports medicine 44.1 (2010): 56-63.

[00:16:40] Improved endurance performance; Study: Blagrove, Richard C., Glyn Howatson, and Philip R. Hayes. "Effects of strength training on the physiological determinants of middle-and long-distance running performance: a systematic review." Sports medicine 48.5 (2018): 1117-1149

[00:16:50] Podcast: The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, with Mike T. Nelson. Podcast: The Importance of Strength and Mobility for Mountain Bikers, with James Wilson.

[00:17:02] Neurocognitive health; Study: Herold, Fabian, et al. "Functional and/or structural brain changes in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive improvements–a systematic review." European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 16.1 (2019): 10.

[00:18:19] Strength training when the gym is closed.

[00:21:58] Incorporating movement into your day.

[00:22:19] Habit stacking; Podcast: How to Get Motivated, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:28:35] Strength training for endurance athletes.

[00:30:58] Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[00:32:43] Simple workout structure: 2x/week, lower body + upper body push + upper body pull.

[00:37:57] Why some people struggle with strength training.

[00:40:01] Zach’s recommended strength training YouTube channels: Jerry Teixeira for bodyweight exercises; Alan Thrall for barbell exercises when you’re back at the gym.

[00:41:11] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance, with Zac Cupples.

[00:42:08] Exercise videos: pistol squat, Nordic hamstring curl, rows using a table, one-arm pushups.

[00:46:29] Podcast: How to Protect Your Brain from Decline, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:48:11] Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:49:40] Blood flow restriction training.

[00:53:03] The XTERRA Podcast, with Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:53:56] Recovery.

[00:54:49] Podcasts on sleep: with Greg Potter: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health; Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes; What to Do When You Can’t Sleep; Better Sleep for Athletes; and Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors; with Ashley Mason:  Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems; and How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:55:07] Sleep important for muscular adaptation with strength training; Study: Jåbekk, Pål, et al. "A randomized controlled pilot trial of sleep health education on body composition changes following 10 weeks resistance exercise." The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness (2020). Also, see this graph.

[00:55:23] Diet: protein, anti-inflammatory whole foods.

[00:56:49] Getting the people you live with involved.

[01:01:27] Support NBT on Patreon.

May 08, 2020
Maintaining Social Connection in the Era of COVID-19
01:13:34

This week we’re doing something a little different, and sharing with you the latest Endurance Planet podcast, hosted by holistic health and endurance sports coach, Tawnee Prazak Gibson, MS, SCSC, CISSN. The episode features Julian Abel, MD, the Director of Compassionate Communities UK, who has been on the podcast before describing the social, financial, and health benefits that come with integrating social support into healthcare. I also participated in this podcast with Tawnee and Julian, and I thoroughly enjoyed the conversation.

On this podcast, the three of us discuss the importance of social connection during this era of physical distancing and uncertainty. Many of us have had our daily routine sufficiently shaken. With this can come feelings of isolation and loneliness, yet it can also yield insight into what truly makes us happy. Julian, Tawnee and I talk about maintaining relationships during this challenging time, as well as reintegrating with others as lockdown mandates are lifted. We also discuss cohousing and alloparenting, and what my family is doing to build a stronger community.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julian Abel and Tawnee Gibson:

[00:00:20] Endurance Planet Podcast.

[00:00:31] Previous podcast with Julian Abel: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health.

[00:01:41] Dr. Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson at Braveheart Coaching.

[00:03:00] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F--k Down and Rise to the Occasion.

[00:03:02] Endurance Planet Podcast: Simon Marshall, PhD, and Lesley Paterson: How To Be A Brave Athlete By Managing Your Brain.

[00:03:16] Uncertainty and loneliness related to COVID-19.

[00:07:24] Calming anxiety.

[00:11:59] Deficit model of happiness.

[00:13:03] Working from home.

[00:13:21] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World; Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World.

[00:13:44] Stimulus control; Podcast with Ashley Mason: How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:15:07] XTERRA podcast with Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:15:22] Creating certainty in an uncertain world.

[00:15:31] Book: Willpower by Roy Baumeister; Atomic Habits by James Clear.

[00:16:02] External sources of happiness vs. focusing on what's important.

[00:17:22] Book: Propaganda, by Edward Bernays.

[00:21:22] Maintaining relationships during physical distancing.

[00:24:39] Brad Kearns podcasts on parenting: Surprising Parenting Tips, Part 1 (Inverse Power of Praise) and Surprising Parenting Tips, Part 2 (The Importance of Perseverance Through Struggle).

[00:25:26] Books: The Drama of the Gifted Child, by Alice Miller; Will I Ever Be Good Enough? By Dr. Karyl McBride.

[00:30:35] Cordon sanitaire: restriction of movement.

[00:34:54] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John T. Cacioppo.

[00:36:06] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[00:36:36] Article: The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake, by David Brooks.

[00:38:12] Podcast: The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: Babies and Beyond, with Megan Sanctuary.

[00:38:41] Podcast: Contemplating Cohousing: A Paradigm for Modern Day Tribal Living, with Julie Kelly.

[00:41:28] Solitude Deficiency.

[00:43:31] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy

 by Sarah Hrdy.

[00:50:43] Public Health Palliative Care International (PHPCI) COVID19 resources.

[00:52:44] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes.

[00:59:47] Book: Rebel Ideas: The Power of Diverse Thinking, by Matthew Syed.

[01:01:06] Reintegrating with others after lockdown.

[01:03:53] Article: The Coronation, by Charles Eisenstein.

[01:04:00] Book: The Power of Bad: How the Negativity Effect Rules Us and How We Can Rule It, by John Tierney and Roy Baumeister.

[01:05:09] Article: Abel, Julian, et al. "Circles of care: should community development redefine the practice of palliative care?." BMJ supportive & palliative care 3.4 (2013): 383-388.

[01:06:52] Harvard Study of Adult Development.

[01:08:50] Christopher Ryan; Book: Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress and podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[01:09:33] Book: Running with Sherman: The Donkey with the Heart of a Hero, by Christopher McDougall.

May 01, 2020
How to Protect Your Brain from Decline
01:03:50

Back on the podcast today is our favourite neurologist, writer, podcaster, speaker and banjo player, Josh Turknett, MD. Josh’s many current projects include his Brainjo neuroscience-based educational courses, the Intelligence Unshackled podcast, and his virtual neurology practice.  He has recently authored two new books, Keto for Migraine and The Laws of Brainjo, with more on the way later this year. 

On this podcast, Josh talks about his working theory of cognitive decline and how to best avoid it. He calls it the Demand Driven Decline Theory and explains why we need to build up our brain’s ability to repair and recover while also mitigating cognitive damage. Josh shares the best strategies to do this, and it’s simpler (and more fun) than you think. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:33] Previous podcast with Josh on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development.

[00:00:44] Masters of Scale Podcast; episode with Nancy Lublin from the Crisis Text Line.

[00:02:20] Supporting cognitive function as we age.

[00:02:31] Podcast: The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History, with Kristen Hawkes.

[00:08:52] Modern hunter-gatherers and cognitive decline.

[00:11:26] Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution, with Josh Turknett, 4-quadrant model.

[00:13:20] Cognitive activity protective against neurodegenerative disease; The nun study: Iacono, D., et al. "The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life." Neurology 73.9 (2009): 665-673.

[00:15:19] Cognitive reserve.

[00:16:03] Rats in enriched environments have structurally superior brains; Study: Torasdotter, Marita, et al. "Environmental enrichment results in higher levels of nerve growth factor mRNA in the rat visual cortex and hippocampus." Behavioural brain research 93.1-2 (1998): 83-90.

[00:16:40] Auditory training program with rats reversed over 20 auditory processing deficits in the adult brain; Study: de Villers-Sidani, Etienne, et al. "Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.31 (2010): 13900-13905.

[00:17:21] Intelligence Unshackled Podcast: Pioneer of Plasticity Dr. Michael Merzenich.

[00:22:54] Maintaining cognitive activity as a predictor of physical activity; Study: Cheval, Boris, et al. "Relationship between decline in cognitive resources and physical activity." Health Psychology (2020).

[00:25:29] Demand-driven decline theory.

[00:26:20] Retiring earlier associated with higher mortality; Study: Wu, Chenkai, et al. "Association of retirement age with mortality: a population-based longitudinal study among older adults in the USA." J Epidemiol Community Health 70.9 (2016): 917-923.

[00:27:00] “Widowhood effect” - 66% increased chance of death in the first three months after your spouse dies. Study: Moon, J. Robin, et al. "Short-and long-term associations between widowhood and mortality in the United States: longitudinal analyses." Journal of public health 36.3 (2014): 382-389.

[00:29:56] The "better off dead" rule. 

[00:32:32] Why the young are protected from cognitive decline: early demands on the nervous system.

[00:37:57] How schools may undermine cognitive development.

[00:40:03] What to do: recreate the demands on the nervous system of youth.

[00:45:06] Book: The Laws of Brainjo: The Art & Science of Molding a Musical Mind, by Josh Turknett.

[00:48:19] Teaching children - what should learning look like?

[00:54:15] Book: The Gardener and the Carpenter: What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children, by Alison Gopnik.

[00:56:34] jturk.net.

[00:56:45] Derek Sivers.

[00:57:27] Transitioning to a virtual clinic.
Apr 24, 2020
The Athlete’s Gut: Why Things Go Wrong and What to Do About It
01:10:34

Years ago, my own gut problems motivated me to seek answers outside the existing medical establishment, and with the help of my wife Julie I was able to get my diet and health back on track. Having now worked with thousands of athletes on their own health challenges and performance goals, it’s clear there are specific pitfalls that can accompany a high-level training regimen.

On this podcast, NBT Scientific Director and coach Megan Hall is with me to discuss the latest science and clinical practice on the athlete’s gut. She talks about the importance of having a healthy GI system, why athletes struggle in this area, and specifically what to do when problems arise. We also discuss what I did to regain my own gut health.

Be sure to see the end of the show notes for the outline Megan wrote to prepare for this podcast. It’s an excellent resource for anyone seeking solutions for their own gut problems.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:54] Podcast: Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:01:40] The importance of gut health.

[00:03:13] Podcasts focusing on gut health, with Michael Ruscio, Jason Hawrelak, and Lauren Petersen.

[00:03:51] Study: Lupien-Meilleur, Joseph, et al. "The interplay between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal peptides: potential outcomes on the regulation of glucose control." Canadian Journal of Diabetes (2019).

[00:04:12] Gut-muscle axis; Studies: Ticinesi, Andrea, et al. "Aging gut microbiota at the cross-road between nutrition, physical frailty, and sarcopenia: is there a gut–muscle axis?." Nutrients 9.12 (2017): 1303; and Lustgarten, Michael Sandy. "The role of the gut microbiome on skeletal muscle mass and physical function: 2019 update." Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 1435

[00:05:43] Why athletes struggle with gut health; Studies: Costa, R. J. S., et al. "Systematic review: exercise‐induced gastrointestinal syndrome—implications for health and intestinal disease." Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 46.3 (2017): 246-265; and Clark, Allison, and Núria Mach. "Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 13.1 (2016): 43.

[00:06:59] Article: de Oliveira, Erick P. "Runner's diarrhea: what is it, what causes it, and how can it be prevented?." Current opinion in gastroenterology 33.1 (2017): 41-46.

[00:07:27] The 3 main causes of exercise-induced diarrhea: GI ischemia and reperfusion, mechanical and nutritional.

[00:13:25] UCAN SuperStarch.

[00:15:03] FODMAP fibers can increase gut symptoms; Study: Lis, Dana M., et al. "Low FODMAP: a preliminary strategy to reduce gastrointestinal distress in athletes." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 50.1 (2018): 116-123.

[00:17:30] Exercise-induced endotoxemia and ischemic injuries; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

[00:18:08] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:19:05] Nutrition and immune system in athletes; Studies: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:20:03] Common gut symptoms we see.

[00:21:37] Nutrient deficiencies and overloads: zinc, magnesium, iron.

[00:22:27] Iron overload impedes cardiovascular benefits of exercise; Study: Rossi, Emilly Martinelli, et al. "Chronic Iron Overload Restrains the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise to the Vasculature." Biological Trace Element Research (2020): 1-14.

[00:25:08] Hepcidin; exercise increases hepcidin, which can lead to iron deficiency; Study: Goto, Kazushige, et al. "Resistance exercise causes greater serum hepcidin elevation than endurance (cycling) exercise." Plos one 15.2 (2020): e0228766.

[00:27:55] What to do about GI symptoms.

[00:28:07] Dr. Josh Turknett’s 4-Quadrant Model, described in this podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:28:19] Dietary manipulations; Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:29:30] How Chris fixed his gut.

[00:30:07] Book: The Paleo Diet for Athletes by Loren Cordain, PhD.

[00:32:41] Lundburg rice tests for arsenic.

[00:32:59] Training fuel: Carb + protein + fat vs. simple carbs alone.

[00:37:18] Ultramarathon runners still in ketosis with up to 600g carbohydrate per day; Study: Edwards, Kate H., Bradley T. Elliott, and Cecilia M. Kitic. "Carbohydrate intake and ketosis in self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon runners." Journal of Sports Sciences 38.4 (2020): 366-374.

[00:38:00] Team Sky’s James P Morton on promoting endurance training adaptation in skeletal muscle by nutritional manipulation; Study: Hawley, John A., and James P. Morton. "Ramping up the signal: promoting endurance training adaptation in skeletal muscle by nutritional manipulation." Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 41.8 (2014): 608-613. Also see article: The IRONMAN Guide to Ketosis, by Megan Hall and Tommy Wood.

[00:38:24] “Sleep-low” strategy; Study: Marquet, Laurie-Anne, et al. "Enhanced endurance performance by periodization of carbohydrate intake:“sleep low” strategy." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48.4 (2016): 663-672.

[00:40:23] Probiotics; Study: Wosinska, Laura, et al. "The Potential Impact of Probiotics on the Gut Microbiome of Athletes." Nutrients 11.10 (2019): 2270; Serum-derived Bovine Immunoglobulin in SBI Protect.

[00:40:57] Testing if all else fails: blood, stool, Organic Acids Test (OAT).

[00:43:05] Basic blood chemistry tests for gut health.

[00:47:32] Gut microbiome testing; Onegevity Gutbio test.

[00:48:44] Treatment for gut pathology.

[00:49:08] Jason Hawrelak’s Probiotic Advisor.

[00:49:48] Podcast: How to Manage Stress, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:50:52] Dietary fat causing intestinal permeability.

[00:52:04] Blog post: Is a high-fat or ketogenic diet bad for your gut? by Lucy Mailing.

[00:54:44] Getting enough calories.

[00:55:00] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S); Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:55:10] Studies on the detrimental effects of energy deficiency in athletes: 1. Torstveit, Monica Klungland, et al. "Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes." International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 28.4 (2018): 419-427 and 2. Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl, et al. "Within‐day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 28.3 (2018): 1139-1146.

[00:56:35] Study: Hough, John, et al. "Daily running exercise may induce incomplete energy intake compensation: a 7-day crossover trial." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 45.4 (2020): 446-449.

[01:00:18] Fiber - timing and type.

[01:02:27] Orthorexia.

[01:05:02] Only 12% of Americans are metabolically healthy; Study: Araújo, Joana, Jianwen Cai, and June Stevens. "Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016." Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17.1 (2019): 46-52.

[01:06:40]  Become an NBT Patron and gain access to the Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[01:07:05] Megan's outline for this podcast.

Apr 17, 2020
Microbiome Myths and Misconceptions
01:06:55

Microbiome researcher and scholar of integrative gut health Lucy Mailing, PhD. is back on the podcast with me today. Lucy just completed her doctoral degree at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she studied the effects of diet and exercise on the gut microbiome in states of health and disease. She has authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and recently won the Young Scientist Award at the International Scientific Conference on Probiotics, Prebiotics, Gut Microbiota, and Health in 2019.

On this podcast, Lucy discusses her recent talk at the 2020 IHH-UCSF Symposium on Nutrition and Functional Medicine. The topic is myths and misconceptions about the microbiome - and some of these are quite surprising! We discuss gut testing methods and why some are better than others. Lucy explains why you consider skipping probiotics after a course of antibiotics and shares what to do instead to support repopulation of a healthy microbiota. She also discusses some of the best and worst gut-health supplements.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lucy Mailing:

[00:00:30] Why care about the gut microbiome?

[00:01:37] Previous podcast with Lucy: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome.

[00:03:52] Unschooling and self-directed learning.

[00:04:40] Book: The Carpenter and the Gardener by Alison Gopnik.

[00:05:45] Podcast on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:06:16] Lucy speaking at UCSF: Microbiome Myths & Misconceptions (on Facebook). Slides from her talk.

[00:07:46] Lucy's talk at the Ancestral Health Symposium 2019: Modulating the gut microbiome for health: Evidence-based testing & therapeutic strategies.

[00:09:06] Myth: Culture-based stool testing is accurate.

[00:11:00] Companies currently using 16S: Thryve and BiomeFx.

[00:11:28] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak.

[00:12:16] Diagnostic Solutions GI-MAP.

[00:14:34] Metagenomics; Onegevity.

[00:14:56] Doctors Data and Genova have now added PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to their tests.

[00:15:33] Parasites Blastocystis and Dientamoeba fragilis.

[00:17:35] Jason Hawrelak’s course: Blastocystis & Dientamoeba: Gastrointestinal Pathogens or Commensal Symbionts?

[00:17:39] Blastocystis.net. Book: Thoughts on Blastocystis, by Christen Rune Stensvold.

[00:18:45] Gut dysbiosis is driven by oxygen leaking into the gut; Study: Rivera-Chávez, Fabian, Christopher A. Lopez, and Andreas J. Bäumler. "Oxygen as a driver of gut dysbiosis." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 105 (2017): 93-101.

[00:19:04] Blastocystis might buffer oxygen influx, preventing the overgrowth of other pathogens. Study: Tsaousis, Anastasios D., et al. "The human gut colonizer Blastocystis respires using Complex II and alternative oxidase to buffer transient oxygen fluctuations in the gut." Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 8 (2018): 371.

[00:19:40] Blastocystis colonization correlates with a higher bacterial diversity; Study: Audebert, Christophe, et al. "Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota." Scientific reports 6 (2016): 25255; And the opposite result: Nourrisson, Céline, et al. "Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects." PloS one 9.11 (2014).

[00:20:02] Myth: We know what a “healthy” gut microbiome looks like.

[00:20:06] Lucy's blog on the elusive “healthy microbiome”: A new framework for microbiome research.

[00:22:43] Microbial signatures of dysbiosis.

[00:26:06] Myth: Everyone needs comprehensive gut testing.

[00:27:37] Ivor Cummins and Malcom Kendrick podcasts: Should You get a CAC Heart Scan or Not? Part 1 and Part 2.

[00:28:14] Myth: Breath testing is a reliable way to test for SIBO.

[00:28:27] Lucy's blog posts on testing for SIBO: What the latest research reveals about SIBO and All about SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

[00:29:40] Culture-based testing methods underestimate the number of bacteria in the small intestine by about a hundredfold; Study: Sundin, O. H., et al. "Does a glucose‐based hydrogen and methane breath test detect bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum?." Neurogastroenterology & Motility 30.11 (2018): e13350.

[00:30:53] Orocecal transit time ranges from ten to 220 minutes; Study: Connolly, Lynn, and Lin Chang. "Combined orocecal scintigraphy and lactulose hydrogen breath testing demonstrate that breath testing detects orocecal transit, not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome." Gastroenterology 141.3 (2011): 1118-1121.

[00:32:43] SIBO might not produce enough hydrogen to result in a positive breath test. Sundin, O. H., et al. "Does a glucose‐based hydrogen and methane breath test detect bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum?" Neurogastroenterology & Motility 30.11 (2018): e13350.

[00:34:36] Myth: Most bloating, distension, gas is from SIBO (and we neeed to kill the overgrowth).

[00:34:45] Small intestinal dysbiosis, not bacterial overgrowth is what underlies a lot of gut symptoms; Study: Saffouri, George B., et al. "Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders." Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-11.

[00:36:09] Mark Pimentel's research group.

[00:37:04] How to support the gut ecosystem; serum bovine immunoglobulins (SBI).

[00:38:25] Orthomolecular SBI Protect.

[00:38:38] Myth: A high-fat diet is bad for the gut.

[00:38:52] Misconceptions from the scientific literature on high-fat diets.

[00:39:54] Diet alters the gut microbiome composition within 48 hours; Study: David, Lawrence A., et al. "Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome." Nature 505.7484 (2014): 559-563.

[00:41:06] The Hadza hunter-gatherer microbiota cycles with the seasons; Study: Smits, Samuel A., et al. "Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania." Science 357.6353 (2017): 802-806.

[00:42:41] Ketones may support gut barrier function. Study: Peng, Luying, et al. "Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers." The Journal of nutrition 139.9 (2009): 1619-1625.

[00:44:45] Myth: More exercise is always better. 

[00:46:05] Zinc carnosine may reduce exercise-induced gut permeability; Study: Davison, Glen, et al. "Zinc carnosine works with bovine colostrum in truncating heavy exercise–induced increase in gut permeability in healthy volunteers." The American journal of clinical nutrition 104.2 (2016): 526-536.

[00:46:45] Myth: You should always take probiotics after antibiotics.

[00:47:51] Probiotics can delay the restoration of the native microbiota after antibiotics; Study: Suez, Jotham, et al. "Post-antibiotic gut mucosal microbiome reconstitution is impaired by probiotics and improved by autologous FMT." Cell 174.6 (2018): 1406-1423.

[00:49:20] A better strategy: supporting the gut epithelial cell with butyrate; Study: Rivera-Chávez, Fabian, et al. "Depletion of butyrate-producing Clostridia from the gut microbiota drives an aerobic luminal expansion of Salmonella." Cell host & microbe 19.4 (2016): 443-454.

[00:51:37] Myth: Prebiotics work the same for everyone and always feed good bacteria.

[00:52:45] Blog post: Resistant Starch: Is it Actually Good for Gut Health?

[00:53:12] Cooking food affects microbiome; Study: Carmody, Rachel N., et al. "Cooking shapes the structure and function of the gut microbiome." Nature Microbiology 4.12 (2019): 2052-2063.

[00:54:27] Variable glycemic responses to Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Galactooligosaccharide (GOS); Study: Liu, Feitong, et al. "Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) increase Bifidobacterium but reduce butyrate producing bacteria with adverse glycemic metabolism in healthy young population." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 1-12.

[00:55:32] Myth: All herbal antimicrobials are safe and effective.

[00:56:13] Grapefruit seed extract inhibits a broad spectrum of bacteria and is toxic; Study: Heggers, John P., et al. "The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity." The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8.3 (2002): 333-340. Presentation by Jason Hawrelak, PhD: Phytotherapy in the Treatment of Dysbiosis of the Small and Large Bowel.

[00:57:03] Herbs that have been found to be useful: Atrantil, Iberogast, triphala.

[01:00:44] Current projects: blogging, consultation, creating training courses.

[01:03:02] Lucy’s website, support Lucy’s work on Patreon.

Apr 10, 2020
The Postmenopausal Longevity Paradox and the Evolutionary Advantage of Our Grandmothering Life History
01:31:36

Kristen Hawkes, PhD is a Distinguished Professor at the University of Utah, where she has taught in the Department of Anthropology for over four decades. She is also a collaborative scientist with the Yerkes National Primate Research Center and has authored over 120 scientific publications. She lectures internationally on our grandmothering life history and menopause as a uniquely human evolutionary advantage.

On this podcast, Dr. Hawkes discusses the grandmother hypothesis and the environment that likely propelled human evolution. When savanna youngsters couldn’t yet manage to feed themselves, grandmothers were there to help forage,  supporting dependent grandchildren as their own fertility was ending. In the meantime, still-fertile females could invest less in each offspring and have more babies sooner. More robust older females could subsidize more descendants, favouring mutations that enhanced postmenopausal longevity. The research of Dr. Hawkes and her colleagues can help us better understand the critical role of intergenerational support, and how modern individualism has caused us to veer off track.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kristen Hawkes:

[00:01:22] Becoming interested in grandmothering.

[00:04:17] James O'Connell, Kim Hill, PhD, Eric L. Charnov.

[00:16:00]  The economics of the grandmother role.

[00:17:10] Chimpanzee babies learn to forage and feed themselves while nursing; Studies: Bădescu, Iulia, et al. "A novel fecal stable isotope approach to determine the timing of age‐related feeding transitions in wild infant chimpanzees." American journal of physical anthropology 162.2 (2017): 285-299; and Bray, Joel, et al. "The development of feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)." American journal of physical anthropology 165.1 (2018): 34-46.

[00:20:01] Book: Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution), by Eric L. Charnov.

[00:22:19] Mathematical biologist Peter Kim

[00:26:33] Why humans are unique amongst primates: Slower development and earlier weaning.

[00:31:49] Cognitive neuroscientist Barbara Finlay.

[00:34:28] Anthropologist Sarah Hrdy; the cognitive ecology of human babies.

[00:36:14] Nancy Howell, demographer for the Harvard Kalahari Project.

[00:38:18] Life expectancy statistics based on an average; childhood and infant mortality historically skews results.

[00:38:33] Demographic studies of foraging populations; Books: Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (Foundations of Human Behavior) by A. Magdalena Hurtado and Kim Hill

Demography of the Dobe !Kung (Evolutionary Foundations of Human Behavior), by Nancy Howell; Demography and Evolutionary Ecology of Hadza Hunter-Gatherers, by Nicholas Blurton Jones.

[00:39:27] Life expectancy data, by country; Study:  Oeppen, Jim, and James W. Vaupel. "Broken limits to life expectancy." (2002): 1029-1031.

[00:42:36] Estrogen and hormone replacement therapy.

[00:44:35] Estrogen is converted from DHEA, DHEAS after menopause.

[00:47:17] High testosterone is missing among the Ache of Paraguay; Study: Bribiescas, Richard G. "Testosterone levels among Aché hunter-gatherer men." Human Nature 7.2 (1996): 163-188.

[00:48:36] Evaluating menopausal symptoms in different populations; Lynnette Leidy Sievert.

[00:52:16] Having a grandmother vastly increases chances that a child will survive.

[00:53:51] Female fertility begins to decline in late 20s.

[00:54:11] Utah Population Database for Utah demographic information.

[00:56:12] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[01:00:07] Cognitive skills: orangutans, chimpanzees and human children; Study: Herrmann, Esther, et al. "Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: The cultural intelligence hypothesis." science 317.5843 (2007): 1360-1366.

[01:02:34] The Infant Cognition Center at Yale;  Babies prefer individuals who help to one who hinders another; Study: Hamlin, J. Kiley, Karen Wynn, and Paul Bloom. "Social evaluation by preverbal infants." Nature 450.7169 (2007): 557-559.

[01:03:51] We're all grownup babies; Book: The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind, by Alison Gopnik.

[01:14:40] Books by Barbara Ehrenreich: Natural Causes, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America

 and Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking Is Undermining America.

[01:18:50] Cooperation because of self-domestication; Book: The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution; Study: Hare, Brian, Victoria Wobber, and Richard Wrangham. "The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression." Animal Behaviour 83.3 (2012): 573-585.

[01:19:07] Books: Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity, by Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods; Dognition assessment and analysis.

[01:20:55] Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior; Study: Wobber, Victoria, Richard Wrangham, and Brian Hare. "Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior and cognition relative to chimpanzees." Current Biology 20.3 (2010): 226-230.

[01:21:57] Bonobos prefer individuals who hinder over those that help; Study: Krupenye, Christopher, and Brian Hare. "Bonobos prefer individuals that hinder others over those that help." Current Biology 28.2 (2018): 280-286.

[01:27:22] You can contact Kristen at the University of Utah, Department of Anthropology.

Apr 02, 2020
The Braveheart Highland Games: Catching up with Lesley Paterson and Simon Marshall
53:16

World champion triathlete Lesley Paterson and performance psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD are the forces behind Braveheart Coaching and the authors of The Brave Athlete. I managed to pin them down for an interview after participating in the last event of their 5th annual Braveheart Highland Games Triathlon Camp, recently held in San Diego, California. Their following for this event has been growing in popularity and appeals to athletes from all over the world and of all ability levels.

On this podcast, Lesley and Simon give us the insider’s view of organizing a weekend training camp for triathletes. They fill us in on their latest creative endeavours, including screenwriting and their new podcast with XTERRA. We also talk about fun and adventuring, and how to prevent rewarding experiences from becoming predictable.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lesley Paterson and Simon Marshall: 

[00:00:00] Previous podcast with Lesley: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums; Previous podcasts with Simon: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

[00:00:11] Braveheart Highland Games Triathlon Camp.

[00:08:07] The investigative health hustle.

[00:13:22] Brad Stulberg, author of Peak Performance and The Passion Paradox

[00:15:40] Writing screenplays.

[00:20:47] Article: Chinese Researcher Who Created Gene-Edited Babies Sentenced To 3 Years In Prison.

[00:21:23] The role of cheating in sport.

[00:23:38] Recommended films: Jo Jo Rabbit, Parasite, Leave No Trace.

[00:26:02] New podcast projects with XTERRA.

[00:29:36] The rise of Tough Mudder and obstacle course racing.

[00:29:45] Dr. Mark Falcous at University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand; studying the warriorization of sport.

[00:31:32] Article: Why Do Rich People Love Endurance Sports?

[00:33:01] Article: Kids’ Gaming Obsession Isn’t Really About the Games.

[00:35:21] Paula Reid - adventure psychologist.

[00:37:13] The fun scale in adventuring.

[00:40:03] Mood change during exercise; Study: Magnan, Renee E., Bethany M. Kwan, and Angela D. Bryan. "Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: Physical and social–cognitive mechanisms." Psychology & health 28.4 (2013): 418-433.

[00:41:56] The deficit model of happiness.

[00:43:40] Hedonic adaptation.

[00:45:35] Preventing hedonic adaptation.

[00:47:59] XTERRA Podcast Powered by Braveheart.

Mar 17, 2020
Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors
01:07:23

Back on the podcast with me this week is sleep expert, Greg Potter, PhD. Through his articles, podcasts and live talks, Greg is helping an international audience understand the critical role sleep plays in health and wellbeing. Most recently, Greg has been studying the impact of circadian rhythm disruption, including sleep duration and meal timing, on the development of common cancers.

In this interview, Greg and I discuss Alexey Guzey’s scathing critique of Matthew Walker’s book, Why We Sleep. We also talk about some of the biological processes affected by sleep restriction, including cognition, immune health, athletic performance, and appetite. Greg shares some of the ways poor sleep is associated with cancer formation, including the damaging effects of sleep restriction on DNA and metabolism.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:09] Greg's 4-part series of articles on sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better; 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night; 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast; 4. Sleep for athletes: are athletes a different breed?

[00:00:28] Greg's previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health; Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes; What to Do When You Can’t Sleep; Better Sleep for Athletes.

[00:01:11] 2020 Metagenics International Congress on Natural Medicine.

[00:03:36] Book: Why We Sleep, by Matthew Walker, PhD.

[00:03:38] Article: Matthew Walker's "Why We Sleep" Is Riddled with Scientific and Factual Errors, by Alexey Guzey.

[00:04:12] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:10:23] Dimensions of sleep; Article: Buysse, Daniel J. "Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter?." Sleep 37.1 (2014): 9-17.

[00:12:34] The transtheoretical model of behavior change.

[00:16:34] Stephan Guyenet’s Red Pen Reviews.

[00:18:40] Chronotypes and the Sentinel Hypothesis.

[00:19:39] Are people not sleeping enough?

[00:21:56] Sleep duration in the US might be increasing; Study: Basner, Mathias, and David F. Dinges. "Sleep duration in the United States 2003–2016: first signs of success in the fight against sleep deficiency?." Sleep 41.4 (2018): zsy012.

[00:26:12] People overestimate their sleep duration; Study: Lauderdale, Diane S., et al. "Self-reported and measured sleep duration: how similar are they?." Epidemiology (2008): 838-845.

[00:28:29] Insulin sensitivity and testosterone higher after extended sleep; Killick, Roo, et al. "Metabolic and hormonal effects of ‘catch‐up’sleep in men with chronic, repetitive, lifestyle‐driven sleep restriction." Clinical endocrinology 83.4 (2015): 498-507.

[00:29:00] Plasma IL-6 higher after sleep restriction; Study: Pejovic, Slobodanka, et al. "Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 305.7 (2013): E890-E896.

[00:29:25] Better cognitive function with more sleep; Study: Kazem, Yusr MI, et al. "Sleep deficiency is a modifiable risk factor for obesity and cognitive impairment and associated with elevated visfatin." Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences 3.2 (2015): 315.

[00:29:37] Effects of sleep on appetite; Study: Al Khatib, H. K., et al. "The effects of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance: a systematic review and meta-analysis." European journal of clinical nutrition 71.5 (2017): 614-624.

[00:30:02] Sleep extension and exercise performance; Study: Mah, Cheri D., et al. "The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players." Sleep 34.7 (2011): 943-950.

[00:32:45] Assessing current sleep status.

[00:33:11] Podcast with Ashley Mason: How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

[00:36:14] WHO (five) Well-Being Index; Short Form 12; Short Form 36.

[00:38:55] NBT’s Health Assessment Questionnaire.

[00:39:57] Sleep and all-cause mortality.

[00:46:56] Sleep restriction leads to worse performance; Van Dongen, Hans, et al. "The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation." Sleep 26.2 (2003): 117-126.

[00:47:31] Josh Turknett's 4-Quadrant Model; Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution.

[00:48:30] Sleep duration and cancer.

[00:49:20] Short sleep duration associated with cancer among asians; long sleep duration associated with colorectal cancer; Study: Chen, Yuheng, et al. "Sleep duration and the risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship." BMC cancer 18.1 (2018): 1149.

[00:51:02] Sleep deprivation and DNA damage: Study: Cheung, V., et al. "The effect of sleep deprivation and disruption on DNA damage and health of doctors." Anaesthesia 74.4 (2019): 434-440; and Carroll, Judith E., et al. "Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans." Brain, behavior, and immunity 51 (2016): 223-229.

[00:51:16] Article: Seyfried, Thomas N., et al. "Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics." Carcinogenesis 35.3 (2014): 515-527.

[00:56:22] Matthew Walker's website.

[00:59:47] Greg’s website; Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn.

[01:02:55] Sleepio. (SHUTi no longer available).

Mar 10, 2020
How to Stay Consistent
32:54

When I analyzed the responses to your most significant health challenges, it became clear that one of the top barriers to achieving health goals is consistency. We live in an imperfect world where the wind isn’t always at our backs and progress doesn’t always match effort. How can we maintain good habits when life is unpredictable, or when the journey doesn’t meet our expectations?

In this interview, Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD and I talk about some of the ideas and situations that cause us to get derailed when working toward long-term goals. We discuss planning ahead for the inevitable imperfect days, coping with injury, and using behavioural principles to overcome the all-or-nothing mentality that keeps us stuck. If you find this podcast helpful, you’ll love Simon’s new training course, Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching where he teaches the new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:01:17] Behavioural consistency, expectations.

[00:01:34] Expectancy Theory of Motivation.

[00:03:36] Permission to be imperfect.

[00:04:32] Catastrophizing.

[00:07:00] Cheat days.

[00:08:24] Traffic light analogy.

[00:13:07] Coping with injury successfully.

[00:14:20] Appraisal process.

[00:15:42] Investigative health hustle.

[00:18:13] Delusion funnel.

[00:19:09] Symptom journal.

[00:20:40] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:21:03] Performance profile.

[00:23:40] Behaviour change when busy.

[00:25:36] Biology of motivation; creating momentum.

[00:26:29] PowerDot muscle stimulation.

[00:26:53] Study: Paillard, Thierry, et al. "Effects of two types of neuromuscular electrical stimulation training on vertical jump performance." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 22.4 (2008): 1273-1278.

[00:27:28] Habit stacking.

[00:28:40] Essentialism; Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg McKeown.

[00:30:00] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Feb 28, 2020
Why You’re Probably Not Eating Enough Protein (How to Know for Sure)
52:06

At NBT, one of the first things our clients do is complete a food diary. This helps us quickly identify any problems with macronutrients, micronutrients, and meal timing. What we’ve seen over the years is that few people - even those eating a Paleo-type diet - are consuming enough protein. This can have immense consequences on longevity, blood glucose management, and maintaining a healthy weight.

In this interview, NBT Scientific Director Megan Hall and I talk about the importance of getting adequate dietary protein. Megan discusses the current recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein compared to optimal levels needed to support muscle mass and strength as we age. We talk about protein myths and misconceptions and outline protein requirements for specific populations, including athletes and those following weight-loss diets.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:02:16] Why protein is so important.

[00:02:28] Muscle mass and strength as a powerful predictor of longevity; Studies: 1. Rantanen, Taina, et al. "Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort." Age 34.3 (2012): 563-570; 2. Srikanthan, Preethi, and Arun S. Karlamangla. "Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults." The American journal of medicine 127.6 (2014): 547-55; 3. McLeod, Michael, et al. "Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing." Biogerontology 17.3 (2016): 497-510; 4. Burd, Nicholas A., et al. "Dietary protein quantity, quality, and exercise are key to healthy living: a muscle-centric perspective across the lifespan." Frontiers in nutrition 6 (2019): 83.

[00:05:30] Glucose disposal.

[00:06:22] Maintaining a healthy weight; Protein leverage hypothesis. Study: Simpson, Stephen J., and David Raubenheimer. "Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis." obesity reviews 6.2 (2005): 133-142.

[00:07:38] Dr. Ted Naiman; Protein dilution.

[00:08:18] Protein recommendations; Current RDA vs. optimal intake.

[00:11:02] How protein is prepared matters; Study: Pennings, Bart, et al. "Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, resulting in greater postprandial protein retention in older men." The American journal of clinical nutrition 98.1 (2013): 121-128

[00:13:00] Fasting and protein restriction could be detrimental for older population.

[00:13:43] Protein needs for athletes.

[00:15:06] Protein needs for individuals following weight loss/calorie deficit diets.

[00:16:02] Ideal timing for protein intake.

[00:16:25] Protein spread evenly throughout the day is ideal; Study: Areta, José L., et al. "Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis." The Journal of physiology 591.9 (2013): 2319-2331

[00:16:46] Leucine threshold; 3 grams is required to stimulate mTOR.

[00:17:56] Myths about protein consumption.

[00:18:28] Effect of protein on kidneys; high BUN blood marker.

[00:19:42] Effects of high protein diets on bone health.

[00:20:31] Myth that mTOR stimulation is bad. Study by Valter Longo: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population." Cell metabolism 19.3 (2014): 407-417

[00:22:50] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-term Health, by Justin Sonnenberg and Erica Sonnenberg.

[00:24:25] Myth: Animal protein is bad for the environment.

[00:24:36] Podcast: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat, with Diana Rodgers.

[00:24:59] Podcast: The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters, with James Estes, PhD.

[00:26:00] Myth: BCAAs are necessary.

[00:26:34] Myth: Too much protein will kick you out of ketosis; Video: Dr. Benjamin Bikman - 'Insulin vs. Glucagon: The relevance of dietary protein'.

[00:29:31] Myth: the body can only use 20-25g of protein at a time; Study: Schoenfeld, Brad Jon, and Alan Albert Aragon. "How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 15.1 (2018): 1-6.

[00:31:20] What we often see with our NBT clients.

[00:33:12] How Megan and Chris gets their protein throughout the day.

[00:36:05] Keeping quick protein around and ready to go.

[00:36:43] High vs. low quality protein; plant protein vs. animal protein.

[00:41:00] Arsenic in baby food made from rice; Report: What’s in my baby’s food?

[00:42:49] Resistance exercise as a critical part of healthy aging.

[00:44:29] Podcast: How to Get Motivated, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:46:18] Eat the protein first for glucose regulation and appetite control; Study: Nesti, Lorenzo, Alessandro Mengozzi, and Domenico Tricò. "Impact of nutrient type and sequence on glucose tolerance: physiological insights and therapeutic implications." Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 144.

[00:47:26] NBT on Patreon.

Feb 21, 2020
How to Get Motivated
39:58

I've got Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD. with me today to talk about motivation. Our analysis of thousands of responses to the most significant health challenges you've been facing suggests that this is a crucial factor for many people. You know what you want to do, and you're well aware of why you want to do it. So why does your motivation fall apart when it's time to get up early from a warm bed or when you're offered that glass of wine you know you shouldn't have?

In this interview, Simon explains why forming new habits can be so difficult, and what you can do instead to adopt behaviours that support your health goals. This show is full of actionable steps you can take - simple strategies to arrange your environment, adjust your routine, and plan ahead for challenging moments. If you find this podcast helpful you’ll love Simon’s new training course, Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching where he teaches the new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:53] Motivation vs. commitment.

[00:04:47] Motivational contagion.

[00:05:41] There is no try, only do.

[00:07:39] Counting; limited channel capacity.

[00:09:41] Sleeping in running gear.

[00:10:40] Strengthening relationship between intention and action; implementation intentions.

[00:12:31] Creating habits.

[00:12:43] Book: The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business, by Charles Duhigg.

[00:13:14] Trigger, routine, reward.

[00:16:31] Substituting the routine.

[00:17:23] Manipulating the trigger (stimulus control).

[00:19:30] The function of habits.

[00:21:40] Habit stacking.

[00:23:09] Start small.

[00:23:54] Expectancy theory; Victor Vroom, PhD.

[00:25:00] Instrumentality.

[00:25:43] Goal disengagement: knowing when to quit.

[00:29:59] Habit prioritization strategy; planning ahead.

[00:33:55] Accountability challenges; forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:34:20] Social conformity as motivation.

[00:36:23] Loser avoidance bias.

[00:38:04] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Feb 15, 2020
The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters
01:04:18

Dr. James A. Estes, PhD is a researcher, author, and professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. For the past 50 years, he has been studying the ecology of coastal marine communities and keystone species. He has authored nearly 200 scientific publications with a primary focus on sea otters and their impact on surrounding sea life. He currently oversees research projects in the Aleutian Islands, central California, the Channel Islands, and New Zealand. 

In this interview, Dr. Estes describes the massive ecological shift that can be observed when reducing the numbers of a single critical species. He shares the moment he recognized the cascading effects resulting from diminished sea otter populations in the Aleutian Islands, which then spurred decades of research. He also discusses the effect humans have had on the balance of the Earth’s ecosystems with industries including the fur trade, whaling and agriculture. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Estes:

[00:00:25] Dr. Estes: background and interest in ecology.

[00:06:31] Bob Paine; Aleutian Islands.

[00:13:27] 1960 paper: Hairston, Nelson G., Frederick E. Smith, and Lawrence B. Slobodkin. "Community structure, population control, and competition." The american naturalist 94.879 (1960): 421-425.

[00:15:54] Book: Serendipity: An Ecologist's Quest to Understand Nature, by James A. Estes.

[00:16:24] Starfish experiments; The Serengeti Rules documentary on PBS Nature and the BBC.

[00:24:35] Bob Paine's foundational paper (1966): Paine, Robert T. "Food web complexity and species diversity." The American Naturalist 100.910 (1966): 65-75.

[00:27:00] James’ 1974 paper: Estes, James A., and John F. Palmisano. "Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities." Science 185.4156 (1974): 1058-1060.

[00:31:48] Otters become victim to Killer Whales; Study: Estes, James A., et al. "Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems." science 282.5388 (1998): 473-476.

[00:36:45] Megafaunal collapse hypothesis leading to the trophic cascade.

[00:37:40] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[00:39:38] Study on whaling industry: Springer, Alan M., et al. "Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling?." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100.21 (2003): 12223-12228.

[00:45:31] Tony Sinclair; The invasion of rinderpest into East Africa.

[00:47:52] Book: The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters, by Sean B. Carroll.

[00:48:14] Effects on the ecosystem when wildebeests repopulated.

[00:50:35] Bison in Yellowstone and their impact on their environment; Study: Geremia, Chris, et al. "Migrating bison engineer the green wave." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116.51 (2019): 25707-25713.

[00:56:31] Chris Wilmers, Terrie Williams at UC-Santa Cruz; Puma Project.

[00:58:19] Short version of the documentary: Some Animals Are More Equal than Others: Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades (20 min).

[01:00:00] Curiosity Stream.

Feb 07, 2020
How to Effectively Manage Time
54:54

In this interview, Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD is with me to discuss one of the most common obstacles to meeting health and fitness goals - time management. For most of us, our days are filled with work and family obligations, leaving just a few precious unscheduled minutes at the end of the day.  It can seem nearly impossible to carve out the time needed for meditating, exercising, or cooking healthy meals at home.

There are biological reasons we find it harder to follow through with our good intentions as the day goes on. Fortunately, there are simple things that can be done to build better habits and strengthen our commitments. If you’re struggling to make it all work, Simon offers solutions for assessing your time-management problem and freeing up the time you need.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:50] The underlying struggle.

[00:03:56] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:05:30] Motivation and commitment to change.

[00:06:32] Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg McKeown.

[00:10:44] Substituting rather than adding.

[00:11:08] Self-determination.

[00:12:03] Sleep.

[00:14:45] Setting boundaries.

[00:17:05] The willpower bank account.

[00:17:53] Do harder things earlier in the day.

[00:20:29] Early time-restricted eating; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Dr. Satchin Panda.

[00:21:34] Habits; changing the environment.

[00:23:20] Podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:26:43] Chronic sleep deficit.

[00:27:00] When you can't sleep.

[00:27:10] Inappropriate light exposure, not enough light during the day; Podcast: Why Your Diet Isn't Working: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm.

[00:29:35] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:30:37] Track how you spend your time.

[00:31:55] Scheduling breaks.

[00:34:06] Why people resist time-use diaries.

[00:34:52] Book:Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity, by David Allen.

[00:35:17] Reactivity bias.

[00:36:06] Ecological momentary assessment (EMA).

[00:39:22] Reduce things vying for your attention.

[00:40:00] OneTab Chrome Extension.

[00:41:06] Inbox Zero.

[00:41:53] inbox.google.com.

[00:44:12] Email suicide.

[00:46:10] Batching.

[00:47:37] Decision fatigue.

[00:52:55] Accountability challenges.

[00:54:14] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com.

Jan 31, 2020
Contemplating Cohousing: A Paradigm for Modern Day Tribal Living
01:12:12

Recently we’ve had remarkable guests on the podcast highlighting areas of evolutionary mismatch. It’s clear our society has disconnected from real food and good sleep, but we’ve also detoured from what’s optimal in how we congregate, educate, and support one another. We’ve divided ourselves into nuclear families, often leaving our children in the care of strangers so we can go to a job we don’t care about, in order to earn money to pay for our segregated lifestyle. Social isolation has become so common we barely realize the madness of it - until we need help and find that there’s no one nearby.

In this interview, I’m joined by my wife, food scientist Julie Kelly to talk about how our society could benefit from a cohousing model, transcending the current paradigm that leaves parents exhausted and young adults unable to afford housing. We discuss our own living situation and that of neighbours and friends, many of whom could benefit from living with others to share resources and skills. We’re in the contemplation stage of actually doing something about this, and would love to hear from you about experiences you’ve had - good or bad! - with cohousing or communal living. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julie Kelly:

[00:00:34] Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress? with Christopher Ryan.

[00:01:07] Stephanie Welch podcasts 1. Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision (she discusses the concept of nuclear family at the 55:13 minute mark), 2. The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World, focusing more exclusively on cohousing.

[00:03:07] Whole 30.

[00:03:52] Book: The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease, by Daniel Lieberman.

[00:05:08] Book: Lifespan: Why We Age―and Why We Don't Have To by David A. Sinclair, PhD.

[00:05:46] STEM-Talk Podcast: Episode 98: Steven Austad talks about aging and preserving human health.  

[00:05:46] Blue zone fraud; Study: Newman, Saul Justin. "Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans." bioRxiv (2019): 704080.

[00:06:22] Book: Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy.

[00:07:08] Alloparents.

[00:13:00] Attachment theory.

[00:26:42] Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:30:59] Book: Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose, by Tony Hsieh.

[00:33:40] Podcast on unschooling: How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:36:00] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:37:31] Strategies and tactics of cohousing.

[00:39:45] Contact me if you have experience with cohousing: chris@nourishbalancethrive.com.

[00:42:30] Patreon; Forum thread on cohousing.

[00:42:48] Cohousing resources: Why Denmark dominates the World Happiness Report rankings year after year; Pocket Neighborhoods; The New Generation of Self-Created Utopias; My working cohousing Google doc.

[00:43:15] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:47:19] Starcity.

[00:49:56] Grandmother hypothesis.

[00:54:05] Cooperative breeding.

[00:58:07] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck.

[00:58:12] Book: Radical candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.

[01:01:08] Book: Chop Wood Carry Water: How to Fall in Love with the Process of Becoming Great, by Joshua Medcalf.

[01:01:39] Podcast: Ketones for Performance, Cognition, and Cardiovascular Health, with Brianna Stubbs, PhD.

[01:03:18] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[01:06:05] Podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, with Julian Abel, MD.
Jan 24, 2020
Online Training for Killing It In the Gym
01:10:06

Strength and conditioning coach James Cerbie is the founder of Rebel Performance and host of the podcast by the same name. He’s on a mission to forge a new breed of athlete while giving that athlete a tribe and a competitive outlet.  What’s amazing is not just that he and a squad of other experts are developing a training library and launching competitions, but that they’re doing it all online. Only those interested in becoming complete freak athletes need apply.

In this interview, James and I talk about his remote coaching model, and how he manages to create a sense of community amongst athletes living great distances apart.  He discusses his 6 pillars of athletic performance (strength, hypertrophy, power, endurance, movement IQ, and fusion) and how his team of experts deliver results in these areas. He also shares his no-nonsense nutrition recommendations and talks about how Crossfit measures up to his approach.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Cerbie:

[00:00:57] Zac Cupples; Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance.

[00:01:46] Physical Therapist and coach Bill Hartman.

[00:02:30] Background in health and performance.

[00:06:29] 6 pillars of athletic performance.

[00:09:16] Ben House, PhD. Podcasts: Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica (2/6/19); How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes (1/21/18).

[00:12:48] Postural Restoration Institute (PRI).

[00:12:54] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype? (11/1/19); How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use (7/19/18); The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes (3/2/17); High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea… (12/30/16).

[00:15:22] Pat Davidson, PhD.

[00:21:55] Academia vs business.

[00:26:55] Rebel Performance.

[00:29:33] Comparison to Crossfit.

[00:31:28] Incorporating community and competition into training.

[00:36:42] Christopher Ryan, PhD. Podcast: Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?

[00:37:28] Remote coaching model.

[00:41:43] Nutrition recommendations.

[00:48:22] In person meet-ups.

[00:49:38] The Top Strength Project, run by Steve Tripp.

[00:50:41] Rebel Performance Radio.

[00:54:49] Physiological need for stressors.

[00:56:26] Doug Hilbert from Virta; Podcasts with Doug: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor, and Ancestral Health Symposium ‘18 Recap.

[00:56:26] Study on biological age: Lehallier, Benoit, et al. "Undulating changes in human plasma proteome profiles across the lifespan." Nature Medicine 25.12 (2019): 1843-1850.

[01:05:55] Compete at train.rebel-performance.com; Silverback Training Project.

Jan 17, 2020
How to Manage Stress
49:36

At the root of our obstacles to better health, and indeed a cause of many health problems is stress. It’s not hard to find advice for coping with stress - many people will recommend meditation or yoga, and these are a great place to start. But what you might not know is that managing stress for the long term is a challenge that is best met with a balance of two specific approaches.

In this podcast Performance Psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. describes the two best strategies for managing the stress of life, along with a simple way to determine which one you’ve been relying on (often to the exclusion of the other). We also discuss some of the most common social stressors and ways for you to detach from stressful thoughts and feelings.

Sign up for the 2020 Braveheart Highland Games in San Diego, CA.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:02:19] Many dimensions to health.

[00:03:02] Headspace.

[00:04:13] Book: Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl.

[00:06:35] Stressor vs stress response.

[00:07:22] Task-focused coping.

[00:09:04] Emotion-focused coping.

[00:13:47] Wherever you go, there you are.

[00:16:25] Limits of emotion-focused coping.

[00:17:50] Gaining new skills.

[00:18:53] Progressive muscle relaxation.

[00:21:18] Audit tasks and emotions: identify your strategies.

[00:22:13] Book: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life, by Mark Manson.

[00:23:45] Book: The Happiness Trap: How to Stop Struggling and Start Living: A Guide to ACT,

by Russ Harris.

[00:24:02] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).

[00:27:07] Diffusion, detachment.

[00:30:58] Detachment strategies.

[00:33:38] Exercise dependence.

[00:34:50] Social stressors; social comparison.

[00:39:52] Strava.

[00:41:28] Zwift.

[00:43:35] Moderation vs. abstinence.

[00:44:50] Summary.

[00:45:49] forum.nourishbalancethrive.com for audit examples.

Jan 10, 2020
Better Sleep for Athletes
01:03:35

Sleep researcher, writer and international speaker Greg Potter, PhD is with us once again to continue our conversation about improving your sleep. In my last interview with Greg, we discussed practical steps to take when sleep eludes you, as well as preventing sleep problems in the first place. We’ve circled back around today to take a closer look at some of the most promising interventions for insomnia as well as special considerations for athletes with regard to sleep.

In this interview, Greg describes Sleep Restriction Therapy and Intensive Sleep Retraining in detail, two approaches to fixing insomnia that sound counterintuitive at first but which can pay off quickly with more restful sleep. Greg talks about mindfulness and meditation, sharing tips for using these practices to reduce insomnia and overall stress. We also discuss sleep considerations specific to athletes, including sleep timing, training load, and travel.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:03:35] Documentary: Who Killed the Neanderthals?

[00:04:35] Greg’s last podcast with us: What to Do When You Can’t Sleep (11/22/19); Previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health (7/4/18); Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes (1/27/19); Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top (as interviewer, 10/25/19).

[00:05:11] Greg's articles on optimising sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast

[00:05:44] Sleep restriction therapy.

[00:10:18] Sleepio.

[00:10:42] Intensive Sleep Retraining (ISR).

[00:12:18] ISR Study: ISR Study: Harris, Jodie, et al. "Intensive sleep retraining treatment for chronic primary insomnia: a preliminary investigation." Journal of sleep research 16.3 (2007): 276-284.

[00:13:18] Thim smart ring device.

[00:16:52] Coursera.

[00:17:24] Josh Turknett, MD on Patreon for ukelele lessons.

[00:18:23] Mindfulness and meditation.

[00:23:26] Book: Mindfulness: An Eight-Week Plan for Finding Peace in a Frantic World, by Mark Williams and Danny Penman.

[00:23:25] Book: Wherever You Go There You Are, by Jon Kabat-Zinn.

[00:23:41] Insight timer.

[00:23:56] Sam Harris' Waking Up app.

[00:26:28] Marko Lepik; Website: EQversity.

[00:27:17] Books by Russ Harris: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap

[00:27:42] Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster, with Ellen Langer.

[00:29:27] Try the bull’s eye (page 3) and/or the Life Compass (page 5) exercise(s) in this resource by Russ Harris.

[00:29:54] Matthew Walker.

[00:32:12] Sleep considerations for athletes.

[00:34:33] Shifting sleep timing.

[00:36:10] Phase-response curve for exercise; Study: Youngstedt, Shawn D., Jeffrey A. Elliott, and Daniel F. Kripke. "Human circadian phase–response curves for exercise." The Journal of physiology 597.8 (2019): 2253-2268

[00:38:47] Training load.

[00:39:00] Overreaching in athletes and worsened sleep; Study: Hausswirth, Christophe, et al. "Evidence of disturbed sleep and increased illness in overreached endurance athletes." Medicine and science in sports and exercise (2014).

[00:40:47] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDS); podcast with Nicky Keay: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

[00:44:31] Intensity of training and its effect on circadian rhythm.

[00:48:33] Obstructive sleep apnea.

[00:49:42] Concussion.

[00:50:34] The effect of travel on sleep.

[00:51:33] Jet lag strategies: diet, light exposure, melatonin supplementation; Jet Lag Rooster

[01:00:24] Find Greg on Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn.

[01:01:33] Greg’s recent speaking events: Greg’s recent speaking events: 2019 Health Optimization Summit (London), Biohacking Conference Moskow, Wellness & Biohacking Conference 2019 in Guadalajara, Biohacker Summit (Helsinki).

Jan 03, 2020
Ketones for Performance, Cognition, and Cardiovascular Health
55:34

Researcher and elite athlete Brianna Stubbs is back on the podcast today, checking in before her recent Ironman competition in Santa Cruz, California. Since we last talked with Brianna she’s left HVMN and joined the Buck Institute for Research on Aging as Lead Translational Scientist. There she’ll be studying ketone biology and collaborating on some of the best research being conducted today with the mission of living better, longer.

In this interview, Brianna and I talk about some of the latest studies on ketone metabolism, which continues to show promise for athletic performance, cognition, and cardiovascular health. She also notes where the research in this area is lacking and even contradictory. Brianna also shares her personal strategy for dosing the ketone monoester she helped bring to the marketplace. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:00] Brianna’s previous podcasts: World Champion Rower and Ketone Monoester Researcher Brianna Stubbs, The D-BHB Ketone Monoester Is Here, Women in Science: Bridging the Gender Gap, and The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers.

[00:02:00] Racing Ironman.

[00:05:10] Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:06:57] Dosing the ketone ester during the triathlon.

[00:09:55] Ketone ester as a tool to to evaluate perception of exercise; Study: Faull, Olivia Kate, et al. "Beyond RPE: The perception of exercise under normal and ketotic conditions." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 229

[00:11:09] Lead Translational Scientist at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

[00:13:01] Dale Bredesen, MD; Eric Verdin, MD.

[00:13:36] Review on ketone metabolism: Newman, John C., and Eric Verdin. "Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 25.1 (2014): 42-52.

[00:14:56] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD

[00:18:07] STEM-Talk Podcast: Episode 92 with Megan Roberts and Episode 94 with John Newman.

[00:19:27] β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB), as an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor; Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[00:21:42] HVMN.

[00:22:59] Epigenetic effects of ketones.

[00:27:27] BHB can affect vascular senescence; Study: Han, Young-min, et al. "β-Hydroxybutyrate prevents vascular senescence through hnRNP A1-mediated upregulation of Oct4." Molecular cell 71.6 (2018): 1064-1078.

[00:30:24] BHB inactivates the NLRP3 inflammasome; Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263.

[00:31:02] BHB protects against muscle protein wasting; Study: Thomsen, Henrik H., et al. "Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies." The American journal of clinical nutrition 108.4 (2018): 857-867.

[00:32:11] Increased inflammatory response with ketone ester; Study: Neudorf, Helena, et al. "Oral Ketone Supplementation Acutely Increases Markers of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Monocytes." Molecular nutrition & food research (2019): 1801171.

[00:35:52] Ketogenic diet and exogenous ketones reduce epileptiform spikes associated with Alzheimer’s: Newman, John C., et al. "Ketogenic diet or BHB improves epileptiform spikes, memory, survival in Alzheimer's model." bioRxiv (2017): 136226.

[00:36:51] Kenneth Ford, PhD.; Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford

[00:37:57] Cardiovascular effects of ketone infusions in humans; Studies: 1. Nielsen, Roni, et al. "Cardiovascular effects of treatment with the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in chronic heart failure patients." Circulation 139.18 (2019): 2129-2141. 2. Gormsen, Lars C., et al. "Ketone Body Infusion With 3‐Hydroxybutyrate Reduces Myocardial Glucose Uptake and Increases Blood Flow in Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study." Journal of the American Heart Association 6.3 (2017): e005066.

[00:38:06] Ketone infusions in a paced model of cardiac failure in dogs. Study: Horton, Julie L., et al. "The failing heart utilizes 3-hydroxybutyrate as a metabolic stress defense." JCI insight 4.4 (2019).

[00:43:05] Ketogenic diet and gut health.

[00:44:31] Exogenous ketones affect stem cell regeneration and differentiation; Study: Cheng, Chia-Wei, et al. "Ketone Body Signaling Mediates Intestinal Stem Cell Homeostasis and Adaptation to Diet." Cell 178.5 (2019): 1115-1131. (We don’t have access to the Supplementary Methods, which contain Brianna’s favorite molecule!)

[00:46:02] Performance enhancing effects of lactate/propionate: Scheiman, Jonathan, et al. "Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism." Nature Medicine (2019): 1.

[00:47:22] Lucy Mailing; Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome.

[00:50:24] Improved performance with the ketone monoester; Study: Cox, Pete J., et al. "Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes." Cell metabolism 24.2 (2016): 256-268

[00:50:30] No performance benefit with ketone monoester supplement; Study: Evans, Mark, et al. "No Benefit of Ingestion of a Ketone Monoester Supplement on 10-km Running Performance." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 51.12 (2019): 2506-2515.

[00:52:00] Dr. Stephen Cunnane’s studies correlating blood ketone level and changing cognitive function and brain ketone uptake: Cunnane, Stephen C., et al. "Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during aging and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease." Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 9 (2016): 53; 2. Fortier, Mélanie, et al. "A ketogenic drink improves brain energy and some measures of cognition in mild cognitive impairment." Alzheimer's & Dementia 15.5 (2019): 625-634.

[00:52:40] Breath ketone meters.

[00:57:03] Find Brianna on Twitter.

Dec 27, 2019
NBT People: Anastassia Laskey
49:04

Anastassia Laskey is a consultant living in Atlanta, and she’s been a member of NBT’s Elite Performance Program for the past 3 years. Since then she’s overcome health challenges that were significantly affecting her quality of life, including numerous gut infections, food sensitivities and fatigue.

On this podcast, Anastassia talks with NBT coach and Scientific Director Megan Roberts about her healing journey from a state of severe illness to one in which she’s gained control over her well-being. She shares about her decision to go overseas for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and the impact this procedure had on her recovery. She also discusses the habit-forming strategies and lifestyle changes she implemented to maintain her improved state of health.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Anastassia Laskey:

[00:00:31] Why Ana came to Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:03:32] Diet changes.

[00:03:45] Book: The Primal Blueprint, by Mark Sisson.

[00:04:11] Clostridium difficile (C-diff).

[00:06:30] Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

[00:07:48] Taymount Clinic.

[00:09:17] Improvement with FMT.

[00:12:20] H. pylori, Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).

[00:13:32] Current diet.

[00:14:57] Getting enough protein.

[00:16:47] Tips for getting more protein: Wild Planet Sardines with lemon; European bacon, Chudabeef beef jerky.

[00:19:18] Learning to eat intuitively.

[00:21:03] Healthy at Every Size and Intuitive Eating; "body neutrality".

[00:22:58] The effect of emotional stress on health.

[00:26:21] Creating habits and making them stick.

[00:30:36] Physical activity without a gym.

[00:32:08] Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) or farm box subscription; Fresh Harvest.

[00:34:05] Important levers: sleep; reducing environmental stressors, reducing sugar.

[00:37:37] "Cured" vs. maintaining new lifestyle habits.

[00:42:34] The value of accountability.

Dec 20, 2019
How to Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
01:13:40

Ashley Mason, PhD., Licensed Clinical Psychologist and Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at UCSF, is back on the podcast this week. Ashley is an expert in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), a structured program that helps people overcome the underlying causes of sleep problems. She’s passionate about her clinical work with small groups, and there’s clearly a demand for her services - her schedule is booked for the next 8 months.

In this interview, Ashley shares her step-by-step formula for helping her patients fix their sleep. She describes some lesser-known strategies that help re-establish restful sleep patterns, including sleep restriction, scheduled worry time, and identifying cognitive distortions. She also talks about the pitfalls people encounter when recovering from insomnia, and how to avoid them.

Please consider supporting Ashley’s work.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ashley Mason:

[00:00:13] Book: Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker, PhD.

[00:02:15] Dr. Kirk Parsley; Podcasts: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD (2016), and Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top.

[00:03:22] Book: Quiet Your Mind and Get to Sleep: Solutions to Insomnia for Those with Depression, Anxiety or Chronic Pain, by Colleen Carney, PhD. and Rachel Manber, PhD.

[00:03:35] Dick Bootzin.

[00:05:03] Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I).

[00:06:43] Treatment process.

[00:09:05] 5 weekly group sessions, sleep diary.

[00:12:26] Bed is for sleep and sex only.

[00:17:17] Sleep restriction.

[00:19:03] Cognitive tools for dealing with anxiety and worry.

[00:19:32] Scheduling worry time.

[00:20:15] Book: Mind Over Mood, Second Edition: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think, by Dennis Greenberger, PhD., and Christine A Padesky, PhD.

[00:20:32] How to worry effectively.

[00:22:10] Behavioral activation.

[00:23:20] Identifying disempowering thoughts.

[00:24:52] Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Russ Harris books: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap.

[00:25:44] Cognitive distortions and troublesome thoughts.

[00:38:30] Bob Newhart’s “Stop It” video.

[00:38:40] New York Times article on how to use sunglasses when traveling: Yes, Your Sleep Schedule is Making You Sick.

[00:38:45] Jet Lag Rooster; Podcast: Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top.

[00:40:00] Stimulus control.

[00:48:12] Cal Newport; podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:50:42] Bill Lagakos on Patreon.

[00:52:00] Pitfalls people encounter when recovering from insomnia.

[00:54:33] Variations in Melatonin bottle contents; Study: Erland, Lauren AE, and Praveen K. Saxena. "Melatonin natural health products and supplements: presence of serotonin and significant variability of melatonin content." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13.02 (2017): 275-281.

[01:00:39] Wall Street Journal Article: Is It Healthy to Sleep in a Hammock?; Study: Kompotis, Konstantinos, et al. "Rocking promotes sleep in mice through rhythmic stimulation of the vestibular system." Current Biology 29.3 (2019): 392-401.

[01:02:11] Article: [The American College of Physicians] Recommends CBTI as Initial Treatment for Chronic Insomnia.

[01:02:40] Dr. Josh Turknett’s 4-quadrant model (Go to minute 21:20 for a visual of the 4-quadrant model.); Podcast: How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution

[01:06:20] Sleepio app.

[01:07:41] UCSF Sea Lab. Ashley’s sleep clinic and her current research

[01:08:16] Contact Ashley to support her work. Listen to Ashley’s previous NBT podcasts: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD (2014) and Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems (2019).

Dec 13, 2019
Civilized to Death: Are We Really Making Progress?
01:40:24

Christopher Ryan, PhD. is an author, speaker, and podcast host, as well as an excellent storyteller. With his New York Times best-selling book, Sex at Dawn, he became known for challenging the standard cultural narratives around sex and social organization. His new book, Civilized to Death, questions whether civilization has been a net benefit to our species. On his podcast Tangentially Speaking, Chris welcomes a mix of unconventional guests including famous comics, bank robbers, drug smugglers, porn stars, and rattlesnake experts.

In this interview, Chris offers a challenging perspective on how humans have strayed from egalitarian tribal living, instead adopting customs that don’t match our biological drives and social needs. He focuses on the disruptive role of agriculture in human history, marking that as the period during which we veered off course. Chris also shares humorous and touching stories from interviews and travels in his van, Scarlett Jovansson.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Christopher Ryan:

[00:00:17] Tangentially Speaking podcast: Interview with Bruce Parry.

[00:00:49] Film from Bruce Parry: Tawai: A Voice from the Forest.

[00:01:01] Podcasts with Stephanie Welch: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision and The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World

[00:02:50] Book: The Red Queen by Matt Ridley.

[00:03:03] Book: Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress, by Christopher Ryan.

[00:04:50] Spain to lead the world in life expectancy. Study: Foreman, Kyle J., et al. "Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes of death: reference and alternative scenarios for 2016–40 for 195 countries and territories." The Lancet 392.10159 (2018): 2052-2090.

[00:11:37] Show: Tribe, hosted by Bruce Parry.

[00:11:52] Film: Cannibals and Crampons, with Bruce Parry and Mark Anstice.

[00:14:26] Book: Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What it Means for Modern Relationships, by Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá.

[00:18:28] Sarah Hrdy, author of books on alloparenting.

[00:20:37] Article: Sex at Dusk by David Barash.

[00:23:30] Agriculture as the catalyst for a profound revolution in the way human beings organize themselves.

[00:27:27] Book: Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, by James C. Scott.

[00:29:08] Thomas Malthus and Thomas Hobbes.

[00:44:17] Anthropologist Nurit Bird-David.

[00:46:43] Critics of Chris’s position on cultural evolution: Matt Ridley, Steven Pinker, Richard Dawkins, David Buss, Helen Fisher.

[00:55:39] Book: Opening Up: A Guide To Creating and Sustaining Open Relationships, by Tristan Taormino.

[00:58:09] Dan Savage.

[01:02:50] Book: The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge, by Matt Ridley.

[01:07:28] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[01:09:59] Think globally, act locally.

[01:18:14] Kenneth Ford, Director of the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC); Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford

[01:22:35] Tangentially Speaking podcast. Get a T-shirt.

[01:27:03] Podcast with the woman who took ayahuasca: Mandy.

[01:30:27] Podcast with rattlesnake expert: John Porter.

[01:30:46] Jeff Leach.

[01:37:19] See more of Chris at his website and his TED talk.

Dec 06, 2019
The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: Applying the Autoimmune Protocol
58:25

Mickey Trescott, NTP is a Nutritional Therapy Practitioner, blogger, author, and advocate for those taking recovery from autoimmune disease into their own hands. Mickey has a special place in my heart because her first book was the resource that my wife, Julie, used to help me recover my own health. She’s now written a second book, The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen, emphasizing the healing aspects of the highly nutritious foods available within the Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) template.

In this interview, Mickey and I discuss her journey to finally being diagnosed with Hashimoto’s and celiac diseases, and the lifestyle factors that may have contributed to her illness. She discusses some of the pitfalls encountered by people following AIP, and the clinical trials being done to empirically validate AIP as a treatment for autoimmune disease.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mickey Trescott:

[00:00:10] Nutrient density, defined.

[00:01:13] Book: The Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook: An Allergen-Free Approach to Managing Chronic Illness, by Mickey Trescott.

[00:02:00] Autoimmune Protocol; Mickey’s website: Autoimmune Wellness.

[00:02:20] Journey to diagnoses of Hashimoto's and Celiac.

[00:06:42] Veganism and vegetarianism; nutrient deficiencies.

[00:09:27] Which autoimmune conditions respond best to AIP?

[00:12:13] Why AIP works.

[00:15:32] Book: The Nutrient-Dense Kitchen: 125 Autoimmune Paleo Recipes for Deep Healing and Vibrant Health.

[00:16:13] Common mistakes within the AIP community.

[00:19:12] Recipe: Bacon Beef Liver Pâté with Rosemary and Thyme.

[00:23:10] Studies showing efficacy of AIP using Angie Alt’s program: Abbott, Robert D., Adam Sadowski, and Angela G. Alt. "Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet as Part of a Multi-disciplinary, Supported Lifestyle Intervention for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis." (2019) and Konijeti, Gauree G., et al. "Efficacy of the autoimmune protocol diet for inflammatory bowel disease." Inflammatory bowel diseases 23.11 (2017): 2054-2060.

[00:23:35] Angie Alt’s group health coaching program: SAD to AIP in 6.

[00:25:25] Seeds Journal; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:26:11] Gretchen Rubin's Four Tendencies.

[00:28:20] Loser avoidance bias; Fitness startup that failed due to avoidance bias.

[00:29:48] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:30:25] Groups for in-person AIP meetups - Find Your AIP Community.

[00:33:08] Learning to cook.

[00:36:52] Cultured Caveman in Portland, OR.

[00:37:36] Reintroducing food on AIP.

[00:43:04] Eating at restaurants.

[00:45:43] Getting glutened; Gluten-free Ground Breaker beer.

[00:48:35] Blog: Gluten in Beer: Test Results of Gluten Levels in Beer.

[00:54:06] Eczema-psoriasis study (enrollment has ended since this podcast was recorded).

[00:55:09] Rob Abbott, MD. Podcast: How to Treat Hashimoto’s using the Autoimmune Protocol.

Nov 29, 2019
What to Do When You Can’t Sleep
01:05:01

Sleep researcher Greg Potter, PhD, is back on the podcast today with practical help for those suffering from insomnia. Greg’s research at the University of Leeds on sleep, diet, and metabolic health captured the attention of both scientific and mainstream news outlets on several continents. He is currently an international public speaker, science writer, and consultant, focusing in particular on circadian rhythms, exercise, nutrition, sleep and stress. 

In this podcast, Greg talks about different types of insomnia, and how chronic sleep difficulties create barriers to personal safety and health for 10-15% of adults at any given time. He discusses the best things to do when you’re lying in bed, unpleasantly awake. He also talks about routines and tools for preventing sleep disruption in the first place.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:02:21] Greg's articles on optimising sleep: 1. Having trouble sleeping? A primer on insomnia and how to sleep better 2. Sleep-maintenance insomnia: how to sleep through the night 3. Sleep-onset insomnia: how to get to sleep fast

[00:02:37] Acute vs chronic insomnia.

[00:07:00] Effects of genes on sleep needs.

[00:07:55] Keneth Wright Jr. camping studies: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle." Current Biology 23.16 (2013): 1554-1558; Follow up study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:08:38] Tracking sleep data - wearables, diaries; online diary at thebettersleepproject.com.

[00:11:30] Re-establishing association between bed and sleep.

[00:11:51] Ashley Mason, PhD. Podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:12:56] Therapeutic sleep restriction.

[00:15:29] 20-minute rule.

[00:18:33] Things to do when you can't sleep: Meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, music therapy.

[00:23:05] Paradoxical intention; Book: Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl.

[00:24:54] Books: Homo Deus and Sapiens, by Yuval Noah Harari.

[00:25:38] Metabolic dysregulation as possible cause of sleep disruption.

[00:29:09] Early dinner associated with better appetite regulation; Study: Ravussin, Eric, et al. "Early Time‐Restricted Feeding Reduces Appetite and Increases Fat Oxidation But Does Not Affect Energy Expenditure in Humans." Obesity 27.8 (2019): 1244-1254.

[00:31:13] Considerations when buying a mattress: comfort, durability, and support.

[00:33:31] ChiliPad; Ooler Sleep System.

[00:35:52] BRYTE bed.

[00:37:51] Paper: Hekler, Eric B., et al. "Why we need a small data paradigm." BMC medicine 17.1 (2019): 1-9.

[00:39:20] Hammocks

[00:42:54] Rich Roll and Paul Saladino on The Minimalists Podcast: Minimalist Diets.

[00:45:45] Managing ambient temperature for optimal sleep.

[00:48:54] Raising skin temperature before bed.

[00:50:15] Pre-bed skin temperature raising activities and sleep; Meta-analysis: Haghayegh, Shahab, et al. "Before-bedtime passive body heating by warm shower or bath to improve sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Sleep medicine reviews (2019).

[00:54:03] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World; Book: Digital Minimalism; Cal’s blog

[00:57:29] Find Greg on Twitter and Instagram, @gdmpotter.

[00:58:44] Podcast: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, with Malcolm Kendrick, MD.

[01:01:07] Greg’s previous NBT podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health (7/4/18); Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes (1/27/19); Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top (as interviewer, 10/25/19)

Nov 22, 2019
NBT People: Tim Harsch
52:31

Tim Harsch is the CEO and Co-Founder of Owler, a business insights company based in San Mateo, California. He’s a lifelong athlete, having played soccer, lacrosse and rugby in his younger years and more recently competing in triathlons. He also has type 1 diabetes (T1D), diagnosed at the relatively late age of 17. We’ve had the pleasure of working with Tim over the past year as a member of our Elite Performance Program.

On this podcast, Tim talks about the tools he uses to manage his diabetes, including a low-carb diet and a continuous glucose monitor. He also discusses the benefits he’s found in working with the NBT team, including weight loss, strength gains, and improved sleep and stress management. He describes the dietary changes that have helped him the most over the last year and his best advice for others living with T1D.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tim Harsch:

[00:00:32] Cal Newport; Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:01:13] Owler.

[00:04:02] Y Combinator.

[00:07:31] Coping with stress; Stress audit.

[00:09:18] Sleep, exercise, eating, drinking, stress management (SEEDS) method; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:10:31] SEEDS Journal.

[00:10:43] Diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) at age 17.

[00:17:46] Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM).

[00:19:44] Estimation of RBC lifespan from the reticulocyte count: RBC survival (days) = 100/[Reticulocytes (percent) / RLS (days)], where RLS = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 days at hematocrits of 45, 35, 25, and 15 percent, respectively. 

[00:22:43] Previous podcasts featuring guests with T1D: 1. How to Achieve Near-Normal Blood Sugar with Type 1 Diabetes with Keith Runyan, MD; 2. NBT People: Will Catterson.

[00:23:46] Managing carbohydrates with T1D.

[00:24:59] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:27:22] Reasons for rejecting the insulin pump.

[00:30:37] Dexcom G6 CGM.

[00:31:35] Factors affecting insulin sensitivity.

[00:32:56] NBT’s Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore, CSCS; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching, with Zach Moore.

[00:35:03] Building a strength-based exercise regimen.

[00:36:30] Bro Research Radio - podcast of Ben House, PhD. Ben’s appearances on NBT’s podcast: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, and Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[00:39:09] NBT Coach Clay Higgins; Podcast: NBT People: Clay Higgins.

[00:40:50] Fixing the gut: Ditching the bulletproof coffee, avoiding dairy.

[00:48:48] Type 1 Diabetes group on Facebook.

[00:48:49] Diabetes resources: diaTribe; Book: Bright Spots & Landmines: The Diabetes Guide I Wish Someone Had Handed Me, by Adam Brown.

[00:49:21] Find Tim on LinkedIn, at Owler, or contact him by email.

Nov 15, 2019
Ancient Psychedelic Plant Medicine for Modern Healing
01:28:23

Daniel Cortez is a Primal Health and Movement Coach, Wim Hof Master Instructor, and Psychedelic Integration Specialist. After tirelessly seeking answers to overcome his own 15-year health struggle, he now guides others along the same path. From his home in Cusco, Peru, he coaches and leads retreats using the power of breath, movement, cold, and plant medicines. 

On this podcast, Daniel shares his personal story of chronic pain and cognitive dysfunction, and the events surrounding his whole-body transformation. He discusses the power of evolutionary science, modern psychology, and ancestral wisdom for restoring health, and describes how psychedelic plants play a critical role in healing.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Daniel Cortez:

[00:01:14] Daniel's health journey.

[00:03:48] Wim Hof.

[00:04:04] Chris Kresser.

[00:04:15] CIRS Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; Ritchie Shoemaker, MD.

[00:04:56] Buck Institute for Research on Aging; Dale Bredesen, MD.

[00:06:03] Cholestyramine for mold; Podcast: NBT People: Mark Alexander.

[00:06:31] Mycometrics testing.

[00:10:34] Lucy Mailing; Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:10:46] Dr. Michael Rose; Interview on Dan Pardi's podcast: Is the Paleo Diet Good or Bad for Aging? Podcast with Professor Michael Rose.

[00:11:23] Trader Joe's Paleo.

[00:13:18] Bruce Parry’s documentary on the Matis.

[00:17:10] Psychedelics for altered states.

[00:19:27] Microdosing LSD increases neuroticism; Study: Polito, Vince, and Richard J. Stevenson. "A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics." PloS one 14.2 (2019): e0211023.

[00:19:45] Researcher James Fadiman; Interview on the Tim Ferriss podcast; Book: The Psychedelic Explorer's Guide.

 [00:21:08] Jessica Bertram.

[00:23:04] Book: Keep the River on Your Right, by Tobias Schneebaum.

[00:24:07] Ayahuasca.

[00:27:30] Plants and animals are indistinguishable by some criteria; Diana Rodgers, RD interviews Andrew Smith on the Sustainable Dish Podcast.

[00:31:08] Books by Russ Harris: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap, plus his training courses.

[00:39:38] Stephanie Welch; Podcast: The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[00:44:12] Mircea Eliade.

[00:45:00] Separation from the identity of having an illness.

[00:48:35] Sam Harris; Waking Up app.

[00:50:36] San Pedro cactus.

[00:54:25] Movement coach Ido Portal; Book: The Sports Gene, by David Epstein.

[00:55:31] John Ratey, MD; neuroplasticity through movement.

[00:56:14] A Book of Five Rings, by Miyamoto Musashi.

[00:59:14] Book: 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, by Jordan Peterson.

[01:04:00] Are psychedelics necessary?

[01:05:10] Carl Jung; Collective unconscious.

[01:17:32] Ben House, PhD; Flo Retreat Center; Podcasts with Ben: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, and Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[01:23:06] Find Daniel on his website, Facebook and Instagram.

Nov 08, 2019
CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype?
53:20

At the 2019 Ancestral Health Symposium, I managed to catch up with metabolism and fitness expert Mike T. Nelson, PhD. Mike was there presenting on a subject that many in the health space find both intriguing and confusing: cannabinoids and CBD. Really, who amongst us hasn’t wondered if using CBD will get us in hot water at the next work-related drug screening? And is it even legal?

On this podcast, Mike demystifies the terms bantered about when it comes to the cannabis plant.  What exactly is the difference between hemp, THC, and CBD anyway? He cuts through the marketing hype and talks about the specific health conditions that respond best to cannabidiol (CBD). He also shares exactly how he uses it to prevent brain injury during extreme sports.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mike T. Nelson:

[00:00:11] Mike’s Ancestral Health Symposium 2019 talk: Mike Nelson - CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype? - AHS19.

[00:02:30] Charlotte's Web cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:03:33] FDA warning letters to CBD companies.

[00:03:43] Mislabeled CBD products (low CBD, high THC); Study: Freedman, Daniel A., and Anup D. Patel. "Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products." Pediatric neurology briefs 32 (2018): 3-3.

[00:04:06] Getting terms straight: Cannabis, hemp, CBD, THC, marijuana, and others.

[00:04:30] Cannabis found in 2700 year old grave in ancient China. Study: Russo, Ethan B., et al. "Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia." Journal of experimental botany 59.15 (2008): 4171-4182.

[00:09:40] Leonhart Fuchs cultivated cannabis sativa in 1542.

[00:09:52] Difficulty in differentiating between Sativa, Indica, and hybrid strains; Study: Schwabe, Anna L., and Mitchell E. McGlaughlin. "Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: Implications for a budding industry." Journal of Cannabis Research 1.1 (2019): 3.

[00:13:20] Entourage effect; Study: Ben-Shabat, Shimon, et al. "An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity." European journal of pharmacology 353.1 (1998): 23-31.

[00:15:36] THC use associated with survival after traumatic brain injury (TBI); Nguyen, Brian M., et al. "Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury." The American Surgeon 80.10 (2014): 979-983.

[00:16:48] Animal studies support the use of cannabinoids for TBI: Maroon, Joseph, and Jeff Bost. "Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids." Surgical neurology international 9 (2018).

[00:17:55] CBD has a cerebroprotective effect; Study: Khaksar, Sepideh, and Mohammad Reza Bigdeli. "Intra-cerebral cannabidiol infusion-induced neuroprotection is partly associated with the TNF-α/TNFR1/NF-кB pathway in transient focal cerebral ischaemia." Brain injury 31.13-14 (2017): 1932-1943.

[00:19:11] Mike's pre-kiteboarding supplement regimen; Cerebroprotective effects of creatine; Study: Sullivan, Patrick G., et al. "Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury." Annals of neurology 48.5 (2000): 723-729.

[00:21:46] Pros and cons of CBD use. Safety: 1. Ahmed, Amir IA, et al. "Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: a randomized controlled trial." European Neuropsychopharmacology 24.9 (2014): 1475-1482; 2. van den Elsen, Geke AH, et al. "Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review." Ageing research reviews 14 (2014): 56-64.

[00:23:36] Cost of 300mg of Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil per day = $7.50/day.

[00:25:06] Rescuing energy metabolism in the brain; Podcast: The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers, with Brianna Stubbs, PhD.

[00:29:08] Effects of cannabidiol on cortisol; Study: Zuardi, A. W., F. S. Guimaraes, and A. C. Moreira. "Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers." Brazilian journal of medical and biological research= Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas 26.2 (1993): 213-217.

[00:31:19] CBD and sleep; Review of clinical trials: Kuhathasan, Nirushi, et al. "The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials." Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology (2019).

[00:33:04] Top 3 potential uses for CBD: Sleep, head trauma, pain.

[00:35:10] THC and CBD for pain.

[00:37:01] Grasshopper for vaping tools. 

[00:37:28] CBD oils.

[00:38:03] Vaping less harmful than cigarettes; Studies: 1. McNeill, Ann, et al. "Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018." A report commissioned by Public Health England. London: Public Health England 6 (2018), 2. Walele, Tanvir, et al. "Evaluation of the safety profile of an electronic vapour product used for two years by smokers in a real-life setting." Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 92 (2018): 226-238.

[00:40:30] CBD in beverages.

[00:42:26] Will CBD get you busted at work? THC amount might be much higher than the label indicates; Study: Freedman, Daniel A., and Anup D. Patel. "Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products." Pediatric neurology briefs 32 (2018): 3-3.

[00:47:03] CBD as an ergogenic aid. Review: Jorm, Anthony F., et al. "Gender differences in cognitive abilities: The mediating role of health state and health habits." Intelligence 32.1 (2004): 7-23.

[00:48:13] State-dependent memory.

[00:50:11] Work with Mike: www.miketnelson.com. Flex Diet Certification.

Nov 01, 2019
Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top
01:25:07

Kirk Parsley, MD, inventor of Sleep Remedy, has been a member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine since 2006 and has served as Naval Special Warfare’s expert on Sleep Medicine. A retired Navy SEAL, he is currently a performance consultant, helping others to achieve the highest quality of life possible while realizing their health, performance, and longevity goals.

In this interview, Greg Potter, PhD talks with Dr. Parsley about the critical role sleep plays in cognitive, emotional, and physical health. They discuss the best supplements to help with sleep and some good reasons to avoid pharmaceutical sleeping pills. “Doc” Parsley shares why he recently reformulated Sleep Remedy to be even more effective, not just for falling asleep but also staying asleep at night.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kirk Parsley:

[00:00:08] Greg Potter’s previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health and Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes.

[00:00:28] Doc Parsley's previous podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:01:30] Book: Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top, by Kirk Parsley.

[00:02:25] Sleep and the endocrine system.

[00:02:44] Karen R. Kelly, PhD; Research with Navy SEALs.

[00:05:36] Who should take supplements to improve sleep.

[00:10:06] History behind Sleep Remedy; the rationale for changing the formulation.

[00:20:21] Over the counter Melatonin can vary range from -83% to +478% of the labeled content. Study: Erland, Lauren AE, and Praveen K. Saxena. "Melatonin natural health products and supplements: presence of serotonin and significant variability of melatonin content." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13.02 (2017): 275-281.

[00:30:54] High doses of melatonin, chronically, could decrease receptor density.

[00:33:15] Sleep maintenance insomnia; Circadin (time release melatonin).

[00:33:36] Who benefits from Sleep Remedy?

[00:33:55] Sleeping pill use associated with earlier death; Study: Kripke, Daniel F. "Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit." F1000Research 5 (2016).

[00:34:30] The World Health Organization: Shift work is a type 2A carcinogen.

[00:36:53] Robb Wolf’s risk assessment program in Reno, NV: Part 1, Part 2.

[00:38:53] Phosphatidylserine decreases adrenal hormones during intensive exercises; Studies: 1. Monteleone, Palmiero, et al. "Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men." European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 42.4 (1992): 385-388. 2. Starks, Michael A., et al. "The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 5.1 (2008): 11.

[00:43:40] Using Sleep Remedy during jet lag.

[00:46:56] Jet Lag Rooster; Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:50:28] Magnesium: involvement in regulating sleep and wakefulness.

[00:51:25] Magtein (magnesium L-threonate).

[00:53:50] L-theanine and GABA.

[00:58:00] Tracking sleep; Oura Ring, Whoop strap, Garmin watches.

[01:00:01] Blood testing to measure effects of improved sleep.

[01:01:12] Lumosity for neurocognitive testing.

[01:01:44] Sleep deprivation reduces Emotional Quotient (EQ); Studies: Van Der Helm, Els, Ninad Gujar, and Matthew P. Walker. "Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human emotions." Sleep 33.3 (2010): 335-342; 2. Nota, Jacob A., and Meredith E. Coles. "Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep onset latency are related to difficulty disengaging attention from negative emotional images in individuals with elevated transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking." Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry 58 (2018): 114-122; 3. Killgore, William DS, et al. "Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills." Sleep medicine 9.5 (2008): 517-526.

[01:03:02] Sleep deprivations causes contagious social withdrawal and loneliness; Study: Simon, Eti Ben, and Matthew P. Walker. "Sleep loss causes social withdrawal and loneliness." Nature communications 9.1 (2018): 3146.

[01:03:30] Effects of sleep deprivation on couples: Troxel, Wendy M. "It’s more than sex: Exploring the dyadic nature of sleep and implications for health." Psychosomatic medicine 72.6 (2010): 578.

[01:04:38] Start School Later: organization advocating for later school start times for adolescents. Many studies indicating teens aren’t getting enough sleep.

[01:06:37] Kirk’s TEDx Talk: America's biggest problem | Kirk Parsley | TEDxReno.

[01:06:52] Peptides. Epitalon synthetic peptide.

[01:16:00] Sleep enhancing tips.

[01:20:50] Bed rocking improves deep sleep and memory; Study: Perrault, Aurore A., et al. "Whole-night continuous rocking entrains spontaneous neural oscillations with benefits for sleep and memory." Current Biology 29.3 (2019): 402-411.

[01:22:36] Doc Parsley’s website.

Oct 25, 2019
How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution
38:31

Our resident neurologist and banjo afficionado Josh Turknett, MD is back on the podcast with me to talk about the premise behind his Ancestral Health Symposium 2019 talk, How to Win at Angry Birds. It’s a paradigm for how best to approach health and performance and has far-reaching implications that will help you simplify efforts to optimise your health. 

In this interview, Josh talks about his 4-quadrant model, a detector for finding a signal in the health noise. In an age where specialization and technology have become the norm and the next health trend is around the corner, it’s easy for the big picture to be obscured. Josh offers a model for prioritising interventions that will give you the greatest benefit with the least disruption. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:44] Josh's 2019 AHS talk: How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm.

[00:00:57] Few significant advances in medical therapeutics.

[00:04:05] The parable of Angry Birds: Team Game Level vs. Team Source Code.

[00:09:35] Four-quadrant model. (Here’s my version of Josh’s talk - go to minute 11:34 for a visual of the 4-quadrant model.)

[00:12:49] First quadrant: Game-level supportive interventions (e.g., sleep, diet).

[00:14:09] Second quadrant: Game-level interventions that are exploitative or disruptive (extreme heat/cold, HIIT, mindfulness).

[00:15:16] Third quadrant: Source code level interventions that are supportive in nature (e.g., taking a supplement to correct a deficiency).

[00:16:45] Fourth quadrant - Source-code level interventions that are disruptive (e.g., pharmaceuticals).

[00:25:52] Learning to play anything: feedback loop.

[00:27:19] Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: 1. Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) 2. A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:28:43] Book: First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began, by David W. Deamer.

[00:31:40] Dale Bredesen.

[00:31:53] Book: The Four Tendencies, by Gretchen Rubin.

[00:32:36] The Intelligence Unshackled Podcast.

[00:34:44] First Do No Harm approach to education.

[00:35:34] Josh's on Patreon; elitecognition.com.

[00:36:38] The Migraine Miracle website; Josh’s previous podcast appearance: The Migraine Miracle.

Oct 18, 2019
NBT People: Integrative Oncologist Stacy D’Andre, MD
01:15:04

Stacy D’Andre, MD is a board-certified internal medicine specialist and oncologist who sees patients at Sutter Health in Northern California. She is also a Principal Investigator for National Cancer Institute-sponsored oncology group clinical trials and studies supported by the Sutter Institute for Medical Research. She has authored numerous publications, book chapters, and abstracts on emerging treatment options for gynecologic and GI cancers. She has also been an NBT client for the last two years.

In this interview, Stacy and I talk about her recent switch to an integrative medicine approach to cancer treatment. She describes some of the progressive cancer therapies she uses in her practice, including lifestyle change, cannabis, and turkey tail mushrooms. She also shares several case studies in which integrative treatment strategies made the difference for her patients.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stacy D’Andre:

[00:00:53] Background as an ice skater.

[00:06:06] Health problems: Keto diet, thyroid problems.

[00:10:00] Gut problems.

[00:10:23] Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg KcKeown.

[00:10:43] The Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM).

[00:15:00] Book: Payoff: The Hidden Logic that Shapes Our Motivations, by Dan Ariely.

[00:18:05] Answers to, “Why do you think you got cancer?”

[00:19:19] Sutter Health.

[00:20:05] People with high fiber diet 5x more likely to respond to immunotherapy, while those taking probiotics do worse: Study: Spencer, Christine N., et al. "The gut microbiome (GM) and immunotherapy response are influenced by host lifestyle factors." (2019): 2838-2838.

[00:24:02] Calm; Headspace.

[00:24:49] Dealing with stress at the source vs at the target.

[00:27:03] Cannabis; Marinol.

[00:28:05] Synthetic vs natural cannabis.

[00:29:21] Chemovar profile (“strain” of cannabis) is critical for treating specific types of cancer. Study: Russo, Ethan Budd. "The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain." Frontiers in plant science 9 (2018): 1969.

[00:29:50] Cannabinoids effective in glioblastoma multiforme; Study: Twelves, Chris, et al. "A two-part safety and exploratory efficacy randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a 1: 1 ratio of the cannabinoids cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD: THC) plus dose-intense temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)." (2017): 2046-2046.

[00:31:29] Epidiolex, a high-CBD strain for the treatment of seizures in childhood epilepsy.

[00:34:22] THC vs. Cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:35:13] Terpenes - some are sedating, some are activating.

[00:35:34] Pinene - activating.

[00:36:41] Case study #1 - male with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

[00:38:43] Patient #1 - Slides (graph is on page 23).

[00:39:36] Metformin; HumanOS podcast: Does Metformin Block the Health Benefits of Exercise? Podcast with Ben Miller.

[00:40:28] Turkey Tail mushrooms improve natural killer cell function. Study: Torkelson, Carolyn J., et al. "Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor in women with breast cancer." ISRN oncology 2012 (2012).

[00:41:04] Real Mushrooms.

[00:42:03] Book: Radical Remission: Surviving Cancer Against All Odds, by Kelly A. Turner, PhD.

[00:42:25] Meaning vs purpose.

[00:43:22] Book: The Power of Now, by Eckhart Tolle.

[00:44:23] Case study #2: Female with triple-negative breast cancer.

[00:45:36] Elevated bilirubin: Gilbert's syndrome; nutritional treatments.

[00:47:51] Hormetea.

[00:49:00] Case study #3: female with breast cancer.

[00:51:04] Case study #4: 75-year old female with breast cancer.

[00:51:59] Neuropathy and high B6; CBD for peripheral neuropathy.

[00:54:26] Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) test to assess for B12 deficiency.

[00:55:13] Case study #5: 59-year old female with recurrent uterine cancer.

[00:59:15] Anti-cancer properties of green tea and curcumin.

[01:02:08] Preventing cancer: diet, water, exercise, manage stress, sleep.

[01:02:57] Contaminants in drinking water as a contributor to cancer. Study: Evans, Sydney, Chris Campbell, and Olga V. Naidenko. "Cumulative risk analysis of carcinogenic contaminants in United States drinking water." Heliyon 5.9 (2019): e02314.

[01:03:31] Book: Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, by Robert Sapolsky.

[01:04:39] Integrative medicine training courses for doctors: IFM, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine, American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M).

[01:05:49] Working within the existing health system.

[01:10:43] Work with Stacy at Sutter Health.

[01:11:48] Find a doctor: Society for Integrative Oncology; IFM practitioner database.

[01:12:56] Upcoming speaking engagements: (email Stacy for evites):

  • Integrative Oncology - Sacramento (10/19/19)
  • Intro to Medical Cannabis - Nevada City (11/14/19)
  • “Mini Med School” series - Mills Peninsula (2/13/20)
Oct 11, 2019
Food Lies and the Diet for Peak Human Performance
58:16

Brian Sanders is the filmmaker behind the documentary, Food Lies, and the host of the Peak Human Podcast. Brian’s background is in mechanical engineering and technology, and he’s driven to help others reverse chronic disease using ancestral health and wellness principles. Brian has recently partnered with a physician as a health coach and is building technology to help people communicate with their doctors, track their health, and implement a healthy diet. 

In this podcast, Brian and I talk about his film, which touts the benefits of a nutrient-dense whole food diet and debunks myths about eating meat and saturated fat. We discuss the many aspects of his ancestral-health outreach, including his Nose to Tail farm that ships 100% grass-fed meat and the SAPIEN diet plan he makes freely available to everyone.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brian Sanders:

[00:00:19] Documentary: Food Lies (still being crowdfunded).

[00:00:28] Brian's background; family health problems.

[00:02:17] Mark Sisson.

[00:03:21] Documentary: What the Health.

[00:03:55] Food in Hawaii.

[00:05:48] Weston A Price.

[00:11:03] Veganism in LA.

[00:12:48] Vinnie Tortorich; FAT: A Documentary.

[00:15:26] Carnivore vs vegan as a business model.

[00:16:45] SAPIEN Diet.

[00:20:38] Denise Minger; Kitavans, Tsimane in Bolivia.

[00:24:30] Calories do matter.

[00:26:35] Ted Naiman.

[00:26:59] Amber O'Hearn; Podcast: A Carnivore Diet for Physical and Mental Health.

[00:27:09] Bioavailability of zinc from oysters when eating corn tortillas and beans: Solomons, Noel W., et al. "Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man. II. Absorption of zinc from organic and inorganic sources." Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine (1979).

[00:31:35] Paul Saladino.

[00:32:15] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of your Weight, Your mood, and Your Long-Term Health, by Justin Sonnenburg.

[00:32:49] Gary Taubes.

[00:33:07] Bill Lagakos on animal fibre.  Podcast with Bill: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:34:59] Top priority: Get yourself fat adapted.

[00:36:54] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: 1. High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea…, 2. The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, 3. How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[00:41:00] Dr. Gary Shlifer

[00:41:25] Virta Health.

[00:42:48] Nose to Tail; US Wellness Meats.

[00:44:48] Dr. Frank Mitloehner.

[00:45:29] Diana Rodgers, RD, Sacred Cow film; Podcast with Diana Rodgers: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat.

[00:45:45] Savory Institute; Robb Wolf on sustainable meat farming.

[00:45:55] Book: War on Carbs, by Mark Bell.

[00:48:45] Peak Human Podcast guests: Prof. Tim Noakes, Jeff Volek, Mark Sisson, Paul Saladino. USDA scientist Dr. David Klurfeld.

Oct 04, 2019
EMFs: Why You Should Care and What to Do
01:09:33

Nick Pineault is an investigative health journalist specializing in electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and their effects on human health.  His mission is to spread awareness about the potential dangers of wireless technologies and work with industry and governments to find safe solutions. He has recently authored a book called The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs and has developed a training course for health professionals and optimisers on how to dramatically reduce exposure and symptoms related to EMF radiation.

In this interview, Nick gives practical advice for mitigating exposure to EMFs without giving up the convenience of electronic devices. He shares simple adjustments you can make to keep EMFs from interfering with your sleep and your health and recommends specific tools and devices for managing, measuring and blocking unwanted radiation.  Be sure to download this episode and put your device on Airplane Mode while you listen! 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nick Pineault:

[00:00:12] Nick’s book: The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs: How to Fix Our Stupid Use of Technology; Training course: Electrosmog RX: The EMF Health Solution.

[00:00:18] Podcast: Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs): The Controversy, the Science, and How to Protect Yourself, with Dr. Joseph Mercola.

[00:00:33] Electromagnetic Fields (EMF): Definition and controversy.

[00:04:52] Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt, MD, PhD, Dr. Dan Pompa, Dr. Zach Bush, MD.

[00:06:52] Dr. Martin Pall, PhD; Dr. Paul Héroux, PhD.

[00:08:04] Dr. Magda Havas, PhD. Dr. Joel Moskowitz, PhD.  

[00:08:45] The EMF Scientist Appeal to the United Nations, Bioinitiative 2012: A Rationale for Biologically-based Exposure Standards for Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation.

[00:09:19] EMF-Portal.

[00:09:51] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) (4/16/18) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:12:55] Faraday cage.

[00:14:26] Nick’s interview with Pawel Wypychowski

[00:15:56] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:19:31] 5th generation cellular network technology (5G).

[00:24:36] 6G Wireless Summit ‘19 in Finland.

[00:27:14] US Senator Richard Blumenthal raises concerns on 5G health risks.

[00:30:09] Article: Radiation concerns halt Brussels 5G development, for now

[00:30:52] Simon Marshall, PhD on SEEDS; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health.

[00:31:48] Studies on EMF and melatonin: Touitou, Yvan, and Brahim Selmaoui. "The effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol, two marker rhythms of the circadian system." Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 14.4 (2012): 381.

[00:34:35] Geovital consultants.

[00:34:56] EMF effects on electroencephalogram (EEG) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV): 1. Gjoneska, Biljana, et al. "Brain Topography of Emf-Induced Eeg-Changes in Restful Wakefulness: Tracing Current Effects, Targeting Future Prospects." prilozi 36.3 (2015): 103-112; 2. McNamee, David Andrew, et al. "A literature review: the cardiovascular effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields." International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 82.8 (2009): 919-933.

[00:38:26] Mitigating risk while streaming music and podcasts.

[00:39:17] Effects of using Bluetooth.

[00:44:22] Professor Dariusz Leszczynski's blog.

[00:48:15] Grounding your computer using 3-pin power cord.

[00:49:14] Create distance between you and your device. Roost stand.

[00:51:01] Managing your wifi; Ethernet.

[00:53:49] WaveCage.

[00:54:54] EMF Meters.

[00:56:09] Video: How To: Detect & Eliminate Hotel Room EMFs (+ why a router under the bed is bad news).

[00:59:33] A good meter for beginners: ENV RD-10

[01:00:30] Shielded Healing - Brian Hoyer.

[01:02:26] Nick’s YouTube channel.

[01:04:30] Summary of practical steps.

[01:05:35] Putting wifi on a Christmas light timer.

[01:08:13] Nick’s website.

Sep 26, 2019
How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome
01:04:24

Lucy Mailing is an MD/PhD student at the University of Illinois. She recently completed her PhD in Nutritional Sciences and continues to perform research on the impact of diet and exercise on the gut microbiome in states of health and disease. She has authored several peer-reviewed journal articles related to the microbiome and health and was recently named an Emerging Leader in Nutritional Sciences by the American Society for Nutrition. Lucy has also been a staff research associate for the Kresser Institute for four years and writes about evidence-based gut health on her blog. She plans to begin medical school at the University of Illinois in 2020 after a year dedicated to writing and the launch of a gut-related startup.

In this podcast, Lucy discusses the most promising trends and research in gut health. She talks about the best and worst ways to test for GI problems and the effects of exercise intensity and diet change on the gut microbiota. She also challenges the notion that ketogenic and high-fat diets are bad for the gut, and explains why your SIBO breath test results might be inaccurate. 

Lucy is a fine example of one of the many wonderful experts who have shaped NBT into what it is today—an online clinic helping athletes and likeminded people overcome chronic health complaints and improve performance. If you’re an athlete and you’ve been listening to the podcast for a while and you’re still struggling with your gut health, feel free to come to the front page where you’ll find a button to book a free starter session. During the session, we’ll take a look at your history and share how we’d work with you. We now have a variety of billing options, one of which will make sense for you.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lucy Mailing:

[00:00:21] Ancestral Health Symposium; Lucy’s presentation slides; Look for the video from Lucy’s 2019 presentations to be posted on the AHS YouTube channel in the upcoming months. 

[00:01:17] Becoming interested in the microbiome.

[00:03:01] Working with Chris Kresser; ADAPT Health Coach Training.

[00:07:49] Why the focus on the microbiome?

[00:08:25] Transplanted human microbiome into sterile mice, mice take on phenotype of donor; Study: Zheng, P., et al. "Gut microbiome remodeling induces depressive-like behaviors through a pathway mediated by the host’s metabolism." Molecular psychiatry 21.6 (2016): 786.

[00:09:30] What does a healthy microbiome look like?

[00:13:09] Viome; metatranscriptomics.

[00:14:37] 16S testing; uBiome.

[00:15:06] Proteobacteria as a red flag that colonic epithelial cells are starving for energy. Study: Hughes, Elizabeth R., et al. "Microbial respiration and formate oxidation as metabolic signatures of inflammation-associated dysbiosis." Cell host & microbe 21.2 (2017): 208-219.

[00:16:24] Jason Hawrelak; Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health.

[00:17:29] Butyrate; Is supplementing a good idea? Tesseract, ProButyrate.

[00:21:17] Dietary recommendations: Microbiota accessible carbohydrates (term from Justin Sonnenberg).

[00:22:37] Preliminary evidence that reduced carbohydrate diet may be beneficial for people with inflammatory bowel disease; Study: Suskind, David L., et al. "Clinical and fecal microbial changes with diet therapy in active inflammatory bowel disease." Journal of clinical gastroenterology 52.2 (2018): 155.

00:23:42] Carnivore diet.

[00:25:01] Dr. Michael Mosley; Robb Wolf.

[00:27:59] Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from ketogenic mice; Study: Olson, Christine A., et al. "The gut microbiota mediates the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet." Cell 173.7 (2018): 1728-1741.

[00:29:54] Autologous FMT restores the ecosystem after antibiotics: Study: Taur, Ying, et al. "Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant." Science translational medicine 10.460 (2018): eaap9489.

[00:31:17] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: 1. High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea…, 2. The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, 3. How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[00:33:35] Taymount Clinic for FMT.

[00:34:11] Recent FDA report on risks of infection related to FMT.

[00:34:49] Doctor's Data stool testing; PCR sequence-based testing.

[00:35:40] Culture vs PCR.

[00:39:27] Diagnostic Solutions GI-MAP as a PCR DNA stool test.

[00:41:04] Metagenomics; Onegevity, Sun Genomics, DayTwo.

[00:42:37] Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth (SIBO) breath testing; Mark Pimentel, MD.

[00:42:57] Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:43:33] Lucy's blog posts on SIBO breath testing: All about SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth, and What the latest research reveals about SIBO.

[00:43:41] A positive breath test may not be due to SIBO; Study: Connolly, Lynn, and Lin Chang. "Combined orocecal scintigraphy and lactulose hydrogen breath testing demonstrate that breath testing detects orocecal transit, not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome." Gastroenterology 141.3 (2011): 1118-1121.

[00:46:11] Individuals with SIBO may in fact have small intestinal dysbiosis; Study: Saffouri, George B., et al. "Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders." Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 2012.

[00:48:00] What you can learn from a uBiome Explorer 16S test.

[00:54:17] Probiotics, prebiotics; Pomegranate husk powder.

[00:58:02] Response to prebiotics is highly individualized; Study: Venkataraman, A., et al. "Variable responses of human microbiomes to dietary supplementation with resistant starch." Microbiome 4.1 (2016): 33.

[00:59:50] Effects of exercise on the microbiome; Studies: 1. Allen, Jacob M., et al. "Exercise alters gut microbiota composition and function in lean and obese humans." Med Sci Sports Exerc 50.4 (2018): 747-757; 2. Allen, Jacob M., et al. "Voluntary and forced exercise differentially alters the gut microbiome in C57BL/6J mice." Journal of applied physiology118.8 (2015): 1059-1066; 3. Allen, J. M., et al. "Exercise training-induced modification of the gut microbiota persists after microbiota colonization and attenuates the response to chemically-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice." Gut Microbes 9.2 (2018): 115-130.

[01:02:26] Research on the microbiome of marathoners; Study: 1. Zhao, Xia, et al. "Response of gut microbiota to metabolite changes induced by endurance exercise." Frontiers in microbiology 9 (2018): 765; 2. Scheiman, Jonathan, et al. "Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism." Nature Medicine (2019): 1.

[01:02:39] Lauren Petersen; Study: Petersen, Lauren M., et al. "Community characteristics of the gut microbiomes of competitive cyclists." Microbiome 5.1 (2017): 98. Our 2016 podcast with Lauren: The Athlete Microbiome Project: The Search for the Golden Microbiome.

[01:05:51] Find Lucy: NextGen Medicine.

[01:07:04] Dr. Josh Turknett’s Migraine Miracle. Our podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

Sep 19, 2019
The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World
01:04:46

Ancestral health advocate and pioneer of Evolutionary Feminism Stephanie Welch is back on the podcast today. We met up at the Ancestral Health Symposium in San Diego, California in August where she gave a talk on gender-segregated housing as an alternative to the traditional nuclear family. Stephanie is dedicated to exploring the boundaries of relationships and sexuality, and she makes a compelling case for a living arrangement most of us have never considered.

In this podcast, Stephanie identifies the time in history that humans abandoned tribal living and gravitated to segregated nuclear families and sexual monogamy. She talks about the many ways this change has been a detriment to society, resulting in families and relationships lacking in social support and other basic human needs. She also offers solutions for re-establishing aspects of tribal living in a modern world.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephanie Welch:

[00:00:50] Stephanie's previous podcast: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision.

[00:02:09] Josh Turknett; Intelligence Unshackled Podcast. If you're going to intervene, you better have a good reason to do it.

[00:04:35] Books: Sex at Dawn by Christopher Ryan, et al.; Civilized to Death, by Christopher Ryan; Sex at Dusk, by Lynn Saxon.

[00:06:14] Ancestral Health Symposium videos - look for 2019 presentations to be posted in the next several months.

[00:06:24] Differences in male and female reproductive strategies.

[00:07:56] The need for a robust system of caretakers.

[00:09:41] Bruce Parry, documentary filmmaker, visits modern hunter-gatherers.

[00:10:21] The nuclear family vs. the tribe as a reproductive unit.

[00:12:56] Agriculture as a catalyst to dividing the tribe into nuclear family houses and sexual monogamy.

[00:15:40] Book: Against the grain, by James C. Scott.

[00:21:13] The things a domestic environment should provide: health, social relationships, growth.

[00:22:34] Julian Abel on NBT podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, and Michael Ruscio's podcast: The Importance of Community Interventions in Healthcare.

[00:27:59] The problem with living with a romantic partner.

[00:36:43] Challenging the convention of monogamy.

[00:41:30] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:43:06] Steps to take to move in this new direction.

[00:50:13] Our recent podcast with Malcolm Kendrick: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World. His first podcast with us in 2018: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead).

[00:52:00] What about gay people? An evolutionary perspective.

[00:54:49] Robert Epstein on STEM-Talk, the Epstein Sexual Orientation Inventory (ESOI).

[01:01:33] Find Stephanie: Recivilized Woman; Twitter; Paleo Fx; Future Frontiers; Physicians for Ancestral Health.

Sep 10, 2019
A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World
02:22:55

Scottish doctor, writer, speaker, and outspoken cholesterol sceptic Malcolm Kendrick is back on the podcast this week. He continues to challenge the widespread use of statin medications, despite being targeted personally and professionally by those opposing his message. Since we last talked he has authored a new book, A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, elucidating his position against mainstream medicine’s rampant cholesterol-lowering tactics. 

On this podcast, Dr. Kendrick describes in detail exactly what he believes drives the process of cardiovascular disease, informed from 35 years of research on the subject.  He explains specifically why cholesterol has been misunderstood, and how medicine got it wrong. We discuss corruption in medical research and the money supporting the status quo, and Dr. Kendrick shares some of the best ways to avoid heart disease (which have little to do with diet!).

Here’s the outline of this interview with Malcolm Kendrick:

[00:00:07] Our first podcast with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead).

[00:00:30] Book: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, by Dr. Malcolm Kendrick. His previous two books: Doctoring Data and The Cholesterol Con.

[00:02:00] Causes vs processes.

[00:03:40] History behind his journey and questioning authority.

[00:07:30] Articles written by Elspeth Smith.

[00:09:00] Karl Rokitansky’s paper discussing an alternative way of looking at CVD: A manual of pathological anatomy, Vol. 4. Day GE, trans. London: Sydenham Society, 1852:261; in print here.

[00:09:06] Rudolf Virchow, researcher who pointed to cholesterol in artery walls.

[00:10:55] Researcher Nikolai N. Anichkov: fed rabbits a high-cholesterol diet and cholesterol appeared in their arteries (sort of).

[00:12:07] Ancel Keys; blaming saturated fat.

[00:14:11] France - highest saturated fat consumption, lowest rate of CVD. Georgia - lowest sat fat consumption, highest rate of CVD.  See graph, here.

[00:15:16] International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS). Study: Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review." BMJ open 6.6 (2016): e010401.

[00:16:50] Pleiotropic effects of statins.

[00:17:29] Movie: 12 Angry Men (1957).

[00:20:30] Robert Ross - response to injury hypothesis; Study: Ross, Russell, John Glomset, and Laurence Harker. "Response to injury and atherogenesis." The American journal of pathology 86.3 (1977): 675.

[00:20:40] TV show: Stranger Things.

[00:22:31] Infectious disease hypothesis.

[00:22:52] Analogy of rust in the paint of a car; Sickle Cell Disease as an example.

[00:27:12] 14-year old boy with Sickle Cell and atherosclerosis; Study: Elsharawy, M. A., and K. M. Moghazy. "Peripheral arterial lesions in patient with sickle cell disease." EJVES Extra 14.2 (2007): 15-18.

[00:28:57] Endothelial progenitor cells, produced in the bone marrow, discovered in 1997.

[00:29:31] Pig study of endothelial turnover: Caplan, Bernard A., and Colin J. Schwartz. "Increased endothelial cell turnover in areas of in vivo Evans Blue uptake in the pig aorta." Atherosclerosis 17.3 (1973): 401-417.

[00:31:48] Vitamin C's role in maintaining collagen and blood vessels.

[00:33:08] Lp(a) molecules - patching cracks in the artery walls.

[00:33:42] Depriving guinea pigs of vitamin C caused atherosclerosis; Study: Willis, G. C. "The reversibility of atherosclerosis." Canadian Medical Association Journal 77.2 (1957): 106.

[00:34:24] Linus Pauling - said CVD was caused by chronic low-level vitamin C deficiency.

[00:35:53] What else damages endothelial cells? Many things, including smoking, air pollution, high blood sugar, Kawasaki disease, sepsis/infection.

[00:41:19] Glycocalyx; Nitric oxide.

[00:43:30] Health benefits of sun exposure.

[00:44:26] Biomechanical stress (blood pressure) - atherosclerosis in arteries but not in veins.

[00:47:57] Things that interfere with repair: steroids, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors.

[00:55:00] The effects of stress on the cardiovascular system.

[00:57:55] Red blood cells are what brings cholesterol into blood clots.

[00:58:59] Cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques come from red blood cells. Study: Kolodgie, Frank D., et al. "Intraplaque hemorrhage and progression of coronary atheroma." New England Journal of Medicine 349.24 (2003): 2316-2325.

[01:00:55] Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are procoagulant; High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is anticoagulant.

[01:03:46] Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH); Factor VIII.

[01:08:15] Cholesterol-lowering pharmaceuticals; Repatha. In the clinical trial, the total number of cardiovascular deaths was greater in the Repatha group than the placebo group. Study: Sabatine, Marc S., et al. "Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease." New England Journal of Medicine 376.18 (2017): 1713-1722.

[01:09:34] David Deamer, biologist and Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering.

[01:10:05] Karl Popper, philosopher.

[01:10:28] Bradford Hill’s Criteria for Causation.

[01:13:52] Michael Mosley, BBC journalist.

[01:16:40] Statin denialism - an internet cult with deadly consequences?

[01:19:18] The money behind the statin and low-fat industries.

[01:20:06] Margarine; Trans-fatty acids, banned in several countries.

[01:24:37] The impact of food; The focus on food to the exclusion of other pillars of health.

[01:26:38] Dr. Phil Hammond; CLANGERS

[01:28:21] Avoiding internet attacks.

[01:32:00] ApoA-1 Milano. Original study: Nissen, Steven E., et al. "Effect of recombinant ApoA-I Milano on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 290.17 (2003): 2292-2300.

[01:33:05] The Heart Protection (HPS) Study in the UK: Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. "MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20 536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo controlled trial." The Lancet 360.9326 (2002): 7-22.

[01:33:36]  Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. "Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)." The Lancet 344.8934 (1994): 1383-1389.

[01:33:49] West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS): Shepherd, James, et al. "Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia." New England Journal of Medicine 333.20 (1995): 1301-1308.

[01:34:21] National Institute of Health’s ALLHAT-LLT trial: Officers, A. L. L. H. A. T. "Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs. usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT)." JAMA 288.23 (2002): 2998-3007.

[01:34:50] 2005 - Regulations guiding clinical trials changed.

[01:35:14] Negative antidepressant studies not published; Study: Turner, Erick H., et al. "Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy." New England Journal of Medicine 358.3 (2008): 252-260.

[01:37:11] Minnesota Coronary Experiment (MCE): Analysis of recovered data: Ramsden, Christopher E., et al. "Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)." bmj 353 (2016): i1246.

[01:39:44] Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: Ioannidis, John PA. "Why most published research findings are false." PLoS medicine 2.8 (2005): e124.

[01:39:55] Richard Horton, editor of the Lancet: half of what is published is not true: Horton, Richard. "Offline: What is medicine’s 5 sigma." Lancet 385.9976 (2015): 1380.

[01:41:11] The problem with reproducibility; a database of clinical trials that cannot be challenged or reproduced.

[01:42:37] Editors of prominent journals losing faith in published research: Marci Angell, Richard Smith

[01:44:55] Parachute study: Yeh, Robert W., et al. "Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma when jumping from aircraft: randomized controlled trial." bmj 363 (2018): k5094.

[01:46:01] Benefits that are major are obvious; no randomized clinical trial necessary.

[01:48:33] Preventing vs. screening.

[01:51:42] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance with physical therapist Zac Cupples.

[01:51:59] Analysis of women who died in various ways, examining breast tissue; found that a high % of women had what you could diagnose as breast cancer. Study: Bhathal, P. S., et al. "Frequency of benign and malignant breast lesions in 207 consecutive autopsies in Australian women." British journal of cancer 51.2 (1985): 271.

[01:53:34] Screening programs not associated with reduced CVD or death; Study: Krogsbøll, Lasse T., et al. "General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis." Bmj 345 (2012): e7191.

[01:54:26] Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan. Podcast: Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, with Ivor Cummins.

[01:54:46] Cardiologist Bernard Lown

[01:58:38] People who had measles/mumps less likely to get CVD; Study: Kubota, Yasuhiko, et al. "Association of measles and mumps with cardiovascular disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study." Atherosclerosis 241.2 (2015): 682-686.

[02:00:55] Life expectancy in US and UK is now falling.

[02:06:46] Physical health doesn't exist without social health and psychological health.

[02:07:40] Negative Twitter messages correlate with rates of heart disease; Study: Eichstaedt, Johannes C., et al. "Psychological language on Twitter predicts county-level heart disease mortality." Psychological science 26.2 (2015): 159-169.

[02:09:58] People who take statins believe they’re protected so they stop exercising. Study: Lee, David SH, et al. "Statins and physical activity in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study." JAMA internal medicine 174.8 (2014): 1263-1270.

[02:11:45] Simple changes: make friends, have good relationships, speak to your kids, exercise, eat natural food, sunshine.

[02:16:53] Blood sugar measurements following funny lecture vs. boring lecture; Study: Hayashi, Keiko, et al. "Laughter lowered the increase in postprandial blood glucose." Diabetes care 26.5 (2003): 1651-1652.

[02:18:08] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick’s blog.

Sep 02, 2019
Real Food Initiatives for Public Health in the UK
46:47

Sam Feltham is the Director of the Public Health Collaboration in the UK, a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of public health education. The PHC coordinates campaigns and produces evidence-based reports for improving pressing health issues, such as obesity and diabetes, which are on the rise in the UK and worldwide. I met up with Sam at the Real Food Rocks Festival in July, a family event coordinated by the PHC to bring people together with music, fun, and of course, real food.

In this podcast, Sam and I discuss the current initiatives being pursued by the Public Health Collaboration, including training and deploying a nationwide team of volunteer ambassadors to inform and implement healthier decisions at a local level. We discuss some of the obstacles encountered in educating the public, and Sam shares some of his long-term goals for a healthier future.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sam Feltham:

[00:00:09] Real Food Rocks Festival.

[00:02:25] The Public Health Collaboration (PHC).

[00:03:24] PHC Advisory Board members: Dr. David Unwin and Dr. Jen Unwin, Dr. Trudi Deakin.

[00:07:24] PHC Ambassadors Programme; currently 150 ambassadors across the country.

[00:08:58] Andy Bishop; reversed type-2 diabetes and now runs patient groups

[00:10:11] Current obstacles: perceived cost and the existing government guidelines.

[00:11:28] Sugar infographics, endorsed by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 

[00:12:48] The value of educating in small groups instead of individual sessions.

[00:16:35] Ivor Cummins; Podcasts: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:18:08] People under significant financial stress are 13 times more likely to have a heart attack. Study: Rosengren, Annika, et al. "Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11 119 cases and 13 648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study." The Lancet 364.9438 (2004): 953-962.

[00:20:17] Denmark’s saturated fat tax It didn’t last long.

[00:20:37] Influencing food policy; Real Food Lifestyle dietary guidelines.

[00:21:49] Tom Watson, deputy of the Labour Party. 

[00:23:55] Type 2 diabetes is currently 10% of the NHS budget.

[00:26:29] War on Plastic show on BBC One.

[00:27:32] The grocery store sugar-laden rat run.

[00:30:50] Patric Holden, founding director of the Sustainable Food Trust.

[00:32:00] Distributed food network.

[00:34:01] Getting people into the system before they have health problems.

[00:35:14] Changing the standards for hypertension in 2017.

[00:37:19] Dr. Michael Mosley; Documentary: Michael Mosley vs. The Superbugs.

[00:41:26] How to become an ambassador; phcuk.org/ambassadors.

Aug 27, 2019
Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk
48:21

Engineer, podcaster, author and speaker Ivor Cummins is back on the podcast today to talk about a topic that could save your life or the life of someone you love. Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC), a direct measure of arterial calcification obtained with a CT scan, is gaining respect as the best predictor of cardiovascular events. Indirect risk factors - like LDL cholesterol, though beloved by the medical establishment, pale in comparison.

Today Ivor talks about what really causes cardiovascular disease and how best to assess your risk. He discusses the science that supports the use of CAC to identify those most at risk - and by doing so, they can take steps to slow, stop or even reverse disease progression. Further validating Ivor’s work, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association are now formally recommending the CAC for middle-risk patients. As if that wasn’t enough, getting a CAC scan is affordable and probably available near you.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ivor Cummins:

[00:00:03] Real Food Rocks Festival.  

[00:01:33] Prevalence and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

[00:02:19] Decline in CVD between 70s and 90s: Roger, Véronique L., et al. "Time trends in the prevalence of atherosclerosis: a population-based autopsy study." The American journal of medicine110.4 (2001): 267-273. Rates of CVD from 1990-2013: O’Rourke, Kevin, et al. "Cardiovascular disease worldwide, 1990-2013." Jama 314.18 (2015): 1905-1905.

[00:02:39] Causes of CVD.

[00:05:27] Glycocalyx; Study: Noble, M. I. M., A. J. Drake-Holland, and H. Vink. "Hypothesis: arterial glycocalyx dysfunction is the first step in the atherothrombotic process." QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 101.7 (2008): 513-518.

[00:07:07] Glucose spikes causing damage to glycocalyx; Study: Nieuwdorp, Max, et al. "Loss of endothelial glycocalyx during acute hyperglycemia coincides with endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation in vivo." Diabetes 55.2 (2006): 480-486.

[00:07:49] Glycolyx thinning at arterial branch points become regions of atherogenic risk; Study: Gouverneur, Mirella, et al. "Vasculoprotective properties of the endothelial glycocalyx: effects of fluid shear stress." Journal of internal medicine259.4 (2006): 393-400.

[00:08:11] Potential autoimmune component to CVD.

[00:08:18] Gabor Erdosi, admin on the Lower Insulin Facebook group.

[00:09:59] Know your risk. Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan.

[00:10:52] Widowmaker movie.

[00:11:24] David Bobbett; Irish Heart Disease Awareness (IHDA).

[00:12:07] Rivers Hospital in UK.

[00:15:15] An 80-year old with a low score is 20x less likely to have a cardiac event in the next 10 yrs than a 50 yr old with a high score. Study: Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh, et al. "Association of coronary artery calcium and coronary heart disease events in young and elderly participants in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of a prospective, population-based cohort." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 89. No. 10. Elsevier, 2014.

[00:15:52] 2018 ACC/AHA Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol.

[00:17:34] Interpreting and understanding CAC results.

[00:20:03] Value of understanding your cholesterol levels.

[00:22:17] COURAGE trial: Boden, William E., et al. "Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease." New England journal of medicine 356.15 (2007): 1503-1516. ORBITA trial: Al-Lamee, Rasha, et al. "Percutaneous coronary intervention in stable angina (ORBITA): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet391.10115 (2018): 31-40.

[00:25:47] Why isn't the medical establishment using the CAC scan to assess for CVD?  

[00:26:05] CAC threatens to interfere with cath lab income, gets shut down.

[00:28:39] Getting your score back to zero.

[00:28:44] Feature documentary: Heart of the Matter.

[00:29:48] Heinz Nixdorf Recall study: Mahabadi, Amir A., et al. "The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study and its potential impact on the adoption of atherosclerosis imaging in European primary prevention guidelines." Current atherosclerosis reports 13.5 (2011): 367.

[00:31:54] Physiological perspective on how CAC can possibly reverse.

[00:33:45] Hyperbolic discounting; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:34:20] Donal O'Neill; Cereal Killers movie.

[00:35:21] Half-hour Extra Time documentary (at the top of the page).

[00:35:35] Cardiologist Dr. Scott Murray, president of the British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (BACPR).

[00:38:53] How to spread the word about getting scanned.

[00:39:49] The Fat Emperor podcast; Episode 32: Myopia and Eye Problems: How to Resolve via Resolution of Root Causes.

[00:40:11] Robert Lustig, MD.

[00:41:16] LDL Cholesterol not a good predictor of actual calcification (CAC); Study: Ware, William R. "The mainstream hypothesis that LDL cholesterol drives atherosclerosis may have been falsified by non-invasive imaging of coronary artery plaque burden and progression." Medical hypotheses 73.4 (2009): 596-600.

[00:42:44] Assessing your health between CAC scans: blood tests, CIMT (carotid-intima-media thickness).

[00:45:53] Find a scan centre near you. Note: Also try Googling your city/state and “heart scan”.

[00:46:37] If you enjoy this podcast, listen to his first podcast with us in March 2018: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease. You can also check out Ivor’s book, Eat Rich, Live Long and his YouTube channel.

Aug 20, 2019
Nutritional Ketosis and Guided Behavior Change to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes
01:10:08

James McCarter, MD, PhD. is a researcher and author of over 60 scientific publications and patents. He recently led research and clinical operations for San Francisco-based Virta Health, a nationwide medical provider that delivers the first clinically-proven treatment to safely and sustainably reverse type 2 diabetes without medications or surgery. Dr. McCarter recently directed the Virta - Indiana University Health clinical trial demonstrating reversal of diabetes using nutritional ketosis and guided behavior change. This trial has resulted in changes to the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care and consensus statement on nutrition in 2019, reflecting the benefit of low-carbohydrate diets. 

In this podcast, James discusses the results that have emerged from this research and the incredible outcomes Virta is demonstrating in helping people reverse their type-2 diabetes and improve cardiac risk markers. He also talks about the five facets of treatment behind Virta’s success, and the business model they employ to make treatment more widely available. 

Dr McCarter recently spoke at the AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinology) meeting in Kansas City on ketosis for T2D. These slides provide nice visuals for all of the Virta-IUH trial outcomes as well as background information.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jim McCarter:

[00:00:19] Two-year clinical trial: Athinarayanan, Shaminie J., et al. "Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-year Non-randomized Clinical Trial." Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 348.

[00:00:23] Virta Health.

[00:01:09] Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) affects 30 million people in the US, 400 million worldwide.

[00:02:24] Long term complications of T2D.

[00:04:16] Ketogenic diet: Getting people off the glucose rollercoaster.

[00:08:47] Setting up the clinical trial; Sarah Hallberg, DO, MS, Virta Medical Director.

[00:10:13] Nine papers published by Virta so far: 7 on the trial and 2 reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, plus whitepaper on cardiovascular benefits of Virta treatment.

[00:10:46] 5 facets to treatment: In-house medication management, health coaching, nutrition behavior change education, biometric feedback, online community.

[00:16:05] Podcasts with Doug Hilbert: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor, and Ancestral Health Symposium ‘18 Recap.

[00:16:54] Doug Hilbert’s AHS talk 2018: AHS18 Douglas Hilbert - Virta 1 Year Clinical Trial Results/Patient Outcomes.

[00:18:13] Adherence to the program: 74% of patients completed 2 years of the trial.

[00:18:26] Blog post: Top 10 Keto Myths Debunked After 150,000 Days of Patient Care.

[00:20:30] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[00:21:20] Ketone metabolism: beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone.

[00:23:05] Beta-hydroxybutyrate as an histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor; Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[00:24:10] Higher levels of ketones correlate with greater reductions of hemoglobin A1c and greater weight loss.

[00:24:29] Ken Ford, Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford (ketone signaling is discussed at minute 54:20).

[00:25:58] Kaiser study on diabetes remission rates: Karter, Andrew J., et al. "Incidence of remission in adults with type 2 diabetes: the diabetes & aging study." Diabetes Care 37.12 (2014): 3188-3195.

[00:29:09] Readout: creating less invasive ways for measuring metabolic markers.

[00:29:28] Dan Ariely; Shapa scale and app.

[00:31:55] Non-scale victories (NSV).

[00:32:56] Ashley Mason podcasts: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD and Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:33:22] Elimination of drugs that cause hypoglycemia (e.g., sulphonylureas).

[00:34:13] Common pitfalls: Electrolytes.

[00:37:46] Myth: Keto causes diabetic ketoacidosis.

[00:38:50] Improvements in cardio risk markers; Study: Bhanpuri, Nasir H., et al. "Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study." Cardiovascular diabetology 17.1 (2018): 56.

[00:44:25] Dave Feldman on The Fat Emperor Podcast with Ivor Cummins: LDL and All-Cause Mortality  - Does Cholestesterol Kill You?; Related NBT podcasts: How to Drop Your Cholesterol, with Dave Feldman, and How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease, with Ivor Cummins.

[00:49:15] American Diabetes Association (ADA) changed their Standards of Care and consensus statement on nutrition in 2019.

[00:51:04] Virta's value-based business model.

[00:54:13] Navigating difficult food environments.

[00:55:52] Robb Wolf; Chickasaw Nation.

[01:01:43] Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 agonist and SGLT2 inhibitor drugs; Studies: Busch, Robert S., and Michael P. Kane. "Combination SGLT2 inhibitor and GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy: a complementary approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes." Postgraduate medicine 129.7 (2017): 686-697, and DeFronzo, Ralph A. "Combination therapy with GLP‐1 receptor agonist and SGLT2 inhibitor." Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 19.10 (2017): 1353-1362.

[01:02:13] Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[01:04:50] Find James on Twitter, Medium and LinkedIn.

Aug 12, 2019
NBT People: Mark Alexander
55:08

Mark Alexander is an electronics engineer and technology consultant living in San Francisco. He’s been a member of our Elite Performance Program over the past two years, and in that time we’ve seen him overcome health obstacles that were inhibiting his training and quality of life, including mould exposure, heavy metals, and gut pathogens. 

In this podcast, Mark and I discuss his health journey, including the lab tests, coaching, and tools that made the biggest difference for him. He describes the game-changing protocols that helped him gain 6 pounds of muscle mass in 6 months without changing his training. Mark also shares about the major personal and professional shifts he’s made over the past two years, including leaving his engineering job to pursue more fulfilling work and life experiences. 

Here's the outline of this interview with Mark Alexander:

[00:00:25] Dolby Dimension headset with Atmos Soundscape.

[00:03:48] Mark's background.

[00:07:14] Going through the NBT Elite Performance Program.

[00:08:53] Book: The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman, by Tim Ferriss.

[00:09:15] Working with a functional medicine doctor; food sensitivities.

[00:12:24] Gut pathogen whack-a-mole.

[00:16:03] Supplements for mitochondrial support: nicotinamide riboside, lecithin, creatine.

[00:17:24] Heavy metal testing; Quicksilver Scientific.

[00:18:02] Clearlight Sanctuary 2 Sauna.

[00:18:24] Bryan Walsh Detox program.

[00:20:35] Valter Longo, PhD; Prolon Fasting Mimicking Diet.

[00:21:55] Mold Exposure; Great Plains mycotoxin test.

[00:25:34] Cholestyramine to bind mycotoxins.

[00:26:19] Dr. Deborah Gordon; Podcast: How to Fix Autoimmunity in the over 50s.

[00:26:28] Video: Dr. Gordon at the Ancestral Health Symposium: Mycotoxin Illness: The Great Impostor.

[00:27:42] Supplements vs food for nutrition.

[00:30:02] Gymnastic Bodies program.

[00:30:16] Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[00:32:04] Awaken Gym in Denver, CO.; Co-founder Orench Lagman.

[00:35:56] How work was affecting Mark's health.

[00:38:56] Book: Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.

[00:39:15] Working with people: mindset vs. techniques.

[00:40:37] Tranquil Wisdom Insight Meditation.

[00:42:28] The Tide Turners Workshop.

[00:43:21] Cal Newport Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:44:19] Passion for helping others.

[00:49:44] What's next for Mark; ketogenic ice cream.

[00:50:41] Eating clean while travelling.

[00:52:37] Find Mark: TacticalKeto; Linkedin.

Aug 02, 2019
How to Optimise Nutrition for Postpartum Recovery
52:05

Lily Nichols, RDN, CDE is a Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist, Certified Diabetes Educator, author and researcher, specializing in evidence-based prenatal nutrition and exercise. She’s been with us on the podcast before, discussing her bestselling books, Real Food for Gestational Diabetes and Real Food for Pregnancy.  

Lily joins us on this podcast to talk about postpartum nutrition and healing, including nose-to-tail eating, carbohydrate restriction, and supporting mom’s recovery and energy needs after the baby arrives. We discuss nutrient requirements for new moms, and factors that affect readiness to resume work and exercise. Lily also shares details about her new webinars on postpartum recovery and nutrition at the Women’s Health Nutrition Academy.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lily Nichols:

[00:02:40] Environmental mismatches.

[00:03:19] Preparing for postpartum.

[00:06:11] Preparing new moms for what to expect.

[00:08:53] Book: Real Food for Pregnancy: The Science and Wisdom of Optimal Prenatal Nutrition, by Lily Nichols.

[00:10:24] Appropriate postpartum activities, from an ancestral health perspective.

[00:11:20] Katy Bowman.

[00:15:40] The role of nutrient depletion in postpartum recovery.

[00:16:12] Supporting connective tissue and collagen.

[00:17:34] Nose-to-tail in traditional postpartum meals.

[00:19:34] Postpartum energy needs.

[00:27:41] Measuring micronutrient status: what and when to test.

[00:29:28] Risk of anemia 75x higher for women who lost 1000mL of blood at delivery.

[00:33:31] Increased MCTs in the breast milk when mothers eat carbohydrates. Study: Read, W. W. C., PHYLLIS G. LUTZ, and ANAHID TASHJIAN. "Human milk lipids: II. The influence of dietary carbohydrates and fat on the fatty acids of mature milk. A study in four ethnic groups." The American journal of clinical nutrition 17.3 (1965): 180-183.

[00:33:40] Dietary MCTs get passed through breast milk; Study: Francois, Cindy A., et al. "Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk." The American journal of clinical nutrition 67.2 (1998): 301-308.

[00:34:36] Carbohydrate restriction during lactation.

[00:37:35] Better insulin sensitivity in early postpartum period.

[00:41:03] Gestational diabetes.

[00:42:27] Webinars at Women’s Health Nutrition Academy: Postpartum Recovery and Nutrient Repletion; and Nutrition for Breastfeeding.

[00:44:35] Ayla Barmmer.

[00:45:06] All available courses.

[00:47:15] Podcast: The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: Babies and Beyond, with Megan Sanctuary.

[00:49:29] Lily’s Blog.

Jul 28, 2019
Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance
01:08:53

Physical Therapist and Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach Zac Cupples has a passion for human anatomy and helping people meet their health and performance goals. He excels at providing individualized treatment through rehab, training, nutrition, sleep, stress management, and sports science.  What’s amazing to me is that he does online consultation, and helped me fix my chronic back pain by video conference!

On this podcast, Zac and I discuss his approach to working with clients and mentoring other practitioners. He talks about some of his assessment methods and strategies for helping people reduce pain while getting remarkable health and performance results. He shares simple breathing techniques that helped me tremendously and discusses some tried-and-true methods for improving client adherence with daily exercises.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zac Cupples:

[00:00:06] Dr. Ben House; Podcast: Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[00:00:52] How Zac got into physical therapy.

[00:02:04] Book: Bad Science: Quacks, Hacks, and Big Pharma Flacks, by Ben Goldacre.

[00:03:19] Physical Therapist Bill Hartman.

[00:05:48] Shawn Baker; Podcast: Life at the Extremes: Fueling World-class Performance with a Carnivore Diet.

[00:06:25] Working with NBA basketball players.

[00:10:23] Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:11:36] Sleep as a keystone behaviour; Ashley Mason podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:13:43] The effect of sleep on performance; Zac’s post: He Sleeps He Scores: Playing Better Basketball by Conquering Sleep Deprivation.

[00:15:53] Fixing pain.

[00:21:01] Assessing movement.

[00:22:02] Variability in movement positively associated with health and performance. Study: Stergiou, Nicholas, and Leslie M. Decker. "Human movement variability, nonlinear dynamics, and pathology: is there a connection?." Human movement science 30.5 (2011): 869-888.

[00:22:16] Study of javelin throwers: Bartlett, Roger, Jon Wheat, and Matthew Robins. "Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists?." Sports biomechanics 6.2 (2007): 224-243.

[00:24:26] Doing assessments remotely/online.

[00:27:13] NBT Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[00:27:37] Pain vs. tissue damage.

[00:30:30] Book: Back Mechanic by Stuart McGill.

[00:30:46] Barbell Medicine videos on YouTube.

[00:31:06] Harvard Health article: Babying your back may delay healing.

[00:34:21] Consulting with Zac on my chronic lower back pain.

[00:39:29] Using the anal sphincter to tilt the pelvis.

[00:43:35] Breathing for 3D expansion of the body; Video: “Stacking” the Ribcage on top of the Pelvis.

[00:45:55] Influencing client behaviour to ensure follow-through.

[00:53:54] Tim Ferris, author of The 4-Hour Work Week.

[00:55:11] Minimal effective dose.

[00:56:56] Lesley Paterson, Braveheart Coaching, Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:58:30] Altis; Dan Pfaff and Stuart McMillan.

[00:59:55] Comparing recovery postures; Study: Michaelson, Joana V., et al. "Effects of Two Different Recovery Postures during High-Intensity Interval Training." Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 4.4 (2019): 23-27.

[01:01:47] Zac’s website.

[01:02:08] Human Matrix Seminars.

[01:05:21] Find Zac on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube.

[01:05:40] Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World, by Cal Newport. Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

Jul 21, 2019
How to Live Well in a High Tech World
01:18:22

Cal Newport is a computer science professor at Georgetown University and the author of 6 books, including New York Times bestseller Digital Minimalism. His writing focuses on the impact of new technology and social media on our ability to be productive and lead satisfying lives. Not surprisingly, his research suggests we’re becoming less connected and getting less done as technology permeates every moment of our day.

For this podcast, I got to sit down face to face with Cal to discuss his ideas on digital minimalism. He describes how big business has manipulated us into constantly checking our phones, and is now profiting off of our attention. We discuss the consequences of pervasive technology, and the damaging effect it can have on our drive to create and connect with others in meaningful ways.  Fortunately, Cal also has a solution for turning your attention back to the things that really matter.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Cal Newport:

[00:00:35] Cal's background.

[00:02:18] Book: So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love, by Cal Newport.

[00:02:54] Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, by Cal Newport.

[00:03:43] Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World, by Cal Newport.

[00:04:17] Joshua Fields Millburn; The Minimalists Podcast, featuring Christopher Kelly and Dr. Tommy Wood: Health Problems.

[00:04:42] Brad Stulberg; Podcast featuring Brad; Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:05:39] Book: Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson.

[00:06:37] The myth of preexisting passion.

[00:07:50] We didn't sign up for this.

[00:08:32] Why we’re always looking at our phones.

[00:12:26] Social media as an arms race for your attention.

[00:13:56] Evolutionary psychology; attention engineers.

[00:14:29] BJ Fogg's Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford.

[00:14:56] Tristan Harris; Adam Alter.

[00:15:52] Effects of intermittent reinforcement on behavior and dopamine.

[00:16:47] Video: Dopamine Jackpot! Sapolsky on the Science of Pleasure.

[00:17:19] Minimalism; Marcus Aurelius; Henry David Thoreau (author of Walden); Voluntary Simplicity; Marie Kondo.

[00:19:01] Digital hoarding.

[00:24:17] Digital decluttering: Stepping away from optional personal technology for 30 days.

[00:26:29] Book: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time by Mark Haddon.

[00:28:27] Boredom as a drive that gets us to do things that have meaning and value.

[00:32:24] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John Cacioppo.

[00:33:11] Book: Lead Yourself First: Inspiring Leadership Through Solitude, by Raymond M. Kethledge and Michael S. Erwin.

[00:38:58] Connection vs communication.

[00:44:56] Josh Turknett’s Intelligence Unshackled Podcast; Podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:46:30] The effects of technology on biology.

[00:48:55] Digital Declutter Experiment for 30 days: step away, you get back in touch with what matters, use that as the foundation for very carefully rebuilding your digital life.

[00:53:44] Conversation office hours.

[00:57:46] Craftsman's approach to deciding whether or not to use a tool.

[01:02:18] Article: Neuroscientists can predict decisions 11 seconds before we make them, based on this study: Koenig-Robert, Roger, and Joel Pearson. "Decoding the contents and strength of imagery before volitional engagement." Scientific reports9.1 (2019): 3504.

[01:02:45] Will this have any impact? What's next?

[01:05:31] Apple Screen Time reports.

[01:08:30] Upcoming book: A World Without Email (tentative title).

[01:15:15] Cal's website.

Jul 11, 2019
Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health
01:06:11

I’ve recently taken the new course created by Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD called Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching. He’s leveraging new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. Turns out scaring people or educating them is not enough to overcome the difficulty inherent in adopting healthier habits.

On this podcast Simon discusses the latest strategies that actually work when it comes to persuading, nudging, and motivating people (or yourself) to overcome self-sabotage and create better habits. He introduces the SEEDS method - a system of adopting up to 15 teeny tiny behaviours, and then self-monitoring and reviewing progress. He also describes a powerful way to cope with catastrophic thinking when things inevitably go wrong, so you can stay on track.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:00:09] Simon’s new course: Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching. A Health & Wellness Coach’s guide to the science of behavioral economics.

[00:00:36] The science of decision making.

[00:02:10] Behavioral economics.

[00:04:09] Symptoms and behaviours that could be helped by behavioural economics.

[00:04:52] Procrastination.

[00:05:16] Hyperbolic discounting: Our relationship with reward depends in part on how close the reward is to us at that time.

[00:06:19] Commitment vs. motivation to change.

[00:07:20] Old versions of behaviour change: Scaring people, education-based approaches.

[00:10:18] The intention-behaviour relationship.

[00:12:23] Libertarian paternalism.

[00:13:38] Psychological needs theory: People's needs must be respected (autonomy, competence, and relatedness).

[00:15:49] Stages of change model; Precontemplators: the proud couch-potatoes.

[00:18:31] Dr. Tommy Wood’s Highlights email on sunscreen being a terrible idea.

[00:20:52] Professor Susan Michie from UCL; Behavior Change Taxonomy: Michie, Susan, et al. "The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions." Annals of behavioral medicine 46.1 (2013): 81-95.

[00:21:17] The Behavior Change Taxonomy app: for iOS and Android.

[00:22:29] The most potent strategies: Self-monitoring, setting goals and reviewing.

[00:25:27] The science of self-control: Friese, Malte, et al. "Does self-control training improve self-control? A meta-analysis." Perspectives on Psychological Science 12.6 (2017): 1077-1099

[00:26:00] The original marshmallow study: Mischel, Walter, and Ebbe B. Ebbesen. "Attention in delay of gratification." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 16.2 (1970): 329. Details and follow up studies described here.

[00:26:52] Book: Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength by Roy F. Baumeister and John Tierney.

[00:33:18] Stroop effect.

[00:34:07] Book: Endure: Mind, Body, and the Curiously Elastic Limits of Human Performance, by Alex Hutchinson.

[00:37:28] Recent attempt to replicate the marshmallow study: Watts, Tyler W., Greg J. Duncan, and Haonan Quan. "Revisiting the marshmallow test: A conceptual replication investigating links between early delay of gratification and later outcomes." Psychological science 29.7 (2018): 1159-1177.

[00:38:43] SEEDS: Sleep, Exercise, Eating, Drinking and Stress management.

[00:40:09] Book: Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones, by James Clear.

[00:40:43] How the SEEDS method works.

[00:44:14] Always do less than you want to.

[00:47:18] Traffic light system: a remedy for catastrophic thinking.

[00:54:15] SEEDS Journal.

[00:55:53] Sign up for the challenge and pick some SEEDS.

Jun 28, 2019
How to Treat Hashimoto’s using the Autoimmune Protocol
01:00:50

Functional medicine physician Rob Abbott, MD is back on the podcast this week.  Since he was with us last year his career and practice has evolved in exciting ways. While seeing patients at Resilient Roots Functional and Evolutionary Medicine in Charlottesville, Virginia, he is also the medical advisor at Autoimmune Wellness and is conducting collaborative research with founders Angie Alt and Mickey Trescott.

Today Rob talks about the results of his recently published pilot study of the Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) diet for women with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. He describes the crowdfunding that made the research possible, the tools and supports they used with the participants, and the dramatic results found at the end of 10 weeks.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Rob Abbott:

[00:00:08] Rob's previous podcast: How to Become a Functional Medicine Doctor.

[00:02:23] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) Diet.

[00:04:24] Study: Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet as part of a multidisciplinary supported lifestyle intervention for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

[00:05:30] Mickey Trescott and Angie Alt, Autoimmune Wellness.

[00:06:18] Study on AIP for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Konijeti, Gauree G., et al. "Efficacy of the autoimmune protocol diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Inflammatory bowel diseases 23.11 (2017): 2054-2060.

[00:07:12] Angie Alt's SAD to AIP in SIX.

[00:09:00] Crowd-funding research.

[00:13:10] Rob Abbott and Adam Sadowski on the 30/30 Health Podcast.

[00:16:20] Study design and questions they set out to answer; Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM).

[00:20:02] Quality of life questionnaire, SF-36.

[00:20:19] Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ).

[00:20:55] The study participants.

[00:24:45] How support was delivered during the study.

[00:31:21] James Maskell and Dr. Kelly Brogan.

[00:32:23] The study results.

[00:39:36] Graph of hs-CRP (figure 6 from study).

[00:41:50] The most surprising results.

[00:44:14] Are we putting too much stock in thyroid antibodies as a measure of health?

[00:47:20] Tommy Wood, MD on thyroid autoantibodies.

[00:50:28] Specific Carbohydrate Diet.

[00:52:40] Angie's quarterly SAD to AIP in SIX Program starts in September.

[00:53:01] Lucy Mailing.

[00:53:54] 2019 Ancestral Health Symposium, San Diego, CA.

[00:54:33] Attending AHS19: Megan, Zach, Clay, Josh, Mike T. Nelson.

[00:55:24] Resilient Roots: Functional and Evolutionary Medicine is our full name of the clinic, along with Nutritionist Ryan Hall.

[00:58:07] Crowdfunding for the next study: Eczema-Psoriasis and AIP.

Jun 20, 2019
Life at the Extremes: Fueling World-class Performance with a Carnivore Diet
01:22:54

Dr. Shawn Baker is an orthopaedic surgeon, athlete, and an advocate of a carnivore diet.  Shawn has a rich history in sport: playing semi-professional rugby in New Zealand, competing in and winning Strongman competitions, and setting records as a powerlifter and Highland Games Masters World Champion. In the meantime, he also climbed the ranks as an officer in the US Air Force, conducting surgeries under pressure in war zones of Afghanistan.

In this podcast, Shawn and I discuss his athletic and military background, and his current athletic passion: Concept2 rowing, in which he has repeatedly broken world records. Shawn talks about his choice to excel at sport without the use of performance-enhancing drugs. He also makes a compelling case for the health and performance benefits of eating zero-carb, offering many examples from anthropological data that suggest man evolved to eat meat.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Shawn Baker:

[00:00:20] The Minimalists; Paul Saladino; Rich Roll.

[00:00:43] The Human Performance Outliers Podcast.

[00:01:23] Shawn's background: Rugby and moving to New Zealand.

[00:07:02] Joining the US Air Force and becoming an orthopaedic surgeon.

[00:14:17] Hardware used in orthopaedic surgery; risks of infection.

[00:18:03] The rise of chronic disease in orthopaedics.

[00:21:58] Paleo diet; Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf.

[00:22:21] Highland Games; Scottish Hammer Throw, Caber Toss.

[00:25:59] Strongman Competitions.

[00:28:01] On not using drugs to maximize performance.

[00:31:13] Concept2 Rowing.

[00:34:04] Shawn's YouTube channel.

[00:34:49] Dietary recommendations for patients.

[00:37:37] Carnivore Diet.

[00:38:51] The downsides of eating vegetables for some people; oxalates.

[00:40:08] Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Karsten Anderson ate exclusively meat diet at Bellevue Hospital; Study: Tolstoi, Edward. The effect of an exclusive meat diet lasting one year on the carbohydrate tolerance of two normal men. Waverly Press, Incorporated, 1929.

[00:40:42] Dr. Gary Fettke, Australian orthopaedic surgeon.

[00:41:53] Hormesis and plant compounds - When does the negative outweigh the positive?

[00:43:04] Dr. Rhonda Patrick; sulforaphane.

[00:49:35] George Diggs.

[00:50:57] Plant foods containing carcinogens; Study: Ames, Bruce N., Margie Profet, and Lois Swirsky Gold. "Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural)." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences87.19 (1990): 7777-7781.

[00:55:21] Minimalists podcast, featuring Christopher Kelly and Dr. Tommy Wood: Health Problems.

[00:58:41] Shawn’s podcast featuring vegan doctor, Dr. Joel Kahn.

[00:59:21] Zach Bitter.

[01:00:29] Athletes doing well on a carnivorous diet; Owen Franks, Paul Jordaan, Sarah Thackray.

[01:02:29] Book (available 8/20/19): The Carnivore Diet, by Shawn Baker, MD. World Carnivore Tribe Facebook group.

[01:05:41] Anthropological data that suggest people are facultative carnivores.

[01:19:39] Shawn’s website, Human Performance Outliers Podcast, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, Meat Heals, Coming soon: Animal Based Nutrition Network.

Jun 14, 2019
A Consumer’s Guide to Integrative Medicine
01:01:45

We’re happy to welcome Dr. Tim Gerstmar back on the podcast this week. Tim is a naturopathic physician, specializing in the treatment of digestive and autoimmune problems. He has spent the past 10 years seeing patients locally at Aspire Natural Health in the Seattle area, and he offers virtual consultation, both nationally and internationally. Tim is also a faculty member at Bastyr University, where he trains and mentors medical students.

In this podcast, Tim talks about choosing a practitioner that has the specific expertise you need and highlights the benefits of working with a health coach. He discusses his new book, The Clear Path to Health, and the mission behind it: making integrative medicine understandable to consumers. (Find out how to get the book for free if you take action by 6/7/19!)

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tim Gerstmar:

[00:00:10] Tim’s previous podcasts: Methylation and Environmental Pollutants and How to Test and Predict Blood, Urine and Stool for Health, Longevity and Performance.

[00:00:26] Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:00:52] Tim's mission: To make integrative medicine understandable to consumers.

[00:03:03] Book: The Clear Path to Health: Gain Clarity So You Can Feel Your Best Today, Tomorrow, and Into The Next Decade, by Tim Gerstmar.

[00:05:21] No one doctor has all the answers; finding a doctor that has the expertise to help you.

[00:15:10] Gina's story.

[00:17:07] Principles, strategies, and tactics.

[00:25:16] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:28:29] Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD; Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:29:02] The value of having health coaches to support people in lifestyle changes.

[00:31:00] Health coaches have a PR problem.

[00:32:35] Simon's training course: Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching.

[00:32:43] Book: Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.

[00:37:03] The value of prescription medication as a tool with a specific use.

[00:41:00] Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult (LADA)

[00:43:50] Podcast: Run for Your Life: An Ancestral Health Approach to Running, with Mark Cucuzzella.

[00:44:32] The dark sides of conventional and functional medicine.

[00:46:50] Book: The Happiness Trap: How to Stop Struggling and Start Living: A Guide to ACT, by Russ Harris.

[00:47:06] The problems that can't be solved.

[00:50:26] Secondary benefits of being sick.

[00:53:48] Special offer: Free ebook until 6/7/19.  

[00:54:50] Email support@nourishbalancethrive.com to be entered in a raffle for a paperback book.

[00:55:54] Final thoughts: Context matters and take a step back/find a practitioner to help you.

[00:58:22] Work with Tim: (425) 202-7849 or at info@aspirenaturalhealth.com.

Jun 06, 2019
How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout
58:58

Brad Stulberg is a writer, performance coach, and speaker, specializing in developing and harnessing productive passion using evidence-based principles of mastery and success.  He has co-authored two books, Peak Performance and The Passion Paradox, which explore the science and practice of passion and world-class performance. Currently a columnist for Outside magazine, Brad has also written for the New York Times, Wired, New York Magazine, Sports Illustrated, and more. His work also includes coaching executives, entrepreneurs, and athletes.

In this podcast, Brad and I talk about passion - specifically the idea of developing your passion, rather than “finding” it. Brad discusses how passion can be a blessing or a curse, highlighting examples of people whose obsessive approach to their work has led to their downfall. He discusses the myth of living a balanced life and offers advice for people nearing burnout. Brad also describes what the research says about quitting your day job to pursue your passion.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brad Stulberg:

[00:00:00] Blood Chemistry Calculator package; email support; book an appointment with NBT.

[00:00:32] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:00:47] Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:05:13] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:05:44] Passion vs. addiction.

[00:06:37] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[00:07:04] 75% of people believe in the “fit mindset of passion”; Study: Chen, Patricia, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, and Norbert Schwarz. "Finding a fit or developing it: Implicit theories about achieving passion for work." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41.10 (2015): 1411-1424.

[00:09:48] Developing vs finding your passion.

[00:11:48] Lower your expectations (like Lisa from The Simpsons).

[00:12:24] Passion can be a gift or a curse; Obsessive passion vs. harmonious passion.

[00:15:15] Burnout.

[00:16:16] Elizabeth Holmes, CEO of Theranos, and Lance Armstrong as an examples of obsessive passion.

[00:18:53] Podcast: The Science and Practice of Training Elite Road Cyclists, with David Bailey, PhD.

[00:19:59] 24-48 hour rule.

[00:21:32] Book: Peak Performance: Elevate Your Game, Avoid Burnout, and Thrive with the New Science of Success,

by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:23:01] The biology driving the behavior; dopamine.

[00:25:37] Hedonic adaptation: adapting to your current state of happiness; suffering.

[00:26:54] Podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems, with Ashley Mason, PhD.

[00:29:30] Ellen Langer, PhD.; Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster.

[00:30:11] The myth of living a "balanced" life.

[00:31:21] Rich Roll.

[00:34:55] Podcast: How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance, with James Hewitt.

[00:36:54] People pursuing passions don’t view themselves accurately.

[00:38:01] Being on the same journey as his readers, rather than having it all figured out.

[00:39:40] Practice: We build our practice up and then it falls apart.

[00:40:32] Mid-life crises.

[00:42:10] Should you quit your day job? Study: Raffiee, Joseph, and Jie Feng. "Should I quit my day job?: A hybrid path to entrepreneurship." Academy of Management Journal 57.4 (2014): 936-963.

[00:45:38] Up to 40% of white collar work is wasted time.

[00:48:30] Don't try to be the best; be the best at getting better.

[00:49:03] Advice for someone at the burnout point.

[00:50:20] Mentoring.

[00:51:54] Co-author Steve Magness.

[00:53:19] Similarities between fit mindset and fixed mindset.

[00:53:52] Josh Turknett, MD; Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:55:00] Where to find Brad: Twitter; Brad’s website.

May 29, 2019
NBT People: Graeme Muirhead
52:22

Graeme Muirhead has been a member of our Elite Performance Program since February 2018. Born in Hong Kong and raised in Edinburgh Scotland, he studied computer science at Heriot-Watt University. His career in technology brought him to the US in 2009, and he is now a Managing Director at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in New York.

On this episode of the podcast, Graeme talks about his transformation from obesity, drinking, smoking, and back pain, to becoming a triathlete, now having completed fourteen Ironman events in Europe and the US. He discusses the moment he made the commitment to get healthy, and the methodical steps he took to develop his running, cycling, and swimming skills. Graeme also shares about his experience as an NBT client over the past year and the coaches at strategies that have helped him to improve his health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Graeme Muirhead:

[00:00:38] Becoming an athlete.

[00:05:04] 300 pounds, drinking, smoking, in pain, and the moment it all changed.

[00:06:35] Building healthy habits.

[00:10:29] Becoming a more serious athlete.

[00:11:23] Starting cycling.

[00:14:14] Treating two slipped discs with the yellow pages and masking tape.

[00:17:10] Becoming a marathon runner.

[00:19:47] Becoming a triathlete; Royal Windsor Triathlon.

[00:22:07] Ignoring negative self-talk and developing confidence.

[00:24:48] Breaking things down into chunks; divide and conquer.

[00:25:23] Moving to the USA.

[00:28:50] Full distance Ironman.

[00:32:13] Working with NBT.

[00:32:33] Triathlete Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:33:15] Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:36:53] Gut challenges.

[00:37:30] Holistic approach to health and performance.

[00:39:17] Metal toxicity.

[00:39:50] Bryan Walsh’s detox protocol; Podcast: Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification.

[00:41:47] Working with NBT Scientific Director and Coach Megan Roberts. Podcasts with Megan: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:42:03] Trello.

[00:44:28] Braveheart Coaching; Lesley's camp in San Diego.

[00:45:40] Kona: Ironman World Championship.

[00:46:16] Bob Babbitt; Breakfast with Bob.

[00:46:42] Next challenge: mountain biking.

[00:46:52] Eggbeater pedals.

[00:48:30] Graeme’s website.

[00:49:19] Christmas pudding.

May 19, 2019
The Science and Practice of Training Elite Road Cyclists
01:26:17

Sports Physiologist and Performance Nutritionist David Bailey, PhD is the Head of Performance for the Bahrain-Merida Pro Cycling Team. He manages and delivers scientific support to elite athletes competing at the highest level in international cycling. He also coaches, providing training prescription, nutritional support and performance interventions. He has worked with World Champions and Olympic medalists for the past 15 years.

In this podcast, Sports Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD talks with David about his role supporting a team of elite road cyclists. They discuss what it takes to prepare athletes for the Tour de France, and some of the subtle aspects of training and physical development that lead to improved performance. David weighs in on doping controversies, and also offers tips for amateur cyclists and “weekend warriors”.

Here’s the outline of this interview with David Bailey:

[00:00:11] Previous podcasts featuring Simon Marshall, PhD: 1, 2, 3, 4

[00:00:26] Head of Performance for the Bahrain Merida Professional Cycling Team.

[00:02:28] The Brownlee brothers.

[00:03:36] Some of David’s previous research; Studies: Thompson, D., et al. "Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from eccentric exercise." European journal of applied physiology 92.1-2 (2004): 133-138; and Bailey, D. M., et al. "Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running." Journal of sports sciences 25.11 (2007): 1163-1170.

[00:06:29] Anatomy of a road cycling team; Olympic sport vs. professional sport.

[00:09:54] Friction between science and practice.

[00:12:20] Mistakes made along the way.

[00:14:17] Changing your relationship with failure and defining success.

[00:17:55] Marginal gains.

[00:18:18] Dave Brailsford.

[00:23:22] Preparing a team for the Tour de France.

[00:29:59] The physical demands and support needed for competing cyclists.

[00:35:59] Richie Porte.

[00:36:44] Body types that tend to be successful.

[00:38:30] Identifying new up-and-coming riders.

[00:41:00] A typical day for the head of performance.

[00:45:33] Training regimens.

[00:50:11] Simon Yates and Adam Yates; Aaron Thomas.

[00:51:32] Chris Froome; Lance Armstrong.

[00:52:10] Technologies for measuring performance and adaptation.

[00:58:38] Partnering with McLaren Formula One team.

[01:00:45] Effects of cycling order and time in a drafted position on overall performance.

[01:02:56] Chris Boardman has set up a wind tunnel in the UK for amateurs to rent.

[01:05:01] Advice for amateur cyclists and weekend warriors.

[01:08:43] Functional threshold power (FTP) test.

[01:12:29] MAF training.

[01:13:52] Tools for the amateur cyclist.

[01:14:04] Study: Sanders, Dajo, et al. "Analysing a cycling grand tour: Can we monitor fatigue with intensity or load ratios?." Journal of sports sciences 36.12 (2018): 1385-1391.

[01:15:46] Performance enhancing drugs; How to define doping?

[01:17:46] Geraint Thomas.

[01:22:02] Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE).

[01:25:14] Vincenzo Nibali.

May 13, 2019
Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems
01:08:50

Integrative Clinical Psychologist Ashley Mason, PhD. is back on the podcast to discuss her clinical work and research within the UCSF Department of Psychiatry. She is now the Co-Director for the UCSF Center for Obesity Assessment, Study, and Treatment, and the Director of the Sleep, Eating, and Affect (SEA) Lab. Her areas of interest include problematic eating and sleep-related behaviors, and nonpharmaceutical interventions to address them.

In this interview, Ashley and I discuss her current research, which focuses on treating individuals with type-2 diabetes using reduced-carbohydrate diets, mindful eating techniques and environmental management. She shares her insights on some of the root causes fueling the diabetes epidemic, and the factors that keep her research subjects motivated to make difficult lifestyle changes. We also discuss her clinical work treating people struggling with sleep, and the behavioral methods she uses to help them turn things around in a matter of weeks.

Support Ashley’s work.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ashley Mason:

[00:00:18] Ancestral Health Symposium 2014 in Berkeley.

[00:00:39] Assistant Professor at UCSF.

[00:01:27] Osher Center for Integrative Medicine.

[00:02:19] Pairing diet change with behavioral change for type 2 diabetes.

[00:04:00] How are people becoming diabetic?

[00:05:20] Only 12% of the population is metabolically healthy; Study: Araújo, Joana, Jianwen Cai, and June Stevens. "Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016." Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17.1 (2019): 46-52.

[00:07:02] Grubhub; DoorDash.

[00:01:50] Food reward; hyperpalatable foods.

[00:08:11] Ashley’s previous podcast: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD.

[00:11:07] Getting people to change their behavior; identifying the why behind wanting to change.

[00:11:49] Low carbohydrate diets can result in reduced need for diabetic medications; Virta Health Studies: McKenzie, Amy L., et al. "A novel intervention including individualized nutritional recommendations reduces hemoglobin A1c level, medication use, and weight in type 2 diabetes." JMIR diabetes 2.1 (2017): e5; and Hallberg, Sarah J., et al. "Effectiveness and safety of a novel care model for the management of type 2 diabetes at 1 year: an open-label, non-randomized, controlled study." Diabetes Therapy 9.2 (2018): 583-612.

[00:15:54] Motivational interviewing.

[00:16:15] Stages of change model (diagram).

[00:17:40] Fundamental reasons for wanting to change.

[00:18:30] Handling the social pressure of eating differently.

[00:24:39] How to work with people in the pre-contemplative stage.

[00:28:01] USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, eighth edition.

[00:29:25] Taste and price drive decision making.

[00:30:01] Arranging the environment to support better dietary choices.

[00:31:56] Companies with self-insured health plans have incentive to keep employees healthy.

[00:33:05] Mindful eating; paying attention while you're eating. Studies: Brewer, Judson, et al. "Can mindfulness address maladaptive eating behaviors? Why traditional diet plans fail and how new mechanistic insights may lead to novel interventions." Frontiers in psychology 9 (2018): 1418; and Mason, A. E., et al. "Examining the Effects of Mindful Eating Training on Adherence to a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes (the DELISH Study): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial." JMIR research protocols 8.2 (2019): e11002-e11002.

[00:43:39] Sleep as a lynchpin to health behavior.

[00:45:54] Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI); Improving sleep as a platform for making other behavior change possible.

[00:46:30] Getting people off of benzodiazepines.

[00:49:50] Previous podcast episodes on chronotypes, meal timing, and sleep hygiene: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:50:16] CBTI strategies for improving sleep.

[00:54:51] Oura Ring; the value of self-report over electronic devices.

[00:58:38] Dealing with external factors: kids, pain.

[01:05:26] Impact of timing bright light, eating, movement, socialization.

[01:08:07] Rhonda Patrick's interview with Satchin Panda, PhD; Our podcast with Satchin Panda: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[01:13:10] Funding research; Experiment.com for crowdfunding; You can support Ashley’s research here.

[01:13:24] Richard Feinman, PhD.

[01:14:49] Ashley’s current and published research.

[01:15:12] Sea Lab; Osher Center Sleep Group.

[01:15:51] Book: Quiet Your Mind & Get to Sleep, by  Colleen E. Carney, PhD and Rachel Manber, PhD.

[01:16:27] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the Fuck Down and Rise to the Occasion​, by Simon Marshall, PhD.

May 05, 2019
The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers
01:02:27

Back on the podcast today, we have researcher and athlete Brianna Stubbs, PhD. Brianna has been a world-champion rower and is now competing in cycling, running, and triathlon. She is also Research Lead for HVMN, advancing the science on human optimisation and creating content and products to improve physiology, metabolism, and cognition.

As a world expert on ketone metabolism, Brianna is here with me to talk about the latest research on exogenous ketones. We discuss their effects on athletic performance, brain injury, and cognition, and she weighs in on the controversy regarding the effect of ketone esters on the inflammasome. We also look at the misunderstood role of lactate and how it’s now being used to improve athletic performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:35] Our previous podcasts with Brianna: 1, 2, 3.

[00:02:00] Podcast: Professor Tim Noakes: True Hydration and the Power of Low-Carb, High-Fat Diets.

[00:02:19] Andrew Bosch at the University of Cape Town.

[00:05:03] Training for full Ironman.

[00:05:19] Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:07:39] Using ketone esters to fuel for a race.

[00:10:18] Who's using the ketone ester?

[00:11:08] Effects of ketone esters on cognitive function; Study: Evans, Mark, and Brendan Egan. "Intermittent Running and Cognitive Performance after Ketone Ester Ingestion." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 50.11 (2018): 2330-2338.

[00:12:21] Rescue of ATP in the brain of mice given exogenous ketones; Study: Prins, M. L., et al. "Increased cerebral uptake and oxidation of exogenous βHB improves ATP following traumatic brain injury in adult rats." Journal of neurochemistry 90.3 (2004): 666-672.

[00:13:46] Unpublished research on ketone esters in hypoxia: Ketone Esters for Optimization of Cognitive Performance in Hypoxia.

[00:15:33] One hour cycling record; Vittoria Bussi.

[00:16:00] Bradley Wiggins; The Flying Scotsman Graeme Obree; Jens Voigt.

[00:19:19] Professor Tim Noakes; Central governor model of fatigue: Noakes, Timothy D. "The central governor model of exercise regulation applied to the marathon." Sports medicine 37.4-5 (2007): 374-377.

[00:19:32] Cyclists go slower from the first pedal stroke when you put them in a hot laboratory; Study: Tucker, Ross, et al. "The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensity during cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion." The Journal of physiology 574.3 (2006): 905-915.

[00:19:43] Cold water in mouth reduces perceived effort and improves performance. Study: Burdon, Catriona A., et al. "The effect of ice slushy ingestion and mouthwash on thermoregulation and endurance performance in the heat." International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 23.5 (2013): 458-469.

[00:19:57] Cooling mouthwash improves performance; Study: Jeffries, Owen, Matthew Goldsmith, and Mark Waldron. "L-Menthol mouth rinse or ice slurry ingestion during the latter stages of exercise in the heat provide a novel stimulus to enhance performance despite elevation in mean body temperature." European journal of applied physiology 118.11 (2018): 2435-2442.

[00:22:25] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:22:56] Potential therapeutic applications of ketone esters.

[00:23:43] Ketogenic diet may help with alcohol withdrawal. Study: Dencker, Ditte, et al. "Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research42.2 (2018): 270-277.

[00:24:43] Dr. Stephen Cunnane; MCT study: Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre, et al. "Emulsification increases the acute ketogenic effect and bioavailability of medium-chain triglycerides in humans: protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism." Current developments in nutrition 1.7 (2017): e000851.

[00:28:13] Ketone esters as nootropics.

[00:30:23] Mitigating traumatic brain injury (TBI); lactate.

[00:31:41] Improved outcomes with lactate infusion in intensive care; Study: Nalos, Marek, et al. "Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart failure: a pilot randomised controlled clinical trial." Critical care 18.2 (2014): R48; and Ichai, Carole, et al. "Half-molar sodium lactate infusion to prevent intracranial hypertensive episodes in severe traumatic brain injured patients: a randomized controlled trial." Intensive care medicine 39.8 (2013): 1413-1422.

[00:32:22] Professor George Brooks; Study: Thomas, Claire, et al. "Effects of acute and chronic exercise on sarcolemmal MCT1 and MCT4 contents in human skeletal muscles: current status." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 302.1 (2011): R1-R14.

[00:33:07] Ketones: the ugly duckling of metabolism. Study: VanItallie, Theodore B., and Thomas H. Nufert. "Ketones: metabolism's ugly duckling." Nutrition Reviews 61.10 (2003): 327-341.

[00:34:20] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:35:28] Lactate increase carbohydrate usage and improves performance; Study: Azevedo Jr, John L., et al. "Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance." PLoS One 2.9 (2007): e927.

[00:37:24] Cytomax, Muscle Milk.

[00:39:11] L-Lactate vs D-Lactate; D-lactate free probiotics.

[00:40:01] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:40:44] Butyrate and exogenous ketones; Study: Cavaleri, Franco, and Emran Bashar. "Potential Synergies of β-Hydroxybutyrate and Butyrate on the Modulation of Metabolism, Inflammation, Cognition, and General Health." Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2018 (2018).

[00:41:21] Effect of patents on innovation.

[00:42:34] Richard Stallman, president of the Free Software Foundation.

[00:44:10] Paper recently accepted for journal publication on GI symptoms associated with ketone esters (not yet published).

[00:44:53] Acetoacetate diester causing GI symptoms; Study: Leckey, Jill J., et al. "Ketone diester ingestion impairs time-trial performance in professional cyclists." Frontiers in physiology 8 (2017): 806.

[00:49:45] Study: Dearlove, David James, et al. "Nutritional ketoacidosis during incremental exercise in healthy athletes." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 290.

[00:51:21] Dominick D’Agostino, PhD; β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) blocks inflammation; Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263.  

[00:52:32] Newer study showing greater inflammatory response with ketone ester: Neudorf, Helena, et al. "Oral Ketone Supplementation Acutely Increases Markers of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Monocytes." Molecular nutrition & food research(2019): 1801171.

[00:53:46] Denmark study on effect of ketones on LPS-induced inflammation: Thomsen, Henrik H., et al. "Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies." The American journal of clinical nutrition 108.4 (2018): 857-867.

[00:59:32] How to find Brianna and HVMN: Twitter: @BriannaStubbs and @HVMN; Instagram: HVMN; Website: hvmn.com; HVMN blog.

[01:00:00] HVMN podcast on Apple Podcasts;  HVMN on YouTube.

Apr 24, 2019
NBT People: Greg White
01:09:00

Greg White writes for television in Los Angeles. He has written for Comedy Central, Netflix, Cartoon Network, Disney, and has developed his own material for networks such as FX and MTV. A former endurance running junkie, his interests include strength training, functional movement, and meditation. He has been an NBT client since 2015 and credits this for helping him connect the dots and find the nexus between health, longevity and performance.

In this episode, Greg and I talk about his transition from a life of overtraining and injury to one of balance and vitality.  He discusses his shift in values from performance to longevity, along with his new passion for strength training. We get into gut health, diet, and the mindset that works for both writing and sport.  Greg also manages to pin me down on our exact calorie and carbohydrate intake recommendations for athletes.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg White:

[00:01:03] Greg’s history as a client of Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:01:21] Chris on Ben Greenfield’s podcast in 2016: Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!

[00:01:29] The MAF Method; Trailrunner Nation - Podcasts.

[00:02:25] Organic Acids Test (OAT).

[00:03:23] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:03:41] Phil Maffetone.

[00:09:34] Book: Mindset, by Carol Dweck.

[00:15:34] Greg's gut health journey.

[00:19:29] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:20:01] Oura Ring.

[00:21:43] Ancestral-Paleo Diet.

[00:22:44] Our exact calorie and carbohydrate intake recommendations for athletes.

[00:24:20] Tommy's AHS18 talk: The Athlete's Gut: Pitfalls of Fueling Modern Performance.

[00:25:46] Zach Moore, NBTs Head of Strength and Conditioning.

[00:27:36] 7-Minute Analysis Health Questionnaire.

[00:29:15] Brad Kearns Get Over Yourself podcast. Episodes featuring Dr. Tommy Wood: 1, 2.

[00:30:14] Risk of undereating with a whole-foods diet.

[00:31:57] TED Talk: Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O'Keefe.

[00:33:30] Podcast: How to Reconcile Performance with Longevity, with Simon Marshall and Tommy Wood.

[00:35:25] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training, with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:35:50] Shift in focus from performance to longevity.

[00:36:48] Yaktrax for running/walking in winter.

[00:39:12] Onnit equipment.

[00:39:18] Tawnee Prazak.

[00:40:10] Luna sandals.

[00:42:15] Podcast: NBT People: Will Catterson.

[00:45:17] Katy Bowman.

[00:46:01] Kelly Starrett; Mobility/WOD (M/WOD).

[00:46:12] Beginning strength training.

[00:49:52] Functional Range Conditioning (FRC).

[00:51:14] HOKA shoes.

[00:53:55] NBT on Patreon for premium podcasts and forum access.

[00:54:30] “Inspiration is for amateurs - the rest of us just show up and get to work.” - Chuck Close, painter.

[01:00:54] Tony Robbins.

[01:01:20] Strength training getaways.

[01:04:22] Greg’s YouTube channel.

[01:04:33] TV shows Greg has worked on: Season One of Animaniacs Reboot for Hulu (out in 2020). Comedy Central: Ugly Americans, TripTank; Netflix: The Adventures of Puss in Boots.

[01:05:46] Josh Turknett MD on Patreon. Podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

Apr 16, 2019
How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health
52:34

Dr. Jason Hawrelak, PhD. is a researcher, educator, and clinician, specializing in gastrointestinal health, the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics to improve health outcomes. Jason has written extensively in the medical literature on these topics and has been in clinical practice for almost 20 years. He also coordinates and teaches the Evidence-based Complementary Medicine Program at the University of Tasmania in Australia.

In this podcast, Jason and I discuss probiotics: what they are, what they do, and how to use them to improve your health. Jason talks about assessing the gut microbiota, some common misconceptions about probiotics, and specific strains to look for that are backed by research. He also discusses his industry-independent, evidence-based online courses and database, created to help guide clinical practice.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jason Hawrelak:

[00:00:53] Jason’s background.

[00:01:48] Studying people with IBS; learning about FODMAPs the hard way.

[00:06:15] Jason's Probiotic Advisor courses.

[00:06:36] Jason’s scientific publications.

[00:09:39] Manipulating the microbiota to improve health outcomes.

[00:12:20] Tools for assessing the gut microbiota: breath and stool testing.

[00:12:55] The limits of lactulose testing for SIBO.

[00:14:20] Interconnectedness amongst organisms in the microbiome; Mouse study: Qiu, Xinyun, et al. "Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis." Scientific reports 5 (2015): 10416.

[00:15:11] Apex predators in the gut ecosystem.

[00:15:36] Course: Advanced Probiotic Prescribing.

[00:15:40] Probiotics: live microbes that when administered in adequate amounts produces therapeutic effects.

[00:16:51] Current applications for probiotics.

[00:20:02] Debunking myths about probiotics regarding colonization and quick fixes.

[00:21:34] Fermented foods and drinks.

[00:24:12] The characteristics of a species is strain-specific.

[00:25:01] What to look for in a probiotic product (and red flags for what to avoid).

[00:26:08] Minimum therapeutic dose: one billion colony forming units (CFU).

[00:28:40] The Probiotic Advisor database.

[00:32:31] Promising probiotic strains that aren't yet available on the market.

[00:35:35] Justin Sonnenburg.

[00:35:50] Improving diversity of the gut ecosystem.

[00:36:30] 40 plant foods per week.

[00:39:06] uBiome.

[00:39:24] Genova GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile.

[00:42:07] Using uBiome results.

[00:43:33] Connection between the microbiome and mood. Course: Depression, Anxiety, and the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota.

[00:44:32] Transmitting depression from one organism to another via fecal transplant; Study: Kelly, John R., et al. "Transferring the blues: depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat." Journal of psychiatric research 82 (2016): 109-118.

[00:46:53] Jason’s clinic.

[00:48:00] Join the Gut Microbiota Explorer Challenge when you support us on Patreon.

Apr 06, 2019
Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training
59:40

Paul Laursen, PhD is an author, endurance coach, high-performance consultant and entrepreneur. He has competed in 17 Ironman triathlon races and has published over 125 peer-reviewed papers in exercise and sports science journals. We’ve had him on the podcast once before to discuss High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), and he’s since co-authored a book and developed an online course on the topic.

In this podcast, Paul and I take an even deeper dive into HIIT, including the specific physiological benefits that just aren’t available with lower intensity aerobic training. He describes his book and training course, which bridge the gap between the science and application of HIIT. We also get into some of the technology, gadgets, and sports psychology concepts that Paul uses in his coaching.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Paul Laursen:

[00:00:04] Paul's first podcast: Why Do and How to High-Intensity Interval Training.

[00:00:33] Book: Science and Application of High-Intensity Interval Training, by Paul Laursen, PhD and Martin Buchheit, PhD.

[00:01:20] Revelstoke Mountain Resort.

[00:02:50] Mountain biking trails in Revelstoke, British Columbia.

[00:05:40] Phil Maffetone; MAF method.

[00:06:25] High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT).

[00:07:09] What does HIIT training do?

[00:11:43] Type 2 fast-twitch muscle fibers.

[00:11:55] Ken Ford; Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[00:11:56] Joe Friel; Book: Fast After 50; Podcast: Joe Friel: World-Class Coach of Elite Athletes

[00:13:30] Paul's online video online training course: Science and Application of High-Intensity Interval Training.

[00:14:08] History of the book and the course; Martin Buchheit, PhD.

[00:14:25] Literature Review: Part 1: Buchheit, Martin, and Paul B. Laursen. "High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle." Sports medicine 43.10 (2013): 927-954; Part 2: Buchheit, Martin, and Paul B. Laursen. "High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle." Sports medicine 43.10 (2013): 927-954.

[00:16:15] Daniel Plews, PhD.

[00:16:23] Marc Quod, Sports Physiologist from Orica-Greenedge cycling team.

[00:17:28] Josh Turknett, MD; Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:19:45] Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson. Podcasts featuring Simon: 1, 2, 3, 4; and Lesley: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:20:30] Using HIIT to train an elite triathlete.

[00:22:40] Kyle Buckingham.

[00:28:08] Measuring intensity; GPS watches, heart rate; rating of perceived exertion (RPE).

[00:29:44] TrainingPeaks.

[00:29:50] How work periods are prescribed; 5-zone model.

[00:33:37] Gadget interference in training; Stages; SRM.

[00:35:57] Quarq.

[00:36:28] Garmin Connect.

[00:37:29] The importance of carrying out a HIIT session as prescribed.

[00:38:37] Fartlek.

[00:39:29] Interval training vs. Fartlek; Study: Das, Aditya Kumar, M. Sudhakara Babu, and Kota Satish. "Effect of continuous running fartlek training and interval training on selected motor ability and physiological variables among male football players." International Journal of Physical Education Sports Management and Yogic Sciences 4.1 (2014): 13-18.

[00:41:36] Use of stationary bikes to ensure precision with intervals.

[00:44:55] The psychology of HIIT.

[00:45:44] Book: The Chimp Paradox by Dr. Steve Peters.

[00:49:03] How much better can you get with HIIT?

[00:53:23] HIITscience.

[00:53:33] Book: Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning by Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark A McDaniel.

[00:54:51] A need for accredited HIIT science instructions and tools to support HIIT prescription.

[00:55:28] Heart rate variability (HRV).

[00:56:11] Martin Buchheit as head of performance for Paris Saint-Germain Football Club.

[00:57:33] Free content at HIITscience.com; Social media: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram.

Mar 30, 2019
An Interpretable Machine Learning Model of Biological Age
52:26

When we launched the Blood Chemistry Calculator (BCC) in early 2018 we couldn’t have predicted the changes the software would undergo or the projects it would lead to. One such project has been researching and writing a scientific paper on the use of machine learning to predict and interpret biological age. The paper is currently in the peer review process on F1000Research, an open research publishing platform.

In this podcast, I talk with lead author Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, about the importance of knowing your biological age and understanding how it can be derived from basic blood chemistry markers.  Tommy and I discuss the peer-review process and the changes we’re making to the software as a result of the feedback that’s been provided. We also discuss the individual markers that have the greatest impact on biological age, and how you can get a free predicted age report.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:00:58] Tommy got bit by a snake.

[00:02:38] Going to the doctor vs. changing lifestyle.

[00:03:32] Iatrogenic antibiotic injury.

[00:03:49] Antivenom: what it is, what it does and the side effects.

[00:06:49] Snake oral microbiota.

[00:10:23] Effects of antibiotics on gut.

[00:13:29] DUTCH (Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones).

[00:15:54] Our article: An interpretable machine model of biological age.

[00:17:15] Why is biological age important?

[00:19:12] Other tests of biological age; telomeres.

[00:20:31] Epigenetic testing.

[00:20:59] Effects of environment on epigenetic methylation; Studies: Nilsson, Emma, and Charlotte Ling. "DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes." Clinical epigenetics 9.1 (2017): 105; and Yet, Idil, et al. "Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins." Epigenomics 8.1 (2016): 105-117. Effects of lifestyle change on epigenetic methylation; Studies: Arpón, Ana, et al. "Impact of consuming extra-virgin olive oil or nuts within a Mediterranean diet on DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra randomized controlled trial: A role for dietary lipids." Nutrients 10.1 (2018): 15; and Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette, et al. "Dietary modifications, weight loss, and changes in metabolic markers affect global DNA methylation in Hispanic, African American, and Afro-Caribbean breast cancer survivors." The Journal of nutrition 145.4 (2015): 783-790.

[00:21:05] Epigenetic shifts and aging; Study: Pal, Sangita, and Jessica K. Tyler. "Epigenetics and aging." Science advances 2.7 (2016): e1600584.

[00:21:48] Insilico Medicine - Deep Biomarkers of Human Aging: aging.ai.

[00:22:46] Blood Chemistry Calculator (BCC).

[00:23:33] Find out your biological age with the free partial BCC report.

[00:24:04] How the biological age score is determined.

[00:28:13] Why we published the paper.

[00:28:40] Medscape article: Journal Editors on Peer Review, Paywalls, and Preprints.

[00:31:26] F1000Research.

[00:33:54] GitHub; XGBoost; Python.

[00:35:32] The reviewers for the peer review process: Alex Zhavoronkov and Peter Fedichev.

[00:39:10] Ideas that came out of the peer review process.

[00:42:49] Shapley Values and SHAP plots.

[00:43:51] Machine learning competition website: Kaggle.

[00:45:20] The most important blood markers for predicting biological age.

[00:48:02] Total cholesterol and BUN for predicting biological age.

[00:50:48] Nourish Balance Thrive on Patreon; NBT Forum.

Mar 22, 2019
A Carnivore Diet for Physical and Mental Health
01:30:09

At the recent Physicians for Ancestral Health Winter Retreat I had the opportunity to sit down in person with L. Amber O’Hearn, an outspoken advocate of plant-free eating. Since learning about the zero-carb carnivore approach in 2009, Amber has become an international speaker, researcher, and writer on the subjects of ketosis and the health benefits of eating meat.

In this podcast, Amber and I discuss her health journey from veganism to low carb, and then to the more radical carnivore diet. She explains how shunning plant foods led to a dramatic improvement in both her physical and mental health, ending her 20-year battle with bipolar disorder, without the use of medication. She also describes her own version of zero-carb and discusses how a carnivore diet affects ketosis.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Amber O’Hearn:

[00:00:23] Physicians for Ancestral Health.

[00:02:01] Amber's background.

[00:03:02] The path that led her to a low carb diet.

[00:09:23] Zooko Wilcox-O’Hearn.

[00:11:53] David Chaum.

[00:12:37] Zcash.

[00:16:10] The Ketogenic Diet for Health: ketotic.org.

[00:16:49] The value of end-to-end citations.

[00:21:52] Amber's post on gluconeogenesis: If You Eat Excess Protein, Does It Turn Into Excess Glucose?

[00:26:04] Josh Turknett MD; Talk: How to Win at Angry Birds: Moving Towards a More Efficient Practice Model.

[00:26:14] Richard David Feinman; blog: The Other.

[00:28:28] Reevaluating previous recommendations: Salt and DHA.

[00:33:03] Bipolar disorder and pharmaceutical treatment.

[00:40:31] Identifying the root cause of psychiatric illness.

[00:45:06] Unwanted side effects from mood stabilizing drugs.

[00:47:16] Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).

[00:53:45] Zero carb/plant free diet; Zeroing In On Health, ZIOH. ZIOH Facebook group.

[00:57:05] Charles Washington, founder of ZIOH group.

[00:57:49] Dry fasting leads to increased fat breakdown; Study: Rutkowska, Joanna, et al. "Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches." Journal of Experimental Biology 219.17 (2016): 2623-2628.

[01:03:58] Pregnancy: Carbohydrate cravings and hyperemesis gravidarum.

[01:05:50] Paleo Baby Podcast: Chloe Archard: Paleo advocate, mom, and host of the “Eat Better” podcast.

[01:06:51] Rat study: Thompson, Betty J., and Stuart Smith. "Biosynthesis of fatty acids by lactating human breast epithelial cells: an evaluation of the contribution to the overall composition of human milk fat." Pediatric research 19.1 (1985): 139.

[01:07:56] Keto Summit; Jeremy Hendon.

[01:09:28] Talk at Low Carb Breckenridge: L. Amber O'Hearn - Ketosis Without Starvation: The Human Advantage.

[01:10:03] The Boulder Carnivore Conference.

[01:10:54] What does a carnivore diet consist of?

[01:11:44] Financial considerations.

[01:13:56] Paleomedicina Clinic  (ICMNI) uses a Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet.

[01:14:59] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[01:15:24] Optimal ketone levels graphic from The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney.

[01:17:30] Autoimmune Protocol Diet (AIP).

[01:18:39] Shawn Baker.

[01:20:26] Andrew Scarborough.

[01:21:41] Ability to eat more protein while remaining in ketosis.

[01:26:07] Georgia Ede, MD.

[01:26:54] Podcast: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision, with Stephanie Welch.

[01:27:35] Amber’s blog: empiri.ca.

[01:27:46] Twitter: @ketocarnivore. Amber’s book-in-progress: facultativecarnivore.com. You can also support Amber’s work on Patreon.

Mar 13, 2019
Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision
01:09:41

Stephanie Welch is a humanist and ancestral health advocate, challenging commonly held societal beliefs and taboos in an effort she calls Disruptive Anthropology. In 2013 she became a full-time urban barefooter in Boston and in 2014 she took up intactivism, combating both male and female circumcision as a matter of health and human rights. Two years later she began studying and speaking on sexual commerce as it relates to male and female interpersonal dynamics.

On this podcast, Stephanie and I talk about some of the stances she’s taken during her years of ancestral advocacy. We talk about the ways that wearing shoes undermines our innate biomechanical development and the social norms she challenges by going barefoot. We also discuss the physical and sexual consequences of male circumcision and the critical aspects of community and connection that have been lost to modern American culture.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephanie Welch:

[00:00:08] PAH Winter Retreat.

[00:06:30] Noticing patterns in people’s bodies, as a massage therapist.

[00:07:43] What kind of deleterious effects could happen from wearing shoes?

[00:09:45] The sense of touch that comes through the sole of the foot; mechanoreceptors.

[00:11:37] Flat feet.

[00:14:36] Minimalist footwear; stress fractures.

[00:16:49] What about sharp objects?

[00:17:36] Bruce Parry TV series: Tribe (Going Tribal in the US).

[00:18:16] Toughening up the feet.

[00:21:46] Navigating social norms and conventions.

[00:23:11] Etsy: Barefoot sandals.

[00:24:12] NBT on Patreon; Forum challenge ideas.

[00:27:31] Why circumcision is not Paleo; Video: Not So Vestigial: The Anatomy and Functions of Male Foreskin by Stephanie Welch BA, MA, LMT.

[00:28:33] Parental disagreement about child’s circumcision: News story.

[00:30:41] Medical benefits of the foreskin.

[00:32:13] Does circumcision reduce the risk of disease?

[00:35:49] Functions of the foreskin: protection, lubrication, sensation, mechanical action, partner stimulation, erectile stimulation and penis size.

[00:36:40] Greater force needed during intercourse for circumcised men; Study: O’Hara, Kristen, and Jeffrey O’Hara. "The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female partner." BJU international 83.S1 (1999): 79-84. (Note: This may not be the specific study described by Stephanie in the podcast).

[00:39:11] The role of the foreskin in lubrication.

[00:41:54] The role of the foreskin in male stimulation.

[00:43:18] Why are people getting circumcised?

[00:52:29] Circumcision later in life.

[00:54:49] Evolutionary Feminism: Rekindling Women’s Sexual Power.

[00:55:45] Nuclear families as the domestic unit of society.

[00:56:36] Compassionate Communities; Podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, with Julian Abel, MD.

[00:58:14] Tribal living vs. modern households.

[01:03:55] Stephanie’s Paper: Welch, Stephanie. "Shoes Are Not Paleo." Journal of Evolution and Health 2.1 (2017): 16.

[01:04:01] Paleo f(x).

[01:04:22] Stephanie at the Ancestral Health Symposium.

[01:04:31] Future Frontiers in Austin, Tx.

Mar 04, 2019
How to Treat Chronic Sports Injuries Using Minimally Invasive Methods
37:24

Kimberly Harmon, MD, is board certified in Family Practice with a Certificate of Added Qualification in Sports Medicine. She is the Head Football Team Physician for the University of Washington Huskies, as well as a UW Professor in the Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Kimberly has lectured nationally and has authored numerous peer-reviewed papers on topics relating to sports injury and novel approaches to treatment.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, Kimberly draws from her own research and experience to describe options for the treatment of sport-related tendon and joint injuries using minimally-invasive procedures. They discuss interventions ranging from physical therapy techniques to platelet-rich plasma to relieve pain and improve function. She also discusses some of the main medical and safety challenges faced by today’s college athletes.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kimberly Harmon:

[00:01:15] Non-surgical approaches to sport-related joint and tendon problems.

[00:04:16] Assessment and treatment; eccentric exercises.

[00:06:48] Early intervention; Physical therapy techniques: Astym and Graston.

[00:07:10] Extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

[00:07:43] Nitrous Oxide; nitro patch.

[00:10:27] Tenotomy.

[00:10:52] Injecting whole blood into the tendon; Platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

[00:12:54] Reviews of PRP studies: 1. Salamanna, Francesca, et al. "New and emerging strategies in platelet-rich plasma application in musculoskeletal regenerative procedures: general overview on still open questions and outlook." BioMed research international 2015 (2015). 2. Barile, Antonio, et al. "Anaesthetics, steroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures." The British journal of radiology 89.1065 (2016): 20150355. 3. Jeong, D. U., et al. "Clinical applications of platelet-rich plasma in patellar tendinopathy." BioMed research international 2014 (2014).

[00:14:03] Kim’s research on PRP - about 80% of people respond Mautner, Kenneth, et al. "Outcomes after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic tendinopathy: a multicenter, retrospective review." PM&R 5.3 (2013): 169-175.

[00:15:35] Cortisol vs. PRP.

[00:17:12] Working treatment into recommendations for athletes.

[00:18:40] Joints; treatment with PRP.

[00:20:02] PRP improves joint pain and function; Studies: Bousnaki, M., A. Bakopoulou, and P. Koidis. "Platelet-rich plasma for the therapeutic management of temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review." International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 47.2 (2018): 188-198; and Tietze, David C., Kyle Geissler, and James Borchers. "The effects of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of large-joint osteoarthritis: a systematic review." The Physician and sportsmedicine 42.2 (2014): 27-37.

[00:21:00] Joint replacement.

[00:21:40] Viscosupplementation; brands: Synvisc, Orthovisc, Euflexxa, Supartz; hyaluronic acid.

[00:22:12] PRP vs. hyaluronic acid; Study: Ye, Ye, et al. "Platelet rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid in patients with hip osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." International Journal of Surgery (2018).

[00:24:00] Stem cells.

[00:28:00] Ablations of the nerves for arthritis; radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

[00:29:36] Being the on-call doctor for the University of Washington Husky football team.

[00:31:23] Problems seen in college athletes; sleep.

[00:33:20] Chair of the Pac-12 Student Athlete Health and Well-Being Board.

[00:34:42] Injury record database; sports analytics.

[00:37:02] Find Kim: Sports Medicine Clinic at Husky Stadium; see her research on PubMed.

Feb 23, 2019
Run for Your Life: An Ancestral Health Approach to Running
51:54

Dr. Mark Cucuzzella, MD is a family medicine physician and Air Force Reserve Lieutenant Colonel, as well as a Professor at West Virginia University School of Medicine. Mark has been a competitive runner for almost four decades, with more than one hundred marathon and ultramarathon finishes, and he continues to compete as a national-level masters runner. Mark also owns the first minimalist running and walking shoe store, Two Rivers Treads.

In this podcast Dr. Tommy Wood, MD talks with Mark about his new book Run For Your Life, which outlines the science and the soul of running and nutrition for maintaining a vigorous life. They discuss the aspects of physiology that suggest humans evolved to run, and the features of modern living that can result in foot pain and arthritis. Mark shares his best training tips for both new and experienced runners, as well as resources for healing painful foot conditions.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mark Cucuzzella:

[00:00:23] Book: Run for Your Life: How to Run, Walk, and Move Without Pain or Injury and Achieve a Sense of Well-Being and Joy, by Dr. Mark Cucuzzella.

[00:01:54] Books: Fat Chance and The Fat Chance Cookbook, by Dr. Robert Lustig.

[00:02:07] Gary Taubes.

[00:04:33] The process of writing a book.

[00:05:44] Co-writer Broughton Coburn.

[00:07:18] Collaboration between Tommy and Mark on low-carb paper: Cucuzzella, Mark T., et al. "A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal." Journal of Insulin Resistance 2.1 (2017): 1-25.

[00:08:09] Running.

[00:08:39] Book: Born to Run by Christopher McDougall.

[00:08:42] Features of human physiology and skeleton that support bipedal running; Study: Bramble, Dennis M., and Daniel E. Lieberman. "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo." Nature 432.7015 (2004): 345.

[00:09:31] Book: Story of the Human Body, by Dan Lieberman.

[00:11:20] Zones of training.

[00:12:10] Minimal shoes.

[00:15:12] The road to health for people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

[00:15:34] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD and Jeff Volek, PhD, RD.

[00:16:41] Slow jogging; Dr. Hiroaki Tanaka. Videos: 1, 2, and how to slow jog, with Dr. Tanaka.

[00:18:46] The facia and how it relates to running.

[00:20:37] Lawrence van Lingen.

[00:20:53] Book: Anatomy Trains, by Thomas Myers.

[00:21:23] Book: Functional Atlas of the Human Fascial System, by Carla Stecco, MD.

[00:22:17] Videos: Gil Hedley: Fascia and stretching: The Fuzz Speech and Strolling Under the Skin.

[00:23:50] Foam rolling.

[00:25:04] The gastrocsoleus complex.

[00:28:23] Plantar fasciitis; Mark’s ebook.

[00:29:47] Hallux valgus (bunion).

[00:31:06] Relieving foot pain: Correct Toes.

[00:32:59] Insole: Barefoot Science.

[00:33:47] Knee osteoarthritis and pain.

[00:34:28] Dr. Casey Kerrigan; Jay Dicharry.

[00:36:11] Modern-day influences on osteoarthritis; Study: Berenbaum, Francis, et al. "Modern-day environmental factors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis." Nature Reviews Rheumatology(2018): 1.

[00:37:17] Dick Beardsley, Roger Robinson.

[00:39:35] Meb Keflezighi.

[00:41:14] Cardiovascular benefits vs complications of training.

[00:42:44] Podcast: How to Reconcile Performance with Longevity.

[00:44:22] Bernard Lagat.

[00:44:56] Eliud Kipchoge.

[00:48:48] Runforyourlifebook.com and www.DrMarksdesk.com.

[00:50:58] PAH Winter Retreat in Scottsdale, AZ.

Feb 16, 2019
Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica
01:32:51

This past January several of the NBT team members and I met up for sun and camaraderie at the Flō Retreat Center, in Uvita, Costa Rica. Flō is run by strength coach, Ben House, PhD, who’s been on the podcast once before. Previously we talked about his work with clients and the effects of hormones on building strength and lean mass. It’s now a year later and we’re continuing the conversation.

On this podcast, Ben is joined by myself, Dr. Tommy Wood, Megan Roberts, and Dr. Lindsay Taylor for a discussion of some of the practical and philosophical aspects of strength training and public health. Ben also shares his strategy for evaluating scientific literature and explains why everyone can benefit by building muscle.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ben House:

[00:00:00] Hikecast with Kim House.

[00:00:07] Flō Retreat Center, Uvita, Costa Rica.

[00:03:03] Addictions.

[00:05:27] Indicators of longevity: grip strength, leg strength and muscle mass, VO2 max.

[00:08:46] Megan's transformation.

[00:09:47] Fat free mass index (FFMI).

[00:10:02] Muscle mass and mortality; Study: Abramowitz, Matthew K., et al. "Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study." PloS one 13.4 (2018): e0194697.

[00:13:27] FFMI Calculator.

[00:16:16] Working as a personal trainer.

[00:17:56] Getting a PhD: Learning how to learn.

[00:21:32] Glycogen shunt; Studies: Shulman, Robert G. "Glycogen turnover forms lactate during exercise." Exercise and sport sciences reviews 33.4 (2005): 157-162; and Shulman, R. G., and D. L. Rothman. "The “glycogen shunt” in exercising muscle: a role for glycogen in muscle energetics and fatigue." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98.2 (2001): 457-461.

[00:24:47] Dr. Josh Turknett. Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:25:22] Different types of cells identified in mouse brain; Study: Tasic, Bosiljka, et al. "Shared and distinct transcriptomic cell types across neocortical areas." Nature 563.7729 (2018): 72.

[00:27:18] Dr. Richard Feinman blog post: Meta-analysis is to analysis…

[00:31:58] Keto not conducive to muscle gain in clinical trials; Studies: Vargas, Salvador, et al. "Efficacy of ketogenic diet on body composition during resistance training in trained men: a randomized controlled trial." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 15.1 (2018): 31. Additional studies showing loss of lean body mass on keto: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[00:32:42] Luis Villaseñor, KetoGains.

[00:34:27] Solving nuanced health problems.

[00:35:49] Precision Nutrition.

[00:40:36] Books: The Power of Moments and Switch by Chip Heath and Dan Heath.

[00:42:01] Behavior change.

[00:43:13] Is obesity solvable on a macro level?

[00:50:34] Uncoupling proteins; Podcast: Mitochondria: More Than a Powerhouse, with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:52:00] Lindsay Taylor; Podcast: Brain Training for the Primal Keto Endurance Athlete.

[01:03:24] Mike T Nelson; Podcast: How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[01:03:43] Retreats at the Flō Retreat Center.

[01:06:52] Bro retreats; hypertrophy camps.

[01:08:35] 2019 Functional Medicine Costa Rica Retreat: Speakers include Bryan Walsh, Pat Davidson, Seth Oberst.

[01:09:46] Zac Cupples; Course: Human Matrix.

[01:10:07] Lucy Hendricks, Ryan L'Ecuyer.

[01:13:16] 30 minutes 2x a week to get to a sufficient FFMI.

[01:14:26] Mechanisms for increasing muscle mass: muscular tension and metabolic stress.

[01:19:35] Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[01:19:48] Nourish Balance Thrive on Patreon.

[01:26:47] Is the Flō Retreat Center replicable?

[01:30:15] Ben’s Facebook page; Functional Medicine Costa Rica; broresearch.com; Email: drhouse@broresearch.com.

Feb 06, 2019
Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes
01:18:30

Back on the show today is Greg Potter, PhD, Content Director at humanOS.me. Last time Greg was here we discussed entraining circadian rhythm to attain perfect sleep. Today we’re examining circadian biology from a different angle, focusing specifically on chronotypes. Are we biologically wired to be morning larks or night owls? Or do these tendencies stem from social conditioning and modern influences?

On this podcast, Dr. Tommy Wood talks with Greg about the biological underpinnings that may have resulted in distinct chronotypes. They discuss the environmental factors that contribute to early or late tendencies and the impact of having a “late” chronotype on health outcomes. Greg also shares his best practical strategies to optimize the circadian system for the purposes of health, sleep, and productivity.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:00] Try a humanOS Pro Membership for $1 for the first month (use code: NBT).

[00:00:10] Greg’s previous podcast: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health.

[00:02:04] Satchin Panda podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:02:12] Bill Lagakos podcast: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:02:44] Chronotypes.

[00:03:33] Michael O'Shea, author of Aspects of Mental Economy (1900).

[00:04:03] Colin Pittendrigh and Serge Daan.

[00:04:40] Horne and Östberg study: Horne, Jim A., and Olov Östberg. "A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms." International journal of chronobiology(1976).

[00:04:45] Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ).

[00:05:45] Composite Scale of Morningness; Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ).

[00:07:19] Objective measures of biological timing: actimetry; Actiwatch; melatonin rhythm, core body temperature, cortisol.

[00:09:20] The circadian system explained.

[00:12:19] Time cues (zeitgebers).

[00:11:39] Entrainment.

[00:15:12] Phase angle of entrainment; Jeanne Duffy, PhD.

[00:17:36] Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells; David Berson, PhD; Samer Hattar.

[00:18:49] Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Studies: Moore, Robert Y., and Victor B. Eichler. "Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat." Brain research(1972); and Abe, K., et al. "Effects of destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei on the circadian rhythms in plasma corticosterone, body temperature, feeding and plasma thyrotropin." Neuroendocrinology 29.2 (1979): 119-131.

[00:19:36] Phase Response Curve.

[00:22:03] Sleep homeostasis: the pressure to sleep that accumulates with more time awake.

[00:24:26] David Samson, PhD; Sentinel hypothesis, study: Samson, David R., et al. "Chronotype variation drives night-time sentinel-like behaviour in hunter–gatherers." Proc. R. Soc. B 284.1858 (2017): 20170967.

[00:28:35] Kenneth Wright, Jr.; Study: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle." Current Biology 23.16 (2013): 1554-1558; Follow up study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:32:49] Weaker time cues: 88% of time indoors, light pollution.

[00:35:56] Twin studies on diurnal type: Vink, Jacqueline M., et al. "Genetic analysis of morningness and eveningness." Chronobiology international 18.5 (2001): 809-822.

[00:36:24] Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome; Study: Toh, Kong L., et al. "An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome." Science 291.5506 (2001): 1040-1043.

[00:37:48] Delayed sleep phase disorder; study: Patke, Alina, et al. "Mutation of the human circadian clock gene CRY1 in familial delayed sleep phase disorder." Cell 169.2 (2017): 203-215.

[00:38:17] Gene variants involved in the sleep timing; Studies: Hu, Youna, et al. "GWAS of 89,283 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with self-reporting of being a morning person." Nature communications 7 (2016): 10448; and Jones, Samuel E., et al. "Genome-wide association analyses in> 119,000 individuals identifies thirteen morningness and two sleep duration loci." Biorxiv (2016): 031369.

[00:41:33] Economic benefit of later school start times: Hafner, Marco, Martin Stepanek, and Wendy M. Troxel. "Later school start times in the US." An economic analysis (2017).

[00:46:03] Health effects of late chronotype.

[00:47:23] Study: Knutson, Kristen L., and Malcolm von Schantz. "Associations between chronotype, morbidity and mortality in the UK Biobank cohort." Chronobiology international (2018): 1-9.

[00:48:35] Chronotype and cognitive performance; Study: Kyle, Simon D., et al. "Sleep and cognitive performance: cross-sectional associations in the UK Biobank." Sleep medicine 38 (2017): 85-91; and van der Vinne, Vincent, et al. "Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes." Journal of biological rhythms 30.1 (2015): 53-60.

[00:50:10] Social jetlag; Study: Wittmann, Marc, et al. "Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time." Chronobiology international 23.1-2 (2006): 497-509.

[00:51:10] Social jet lag and poor health; Study: Roenneberg, Till, et al. "Social jetlag and obesity." Current Biology 22.10 (2012): 939-943.

[00:53:01] Calculating social jetlag; Article: Jankowski, Konrad S. "Social jet lag: Sleep-corrected formula." Chronobiology international 34.4 (2017): 531-535.

[00:55:23] The effect of seasonality on circadian rhythm.

[00:57:40] Seasonal changes in gene expression; Study: Dopico, Xaquin Castro, et al. "Widespread seasonal gene expression reveals annual differences in human immunity and physiology." Nature communications 6 (2015): 7000.

[00:58:54] Latitudinal differences in chronotype; Study: Putilov, Arcady A., et al. "Genetic-based signatures of the latitudinal differences in chronotype." Biological Rhythm Research (2018): 1-17.

[00:59:22] Effect of latitude on delayed sleep phase syndrome: Pereira, Danyella S., et al. "Association of the length polymorphism in the human Per3 gene with the delayed sleep-phase syndrome: does latitude have an influence upon it?." Sleep 28.1 (2005): 29-32.

[01:01:46] Book: The Power of When By Michael Breus, PhD.

[01:02:31] Molding the environment to support health outcomes.

[01:04:26] The most important ways to optimize the functions of the circadian system.

[01:05:06] James Hewitt podcast: How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance.

[01:07:12] Blog post: Writing a To-Do List Might Help You Fall Asleep Faster.

[01:08:55] Digital sunset: f.lux, Twilight (Android). Night Shift (iOS).

[01:11:21] Body Scan meditation: Mark Williams or Sharon Salzberg.

[01:14:12] Video: AHS18 - The Athlete's Gut: Pitfalls of Fuelling Modern Performance.

[01:14:25] Effects of irregular meal pattern; Study: Alhussain, Maha H., Ian A. Macdonald, and Moira A. Taylor. "Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women, 2." The American journal of clinical nutrition 104.1 (2016): 21-32.

Jan 27, 2019
Formula One Team Medicine: Dr. Luke Bennett
36:55

Join us at the Physicians for Ancestral Health Winter Retreat

Dr. Luke Bennett, MD is the Medical and Sports Performance Director with Hintsa Performance, and the team doctor for the Mercedes - AMG Petronas Formula One (F1) racing team. His role with F1 involves providing general medical practice for 200 staff on the road and overseeing a team of coaches, trainers, and nutritionists who work with the drivers on the Formula One grid.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Luke discusses his background in critical and intensive care medicine in Australia and the events that launched him from lifelong fan of motorsport to Formula One team doctor. They discuss the training, business, and performance psychology needs of F1 drivers and some of the challenges associated with life on the road.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Luke Bennett:

[00:00:12] Peter Attia Podcast: The Drive.

[00:00:20] Hintsa Performance.

[00:02:30] Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia.

[00:05:18] Taking a patient history.

[00:06:35] Transitioning to working with Formula One.

[00:07:47] Dr. Aki Hintsa.

[00:08:39] Formula One.

[00:09:33] Team doctor for the Mercedes-AMG Petronas team.

[00:11:28] Haile Gebrselassie; Mika Häkkinen.

[00:12:44] Pete McKnight and Dave Ferguson; Book: The Science of Motorsport, by David P. Ferguson.

[00:13:55] Finding the right coach for the right driver.

[00:17:14] The Core: a close and deliberate examination of what makes a person tick.

[00:18:33] Psychology of sports performance in F1.

[00:21:20] The complex social tapestry of F1 racing.

[00:23:19] Hintsa Chairman Juha Äkräs and CEO, Jussi Raisanen.

[00:25:01] Knowing where to assign your time.

[00:29:23] Tim Ferriss; Financial Times, Sky News; The West Wing Weekly.

[00:30:24] Sam Harris, Waking Up Podcast.

[00:31:19] Shane Parrish; Farnam Street blog.

[00:32:11] Ornithology.

[00:34:35] Hintsa on Twitter and Facebook.

Jan 16, 2019
Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health
43:40

Julian Abel, MD has been a consultant in palliative care since 2001, as well as the Vice President of Public Health Palliative Care International, and the Director of Compassionate Communities UK. Since 2016 Julian has been collaborating with Frome Medical Practice in the UK to roll out their innovative model of building social connection within the community to improve health outcomes and quality of life. The initial results have been remarkable, with dramatic decreases in local emergency admissions compared to surrounding areas.

On this podcast with Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, Julian describes the compassionate community model of care, including the financial and social benefits that come with weaving social support into an existing health care system. He explains how creating stronger connections within the community is a public health imperative and a socially conscious alternative to rising health care costs. He’s also developed a replicable system for bringing the concept to other communities and businesses.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julian Abel:

[00:02:19] Compassionate communities: Things that matter most to people who are dying and the supportive networks that surround them.

[00:03:08] Palliative care.

[00:05:18] The impact of kindness and compassion on how we function.

[00:06:01] Death: how best to help people with terminal illness.

[00:08:40] Frome Medical Practice in Somerset; Health Connections Mendip.

[00:10:47] Impact of social connection: 14% reduction in emergency admissions in Frome, compared to 28.5% increase in admissions within Somerset; Study: Abel, Julian, et al. "Reducing emergency hospital admissions: a population health complex intervention of an enhanced model of primary care and compassionate communities." Br J Gen Pract 68.676 (2018): e803-e810.

[00:11:53] Social relationships and mortality; Study: Holt-Lunstad, Julianne, Timothy B. Smith, and J. Bradley Layton. "Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review." PLoS medicine 7.7 (2010): e1000316.

[00:12:37] Bringing compassionate communities into health services.

[00:14:35] Benefits to health, medicine, and society.

[00:16:23] Compassionate Communities UK.

[00:18:32] Key functions of the model.

[00:23:16] Reciprocity and altruism.

[00:24:31] Systematic program implementation: How to bring these practices to new communities.

[00:26:16] Public Health Palliative Care International; Compassionate City Charter.

[00:29:00] Implementation within companies for staff retention and recruitment, employee morale, productivity.

[00:30:25] Physicians: Emotional distance vs. compassion.

[00:33:49] Placebo effect and therapeutic relationship.

[00:37:14] Fitting the model into even very brief medical consultations.

[00:37:31] Health Connections Mendip service directory.

[00:38:48] A “malnourishment of compassion”, across all age groups.

[00:41:34] Resurgence & Ecologist Magazine article: Compassion is the best medicine, by Julian Abel and Lindsay Clarke.

[00:41:37] Guardian article: The town that’s found a potent cure for illness – community, by George Monbiot.

[00:42:13] Highlights email discussing compassionate communities paper and intervention.

Jan 10, 2019
How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development
01:05:38

We’ve got neurologist Josh Turknett, MD back on the podcast today to talk about “unschooling”, a homeschooling method in which the direction of education is strongly influenced by the student’s interests and choices. It is becoming a popular alternative to traditional schooling, which forces kids to stay indoors, sit still, and be quiet for hours every day, while limiting access to activities they are developmentally wired to appreciate, such as art, drama, and music.

On this podcast Josh and I talk about how best to support a child’s natural cognitive development, specifically using the principles of unschooling. Josh describes this emerging paradigm and explains the benefit it holds for all children - not only those struggling within the traditional school system. We also discuss the best resources we’ve found for educating our own kids and encouraging their cognitive development.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:13] Previous podcast episode: The Migraine Miracle, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:01:10] Physicians for Ancestral Health (PAH); PAH Podcast.

[00:02:33] PAH website: ancestraldoctors.org.

[00:05:38] Intelligence Unshackled Podcast.

[00:08:30] Book: The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat: And Other Clinical Tales, by Oliver Sacks.

[00:09:02] Geoffrey Hinton: This Canadian Genius Created Modern AI.

[00:09:44] Study: Richards, Blake A., and Paul W. Frankland. "The persistence and transience of memory." Neuron 94.6 (2017): 1071-1084.

[00:10:37] Book: The Forgetting Machine: Memory, Perception, and the "Jennifer Aniston Neuron", by Rodrigo Quian Quiroga.

[00:12:07] Paleo Baby Podcast.

[00:12:52] Letter To High Meadows Elementary School.

[00:16:58] Arts and music as undervalued disciplines in traditional school systems.

[00:20:15] Harder is not necessarily better.

[00:21:36] Forest school.

[00:23:12] Using the outdoors for primary education.

[00:25:32] Traditional schooling: suppressing activities that come most naturally.

[00:26:03] ADD/ADHD; sleep deprivation and nutrition.

[00:29:57] Unschooling.

[00:33:42] Learning formula: intrinsic motivation, feedback mechanism, learning constructed knowledge.

[00:36:15] Day to day unschooling schedule.

[00:37:10] The myth of poor socialization when homeschooling.

[00:39:37] Balancing interests with general education.

[00:42:37] Duolingo.

[00:42:55] Educational materials.

[00:43:07] Khan Academy; 3Blue1Brown; Smartick.

[00:45:17] Assessing knowledge and progress.

[00:50:37] Book: Selfish Reasons to Have More Kids: Why Being a Great Parent is Less Work and More Fun Than You Think, by Bryan Caplan.

[00:53:59] Book: Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Peter C. Brown.

[00:54:12] Movie: Class Dismissed.

[00:54:26] Brainjo on Patreon.

[00:55:24] Censorship on Wikipedia.

[00:55:59] Sam Harris.

[00:57:25] Brainjo.

[01:01:40] mymigrainemiracle.com; elitecognition.com; Brainjo Education Facebook group.

[01:03:00] Physicians for Ancestral Health; PAH winter retreat.

[01:04:01] Book: Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, by Tim Harford.

Jan 01, 2019
Startups, Investing, and Technology in Health with Kevin Rose
55:38

Internet entrepreneur, venture capitalist, and software coder Kevin Rose had his first taste of success in business when he co-founded Digg, a social news website, in 2004. A few years later he was named one of the top 35 innovators under age 35 by the MIT Technology Review. He’s gone on to create other websites and companies, with a current focus on building health-related mobile apps and investing in promising startups.

In this podcast, Dr. Tommy Wood and I interview Kevin about his professional life as an innovator and entrepreneur. We delve into his remarkable ability to predict societal trends and discuss the direction he sees technology heading next. Kevin also shares some of the practices and supplements he uses to enhance his own cognitive performance and quality of life.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kevin Rose:

[00:01:03] Kevin's background.

[00:04:05] Combining marketing and programming; TechTV; The Screen Savers.

[00:04:25] Digg.

[00:06:11] Fake news: Turning Obama audio clips into realistic lip-synched video.

[00:06:42] Techmeme for tech news.

[00:10:46] Investing in Facebook and Twitter.

[00:12:23] Anonymous decentralized internet.

[00:13:19] Tor; InterPlanetary File System (IPFS); Blockstack.

[00:14:13] Social media making people miserable.

[00:16:06] Oak meditation app.

[00:16:30] Headspace, Calm.

[00:19:23] The Light Phone; Palm.

[00:20:12] Google Pixel 3.

[00:23:31] Zero fasting tracker app.

[00:24:11] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD.

[00:24:16] Valter Longo.

[00:24:46] The Kevin Rose Show podcast.

[00:25:59] Paul Graham: Sitcom startup ideas.

[00:27:29] Wearable technology; Oura ring.

[00:28:29] Continuous glucose monitoring; Study: Beck, Roy W., et al. "Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes using insulin injections: the DIAMOND randomized clinical trial." Jama 317.4 (2017): 371-378.

[00:28:53] Dexcom G6.

[00:29:43] Peter Attia; Peter Attia Drive; Podcast: The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan, with Peter Attia.

[00:30:03] Tim Ferriss.

[00:32:08] Cold and heat; Wim Hof method.

[00:35:34] Peloton: A spin class in your home.

[00:36:30] 23andMe; MTHFR.

[00:37:36] Rapamycin; Ben Greenfield.

[00:38:06] Cognitive benefits: Lion’s mane mushroom; Bacopa.

[00:38:56] Studies: Hericium (lion's mane) and BDNF: Rupcic, Zeljka, et al. "Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum." International journal of molecular sciences 19.3 (2018): 740; and Bacopa: Neale, Chris, et al. "Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes." British journal of clinical pharmacology 75.3 (2013): 728-737.

[00:39:04] ReCODE protocol; Book: The End of Alzheimer's: The First Program to Prevent and Reverse Cognitive Decline, by Dale Bredesen.

[00:39:48] Blockchain; Electronic health records.

[00:41:13] WellnessFX.

[00:42:06] Book: Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones, by James Clear.

[00:42:19] Reasons people come to meditation apps.

[00:43:14] Book: The Illuminated Mind by June D’Estelle.

[00:44:06] Sam Harris.

[00:46:43] User churn.

[00:52:34] Where to find Kevin: kevinrose.com; Instagram.

Dec 27, 2018
How to Use Breathing, Heat, and Cold for Health and Athletic Performance
49:48

Coach PJ Nestler is a human performance specialist with a life mission to help athletes and coaches realize their full potential. With over 10 years of experience preparing top athletes for competition, PJ has trained dozens of athletes from the UFC, NFL, NHL, and MLB. He has also worked extensively with over 100 fighters, including Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu World Champions and Top 10 ranked UFC fighters.

On this podcast, NBT Coach Clay Higgins talks with Coach PJ about his role as the Director of Performance with XPT Life, which includes researching, educating, and training based on XPTs Breathe-Move-Recover foundational pillars. PJ discusses the value of breathing protocols to sustain health and improve athletic performance. They also look at exposure to extreme heat and cold for hormetic benefits and offer some things to consider before adding these strategies to your training regimen.

Here’s the outline of this interview with PJ Nestler:

[00:01:00] XPT Experience; Laird Hamilton and Gabby Reece.

[00:02:39] Pool training exercises.

[00:07:08] Exploration breathing sessions.

[00:09:22] The rise of breath work as the key to performance.

[00:13:30] Dysfunction in breathing: causes and effects.

[00:16:05] Controlling breath to create the intra-abdominal pressure needed to lift.

[00:17:46] Relief of anxiety.

[00:19:27] The physiology behind different breathing protocols: Understanding the why.

[00:22:41] Identifying the best breathing protocol for an individual.

[00:26:00] Mouth taping.

[00:27:06] Somnifix strips.

[00:29:39] Sleep hygiene; circadian rhythm.

[00:30:41] Functional Range Conditioning (FRC).

[00:30:59] Controlled Articular Rotations (CARS).

[00:31:50] Nighttime routine.

[00:34:19] ChiliPad.

[00:35:48] Cold therapy.

[00:36:41] Using breath to lower heart rate and blood pressure, decrease sympathetic nervous system activity; Studies: Zou, Yan, et al. "Meta-Analysis of Effects of Voluntary Slow Breathing Exercises for Control of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases." The American journal of cardiology 120.1 (2017): 148-153; and Hering, Dagmara, et al. "Effects of acute and long-term slow breathing exercise on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in untreated male patients with hypertension." Journal of hypertension 31.4 (2013): 739-746.

[00:38:28] Physiological benefits of exposure to extreme heat; Studies: For depression in cancer patients: Koltyn, K. F., et al. "Changes in mood state following whole-body hyperthermia." International journal of hyperthermia 8.3 (1992): 305-307; In cardiovascular disease: Laukkanen, Jari A., Tanjaniina Laukkanen, and Setor K. Kunutsor. "Cardiovascular and other health benefits of sauna bathing: a review of the evidence." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 93. No. 8. Elsevier, 2018; In diabetes: Krause, Mauricio, et al. "Heat shock proteins and heat therapy for type 2 diabetes: pros and cons." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 18.4 (2015): 374-380; In rheumatic disease, asthma, and chronic bronchitis: Hannuksela, Minna L., and Samer Ellahham. "Benefits and risks of sauna bathing." The American journal of medicine 110.2 (2001): 118-126.

[00:39:20] Hormesis.

[00:40:47] Sauna and cold exposure: What temperature and for how long?

[00:42:10] Research suggests benefit at 175 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit for 15-30 minutes, 2+ times/week.

[00:46:28] Cold exposure for athletic recovery; Study: Versey, Nathan G., Shona L. Halson, and Brian T. Dawson. "Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations." Sports medicine 43.11 (2013): 1101-1130.

[00:48:19] Find PJ on Instagram, on YouTube, Facebook, xptlife.com.

Dec 19, 2018
Calorie Restriction for Healthy Aging and Longevity
01:04:13

Researcher Jon Ramsey, PhD is Professor in the Department of Molecular Biosciences within the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis. His study of animals focuses on nutrition as it relates to obesity and aging. The goal of his research is to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to the aging process and to develop dietary interventions that promote healthy aging and weight loss.

In this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts interviews Dr. Ramsey about his research in the area of calorie restriction and its beneficial effects on longevity and healthspan. They examine the scientific literature on energy and macronutrient restriction, including some of the possible biological mechanisms driving the anti-aging effects of these interventions. They also discuss what this all means in practical terms for those seeking optimal health as they age.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jon Ramsey:

[00:01:35] Calorie restriction for increasing lifespan.

[00:02:01] Theories of aging.

[00:04:40] Osborne and Mendel; Study: Osborne, Thomas B., Lafayette B. Mendel, and Edna L. Ferry. "The effect of retardation of growth upon the breeding period and duration of life of rats." Science 45.1160 (1917): 294-295.

[00:04:58] Clive McCay; Studies: McCay, Clive Maine, and Mary F. Crowell. "Prolonging the life span." The Scientific Monthly 39.5 (1934): 405-414 and McCay, Carl M., Mary F. Crowell, and Lewis A. Maynard. "The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span and upon the ultimate body size: one figure." The journal of Nutrition 10.1 (1935): 63-79.

[00:06:25] Calorie restriction literature in animals.

[00:07:39] Types of rodents studied.

[00:08:09] Comparing effect of caloric restriction (CR) on different strains of mice; Study: Liao, Chen‐Yu, et al. "Genetic variation in the murine lifespan response to dietary restriction: from life extension to life shortening." Aging cell 9.1 (2010): 92-95.

[00:09:08] Time restricted feeding in animal models.

[00:11:51] Calorie restriction vs. malnutrition.

[00:12:00] Different levels of calorie restriction. Study: Weindruch, Richard, et al. "The retardation of aging in mice by dietary restriction: longevity, cancer, immunity and lifetime energy intake." The Journal of nutrition 116.4 (1986): 641-654.

[00:13:36] Effects of 10% dietary restriction: Richardson, Arlan, et al. "Significant life extension by ten percent dietary restriction." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1363.1 (2016): 11-17.

[00:15:09] CALERIE study and resulting Publications.

[00:17:56] Analyses of CALERIE data. Studies: Belsky, Daniel W., et al. "Change in the rate of biological aging in response to caloric restriction: CALERIE Biobank Analysis." The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 73.1 (2017): 4-10. and Redman, Leanne M., et al. "Metabolic slowing and reduced oxidative damage with sustained caloric restriction support the rate of living and oxidative damage theories of aging." Cell metabolism 27.4 (2018): 805-815.

[00:19:21] Dietary restriction and oxidative stress; Study: Walsh, Michael E., Yun Shi, and Holly Van Remmen. "The effects of dietary restriction on oxidative stress in rodents." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 66 (2014): 88-99.

[00:20:29] Podcast: How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan, with Megan Roberts.

[00:20:40] Effects of CR on reactive oxidative species production; Study: Ramsey, Jon J., Mary-Ellen Harper, and Richard Weindruch. "Restriction of energy intake, energy expenditure, and aging." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 29.10 (2000): 946-968.

[00:20:59] Effects of fasting on the liver; Study: Salin, Karine, et al. "Decreased mitochondrial metabolic requirements in fasting animals carry an oxidative cost." Functional Ecology (2018).

[00:21:56] Control of food intake: Do animal models accurately reflect human behavior?

[00:25:06] Enriched environment; Study: McMurphy, Travis, et al. "Implementation of environmental enrichment after middle age promotes healthy aging." Aging (Albany NY) 10.7 (2018): 1698.

[00:26:16] Monkey studies; Study: Ramsey, J. J., et al. "Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study." Experimental gerontology 35.9-10 (2000): 1131-1149.

[00:26:35] University of Wisconsin study: Colman, Ricki J., et al. "Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys." Science 325.5937 (2009): 201-204.

[00:26:35] National Institute on Aging study: Mattison, Julie A., et al. "Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study." Nature 489.7415 (2012): 318.

[00:31:34] Biological mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of CR.

[00:33:09] Central metabolism sensors.

[00:35:28] Mitochondrial proton leak.

[00:37:41] Study: Bevilacqua, Lisa, et al. "Effects of short-and medium-term calorie restriction on muscle mitochondrial proton leak and reactive oxygen species production." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 286.5 (2004): E852-E861.

[00:40:59] The influence of dietary fat source; Study: Villalba, José Manuel, et al. "The influence of dietary fat source on liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial modifications and lifespan changes in calorie-restricted mice." Biogerontology 16.5 (2015): 655-670.

[00:42:16] Effects of protein restriction on longevity; Studies: 1. Davis, Teresa A., Connie W. Bales, and Roy E. Beauchene. "Differential effects of dietary caloric and protein restriction in the aging rat." Experimental gerontology 18.6 (1983): 427-435; 2. Pugh, Thomas D., Roger G. Klopp, and Richard Weindruch. "Controlling caloric consumption: protocols for rodents and rhesus monkeys☆." Neurobiology of aging 20.2 (1999): 157-165.

[00:42:23] More recent studies on protein restriction: 1. Pamplona, Reinald, and Gustavo Barja. "Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: the protein and methionine connection." Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics 1757.5-6 (2006): 496-508; 2. Caro, Pilar, et al. "Effect of 40% restriction of dietary amino acids (except methionine) on mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis, AIF and SIRT1 in rat liver." Biogerontology 10.5 (2009): 579-592.

[00:43:42] Morris Ross study: Ross, Morris H. "Length of life and nutrition in the rat." The Journal of nutrition 75.2 (1961): 197-210.

[00:44:03] Effects of dietary lipid composition on lifespan; Study: López-Domínguez, José A., et al. "The influence of dietary fat source on life span in calorie restricted mice." Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 70.10 (2014): 1181-1188.

[00:45:07] Anthony J. Hulbert.

[00:48:46] Omega-3 study: Aung, Theingi, et al. "Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with cardiovascular disease risks: meta-analysis of 10 trials involving 77 917 individuals." JAMA cardiology 3.3 (2018): 225-234.

[00:50:02] Ketogenic Diets.

[00:50:05] Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546. Podcast: A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice, with Megan (Hall) Roberts.

[00:53:47] Intermittent fasting study: Mitchell, Sarah J., et al. "Daily fasting improves health and survival in male mice independent of diet composition and calories." Cell metabolism(2018).

[00:54:19] Valter Longo, PhD.

[00:54:49] Weight cycling; Study: Smith Jr, Daniel L., et al. "Weight cycling increases longevity compared with sustained obesity in mice." Obesity 26.11 (2018): 1733-1739.

[00:55:22] Exercise in the context of carb restriction and longevity.

[00:56:08] Study: Holloszy, John O., et al. "Effect of voluntary exercise on longevity of rats." Journal of applied physiology 59.3 (1985): 826-831.

[00:58:41] Take home points.

[01:01:08] With unlimited resources, what would you study?

[01:02:08] Jon Ramsey, PhD at UC Davis.

Dec 12, 2018
Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology)
52:06

Join the Brainjo Collective

Researcher and writer Bill Lagakos, PhD earned his doctorate in Nutritional Biochemistry and Physiology from Rutgers University, with a focus on obesity, insulin resistance, and circadian biology. He went on to post-doctoral research on inflammation and diabetes, which led to an interest and course of study on circadian rhythm with the Mayo clinic. Bill is the author of the book, “The Poor, Misunderstood Calorie,” and maintains an active blog where he explores health-related topics in the scientific literature.

On this podcast with Tommy Wood, MD, Bill discusses critical aspects of entraining circadian rhythm, including the importance of early time-restricted eating. They challenge the concept of chronotypes and discuss why your intermittent fasting program may not be giving you the results you want. Bill also shares his impressions on macronutrient requirements, and the effects of ketosis on body composition and athletic performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bill Lagakos:

[00:00:22] Bill's Patreon page.

[00:00:41] Blog: Calories Proper.

[00:03:47] Circadian rhythm and metabolism.

[00:05:11] Metabolism is gimped at night; Study: Bo, S., et al. "Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study." International Journal of Obesity 39.12 (2015): 1689.

[00:05:26] Meal timing and the circadian regulation of nutrient partitioning; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "Influences of breakfast on clock gene expression and postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes: a randomized clinical trial." Diabetes care (2017): dc162753.

[00:05:54] Studies: Jacobs, H., Thompson, M., Halberg, E., Halberg, F., Fraeber, C., Levine, H. & Haus, E. (1975) Relative body weight loss on limited free-choice meal consumed as breakfast rather than as dinner. Chronobiologia 2 (suppl 1): 33; and Hirsh, E., Halberg, F., Goetz, F.C., Cressey, D., Wendt, H., Sothern, R., Haus, E., Stoney, P., Minors, D., Rosen, G., Hill, B., Hilleren, M. & Garett, K. (1975) Body weight change during 1 week on a single daily 2000-calorie meal consumed as breakfast (B) or dinner (D). Cronobiologia 2 (suppl 1): 31–32.

[00:06:40] Study: Lombardo, Mauro, et al. "Morning meal more efficient for fat loss in a 3-month lifestyle intervention." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 33.3 (2014): 198-205.

[00:08:57] Study: Gasmi, Maha, et al. "Time-restricted feeding influences immune responses without compromising muscle performance in older men." Nutrition 51 (2018): 29-37.

[00:10:20] Study: Gabel, Kelsey, et al. "Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot study." Nutrition and Healthy Aging Preprint: 1-9.

[00:12:19] Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper.

[00:12:30] Early Time-Restricted Feeding; Study: Sutton, Elizabeth F., et al. "Early time-restricted feeding improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and oxidative stress even without weight loss in men with prediabetes." Cell metabolism 27.6 (2018): 1212-1221.

[00:13:56] Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD.

[00:14:16] Continuous energy restriction vs. Intermittent Fasting; Study: Sundfør, T. M., M. Svendsen, and S. Tonstad. "Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial." Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (2018).

[00:15:00] Circadian rhythm disruption and disease risk.

[00:16:10] Electronics at night as circadian rhythm disruption.

[00:16:44] Artificial light at night and cancer; Studies: Yuan, Xia, et al. "Night shift work increases the risks of multiple primary cancers in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 articles." Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 27.1 (2018): 25-40; and Kubo, Tatsuhiko, et al. "Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study." American journal of epidemiology 164.6 (2006): 549-555.

[00:20:27] Chronotypes as a species-level distinction.

[00:23:33] Philips goLITE BLU Energy Light.

[00:24:17] Best advice for shift workers.

[00:25:20] Genetic polymorphisms; MTNR gene.

[00:26:38] Sleep deprivation leads to increased calorie consumption. Study: Broussard, Josiane L., et al. "Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction." Obesity 24.1 (2016): 132-138.

[00:27:41] Sleep contributes to the maintenance of lean body mass. Study: Nedeltcheva, Arlet V., et al. "Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity." Annals of internal medicine 153.7 (2010): 435-441.

[00:29:12] Macronutrient composition of diet.

[00:29:23] Book: The Poor, Misunderstood Calorie, by William Lagakos, PhD.

[00:30:12] Reduced industrial foods resulting in weight loss; Study: Ebbeling, Cara B., et al. "Effects of a low–glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial." Jama 297.19 (2007): 2092-2102.

[00:30:31] Calories less important when eating processed foods; Monkey study: Kavanagh, Kylie, et al. "Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys." Obesity 15.7 (2007): 1675-1684.

[00:32:16] Protein intake recommendations.

[00:34:44] The glucose-sparing effect of ketones.

[00:35:47] Protein needed to maintain lean-muscle mass during keto. Study: Meckling, Kelly A., Caitriona O’sullivan, and Dayna Saari. "Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89.6 (2004): 2717-2723.

[00:36:43] Ketogenic diets and mental health.

[00:37:24] Neuroprotective properties of keto; Study: Maalouf, Marwan, Jong M. Rho, and Mark P. Mattson. "The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies." Brain research reviews 59.2 (2009): 293-315.

[00:37:40] Poor adherence to keto in more severe dementia. Study: Taylor, Matthew K., et al. "Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer's disease." Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 4 (2018): 28-36.

[00:38:02] MCT oil used to moderate cognitive decline; Study: Henderson, Samuel T., et al. "Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial." Nutrition & metabolism 6.1 (2009): 31.

[00:38:39] Keto for Bipolar Disorder; Study: Phelps, James R., Susan V. Siemers, and Rif S. El-Mallakh. "The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder." Neurocase 19.5 (2013): 423-426.

[00:39:14] Consultation with clients.

[00:41:02] Blog post on changing sleep duration: Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation, and human performance.

[00:42:21] Athletics and adaptation to ketosis.

[00:43:25] Wingate test.

[00:43:46] Olympic weightlifters; Study: Greene, David A., et al. "A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Mass Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 32.12 (2018): 3373-3382.

[00:45:52] Blog; Twitter; Patreon.

Dec 05, 2018
How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance
01:10:51

Speaker, author, and scientist James Hewitt is back on the podcast today to discuss his latest research involving cognitive endurance. As the Chief Innovation Officer for Hintsa Performance, James has studied the sleep, stress, and cognitive performance of knowledge workers. In doing so, he has identified behaviors and habits that can derail mental stamina, as well as the ones that lead to sustainable high performance and wellness.

On this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, James shares his observations on cognitive load and inhibitory control, factors that impact our ability to remain committed to goals and excel in areas requiring attention and self-control. He offers specific strategies for enhancing cognitive endurance by optimising the rhythms of work, rest, and peak performance. They also discuss the effect of cognitive load on sports performance, and the evolving role of augmented intelligence in the workplace.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Hewitt:

[00:00:06] Previous podcast: How to Avoid the Cognitive Middle Gear, with James Hewitt.

[00:00:18] Hintsa Performance.

[00:03:16] Actigraph.

[00:04:07] Placebo sleep; Study: Draganich, Christina, and Kristi Erdal. "Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 40.3 (2014): 857.

[00:04:35] Oura ring - Study: de Zambotti, Massimiliano, et al. "The sleep of the ring: comparison of the ŌURA sleep tracker against polysomnography." Behavioral sleep medicine (2017): 1-15.

[00:05:18] Cognitive gears.

[00:06:18] Knowledge work.

[00:06:57] Intensity zones.

[00:08:35] Middle gear: pseudo work.

[00:10:50] Inhibitory control.

[00:14:35] Accountability in groups.

[00:16:07] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:17:22] Simon Marshall, PhD. on growth mindset. Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do.

[00:20:14] Cognitive task load: time pressure, complexity, switching.

[00:21:39] Switching; study: Mark, Gloria, Daniela Gudith, and Ulrich Klocke. "The cost of interrupted work: more speed and stress." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2008.

[00:22:35] Study: Hines, Carolyn B. "Time-of-day effects on human performance." Journal of Catholic Education 7.3 (2013): 7.

[00:23:15] Study: Adan, Ana, et al. "Circadian typology: a comprehensive review." Chronobiology international 29.9 (2012): 1153-1175.

[00:24:17] Synchronizing cognitive load with time of day.

[00:25:07] Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, by Cal Newport.

[00:27:33] Pomodoro technique.

[00:28:44] We check in with our communication tools once every 6 minutes.

[00:32:33] Book: Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker.

[00:33:33] Circadian entrainment to natural light-dark cycles; Study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:38:30] Cognitive load and decision making in the era of augmented intelligence.

[00:38:56] McKinsey Global Institute (2017): A Future That Works.

[00:39:19] Humans and machines working together.

[00:44:29] Video: Augmented Intelligence.

[00:45:02] Roy Baumeister, ego depletion; Study: Baumeister, Roy F., Ellen Bratslavsky, and Mark Muraven. "Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource?." Self-Regulation and Self-Control. Routledge, 2018. 24-52.

[00:48:06] Self-control as a value-based choice; Study: Berkman, Elliot T., et al. "Self-control as value-based choice." Current Directions in Psychological Science 26.5 (2017): 422-428.

[00:49:14] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:50:10] Linking behaviors to goals.

[00:51:54] Flow; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - 8 elements of flow.

[00:56:38] Screen Time on iOS.

[00:58:15] Effect of cognitive load on sports performance.

[00:58:27] Brain endurance training; Study: Marcora, Samuele M., Walter Staiano, and Victoria Manning. "Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans." Journal of applied physiology 106.3 (2009): 857-864.

[01:00:10] Superior inhibitory control in road cyclists; Study: Martin, Kristy, et al. "Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists." PloS one 11.7 (2016): e0159907.

[01:02:29] Measuring inhibitory control. Go-No Go Task.

[01:03:13] Stroop task.

[01:03:40] Improving inhibitory control.

[01:06:57] The value of switching off.

[01:08:14] Hintsa; jameshewitt.net; Twitter.

Nov 27, 2018
The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan
01:14:15

→ Join us on Patreon ←

Dr. Peter Attia, MD is the founder of Attia Medical, PC, a medical practice that focuses on increasing healthspan by minimizing the risk of chronic disease and preserving quality of life. Peter trained for five years at Johns Hopkins in general surgery and then spent two years at NIH as a surgical oncology fellow.  He has since been mentored by some of the most experienced and innovative physicians and scientists in the US and Canada.

On this podcast Dr. Tommy Wood, MD talks with Peter about the critical components of lifespan and healthspan, including the factors he has identified as most important. They also discuss the controversial role of statin medication and take a close look at the necessity and sufficiency of risk factors for atherosclerosis. If you want to learn more about Peter’s work, he has a blog, a podcast and an active social media presence.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Peter Attia:

[00:00:35] Mellow Johnny’s Bike Shop.

[00:04:01] Eddy Merckx.

[00:04:16] Healthspan. Video: Peter Attia - Reverse engineered approach to human longevity.

[00:05:23] Components of healthspan: cognitive, physical, emotional.

[00:07:21] Lewis Hamilton; Ayrton Senna.

[00:08:35] Reverse engineering healthspan.

[00:11:34] Strength, power, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, flexibility.

[00:14:57] Injuries affecting healthspan.

[00:16:27] Exercise dosing studies: Marshall, Simon J., et al. "Translating physical activity recommendations into a pedometer-based step goal: 3000 steps in 30 minutes." American journal of preventive medicine 36.5 (2009): 410-415; Merghani, Ahmed, Aneil Malhotra, and Sanjay Sharma. "The U-shaped relationship between exercise and cardiac morbidity." Trends in cardiovascular medicine 26.3 (2016): 232-240.

[00:17:26] Atrial fibrillation; mitochondrial injury.

[00:18:39] Study: Nakayama, Hiroyuki, and Kinya Otsu. "Mitochondrial DNA as an inflammatory mediator in cardiovascular diseases." Biochemical Journal 475.5 (2018): 839-852.

[00:19:28] Functional threshold power (FTP).

[00:23:58] Podcast: The High-Performance Athlete with Drs Tommy Wood and Andy Galpin.

[00:23:59] Twin study: Bathgate, Katherine E., et al. "Muscle health and performance in monozygotic twins with 30 years of discordant exercise habits." European journal of applied physiology 118.10 (2018): 2097-2110.

[00:24:50] The emotional component of healthspan.

[00:24:56] The Drive Podcast: Paul Conti, M.D.: trauma, suicide, community, and self-compassion.

[00:25:59] Dave Feldman; Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol.

[00:26:40] Sam Harris: Meditation.

[00:29:30] Video: Commencement speech by David Foster Wallace from 2005 at Kenyon College, This is Water.

[00:30:45] Vulnerability as a practitioner.

[00:33:46] Time-restricted feeding.

[00:34:23] Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Oura ring.

[00:35:38] Factors contributing to longevity: deprivation of calories and rapamycin.

[00:37:54] Benefits of fasting.

[00:41:04] Free T3:Reverse T3 ratios during fasting.

[00:42:50] Study: Finkelstein, Joel S., et al. "Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men." New England Journal of Medicine 369.11 (2013): 1011-1022.

[00:43:30] Robert Lustig.

[00:45:07] Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

[00:46:09] Statins; side effects.

[00:48:36] Lipoprotein(a) - Lp(a).

[00:49:19] Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan.

[00:54:03] The Drive podcasts: Dave Feldman, Ron Krauss, Tom Dayspring: (parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

[00:54:32] Risk factors for atherosclerosis: necessity and sufficiency.

[00:56:16] Lead study: Lanphear, Bruce P., et al. "Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study." The Lancet Public Health 3.4 (2018): e177-e184.

[00:59:03] LDL cholesterol; ApoB.

[01:01:15] Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH).

[01:04:41] Hyper-responders.

[01:06:25] Saturated fat/cholesterol study: Jones, P. J., A. H. Lichtenstein, and E. J. Schaefer. "Interaction of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol level on cholesterol synthesis measured using deuterium incorporation." Journal of lipid research 35.6 (1994): 1093-1101.

[01:09:43] Feldman Protocol.

[01:11:48] The Drive podcast; peterattiamd.com.

Nov 20, 2018
How to Use Data to Take Control of Your Health
55:19

David Korsunsky spent 15 years working for industry-leading technology firms, and in 2015 founded Heads Up Health, a San Francisco-based startup helping people to aggregate and learn from their own health information. The company can retrieve lab work from over 30,000 providers across the US, building a single health history and a timeline that can help to make sense of your current challenges.

In this podcast, I’m talking with David about his mission to help 100 million people take control of their health. We talk about the Heads Up Health platform, which integrates with apps and devices and eliminates that dusty old pile of lab reports you weren’t sure what to do with.  David also shares his own story as a case study, demonstrating the value of having easy, mobile, shareable access to all of your health information.

Here’s the outline of this interview with David Korsunsky:

[00:01:09] Heads Up Health.

[00:01:24] Robb Wolf's Podcast featuring Dave Korsunsky.

[00:02:08] The story behind Heads up Health.

[00:05:48] WellnessFx.

[00:06:18] Applying engineering mindset to health.

[00:11:36] Devices; Oura ring.

[00:11:53] Elite HRV; CorSense device; Jason Moore.

[00:13:30] MyFitnessPal, My Macros+, Cronometer; Keto-Mojo.

[00:13:56] LEVL, Ketonix.

[00:16:51] requestatest.com; Grace Liu; Ulta Labs.

[00:17:17] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:18:20] DUTCH, OAT, Genova, Doctor's Data, BioHealth Labs.

[00:22:50] Reference Ranges.

[00:26:14] Dave Feldman; Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol.

[00:28:52] Tracking symptoms; seizures.

[00:29:51] Potential applications of machine learning.

[00:32:28] Elimination diet.

[00:33:30] Video: Bryan's H. Pylori case study.

[00:35:28] 23andme DNA testing.

[00:36:49] Data-Driven Health Radio: Episode 20 - Carrie Brown.

[00:37:26] Care team access.

[00:39:18] Dexcom 5; Quantified Self; Freestyle Libre, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM).

[00:41:14] Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:42:40] Challenges to progress; Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) movement.

[00:43:12] Podcast: How to Teach Machines That Can Learn, with Pedro Domingos, PhD.

[00:44:15] mint.com.

[00:46:21] Amazon AWS for data storage.

[00:47:53] Data-Driven Health Radio podcast.

[00:49:44] How to get started on Heads up Health.

[00:52:41] dave@headsuphealth.com.

Nov 13, 2018
Blood Chemistry in Athletes
48:56

Over the past year, we’ve made the Blood Chemistry Calculator our primary screening and feedback tool for the athletes we work with. In that time we’ve noted some clear patterns in the effects of long-term and vigorous exercise on blood chemistry. We’ve learned that while certain tests seem to be directly affected by hard training sessions, some can also provide clues for how best to enhance athletic performance.

In this podcast I’m talking with Dr Tommy Wood, MD, PhD about blood chemistry in athletes: which markers are affected by intense exercise, how to know if your labs indicate a problem, and what to do about it. We discuss the markers associated with athletic power and lifespan, and why knowing your own blood chemistry numbers may be the best thing you do for your health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:01:24] Liver enzymes (ALT, AST).

[00:04:44] Optimal vs standard reference ranges.

[00:06:28] Differences among ethnic groups.

[00:08:15] Recovery of liver enzymes after exercise; Study: Pettersson, Jonas, et al. "Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men." British journal of clinical pharmacology 65.2 (2008): 253-259.

[00:10:40] Creatinine.

[00:12:22] Podcast: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health, with Greg Potter; HumanOS Podcast.

[00:12:52] Creatinine vs creatine.

[00:13:36] Creatine monohydrate; Creapure Creatine; Douglas Labs Creatine Monohydrate.

[00:14:12] Blood Chemistry Calculator; Predicted Age Score.

[00:15:53] Creatinine - U shaped curve.

[00:16:54] Creatinine and kidney function.

[00:17:44] Battle of the quads: Robert Forstemann vs. Andre Greipel.

[00:18:13] Hematocrit.

[00:18:42] Blood doping.

[00:18:44] Book: The Secret Race: Inside the Hidden World of the Tour de France, by Tyler Hamilton.

[00:19:22] Higher hematocrit = higher power.

[00:20:15] Adaptations that reduce hematocrit.

[00:21:48] Testosterone.

[00:23:27] MCV, RDW.

[00:24:39] Reticulocytes.

[00:26:02] Grigory Rodchenkov; World Anti-Doping Agency.

[00:26:23] Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:26:33] Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN).

[00:27:40] Dr. Tamsin Lewis; Causes of a high BUN.

[00:31:54] Higher RDW = increased risk of mortality.

[00:34:34] Triglycerides ideally < 100.

[00:34:44] Fasting blood glucose - once past 110 not much change in mortality risk.

[00:35:44] Blood glucose and biological age.

[00:36:49] High fasting blood glucose in athletes.

[00:38:35] Machine learning to identify diabetic retinopathy; Study: Gulshan, Varun, et al. "Development and validation of a deep learning algorithm for detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal fundus photographs." Jama 316.22 (2016): 2402-2410.

[00:40:51] Calcium; lower levels in athletes.

[00:42:26] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford; Grip strength; Study: Fain, Elizabeth, and Cara Weatherford. "Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms." Journal of Hand Therapy 29.4 (2016): 483-488.

[00:43:25] Article: Optimizing Vitamin D for Athletic Performance, by Brad Dieter, PhD with contributions from Tommy Wood, MD and Christopher Kelly.

[00:43:46] Cholesterol levels in athletes; Study: Creighton, Brent C., et al. "Paradox of hypercholesterolaemia in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes." BMJ open sport & exercise medicine 4.1 (2018): e000429.

[00:43:50] Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol, with Dave Feldman.

[00:44:40] Higher cholesterol = higher lifespan. Studies: 1. Stückle, Druckerei. "Towards a Paradigm Shift in Cholesterol Treatment. A Re-examination of the Cholesterol Issue in Japan: Abstracts." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 66.Suppl. 4 (2015): 1-116 and 2. Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review." BMJ open 6.6 (2016): e010401.

[00:46:04] How often to run a blood test for an athlete?

[00:47:02] Elite Performance Program (EPP); Patreon; Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

Nov 07, 2018
Women in Science: Bridging the Gender Gap
01:31:04

Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) - It’s a group of academic disciplines and professions that have historically been male-dominated. In 2017, women held 47% of all jobs in the US, but only 24% of STEM jobs. As a result, we are lacking the perspectives of women in fields that contribute heavily to our progress as a society.

On the podcast today, NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts is talking with Elizabeth Nance, PhD, and Brianna Stubbs, PhD, scientists leading teams of researchers in the areas of biotechnology and physiology. The trio talk about the unique aspects of being women in scientific fields, including the importance of allies and mentors, imposter syndrome, and identifying your own biases.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Elizabeth Nance and Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:23] Elizabeth's STEM-Talk podcast.

[00:00:49] Previous podcasts: Elizabeth: Nanotechnology: The Big Impact of Tiny Particles; Brianna: World Champion Rower and Ketone Monoester Researcher Brianna Stubbs; The D-BHB Ketone Monoester Is Here.

[00:01:08] HVMN.

[00:03:01] Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

[00:09:50] Positive Discrimination

[00:12:59] Nature vs nurture; causes of women’s underrepresentation in science. Studies: Ceci, Stephen J., and Wendy M. Williams. "Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011): 201014871, and Cheryan, Sapna, et al. "Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?." Psychological Bulletin 143.1 (2017): 1.

[00:15:57] Freakonomics Podcast: What Can Uber Teach Us About the Gender Pay Gap?

[00:18:36] Chemical engineering: 30% women.

[00:21:57] Mentorship.

[00:22:53] Prof. Kieran Clarke, University of Oxford.

[00:23:36] #MeToo Movement.

[00:24:28] Allies in the workplace.

[00:25:25] Service to the department.

[00:29:00] Diversity and mentorship.

[00:31:01] Fluid mentor/mentee roles and boundaries.

[00:34:05] Women in Chemical Engineering.

[00:37:37] Gender differences in mentoring.

[00:40:44] Work-life balance.

[00:47:02] Judgment and criticism from others.

[00:50:29] Parenting.

[00:56:44] Letting the work speak for itself vs. focusing on minority status.

[01:00:22] Book: Whistling Vivaldi: How Stereotypes Affect Us and What We Can Do (Issues of Our Time), by Claude M. Steele.

[01:00:26] Self-fulfilling effect of stereotypes.

[01:05:35] Imposter syndrome.

[01:12:15] Embracing failure.

[01:14:27] University of Washington Resilience Lab.

[01:17:15] Being a catalyst for progress.

[01:17:17] Conscious use of language. Article: Letters of recommendation for women more likely to raise doubts.

[01:25:52] Defining success.

[01:28:36] Brene Brown Ted Talks: The Power of Vulnerability and Listening to Shame.

[01:29:04] Book: How Successful Women Think: It's All In The Mind, by Latrell King.

[01:30:00] Additional articles: 1. These labs are remarkably diverse — here’s why they’re winning at science; 2. 4 Ways Women Can Build Relationships When They Feel Excluded at Work; 3. The uncomfortable question powerful women should answer; 4. Where Women Must Defy the Odds to Become Scientists; 5. These are the 10 best and worst states for women.

Nov 01, 2018
How to Connect with Clients as a Health Practitioner
01:02:46

I’m joined again today by one of my good friends and mentors, Jeremy Hendon. Jeremy is an international speaker, consultant, and entrepreneur who has founded and grown several successful companies. I had the pleasure of working with Jeremy on the Keto Summit in 2016 and I can attest to his genius in business and marketing, particularly in the domain of health and wellness.

Jeremy is with me today to talk about marketplace trends that impact health practitioners, and the strategies that cause some businesses to stand out from the crowd. He shares his method for building trust with consumers who are new to diet and lifestyle change. We also discuss the importance of weaving story into your business messaging to attract and strengthen connection with your audience.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jeremy Hendon:

[00:00:40] Previous podcast episodes: The Essential Keto Cookbook, and Paleo Entrepreneurship with Jeremy Hendon.

[00:01:35] Keto Summit.

[00:03:14] Docuseries: The Truth about Cancer; Broken Brain.

[00:05:10] Louise Hendon.

[00:09:06] Curation; Jay Abraham.

[00:13:02] Doing business in health.

[00:15:48] Sell people what they want.

[00:21:23] Uber; Jump; Airbnb.

[00:22:48] Innovation in health coaching.

[00:23:40] doc.ai.

[00:26:03] Creating a better user experience.

[00:29:43] Network effects.

[00:31:38] Building trust and connection.

[00:34:32] Accountability; StickK.

[00:40:23] New directions for NBT.

[00:43:28] Engineering referrals.

[00:45:24] Nourishing Brands.

[00:47:27] CoBionic Foundation.

[00:48:30] Plant based diets.

[00:51:02] Job opportunity.

[00:52:50] The power of story in marketing.

[00:54:35] Book: The Wisdom of Psychopaths: What Saints, Spies, and Serial Killers Can Teach Us About Success, by Kevin Dutton.

[00:55:10] The Memory Palace Podcast; Nate DiMeo.

[00:55:23] Story Grid Podcast; Shawn Coyne and Tim Grahl .

[00:56:15] Book: Wired for Story: The Writer's Guide to Using Brain Science to Hook Readers from the Very First Sentence, by Lisa Cron.

[00:56:17] Book: Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting, by Robert McKee.

[00:57:09] jeremyhendon.com.

[00:57:20] Ketosummit; Paleoflourish, Healingautoimmune; CoBionic.

Oct 16, 2018
How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love
59:38

Jeff Kendall-Weed’s interest in cycling began at a young age when he got his first bike - a used girls’ cruiser from the local Goodwill. Growing up in the mountains of Santa Cruz, California he quickly moved on to BMX and mountain biking and hasn’t stopped since. During and after college Jeff raced in the US and Europe and went on to work for industry leaders Ibis and WTB. Today he is producing stunning cycling videos from the trails he visits around the world.  

On this podcast, Jeff and I talk about the many roles he’s had in the world of mountain biking, and his decision to leave his stable job for a life as an entrepreneur and family man. Don’t let his modesty fool you - Jeff is one of the best bike handlers I’ve seen. You can visit his YouTube channel to see for yourself.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jeff Kendall-Weed:

[00:02:43] Soquel Demonstration Forest.

[00:04:51] Raging River State Forest.

[00:05:44] Sea Otter Classic.

[00:10:01] Truvativ; Lezyne.

[00:11:59] Ibis; Scot Nicol.

[00:12:14] Hans Heim.

[00:13:08] Mojo Carbon.

[00:13:59] European vs US racing.

[00:16:07] Roxy Lo.

[00:16:41] Red Hot.

[00:18:16] Mojo HD 160; Tranny.

[00:21:14] Wilderness Trail Bikes (WTB).

[00:22:37] Making videos.

[00:25:10] Kitsbow cycling apparel; Kali Protectives.

[00:25:44] Leavenworth, WA trails.

[00:26:17] Video: Jeff Kendall-Weed in Tahoe with Kitsbow.

[00:27:37] Trailforks app.

[00:28:14] Video: Jeff Kendall-Weed visits the Pacific Northwest.

[00:30:58] Leaving job security.

[00:33:02] Toxoplasmosis study: Johnson, Stefanie K., et al. "Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries." Proc. R. Soc. B 285.1883 (2018): 20180822.

[00:36:04] Brandon Semenuk; Video.

[00:37:17] Costa Rica.

[00:39:10] Getting injured.

[00:43:07] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion by Simon Marshall, PhD. and Lesley Paterson.

[00:43:50] Video: Costa Rica: ripping jungle trails & surviving the emergency room!

[00:48:04] Biking for a living vs. leisure.

[00:51:20] Backpack video: I ALWAYS carry this!

[00:53:21] Jeff's Patreon page.

[00:57:24] jeffkendallweed.com; YouTube channel; Instagram; Facebook.

[00:58:51] Jeff's podcasts.

Oct 10, 2018
Nanotechnology: The Big Impact of Tiny Particles
01:07:11

Dr. Elizabeth Nance received her Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and is now an Assistant Professor at the University of Washington. She leads a research team in the study of nanoparticles that are capable of targeting disease in the brain. Elizabeth has received numerous awards for her groundbreaking work, and was named one of Forbes 30 under 30 in Science in 2015, described as one of the “most disruptive, game-changing and innovating young personalities in science.”

In this podcast NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts interviews Elizabeth about her research in nanotechnology and its application in medical development and delivery. They discuss the potential applications of her work for the diagnosis and treatment of debilitating diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. They also talk about the message behind Elizabeth’s 2016 TED talk on the importance of exploring unfamiliar territory as a catalyst for growth and mastery.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Elizabeth Nance:

[00:00:41] Book: How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence, by Michael Pollan.

[00:06:30] Nanotechnology.

[00:11:42] Justin Hanes, PhD.

[00:11:51] Mucosal barrier.

[00:15:36] Increasing distribution of particles within brain.

[00:17:28] Polyethylene glycol.

[00:20:39] Diffusion and convection.

[00:27:25] Nanoparticles.

[00:33:28] Increasing diffusive capability for improved drug efficacy.

[00:34:05] Curcumin study: Joseph A., Wood T., Chen C-C., Corry K., Juul S., Snyder J., Parikh P., Nance E. Curcumin-loaded brain penetrating nanoparticles for treatment of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy. In press, Nano Research.

[00:35:13] Nanotechnology in cancer.

[00:39:10] Generalizing from animal models.

[00:46:40] Childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

[00:48:25] Video: Specializing in Not Specializing | Elizabeth Nance | TEDxUofW.

[00:48:53] Interdisciplinary collaboration.

[00:53:14] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck, Ph.D.

[01:00:02] Freedom to fail.

[01:01:45] Blood Chemistry Calculator; Tommy Wood, MD, PhD; Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[01:02:06] Machine learning.

[01:06:12] nancelab.com; blog; Facebook; Instagram.

Oct 02, 2018
NBT Olympians: Alex O’Brien
57:30

Join me on Patreon

From 1992 to 2001 Alex O’Brien competed as an elite professional tennis player on the ATP World Tour. Career highlights include playing for the US Davis Cup team and the 2000 US Olympic Team in Sydney, Australia. Alex also won the US Open doubles championship in 1999 and ranked as the No. 1 world doubles player in May 2000.

We’ve been working with Alex as a member of our own Elite Performance Program. He’s on the podcast with me today to talk about his journey to becoming a professional tennis player and sharing some of the moments that stand out to him from his years on the court. We also discuss his reasons for coming to NBT for health coaching and the progress he’s made since then.

It’s also worth mentioning that in 1998 Alex created the Alex O’Brien Tennis Foundation - a nonprofit organization that brings tennis to underprivileged kids in his hometown of Amarillo, Texas. It’s still going strong after 20 years.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Alex O’Brien:

[00:03:28] Dick Gould, John Whitlinger.

[00:06:30] Playing tennis professionally.

[00:06:39] Jim Courier.

[00:08:35] John McEnroe, Ivan Lendl.

[00:10:36] Strength training.

[00:11:25] Gustavo Kuerten.

[00:13:00] Growth Mindset. Previous podcasts discussing mindset (both with Simon Marshall, PhD): Why We Self-Sabotage (And What to Do Instead) and Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do.

[00:14:13] Learning from losses.

[00:16:00] Coping strategies for the pressure.

[00:19:29] Björn Borg.

[00:20:34] Becoming a doubles player.

[00:22:09] Sébastien Lareau, Boris Becker, Andre Agassi, Sandon Stolle.

[00:23:36] Wayne Ferreira, Jared Palmer.

[00:24:29] Winner: 1999 US Open - Men’s Doubles.

[00:25:50] Olympics.

[00:27:30] Brandon Slay.

[00:31:11] Health challenges.

[00:33:56] Ben Greenfield Fitness Podcast: Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!, with Christopher Kelly.

[00:39:00] Blood Chemistry Calculator; 5-Year Wellness Score.

[00:40:17] Glycomark.

[00:41:51] MTHFR.

[00:42:48] Signal-to-noise ratio.

[00:44:00] Homocysteine; organ meat.

[00:45:07] Coping strategies for stress.

[00:47:05] Making meditation a habit.

Sep 26, 2018
Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching
58:31

Zach Moore is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist with a true passion for helping people reach their fitness goals. Zach has been providing nutrition and strength coaching for years, both in-person and online, most recently through Precision Nutrition and Ketogains. Earlier this year Zach became the Head of Strength and Conditioning at Nourish Balance Thrive and is now playing a vital role on our coaching team.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Zach shares his journey from a graduate degree in Economics to health coach, describing some of the obstacles he has overcome along the way. They discuss the type and amount of strength training needed for the average person to experience benefit and the common mistakes that hold people back from making progress. Tommy also gives an update on progress made using the training program Zach designed for him.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zach Moore:

[00:02:32] Indianapolis Fitness and Sports Training.

[00:03:50] Precision Nutrition.

[00:04:28] Ketogains.

[00:05:03] Book: Bulletproof Knees, by Mike Robertson.

[00:06:43] Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.

[00:07:13] Osteochondritis.

[00:10:30] Online coaching.

[00:17:32] Minimum effective dose to support health goals.

[00:18:45] 2-3x/week for 2-3 sets each movement pattern.

[00:21:00] Movement patterns; Dan John.

[00:21:55] Zach's influences; Mike Robertson, Bill Hartman, Eric Cressey,

[00:22:48] Mike Tuscherer, rate of perceived exertion (RPE).

[00:23:02] Menno Henselmans; Bayesian Bodybuilding.

[00:23:27] Borge Fagerli.

[00:23:46] Greg Nuckols, Eric Helms, Mike Israetel, Brad Schoenfeld

[00:24:12] Stronger by Science

[00:24:23] Alan Thrall’s YouTube videos: How to Deadlift: Starting Strength 5 Step Deadlift and 3 Common Squat Errors feat. Austin Baraki.

[00:24:30] James Krieger; Weightology.

[00:24:55] Super slow; Doug McGuff, Body by Science; Blood flow restriction training.

[00:26:52] Overcoming adversity.

[00:30:38] Mistakes that hold people back.

[00:32:26] Failing to plan; making time.

[00:33:05] Adjusting the plan over time.

[00:34:55] Ketogains bootcamps.

[00:36:01] Macronutrients.

[00:37:40] Effect of ketogenic diet on athletic performance.

[00:39:26] Zach's training and nutrition.

[00:40:14] Carnivore diet.

[00:44:33] Tommy's strength gains with Zach's coaching.

[00:48:04] zmoore.com; ketogains; zach@zmoore.com.

Sep 18, 2018
How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)
01:05:11

Dr. Nicky Keay, BA, MA (Cantab), MB BChir, MRCP is a physician and researcher with an extensive background in endocrinology and sports/exercise medicine. Her personal background as a ballet dancer and choreographer led to her long-standing interest in the effects of high-level training and inadequate nutrition on women’s health. Her current research focuses on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), examining the impact of similar factors on male cyclists.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Dr. Keay discusses the detrimental and often permanent impact of low energy availability, especially in weight-sensitive sports in which participants tend to undereat. They discuss the factors involved with RED-S, including diagnosis, intervention and prognosis, as well as the psychological factors that tend to interfere with treatment.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nicky Keay:

[00:00:11] British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine Conference (BASEM) in Doncaster. Video of presentation: Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

[00:02:01] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

[00:03:14] Female Athlete Triad: disordered eating, amenorrhoea and low bone mineral density.

[00:03:25] Bone mineral density worse with harder training; Study: Drinkwater, Barbara L., et al. "Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes." New England Journal of Medicine 311.5 (1984): 277-281.

[00:04:11] International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on RED-S.

[00:08:50] Bone mineral density among retired dancers; Study: Keay, N., I. Fogelman, and G. Blake. "Bone mineral density in professional female dancers." British journal of sports medicine 31.2 (1997): 143-147.

[00:10:00] Effect of exercise on adolescents; Study: Keay NJ, Frost M, Blake G, New S & Fogelman I (2000) Study of the factors influencing the bone mineral density in girls. Osteoporosis International 11: S1– 31; (being revised for publication).

[00:11:46] Effects of sports on children.

[00:15:46] Rudolf Nureyev.

[00:17:26] Cyclists.

[00:18:05] Mad Keen Cyclists.

[00:19:16] Current research: amateur male cyclists.

[00:23:38] Erectile dysfunction.

[00:26:14] Team Sky.

[00:28:24] Cardiovascular effects of RED-S.

[00:30:45] Diagnosing and treating RED-S.

[00:32:30] RED-S categories: green, amber, red.

[00:33:38] Psychological factors: denial, resistance.

[00:35:14] Exercise addiction: BMJ Article: Hausenblas, Heather A., Katherine Schreiber, and James M. Smoliga. "Addiction to exercise." BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online) 357 (2017).

[00:38:05] Orthorexia.

[00:41:46] Multidisciplinary approach; getting the coach involved.

[00:43:06] Increasing bone density.

[00:44:52] Hopping increases bone density; Study: Allison, Sarah J., et al. "The Influence of High‐Impact Exercise on Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Content and 3D Distribution Across the Proximal Femur in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Unilateral Intervention." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30.9 (2015): 1709-1716.

[00:48:01] Timeline for recovery.

[00:48:31] T3 and other hormones recover first.  Bone health takes longer.

[00:49:50] Some evidence that full bone recovery is possible; Study: Hind, Karen. "Recovery of bone mineral density and fertility in a former amenorrheic athlete." Journal of sports science & medicine 7.3 (2008): 415.

[00:50:23] Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

[00:51:08] Oral contraceptive pill.

[00:54:44] Gut health.

[00:55:20] LEAF questionnaire.

[00:55:53] Leaky gut.

[00:56:35] Ghrelin.

[00:57:20] Microbiome disruption.

[00:58:05] Low FODMAP.

[01:00:36] Publications on British Journal of Sports Medicine (BJSM); British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

[01:00:53] nickykeayfitness.com.

Sep 12, 2018
Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do
01:10:42

Performance psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD is with me on the podcast today to talk about one of my favourite topics: growth mindset. A year ago Simon introduced me to the book Mindset by Carol Dweck and reading it made me aware of some of my own limiting beliefs about human potential.  It’s the idea that abilities are developed through dedication and hard work, with fixed factors like genes or talent being just a starting point. These concepts have significantly altered the way I talk to and encourage my kids, and also how I approach new skills in my own life.

In this episode of the podcast, Simon and I talk about the impact of mindset on personal development in all areas, including athletics, education, and the workplace.  Simon shares his strategies for switching to a growth mindset and identifying your own blind spots and biases. If you enjoy this podcast, you’ll definitely want to read The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:00:10] Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:00:42] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:05:30] VO2 Max test.

[00:07:05] Studies from educational psychology: Yeager, David Scott, and Carol S. Dweck. "Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed." Educational psychologist 47.4 (2012): 302-314.  Also: 1, 2.

[00:09:15] Changing our relationship with failure.

[00:11:32] People don't fail; actions do.

[00:12:38] Book: Black box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, by Matthew Syed. Not mentioned in the podcast, but Simon also recommends the book, Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:14:49] Experience alone doesn't necessarily make you better; Studies: Kahneman, Daniel, and Gary Klein. "Conditions for intuitive expertise: a failure to disagree." American psychologist 64.6 (2009): 515 and Tracey, Terence JG, et al. "Expertise in psychotherapy: An elusive goal?." American Psychologist 69.3 (2014): 218.  Others: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:16:00] Attribution bias.

[00:17:54] Joby Aviation.

[00:18:52] Lack of situational awareness; United Airlines Flight 173.

[00:19:13] Sustained attention; Radar operators in WW2.

[00:20:52] Fixed mindset and diet.

[00:23:19] Blaming.

[00:24:35] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:26:02] Paradox of success.

[00:28:28] Playing the cards you're dealt.

[00:30:13] How to switch to a growth mindset.

[00:30:43] Expose yourself to failure.

[00:35:32] Self esteem comes from success, not the other way around.

[00:38:27] Dopamine drives the desire to continue.

[00:40:15] Cognitive dissonance; Leon Festinger.

[00:43:21] Tony Blair; Cognitive bias.

[00:44:37] Confirmation bias.

[00:48:27] Book: The Keto Reset Diet: Reboot Your Metabolism in 21 Days and Burn Fat Forever, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns.

[00:48:27] Robb Wolf’s Keto Masterclass; Podcast: The Keto Masterclass with Robb Wolf.

[00:49:38] Book: Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott; Podcast: Radical Candor™ with Dr Tommy Wood.

[00:53:15] Ruinous empathy.

[00:53:47] Earning the right to be direct.

[00:56:43] How to know where your blind spots are.

[00:59:36] New program on Patreon.

[01:00:30] 7-min analysis.

[01:02:05] Barriers to progress: time, motivation, energy, consistency.

[01:02:30] Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[01:04:24] Finding accountability.

[01:05:12] Accountability as a motivator; Study: Lerner, Jennifer S., and Philip E. Tetlock. "Accounting for the effects of accountability." Psychological bulletin 125.2 (1999): 255.

[01:06:13] Loser avoidance bias.

[01:08:09] patreon.nbt.ai.

[01:08:47] Coming soon: deeper investigations into diet, sleep, exercise, weight loss.

Sep 08, 2018
Why Your Diet Isn't Working: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm