The Naked Bible Podcast

By Dr. Michael S. Heiser

Listen to a podcast, please open Podcast Republic app. Available on Google Play Store.

Category: Christianity

Open in Apple Podcasts

Open RSS feed

Open Website

Rate for this podcast

Subscribers: 1766
Reviews: 11
Episodes: 468

 Jul 6, 2022

 Dec 30, 2021

 Oct 23, 2021

 Jan 28, 2021

Tim C
 Jan 24, 2021
I love this podcast!! I listen during exercise. Mike is an Uber scholar and Christian. Time spent here is not wasted.


Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.

Episode Date
Naked Bible 468: Miqlat

We talk to Greg Lyle and Drenna Heiser from Dr. Heiser's non-profit, Miqlat. Greg and Drenna give us updates on future projects of Miqlat and Drenna tells us the story of how brave Mike was when they first met. To support Miqlat please goto

May 27, 2023
Naked Bible 467: 1 Samuel 19

With Dr. Justin Bass Saul became increasingly jealous of David and tried to kill him. Jonathan, Saul's son, tried to protect David and warned him of Saul's plans. David fled from Saul and went into hiding. Michal, Saul's daughter, helped David escape by letting him down from a window. Saul sent messengers to David's house to watch him and kill him, but Michal tricked the messengers by putting a fake image in David's bed. David escaped and went to Samuel at Ramah.

May 20, 2023
Naked Bible 466: 1 Samuel 18

With Dr. Justin Bass After David defeated Goliath, Saul became jealous of David's popularity and success. Jonathan, Saul's son, became close friends with David. Saul gave his daughter Merab in marriage to David, but then gave her to another man. Michal, Saul's other daughter, fell in love with David and they were married.

May 13, 2023
Naked Bible 465: 1 Samuel 17

With Dr. Justin Bass The Philistines and Israelites were at war. Goliath, a giant Philistine warrior, challenged the Israelites to send a champion to fight him. David, a young shepherd boy, volunteered to fight Goliath. David defeated Goliath with a sling and a stone, and the Israelites were victorious. This passage teaches us that God can use anyone, no matter how young or insignificant they may seem, to accomplish His purposes.

May 06, 2023
Naked Bible 464: 1 Samuel 16

With Dr. Tim Mackie In 1 Samuel 16, the Lord tells Samuel that he has rejected Saul as king of Israel. Samuel is sent to Jesse's home in Bethlehem to anoint a new king. Jesse presents his seven oldest sons to Samuel, but the Lord does not choose any of them. Jesse sends for his youngest son, David, who is tending sheep. The Lord tells Samuel to anoint David as king, and the Spirit of the Lord comes upon David from that day on. This passage teaches us that God does not choose leaders based on their outward appearance or their human accomplishments. Instead, He chooses those who are humble, obedient, and willing to be used by Him.

May 01, 2023
Naked Bible 463: 1 Samuel 15

With Dr. Justin Bass God commands Saul to utterly destroy the Amalekites, including all of their livestock. Saul obeys the command to destroy the Amalekites, but he spares the king and the best of the livestock. When Samuel confronts Saul about his disobedience, Saul tries to justify his actions. Samuel rebukes Saul for his disobedience, and declares that God has rejected him as king.

Apr 22, 2023
Naked Bible 462: Honoring Dr. Michael S. Heiser Part 4

Listeners of The Naked Bible Podcast take time to remember Dr. Michael Heiser. To support the podcast please go to

Apr 15, 2023
Naked Bible 461: Honoring Dr. Michael S. Heiser Part 3

Listeners of The Naked Bible Podcast take time to remember Dr. Michael Heiser. To support the podcast please go to

Apr 09, 2023
Naked Bible 460: Honoring Dr. Michael S. Heiser Part 2

Listeners of The Naked Bible Podcast take time to remember Dr. Michael Heiser. To support the podcast please go to

Apr 02, 2023
Naked Bible 459: Honoring Dr. Michael S. Heiser
Mar 04, 2023
Naked Bible 458: 1 Samuel 13-14

In 1 Samuel 13-14 Saul throws away the Lord’s dynastic blessing by usurping priestly duties (that is, performing an unlawful sacrifice). Saul’s leadership become more erratic as God’s rejection of Saul has begun, this time putting the life of his own son, Jonathan, in jeopardy.

Jan 08, 2023
Naked Bible 457: 1 Samuel 12

1 Samuel 12 is ostensibly Samuel’s farewell address as he yields power to Saul, Israel’s first king. The content of his address in the chapter is both more subtle and confrontational, though, to have it be a simply farewell. The text makes it clear that God will evaluate the new king (and every king) on the basis of their covenant loyalty, and that will in turn be made clear as to how the king takes heed to Samuel’s advice on being loyal to Yahweh. In the end, the chapter has a sense of foreboding as the monarchy is launched. God promises to remain faithful to Israel and its king but also warns the people through Samuel that straying off into idolatry will again yield divine abandonment.

Dec 31, 2022
Naked Bible 456: 1 Samuel 11

1 Samuel 11 explores the inauguration of Saul’s reign as king of Israel. In the previous chapter, the prophet Samuel had given Saul several signs that his anointing was genuine and from the Lord. That validation ended with Samuel’s directive that Saul accompany him to Gilgal to renew the covenant. Saul failed to do this. In this chapter of 1 Samuel, we discover what Saul did instead of going to Gilgal. In one respect, the chapter records Saul’s lone real success as king with a victory over the Ammonites. But in another respect, it again sets the tone for Saul’s unfitness to be king. On a wider, more surprising note, this chapter also seems to reveal a connection back to the serpent of Genesis 3 as part of a motif that Israel’s kings were expected to be fulfillments of the promise of the seed of the woman overcoming the serpent.

Dec 24, 2022
Naked Bible 455: 1 Samuel 8-10 Part 2

In 1 Samuel 8 the people of Israel ask Samuel to choose a king to rule them, a king that would be like the kings of other nations (1 Sam 8:5). Samuel opposes the idea, interpreting the request as a rejection of his own leadership. God has an equally negative view of the request, but informs Samuel that the people have actually rejected Himself, not the prophet, in making the request. Nevertheless, God tells Samuel to anoint Saul in response (1 Sam 9, 10). In the previous episode of the podcast, we talked about how Scripture outside 1 Samuel 8-10 articulates a positive view of kingship, even marrying it to the messianic vision. In this episode we discuss how this perspective dovetails with the selection of Saul. OUR SPONSOR: LOGOS.COM/NAKEDBIBLE

Dec 17, 2022
Naked Bible 454: 1 Samuel 8-10 Part 1

In 1 Samuel 8 the people of Israel ask Samuel to choose a king for them who would be like the kings of other nations (1 Sam 8:5). Samuel opposes the idea, giving rise to a larger interpretive question: Was Israel wrong in wanting a king? In this episode of the podcast, we explore the wider context of the “king making” section of 1 Samuel 8-10. Specifically, what do the Torah and other passages, specially those prior to 1 Samuel in the biblical storyline, say about kingship? Was the idea looked upon positively or negatively? OUR SPONSOR: LOGOS.COM/NAKEDBIBLE

Dec 10, 2022
Naked Bible 453: 1 Samuel 7

1 Samuel 7 is about Samuel’s emergence as the nation of Israel’s spiritual and military leader (i.e., a judge). The contrast with the house of Eli is again palpable. The main focus of this emergence is a revival in Israel and the subsequent conflict with the Philistine where, after a long absence, God fights for Israel certifying Samuel’s status. This episode comments on these items along with focusing on “the Baals and Ashtaroth” Israel must forsake. Some discussion is also given to the term Asherah (plural: Asherim). OUR SPONSOR: LOGOS.COM/NAKEDBIBLE

Dec 04, 2022
Naked Bible 452: Counterfeit Kingdom

Counterfeit Kingdom with Holly Pivec and R. Douglas Geivett

Back in 2017 (Episode 179) apologetics researcher Holly Pivec was our guest to talk about the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR), a movement that claims new revelation from God and new apostolic authority that is binding on followers of Jesus everywhere. In this episode of the podcast we catch up with Holly and her co-author, Dr. R. Douglas Geivett, via a discussion of their latest book on the NAR, Counterfeit Kingdom: The Dangers of New Revelation, New Prophets, and New Age Practices in the Church. Currently on sale!! Please click the book's link.

Nov 27, 2022
Naked Bible 451: 1 Samuel 5-6

1 Samuel 5-6 continues the biblical saga of the loss of the ark of the covenant to the Philistines. Specifically, the chapters detail the fallout upon the Philistines as Yahweh chooses to punish them for taking the ark. The episode includes an interesting scene of cosmic geography and spiritual warfare (1 Sam 5:1-5). Most of the content, however, details Yahweh’s judgment of the Philistines, a judgment that involves the Philistines offering a “guilt offering” to Yahweh. This offering included objects or emblems that were designed to cajole Yahweh into relenting, and so the objects in some way telegraph what the punishments included. English translations have these objects as golden mice and golden “tumors” or “hemorrhoids” (Hebrew term: ʿophalim). This episode follows recent archaeological research that demonstrate there is a better way to understand the nature of the ʿophalim, one that makes this episode for adults only.

Article referenced: Aren Maier, “Did Captured Ark Afflict Philistines with E.D.?” BAR 34:3 (2008)

Nov 19, 2022
Naked Bible 450: 1 Samuel 4

1 Samuel 4 details the loss of the ark of the covenant to the Philistines and the end of Eli’s priestly lineage. In so doing it is the fulfillment of God’s word to Samuel, the young prophet. In this episode of the podcast we talk about the loss of the ark and the nature of the ark itself, along with several other details of the passage that are less obvious to readers. 

Nov 06, 2022
Naked Bible 449: 1 Samuel 3

1 Samuel 3 marks the call of Samuel to be a prophet. As such it furthers the demise of the house of Eli, a demise that will reach its climax in Chapter 4. In this episode of the podcast we take a look at some of the features of 1 Samuel 3, particularly in regard to its theophany, Samuel’s status as the “prophet like unto Moses,” and an interesting text-critical issue.

Oct 30, 2022
Naked Bible 448: 1 Samuel 2:12-36

This episode of the podcast continues in 1 Samuel 2 through the end of the chapter. In 1 Sam 2:12-36 we are introduced specifically to how Samuel contrasts with the wicked sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas. The chapter raises questions about the nature of Samuel’s ministry, as well as the matter of the unidentified “man of God” that appears to prophesy against Eli.

Oct 22, 2022
Naked Bible 447: 1 Samuel 1:1-2:11

The story of Hannah’s barrenness and faithful prayer to Yahweh for a child is well known to Bible readers. Yet there is much more to the story and her prayer than meets the eye. In this episode of the podcast we look at how this portion of 1 Samuel connects to the wider Old Testament, especially the patriarchs and David. We also devote some focus to issues and topics that arise in the text. Was Samuel a Nazirite? What is the significance of Elkanah’s genealogy? How is Hannah’s prayer a strike against the gods of Canaan?

Oct 16, 2022
Naked Bible 446: 1 Samuel Introduction

Beyond the stories of Hannah and David’s battle with Goliath, the book of 1 Samuel tends not to be well known. This episode of the podcast kicks off a series covering the book. 1 Samuel is a theological history of the beginnings of Israel’s monarchy. There are not only many intriguing episodes in its pages, but it also teaches valuable lessons about accepting God’s sovereign rule and turning from half-hearted devotion. God is king in 1 Samuel and its content brings home that lesson.

Oct 08, 2022
Naked Bible 445: Q&A 57


Oct 01, 2022
Naked Bible 444: Q&A 56



Sep 25, 2022
Naked Bible 443: Jude Q&A Part 2

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Jude.



Sep 17, 2022
Naked Bible 442: Jude Q&A Part 1

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Jude.



Sep 11, 2022
Naked Bible 441: The Afterlife Part 2

The Afterlife with Dr. Justin Bass

In this episode of the podcast we continue our conversation with Dr. Justin Bass about the various terms we encounter in the Bible that describe the destination of the dead. If you’ve ever wondered about Gehenna, the Lake of Fire, Paradise, and Abraham’s Bosom, you’ll enjoy today’s episode.


Sep 03, 2022
Naked Bible 440: The Afterlife Part 1

The Afterlife with Dr. Justin Bass

It’s expected that the Bible would have a good bit to say about the afterlife. But perhaps surprising are the number of different terms it uses to describe the destination of the dead, and the way afterlife ideas develop from the Old Testament to the New Testament. In this episode of the podcast, Dr. Justin Bass introduces us to some of the terminology. What exactly are Sheol, Hades, the Abyss, and Tartarus? Listen in to find out.


Aug 29, 2022
Naked Bible 439: The Epistle of Jude Part 8

In this last installment of the book of Jude (vv. 17-25), we take a look at several points of Jude’s theology, namely his Christology and fear of apostasy on the part of his audience. Jude continues to hammer away at the fact that the false teachers about which he has warned his audience were predicted—and are predictable in their ungodly conduct and desire to sow discord among believers.


Aug 21, 2022
Naked Bible 438: The Epistle of Jude Part 7

In Jude 14-16, the author continues the theme of the judgment of his opponents, the false teachers. In this instance, Jude cites the book of Enoch (1 Enoch 1:9) specifically to make his case. In this episode, we discuss the implications of Jude’s citation of 1 Enoch and the Old Testament sources from which the verse in 1 Enoch derive.


Aug 14, 2022
Naked Bible 437: The Epistle of Jude Part 6

In Jude 11-13, the author continues his portrayal of, and warning against, false teachers using three archetypal Old Testament episodes of rebellion and sin. In these verses, Jude compares the false teachers and their content to the rebellion of Cain (Gen 4), the betrayal of Balaam (Num 22-25), and the rebellion of Korah (Num 16). What is it about these three Old Testament episodes that led Jude to use them to describe the false teachers he opposed? Was Jude tapping into Intertestamental Jewish tradition to do so? Find out in this episode.


Aug 06, 2022
Naked Bible 436: The Epistle of Jude Part 5

One of the oddest verses in the short epistle of Jude is Jude 9, which describes some sort of struggle between Michael the archangel and the Devil (Satan). Many commentators see an allusion to Zechariah 3, but in this episode we take a different perspective about the meaning of this verse. Rather than Zechariah 3, certain features of Old Testament cosmic geography are a better backdrop to this odd passage.


Jul 31, 2022
Naked Bible 435: The Epistle of Jude Part 4

In the book that bears his name Jude has compared the false teachers he opposes to the heavenly villains of Genesis 6:1-4 (see Part 3). In this episode, Jude continues this literary and theological strategy by comparing the false teachers to the wicked in Sodom and Gomorrah. While we associate those two Old Testament cities with a particular sin of the flesh, Jude has something more dramatic in mind.


Jul 24, 2022
Naked Bible 434: The Epistle of Jude Part 3

In Jude 6 the author introduces his readers to a group of angels that sinned against God. They failed to “stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling.” As a result, these angels are “kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day.” The verse is both clear and yet raises many questions. In this episode we take a look at the angelic sin of Jude 6 and its textual relationship to both 2 Peter 2:4 and the book of 1 Enoch. Doing so produces clarity for understanding to what Old Testament event Jude alludes and why he injects it into his condemnation of false teachers.


Jul 17, 2022
Naked Bible 433: The Epistle of Jude Part 2

This episode focuses on Jude 4-5. In Jude 4 the false teachers who are Jude’s opponents are said to have long ago “been designated for condemnation.” What does this phrase mean? In Jude 5 the author shocks his readers by informing them that it was Jesus who saved the Israelites from Egypt. Not surprisingly, that verse is controversial. Join us as we unravel Jude’s comment and show how it relates to the Old Testament’s theology of a Godhead, the ancient “two powers in heaven” doctrine.


Jul 10, 2022
Naked Bible 432: The Epistle of Jude Part 1

The letter of Jude is one of the shortest books in the Bible. Its content, however, is dense, offering a variety of fascinating topics for study. In this episode of the podcast we embark on a series book study of the epistle of Jude. Join us for Part 1! OUR SPONSOR: LOGOS.COM/NAKEDBIBLE

Jul 02, 2022
Naked Bible 431: Q&A 55

Dr. Heiser answers your questions. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL Article referenced: WHERE WAS TARSHISH?

Jun 25, 2022
Naked Bible 430: John Walton on Demons and Spirits

Over the past two years Dr. Heiser has been asked a number of times to respond to the book Demons and Spirits in Biblical Theology: Reading the Biblical Text in its Cultural and Literary Context, by John H. Walton and J. Harvey Walton (2019). The book runs quite contrary to Dr. Heiser’s own work. In this episode Dr. Heiser responds to the book’s content and how he fears it might be used by opponents of the faith.

Jun 18, 2022
Naked Bible 429: Hollywood Heroes

Hollywood Heroes with Frank Turek

Millions of people around the world are captivated by fantasy and superhero films. What explains their popularity? According to our guest, apologist Frank Turek, it’s because we long for “another world” that we were really made for, and we are enchanted by someone who will bring us there—someone who will fight evil and transport us safely to a world where there is no pain, suffering, or struggle.  In this episode of the podcast we meet Frank Turek and get introduced to both his ministry ( and his latest book, co-authored with his son Zach, entitled Hollywood Heroes: How Your Favorite Movies Reveal God. Join us for some worthwhile apologetics discussion! Coupon code Heiser52722 is good for 20% off Hollywood Heroes: How Your Favorite Movies Reveal God

Jun 11, 2022
Naked Bible 428: Q&A 54


Jun 04, 2022
Naked Bible 427: Q&A 53

Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

The World Turned Upside Down - Mike's book will be $5 (free shipping) through the end of June. The coupon code is STRANGER5 or the discount is applied automatically if you click the link. The book and video bundle will be $10 (no discount code needed). PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

May 28, 2022
Naked Bible 426: Q&A 52


May 21, 2022
Naked Bible 425: Q&A 51


May 14, 2022
Naked Bible 424: Q&A 50


May 07, 2022
Naked Bible 423: The Queen of Heaven

The Queen of Heaven with Dr. Peter Goeman

The “queen of heaven” is an enigmatic deity figure that appears in Scripture in a handful of verses (Jer 7:18; 44:17-19, 25). Who was the queen of heaven to whom the people of Judah were offering idolatrous sacrifice? What can be known of her? Can she be identified with a named ancient Near Eastern goddess? This episode of the podcast entertains these and other questions with our guest, Dr. Peter Goeman.

Apr 30, 2022
Naked Bible 422: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Romans 12-16

In the preceding episodes, we’ve seen how Paul reconfigures Old Testament faith, faithfulness, Torah keeping, and Israel’s election in light of the work of Jesus and his own encounter with the risen Christ. In this final episode of our series on Paul’s use of the Old Testament in Romans, we look at how Paul’s reconfiguring of these doctrinal elements factors into Romans 12-16, the epistle’s section on practical Christian living. Paul’s theological outlook does indeed influence how he articulates what life in the believing Jew-Gentile community of Jesus followers should look like.

Apr 23, 2022
Naked Bible 421: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Romans 9-11

In the preceding episodes, we’ve seen how Paul reconfigures Old Testament faith, faithfulness, and Torah keeping in light of  the work of Jesus and his own encounter with the risen Christ. In this episode we look at how Paul recontextualized Israel’s election in light of Christ as the risen messiah. Specifically, we’ll look at Paul’s use of Hosea in Romans 9, and how Paul sees Hosea’s words describing God’s election of Israel as including Gentiles, thus reconfiguring the concept of election.

Apr 16, 2022
Naked Bible 420: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Romans 4

In the preceding episode, we saw how Israel’s elective vocation was reconfigured by Paul to focus on the work of Christ and the resurrection. The focus was Romans 1-3 and how Paul understands faith/faithfulness and Torah keeping. In this episode the template of the faithfulness of Jesus, the faith of the individual believer, and the matter of works (specifically circumcision) are articulated by Paul using the story of Abraham in Romans 4. Again, Paul contextualizes the Old Testament in light of the work of Jesus and his own encounter with the risen Christ.

Apr 09, 2022
Naked Bible 419: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Romans 1-3

To this point in our series on Paul’s use of the Old Testament we’ve focused on Paul’s “storied reading” of the Old Testament—specifically, how the Old Testament profile of messiah emerges. In the last episode we talked about how Malachi sets up Romans in terms of Israel’s covenant failure and the expectation of a divine messiah. In this episode we look at how the theme of Israel’s elective vocation is reconfigured by Paul to focus on the work of Christ and the resurrection. In Romans 1-3, this will take the form of how Paul understands faith/faithfulness and Torah keeping.

Apr 04, 2022
Naked Bible 418: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Malachi and Romans

The book of Malachi closes our English Old Testament. Because of its position and status as one of the “minor prophets,” this book is one of the more neglected in the Bible. What possible relevance could it have for the messianic profile discussed in preceding episodes of this series? How does it relate to Paul? Surprisingly, Malachi is the perfect set up for what Paul does with the Old Testament in his writings. Listen to find out how!

Mar 27, 2022
Naked Bible 417: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: The Messiahs in Daniel 9

Like the previous episode, this discussion with Dr. Matt Halstead takes us to Daniel 9, a passage that uses mashiach (“anointed one”) twice, as well as the verb mashach (“to anoint”). The passage has historical fulfilment roots in the second century B.C., but also is referenced later by Jesus as something awaiting fulfillment.  In this episode we consider what Daniel 9’s contribution to the messianic profile we’ve been building in this series.

Mar 19, 2022
Naked Bible 416: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: The Son of Man in Daniel 7

In the previous episodes with Dr. Matt Halsted, we discussed how trying to articulate the Old Testament’s messiah merely by appeal to passages that contain that word (Hebrew, mashiach) was fundamentally misguided. To this point, we’ve explored reading the Bible as story, understanding prophecy as “act, then re-enactment,” and a series of motifs that provide us with elements of a messianic resume (Davidic dynasty language, sonship, the seed/offspring, “branch” language, and servanthood themes from Isaiah). In this episode we turn to Daniel 7 to introduce another resume element—the “son of man” language intimately associated with ruling the nations in the divine council scene of that chapter.

Mar 13, 2022
Naked Bible 415: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: The Messianic Story Part 3

In the previous episodes with Dr. Matt Halsted, we discussed how trying to articulate the Old Testament’s messiah merely by appeal to passages that contain that word (Hebrew, mashiach) was fundamentally misguided. In the previous episode with Dr. Halsted, we took a look at the merging of “messiah language” (various story elements and motifs) with “David language” (motifs about his dynasty and catch phrases like “branch” and “servant”). This episode continues that discussion with specific concentration on the Servant of Isaiah.

Mar 06, 2022
Naked Bible 414: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: The Messianic Story Part 2

In the previous episodes with Dr. Matt Halsted, we discussed how trying to articulate the Old Testament’s messiah merely by appeal to passages that contain that word (Hebrew, mashiach) was fundamentally misguided. What was needed, we concluded, was a “storied approach” to the Old Testament. We begin that journey in episode 413. In this episode, we take a look at the merging of “messiah language” (various story elements and motifs) with “David language” (motifs about his dynasty and catch phrases like “branch” and “servant”).

Feb 28, 2022
Naked Bible 413: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: The Messianic Story Part 1

In the previous episode with Dr. Matt Halsted, we discussed how trying to articulate the Old Testament’s messiah merely by appeal to passages that contain that word (Hebrew, mashiach) was fundamentally misguided. What was needed, we concluded, was a “storied approach” to the Old Testament. We begin that journey in this episode, considering not only why it is important to approach the Old Testament as a story (as opposed to a textbook or reference work), but how doing so reveals important motifs along the way. These story elements provide a framework for understanding the Old Testament salvation plan of God through a human being, one who was also the son of God, who only later would be called “messiah” in a handful of passages. The motifs, it turns out, are far more important than that single term.

Feb 21, 2022
Naked Bible 412: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: “Messiah”

Many Bible students would be shocked by the fact that many scholars, including a number in evangelical ranks, believe the New Testament portrayal of Jesus as Messiah is basically foreign, or goes creatively beyond, what the Old Testament says about Messiah (Hebrew: mashiach). In this episode, Dr. Heiser and Dr. Matt Halsted chat about the problem of building a messianic profile on just the word mashiach. Though problematic, this strategy is at the heart of the notion that the Old Testament messiah-talk does not align with the New Testament Jesus.

Feb 13, 2022
Naked Bible 411: Paul’s Use of the Old Testament Series: Introduction

Many Bible students are unaware of the controversy surrounding how Paul (and other New Testament writers) cite the Old Testament. This is not only a question of taking the time to notice how Paul’s citations alter Old Testament verses, but also because of how we are conditioned to think about hermeneutics, the science and art of biblical interpretation. In this episode, the first of a series on the subject with guest scholar Dr. Matt Halsted, we survey why the issue is important and the sorts of controversies to which it leads.

Feb 07, 2022
Naked Bible 410: Q&A 49

Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jan 31, 2022
Naked Bible 409: Q&A 48

Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jan 22, 2022
Naked Bible 408: Jesus and the Old Testament

Jesus and the Old Testament with Chad Bird Naked Bible Podcast listeners are familiar with concepts like Hebrew word studies and the centrality of Christ in the biblical storyline. Two recent tools for the layperson in both these areas have recently emerged to help Bible students begin working in both areas for personal Bible study. Both have been produced by our guest on today’s episode, Chad Bird, who podcasts and teaches regularly on biblical studies, particularly the Old Testament. Join us as we discuss Chad’s two books, Unveiling Mercy: 365 Daily Devotions Based on Insights from Old Testament Hebrew and The Christ Key: Unlocking the Centrality of Christ in the Old Testament. (use code NAKEDBIBLE25 or click link and it's auto-applied to all 1517. products)

Jan 17, 2022
Naked Bible 407: Exodus Old and New

Exodus Old and New with L. Michael Morales Listeners to the podcast are no strangers to the book of Exodus. Our series on that book of the Torah took almost a year. In this episode of the podcast we welcome Old Testament scholar Dr. L. Michael Morales to the podcast to revisit the exodus event in biblical-theological history. Rather than looking at the exodus in granular detail, this time we’re taking a wide-angle perspective, toward how the content of that Old Testament book informs the way the work of Jesus is described in the new testament as a new exodus—a new deliverance from spiritual bondage—complete with a new and better Moses. Exodus Old and New: A Biblical Theology of Redemption (IVP Academic, 2020) use code NBPOD21 for 40% off online and through customer service, with free U.S. shipping (offer expires 2/8/22).

Jan 10, 2022
Naked Bible 406: Year Ahead

The podcast brings the year to a close with a special guest and resource for listeners, and with a look to the future of the podcast. Join us as we chat with Johnna McKinnon about Live In Context, a small group content resource that focuses on the supernatural worldview of the Bible Dr. Heiser writes about in many of this books. In addition, find out what’s next on the podcast in 2022. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Jan 03, 2022
Naked Bible 405: Revelation Q&A Part 6

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Revelation. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Dec 25, 2021
Naked Bible 404: Revelation Q&A Part 5

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Revelation. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Dec 19, 2021
Naked Bible 403: Revelation Q&A Part 4

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Revelation. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Dec 11, 2021
Naked Bible 402: Revelation Q&A Part 3
Dec 04, 2021
Naked Bible 401: Revelation Q&A Part 2

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Revelation. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Nov 27, 2021
Naked Bible 400: Revelation Q&A Part 1

Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Revelation. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW HERE ON PATREON OR HERE ON PAYPAL

Nov 20, 2021
Naked Bible 399: Miracles Today

Miracles Today with Dr. Craig Keener

Do the sorts of miracles we read about in the book of Acts and the New Testament epistles happen today? Is there any reliable source material for documenting such miracles? Why does it seem miracles happen less in the modern world than earlier eras? Does the culture have something to do with it? Or are miracles today an unreasonable expectation? In this episode of the podcast we talk with the scholar who has devoted more time and attention to miracles than any other in this or the past century, Dr. Craig Keener. More specifically, the focus of our discussion is Dr. Keener’s new book, Miracles Today: The Supernatural Work of God in the Modern World (Baker Academic, 2021). (click link to save 30%)

Note: all the profit from the sales of Dr. Keener’s book go to missionary entities.

Nov 13, 2021
Naked Bible 398: Beginner Guides to New Testament Studies

Beginner Guides to New Testament Studies with Dr. Nijay Gupta For those who love to study Scripture, it is easy to discern rather quickly that to really move into in-depth Bible study takes serious tools and some mentoring. How does one go about choosing the best tools for Bible study? What are the most significant debates among scholars who spend their whole lives studying Scripture? Why do those debates exist? What are the interpretive sides and rationales adopted by scholars? In this episode of the podcast, we talk with Dr. Nijay Gupta to gain some understanding on the New Testament side of biblical studies. Specifically, Dr. Gupta has produced important resources for evaluating New Testament commentaries and for getting up to speed on the controversies that rage in the study of the New Testament. 

Books under discussion:

Gupta, Nijay K. The New Testament Commentary Guide: A Brief Handbook for Students and Pastors. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2020. (click the link for a discount on both digital and print or enter NTGUPTA manually at checkout. Expires November 30th, 2021)

Gupta, Nijay K. A Beginner’s Guide to New Testament Studies: Understanding Key Debates. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic: A Division of Baker Publishing Group, 2020. (click link to save 30%)

Nov 06, 2021
Naked Bible 397: Revelation 21-22 Part 2

Revelation 21-22 is John’s climactic vision of the new Jerusalem and new earth. In Part 1 we looked at how Israelites thought about the concept of “temple” and how that concept led John to conflate the expectation of a new temple and see fulfillment of that expectation in a city (the new Jerusalem) and restoration of the cosmos in a new Eden. In this episode we walk through Rev 21-22 with an eye toward discerning specific Old Testament contexts behind the content of a range of items in these chapters.

Oct 30, 2021
Naked Bible 396: Revelation 21-22 Part 1

Revelation 21-22 is John’s climactic vision of the new Jerusalem and new earth. Not unexpectedly, there are deep Old Testament roots underlying his vision. But it is often a surprise to note that John specifically informs us that his end of days vision about the new, forever presence of God on earth does not include a new temple (Rev 21:22). What do we make of this absence give the Old Testament expectation of a new temple after the exile of Israel has been completed? This episode focuses on the broad Old Testament context of Rev 21-22 by examining Israelite “temple consciousness” before and during the exile. How did Israelites think about the concept of “temple”? How does that help us see what John is trying to communicate?

Oct 24, 2021
Naked Bible 395: The New Perspective on Paul

The New Perspective on Paul, with Dr. Kent Yinger

The “new perspective on Paul” (NPP) has been one of the most talked-about and debated topics within New Testament studies for the last forty years. But while the topic title is familiar to many, identifying what the NPP is (and is not) presents more of challenge to Bible students. In this episode, Dr. Kent Yinger, the author of a well-written and accessible introduction to the NPP, helps us navigate what NPP is, why it’s important, and how it brings questions about Paul’s view of the Law, Judaism, and Christ into sharper focus.


Kent L. Yinger, The New Perspective on Paul: An Introduction. Cascade Books, 2011.

Article mentioned:

Thielman, Frank. “Law.” Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. 

Oct 10, 2021
Naked Bible 394: Saved by Grace or Judged According to Works?

Since the time of the Protestant Reformation, interpreters of Paul’s writings have struggled to resolve the tension of the apostle’s statements that we are saved by grace solely through faith (Eph 2:8-9) and also “to those who by patiently doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life” (Rom 2:7). If we do not receive eternal life, Paul asserts “there will be wrath and fury” (Rom 2:8). How are these ideas to be resolved? Is Paul self-contradictory or confused? We investigate these questions, especially the idea of the righteous and unrighteous being judged “according to deeds” in Paul’s theology, with Dr. Kent Yinger, whose dissertation (later published by Cambridge University Press) focused on the problem.

Kent Yinger. Paul, Judaism and Judgement According to Deeds. SNTS 105; Cambridge 1999

Oct 03, 2021
Naked Bible 393: Revelation 20

In the previous episode (Rev 19, Part 2) we looked at how John’s use of the Old Testament, especially Ezekiel 38-39, more or less proves that Revelation 16-20 cannot be read as a linear sequence of events, but as a series of cycles that describe the same series of events leading to the return of Jesus and the destruction of the Beast. In this episode we explore one major difficult for this approach: If, as this approach validates, the “kingdom” and “thousand year” language used in the book actually refer to the present Church Age, how is it that Satan can be said to be “bound” and imprisoned during the present Church Age. This seems absurd and some answers to the question are weak. Listen as we propose a different explanation, one that dovetails beautifully with the Deuteronomy 32 worldview articulated in Dr. Heiser’s The Unseen Realm and Demons books.

Sep 25, 2021
Naked Bible 392: Revelation 19 Part 2

Is the battle of Armageddon in Rev 19:11-21 unique in the book of Revelation—or is it alluded to elsewhere? Of what importance is that question to how we read Revelation 16-20? Armageddon, as John tells us, is “in the Hebrew tongue” Har-Magedon (Rev 16:16). We learned in Part 1 of Revelation 19 (and in Dr. Heiser’s book, The Unseen Realm) that this term refers not to Megiddo, but to a final apocalyptic conflict for and at Zion/Jerusalem. In this episode we look at how John uses Ezekiel 38-39 (Gog / Magog conflict) in particular for his description of this end times battle—for events both prior to, and following, the second coming of Christ. How does this make sense? Listen to the discussion!

Sep 19, 2021
Naked Bible 391: Revelation 19 Part 1

The major focus of Rev 19:1-10 is the marriage supper of the Lamb (vv. 6-10). This meal, a celebration of the victory over the Beast and his followers, is the climax of an ancient Old Testament motif: the “meal with God” or communal meal in God’s house where the Lord is present with his people. Old Testament examples include Genesis 18; Exod 24:9-11, while New Testament instance run from the feeding of the 5,000, the Last Supper, and celebration of the Lord’s Table. The marriage supper of the Lamb is the final eschatological, messianic banquet, an event that includes believers from every tribe and nation.

Sep 04, 2021
Naked Bible 390: Revelation 17-18

Revelation 17-18 overlaps a good deal with elements in preceding chapters, most notably 13-16. In those earlier chapters readers were introduced to the Beast, the symbolic representation of anti-Eden chaos drawn from Daniel 7; Babylon as a metaphor for that system and cipher for the present enemy of John’s day, the Roman Empire; and the judgment of the nations—unbelievers who have aligned themselves with the Beast and Babylon against the true God and his people. Chapters 17-18 continues these themes utilizing other imagery and language from the Old Testament. Collectively, chapters 13-18 lead to the confrontation at Armageddon (har-mageddon), the mount of Yahweh’s council assembly, between the returning Christ, Yahweh incarnate and risen, and the Beast (Rev 19). In this episode we explore John’s use of the Old Testament and specific themes related to Psalm 82 and the Day of the Lord judgment of the fallen gods of the Deuteronomy 32 worldview, the Babel rebellion, in setting up this climactic confrontation.

Aug 27, 2021
Naked Bible 389: Revelation 15-16
Revelation 15 and 16 deal with the seven bowl judgments meted out against all those who follow the Beast. The passage contains several images drawn from the Old Testament that telegraph the victory of Jesus and the Father over the Beast and the chaos system of Babylon. This episode explores those systems and the connections between the bowls and other Old Testament chaos enemies. The effect of the judgments is to cleanse the earth of chaos, preparing it to once again be sacred space to be re- occupied by its rightful Lord, the returned Christ.
Aug 15, 2021
Naked Bible 388: Evangelical Theology

Dr. Michael F. Bird is a well-known New Testament scholar and theologian from Brisbane, Australia. After serving in the military as a paratrooper, he completed his PhD at the University of Queensland. Dr. Bird is currently the Academic Dean and Lecturer in Theology at Ridley College in Australia. in 2013. Dr. Bird has written or edited many books in the areas of New Testament and Christian theology, several of them aimed specifically for lay Christians. Among these are How God Became Jesus (a response to Bart Ehrman’s How Jesus Became God), What Christians Ought to Believe: An Introduction to Christian Doctrine Through the Apostles’ Creed, and Jesus the Eternal Son: Answering Adoptionist Christology. In today’s episode we chat with Dr. Bird about two of his books: Evangelical Theology and Seven Things I Wish Christians Knew About the Bible.

Aug 07, 2021
Naked Bible 387: Q&A 47
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jul 31, 2021
Naked Bible 386: Messiah Son of Joseph
Messiah Son of Joseph with Dr. David Mitchell Christians know Jesus as the messianic son of David. The fact that the messiah is referred to by other titles and terms (e.g., Servant, Branch, Root) is also well known. But there is one title or trajectory about the Jewish messiah that is relatively unknown, save to a handful of rabbinic teachers who intentionally do not want attention paid to it. That trajectory is the Messiah son of Joseph. In this episode we discuss this topic with Dr. David Mitchell, perhaps the solitary scholar who has brought all the relevant ancient “Josephite Messiah” material together into one book. Dr. Mitchell writes extensively of how Jewish sources such as the Talmud speak of a figure called Messiah ben Joseph, who comes forth from Galilee to die, pierced by his enemies at the gate of Jerusalem, whose death confounds Satan, atones for sin, and abolishes death itself. 

Books David C. Mitchell, Messiah ben Joseph (Campbell Publications, 2016) David C. Mitchell, Jesus: The Incarnation of the Word (Campbell Publications, 2021) David Mitchell homepage

Jul 25, 2021
Naked Bible 385: The Psalms and Eschatology
The Psalms and Eschatology with Dr. David Mitchell Many Bible readers have wondered, and perhaps suspected, that there is a logic to the ordering of the Psalter, the Book of Psalms. Surely the material cannot be random. In this episode of the podcast we discuss this topic with Dr. David C. Mitchell. Our conversations serves to introduce listeners to Dr. Mitchell’s scholarly work that argues that the Psalter is arranged to tell the story of a “once and future” king of Israel, opposition to that king (and his people) by the nations, the death of that king, the king’s subsequent rise in victory over the nations, the redemption of Israel, and the re-gathering of the nations to worship Yahweh on Zion at the Feast of Tabernacles.

Book: David C. Mitchell, The message of the Psalter: an eschatological programme in the Book of Psalms. JSOTSup 252; Sheffield Academic Press, 1997; now republished (self-published and available on Amazon) David Mitchell homepage

Jul 17, 2021
Naked Bible 384: Revelation 14

Revelation 14 looks back at the 144,000 (see episodes 372, 373), the sealed counterparts to those who bear the name and mark of the Beast (Rev 13). The chapter includes messages from various angels who initiate the judgment of the wicked nations and their gods at the Day of the Lord. In this episode we discuss the Old Testament imagery used to describe this judgment, including the Fall of “Babylon,” the winepress of God’s wrath, and the harvest of the earth with the sickle.

Jul 10, 2021
Naked Bible 383: Revelation 13

Revelation 13 is known as the chapter about the Beast whose number is 666. However, the chapter actually describes two beasts. There are several Old Testament passages from which the descriptions of these beasts may derive. While people are familiar with the number 666, and that this number is also the name of the Beast (antichrist). The idea of “bearing the name” has a secure Old Testament context, one that largely goes unnoticed in the theorizing about the number of the Beast.

Jul 05, 2021
Naked Bible 382: Revelation 12

The imagery of Revelation 12 is familiar to many Bible readers. A woman with twelve stars around her head gives birth to the messiah child, after which that child is caught up to God and his throne, the response to which by Satan (the Dragon) is a spiritual war. The astronomical elements of the vision were addressed earlier on this podcast in Episode 138. In this episode, we focus on the relationship of various images, metaphors, and numbers to Revelation 11 along with the Old Testament contexts for all of those elements. Who is the woman? How should we understand the numbers? How does this relate to the persecution of believers described earlier in Revelation? How will these events play out?

Jun 26, 2021
Naked Bible 381: Revelation 11

Revelation 11 is well known for two major items: the two witnesses and the reference to the temple court. Both are controversial. Who are the two witnesses? Are they individual people? Old Testament prophets who did not die (Enoch, Elijah)? Are they symbolic? Does the temple reference in Rev 11:1 mean the temple was still standing when Revelation was written, thereby suggesting the book’s events were fulfilled in or by 70 A.D.? What are the meaning of the numbers John uses (1,260 days, 42 months), and how do those numbers relate to similar or identical language in the book of Daniel? How did Jews of Jesus’s day understand all these items? In this episode of the podcast, we work through Revelation 11 to contextualize the content in light of the Old Testament and Second Temple Judaism.

Jun 19, 2021
Naked Bible 380: Q&A 46
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jun 13, 2021
Naked Bible 379: The Bedrock of Christianity

The Bedrock of Christianity with Dr. Justin Bass

Dr. Justin Bass is a scholar of biblical studies and apologetics. In particular, his work addresses the weaknesses of Jesus mythicism and skepticism about the resurrection of Jesus. He is currently teaching at Dallas Christian College and teaching courses online at Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary in Jordan and Asian Christian Academy in India. For more about Dr. Bass go to Justin W. Bass (

In this episode we chat with Dr. Bass about his book The Bedrock of Christianity, in which he demonstrates that the supernatural claims of Christianity are not late traditions added to the New Testament but are demonstrably early—a fact that is not denied by nearly all historians and liberal theologians. Consequently, the fact that early followers of Jesus believed in the death, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances undermines not only Jesus mythicism, but forces skeptical scholars to explain where early Christians got such ideas and why those beliefs spawned a faith that spread over the entire world. The Bedrock of Christianity: The Unalterable Facts of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection Discount Code: BEDROCK  gives 30% off on Logos or paperback and lasts until the end of the month (June 2021).
Jun 06, 2021
Naked Bible 378: Revelation 10

Revelation 10 is a hiatus from the trumpet judgments. The chapter describes a “mighty angel” who holds a scroll that the awestruck John will take from his hand and eat. This odd language has Old Testament precedent in Ezekiel. However, it is the angel that has drawn the most attention from scholars. This angel is simultaneously described with phrases that have occurred earlier in the book—in descriptions of God and Jesus. Is this confusion on John’s part, or a theological contradiction? This episode addresses those questions.

May 30, 2021
Naked Bible 377: Revelation 9

Revelation 9 reveals John’s vision of the fifth and six trumpet judgments. Several interpretive issues are immediately apparent? What is the nature of the angel with the key to the bottomless pit (Rev 9:1)? Is this angel the same or different than that in Rev 9:11 or Abbadon/Apollyon? Who or what is being released from the bottomless pit (Rev 9:3-11)? These questions take the reader into the wider question of whether Revelation’s apocalyptic descriptions should be read in terms of modern analogies. In this episode we discern how the release of evil supernatural beings from the bottomless pit has clear connections to how Second Temple Jewish texts and 2 Peter describe the imprisoned Watchers, the sons of God of Genesis 6:1-4 infamy, and how the odd descriptions of those beings in insect and animal form have clear, abundant antecedents in the Old Testament.

May 22, 2021
Naked Bible 376: Revelation 8:7-13

Revelation 8 begins the vision of the first six trumpets. In Part 1 of our look at this chapter, we looked at features of the first six verses, such as the Lamb’s opening of the seventh and final seal on the scroll from Revelation, the accompanying silence in heaven 5, and the seven angels in the scene. In Part 2 we discuss verses 7-13, a description of the first four trumpet judgments. The Old Testament context of these four trumpet judgments reveals clear connections to the exodus plagues and the Deuteronomy 32 worldview.

May 16, 2021
Naked Bible 375: Revelation 8:1-6

Revelation 8 begins the vision of the first six trumpets. The sequence is kicked off by the Lamb’s opening of the seventh and final seal on the scroll from Revelation 5. The chapter raises some immediate questions: How are we to understand the silence in heaven? Who are the seven angels? Do the ensuing trumpet judgments have an Old Testament context? This episode of the podcast answers these questions and prepare us for the judgment sequence through the remainder of Revelation 8 and Revelation 9.

May 09, 2021
Naked Bible 374: Q&A 45
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


May 02, 2021
Naked Bible 373: Revelation 7 Part 2

This episode continues our discussion of Revelation 7 and the 144,000. The discussion includes Revelation 14, a second passage referencing the 144,000. This latter passage adds an interesting descriptive detail, one that leads some scholars to wonder if the 144,000 have some relationship to the Book of the Watchers (1 Enoch), a work that elaborates on the fall of the sons of God of Gen 6:1-4. This question leads our episode, but we also discuss the early church tradition about the omission of the tribe of Dan from the tribes from which the 144,000 derive. Is the omission an indication that the Antichrist comes from Dan? Lastly, we consider the reference in Rev 7:13-14 to the “great tribulation”; what is the Old Testament context for this phrase?

Apr 25, 2021
Naked Bible 372: Revelation 7 Part 1

Revelation 7 is the first of two passages in the book that refer to the 144,000. The passage bristles with questions. Who are these individuals, 12,000 from 12 tribes of Israel? Should we understand the 144,000 literally or metaphorically, or both? Why is the tribe of Dan omitted from the list? Why are the tribes of Joseph and Manasseh mentioned, when Manasseh (with Ephraim) constituted the tribe of Joseph? Why the tribal arrangement at all? Might the 144,000 still represent the Church and the twelve apostles? Are the 144,000 specially protected as the apocalypse plays out? In this episode we begin our journey into these and other questions with a specific eye to the role of the Old Testament in John’s thinking and theology.

Apr 18, 2021
Naked Bible 371: Reading Moses, Seeing Jesus

Reading Moses, Seeing Jesus, with Seth Postell

According to Acts 15 the Jerusalem church concluded that Gentile believers do not have to keep the Law to be in right relationship with the God of Israel. Nevertheless, many Gentile believers today wonder whether their love for Yeshua (Jesus) and faithfulness as his followers ought to be expressed by observing the Law. What of Jewish believers in Jesus? Does Acts 15 assume that Jewish believers in Yeshua must be Torah observant? Did not Jesus and Paul teach believers to “do and observe” the Law? What about New Testament passages that suggest believers are not under the Law, and that the Law became obsolete with the making of the new covenant (Heb. 8: 6– 13)? Dr. Seth Postell joins us today to answer these and other questions. The conversation focuses on his important (and highly recommended) book, Reading Moses, Seeing Jesus: How the Torah Fulfills its Goal in Yeshua (co-authored with Eitan Bar and Erez Soref). His thesis is straightforward: The purpose of the Torah, Genesis through Deuteronomy, is that it is an historical narrative whose purpose is to lead Israel through the broken Law and beyond, namely, to Yeshua, the Messiah. Dr. Postell is a key leader at One for Israel, a multi-faceted non-profit ministry with the express goal of reaching Israelis and Arabs with the good news of Yeshua. He is also Academic Dean at Israel College of the Bible, the only Hebrew-speaking evangelical Bible college in the world.

Discount Code: SEEINGJESUS  gives 30% off on Logos or paperback and lasts until the end of the month (April 2021).

Reading Moses, Seeing Jesus: How the Torah Fulfills its Goal in Yeshua

Apr 10, 2021
Naked Bible 370: Revelation 6

Revelation 6 introduces the reader to the unsealing of the scroll of Revelation 5. The first such act unleashes the four horsemen of the apocalypse. A variety of Old Testament passages and images are involved in the ensuing description of the terrible events that follow. In this episode, we look again at John’s use of the Old Testament to describe God’s eschatological judgment on the world.

Apr 04, 2021
Naked Bible 369: Revelation 5

Many presume the scene in Revelation 5 of the Lamb standing before the throne of God is an enthronement ceremony. The one seated on the throne (God) has a scroll in his right hand, sealed with seven seals. Only the Lamb of God, standing before the throne, who is the risen messiah (Lion of Judah, Root of David) is worthy to open the seals. But if we look closely, we see that the Lamb does not occupy the throne, nor is he later seated on the throne as the seals are opened. This episode considers John’s use of the Old Testament in Revelation 5 and some of the incongruities in the way the passage is often understood.

Mar 29, 2021
Naked Bible 368: Revelation 4 Part 3

This episode, the third installment of our discussion of the Old Testament in Revelation 4, has a singular point of focus: the twenty-four elders of Revelation 4. Who or what are the twenty-four elders? What do they symbolize? What is their intended meaning? This episode explores the interpretive options and how each might derive from Old Testament content.

Mar 20, 2021
Naked Bible 367: Revelation 4 Part 2

This episode continues our discussion of Revelation 4, a heavenly council/courtroom scene structured after the divine council scene of Daniel 7 (Part 1). But Daniel 7 is far from the only passage used by John. In this episode we’ll discover how John repurposes imagery of the cherubim of Ezekiel 1, the encounter with God at Sinai in Exodus 19, the seraphim of Isaiah 6, and the rainbow of Genesis 9. The vision of the cherubim chariot-throne (Merkabah) of Ezekiel 1 is especially noteworthy, and takes our study into the subject of astral prophecy.

Mar 14, 2021
Naked Bible 366: Revelation 4 Part 1

Revelation 4 is the well know scene of the Lamb of God, the heavenly throne, and the 24 elders. Less well known is the fact that this scene and its elements have a specific Old Testament context: the covenant lawsuit genre. There is a strong scholarly consensus about the covenant lawsuit elements, and its use in divine council scenes in the Old Testament. Once such scene is Daniel 7:9-28, where the text specifically describes multiple thrones in a heavenly council (“court”), assembled to render judgment (Dan 7:9-10). Revelation 4 has more than a dozen parallels to Daniel 7, presented in the same order. This episode introduces us to the covenant lawsuit genre as the backdrop to Revelation 4.

Mar 07, 2021
Naked Bible 365: Q&A 44
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Feb 27, 2021
Naked Bible 364: &

In this episode we welcome back some familiar guests to the podcast for updates on their ministries. The episode has two parts. Fern and Audrey return to the podcast to talk about the launch of their new online curriculum, accompanied by Brenda, a consultant for the project, and Marie, who served as a beta tester for the first course. The long-awaited curriculum is part of Discovering Mercy, Fern and Audrey’s ministry to trauma sufferers. Our other guest is T. Dirk Smith, Vice President of, a ministry that prints Bibles in over twenty languages for free distribution throughout Eastern Europe and beyond. Despite the pandemic (or perhaps because of it), EEM has seen a remarkable increase in desire for Scripture in those countries in which it operates.

SIGN UP NOW FOR DISCOVERING MERCY'S CURRICULUM! download brochure GIVE A CHILD A BIBLE MATCHING CAMPAIGN in the donation note tell them your a part of the Naked Bible Family
Feb 20, 2021
Naked Bible 363: Revelation 3 Part 2

Part 2 of our in-depth look into the role played by the Old Testament in Revelation 3 focuses the otherworldly “keys” in Rev 3:7 (“who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens” and its earlier counterpart, Rev 1:18 (“[I am] the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades). What are these keys? What does the metaphor represent? Are Death and Hades places or entities, or both? How does earlier Old Testament material help us understand what John is saying?

Feb 14, 2021
Naked Bible 362: Revelation 3 Part 1

Revelation 3 contains John’s letters to Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. John uses the Old Testament in a number of places in these letters. Some have been discussed in earlier episodes of this series on the use of the Old Testament in the book of Revelation. Our discussion in this episode, Part 1 of Revelation 3, focuses on phrases not yet discussed (e.g., “they will walk with me in white” … “white garments” … the “Book of Life” … “hour of trial”). Part 2 will be a concentrated look at save for Rev 3:7’s reference to the “key of David” in conjunction with Rev 1:18, the “keys of Death and Hades.”

Feb 06, 2021
Naked Bible 361: Revelation 2:8-29

Revelation 2:8-29 contain the letters to the churches of Smyrna, Pergamum, and Thyatira. A number of content items in these verses draws on items discussed in episode 360 (Rev 2:1-7). In this episode, we rehearse some of that older content, comment briefly on the “synagogue of Satan” phrase, but ultimately focus on new connections to the Old Testament: the believer’s reception of “hidden manna,” a “white stone,” and a “new name.”

Virtual Tour and Images of the Pergamon Altar

Jan 31, 2021
Naked Bible 360: Revelation 2:1-7

This episode resumes our series on the Old Testament in the book of Revelation. Revelation 2 raises questions about the identity of the angels in the early chapters of the book, an identification that is linked to the lampstands. As noted in earlier episodes, the lampstands have a distinct supernatural (members of God’s council) context, drawn from the Old Testament. How does that context work in Revelation 2-3, where John is instructed to write to the angel of each church? In addition, who are the Nicolaitans? In this episode we explore how the Old Testament contributes to answers.

Jan 24, 2021
Naked Bible 359: The Myth Made Fact

The Myth Made Fact with Dr. Louis Markos

Should Christians read classical mythology? Such material is, after all, pagan (i.e., non-Christian) and has a great deal to say about what Greeks and Romans believed about their gods—gods opposed to the God of Israel and Jesus. If we were only to look at how classical mythology departs from biblical truth, the answer seems easy. But why is it that those pagan stories so often sound like biblical stories from both the Old and New Testament? The early church fathers were well versed in classical mythology, and often saw biblical truth embedded in the material—and wondered if God had providentially intended that to be the case. In this episode of the podcast, we take a deep dive into these and related issues with Dr. Louis Markos as we discuss his new book, Myth Made Fact: Reading Greek and Roman Mythology Through Christian Eyes. **Special offer until March 31, 2021**  *Order The Myth Made Fact and use code MMFListener to receive 15% off.*
Jan 16, 2021
Naked Bible 358: Q&A 43
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jan 10, 2021
Naked Bible 357: The Genealogical Adam and Eve Part 2

Were Adam and Eve historical people? Is their historicity compatible with genetic science’s findings about human origins? This episode continues our discussion of whether a historical Adam and Eve is compatible with genetic science. Our guest is once again Dr. S. Joshua Swamidass. Dr. Swamidass is an M.D. and Ph.D. research scientist. His recent book, published by InterVarsity Press, is entitled, The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry. Contrary to other Christian biologists, whose research in the last twenty years has led some apologetics ministries to deny the historicity of Adam and Eve, Dr. Swamidass argues that a historical Adam and Eve is quite possible and not in conflict with genetic science. In Part 2 of our conversation, we get into the specifics of Dr. Swamidass’s hypothesis and how it could be sustained by the biblical text and be congruent with biblical theology.

**Use code NBP40 on IVPress' website to purchase The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry  and receive a 40% discount and free shipping in the U.S. until 1/15/21.**
Jan 02, 2021
Naked Bible 356: The Genealogical Adam and Eve Part 1

Were Adam and Eve historical people? Is their historicity compatible with genetic science’s findings about human origins? This episode is the first of a two-part interview with Dr. S. Joshua Swamidass. Dr. Swamidass is an M.D. and Ph.D. research scientist. His recent book, published by InterVarsity Press, is entitled, The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry. Contrary to other Christian biologists, whose research in the last twenty years has led some apologetics ministries to deny the historicity of Adam and Eve, Dr. Swamidass argues that a historical Adam and Eve is quite possible and not in conflict with genetic science. His book proposes that the information gleaned from the study of our biology via the tools of science be allowed to tell one story of humanity, a genetic ancestry, while Scripture be allowed to tell its own human story, one that knows only genealogical ancestry. The two stories follow similar trajectories and ultimately entwine, but they are nonetheless different. In Part 1 of our conversation, we learn about Dr. Swamidass and his background, faith, and the path that led to his fascinating book.

**Use code NBP40 on IVPress' website to purchase The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry  and receive a 40% discount and free shipping in the U.S. until 1/15/21.**
Dec 28, 2020
Naked Bible 355: Revelation 1:7-20

This episode in our series on John’s use of the Old Testament in the book of Revelation looks at Rev 1:7-20. In these verses John repurposes the divine council scene in Daniel 7, specifically the descriptions of the Ancient of Days and the Son of man. He also takes readers to Isaiah 11 and 49 and Zechariah 4. John seeks to remind his readers that Jesus is the risen divine warrior, God in flesh, risen and victorious on their behalf.

Dec 21, 2020
Naked Bible 354: Revelation 1:4-6

This episode continues our series on John’s use of the Old Testament in the book of Revelation. We resume with material in Rev 1:4 not covered in the previous episode and move the discussion into verses 5-6. What is the relationship of the seven churches to the seven spirits before God’s throne? How do they relate to the seven lampstands and stars in verses 12-16? What passages from the Old Testament is John alluding to and why?

Dec 13, 2020
Naked Bible 353: Revelation 1:4

Our series on the Old Testament in the book of Revelation opens with Rev 1:4a, where we find the phrase “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” The phrase is repeated in Rev 1:8 where parts of it are defined in an important way. Scholars are in general agreement that John gets the phrase from the Septuagint (LXX) Exod 3:14, but that verse accounts for only one-third of John’s wording. Where does the remainder come from? Why would John draw on Exod 3:14? What point was he trying to make?

Dec 07, 2020
Naked Bible 352: Introducing The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation

This episode launches our new series on the use of the Old Testament in the book of Revelation. The series will not examine end times theories or systems. It will also not propose a new system for interpreting the book of Revelation for discerning what God is doing now or in the future. Rather, we focus on how the author of Revelation frequently dipped into the Old Testament to create the book of Revelation and how understanding his strategies in doing so helps us understand what the book is saying.

Nov 29, 2020
Naked Bible 351: The Good News of the Return of the King

In earlier episodes (322, 334) we chatted with Professor Louis Markos about how the cosmologies of The Lord of the Rings and Milton’s Paradise Lost compare and contrast with the biblical worldview described by Dr. Heiser in The Unseen Realm. In this episode we welcome Professor Michael Jahosky to discuss his book The Good News of the Return of the King: The Gospel in Middle Earth. Professor Jahosky’s thesis is that “The Lord of the Rings is a parable about what Jesus’s parables are about, which is the very story of reality itself.” Join us as we discuss mythic literature, the New Testament, and insights into how Tolkien’s masterpiece reveals his insights into the person and work of Christ.

Use CONF2020 which will give those interested in purchasing a 40% discount and free media mail shipping. **This special offer is available to all of our titles for orders made through the Wipf and Stock Publishers website and will expire at the end of the year (2020).**
Nov 22, 2020
Naked Bible 350: Loving Loyalty and Believing Loyalty

One of the more important Hebrew words familiar to Christians is ḥesed, usually translated “lovingkindness” or “steadfast love” in English Bibles. The term certainly conveys those ideas, but those translation options don’t convey the basis of God’s lovingkindness. In like manner, when the term is used of how people are expected to respond to God such translations don’t convey how believers are to show that lovingkindness. In this episode of the podcast, we explore some possible ways to understand ḥesed in relation to believing loyalty, a phrase introduced in Dr. Heiser’s book, The Unseen Realm (Lexham Press, 2015) to describe the believer’s salvation relationship to God across both the Old and New Testament.

Nov 16, 2020
Naked Bible 349: Q&A 42
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Nov 08, 2020
Naked Bible 348: A Relevance Theory Approach

Relevance Theory and Biblical Interpretation with John Hilber

Christians talk a lot about interpreting the Bible in context, but that goal is fraught with difficulties, some which are preventable, and others that are self-imposed. One of the most obvious obstacles is the disconnection between the worldview of the biblical writers and their original audience and modern Bible students. Despite the transparency of this problem, no textbooks on biblical hermeneutics focus on the problem and how it might be solved. In this episode of the podcast, we chat with Dr. John Hilber about the obstacle and its solution, both of which received sustained attention in his new book, Old Testament Cosmology and Divine Accommodation: A Relevance Theory Approach (Wipf and Stock, 2020).

Listeners can get Dr. Hilber’s book for 40% off only by going to the Wipf and Stock website and applying the coupon code DIVINE at checkout. **Offer valid November 1st-30th, 2020**

Oct 31, 2020
Naked Bible 347: Jonah and the Chaos Dragon

The story of Jonah being swallowed by a “great fish” (misunderstood as a whale) is familiar to Bible readers and those in the wider culture who have never read the Bible. Given the flexibility of the Hebrew phrase behind “great fish” (dag gadol), scholars have wondered whether Jonah connects back to biblical Leviathan, the well-know chaos serpent of Canaanite literature. In this episode we explore the potential connections.

Oct 25, 2020
Naked Bible 346: The Old Testament and Luke 1

It’s common for scholars and critics of New Testament presentations of the birth of Jesus to suggest that the idea of a divine Israelite messiah goes beyond what the Old Testament envisions. The most Jews would expect, so this thinking goes, is a military deliverer who was descended from the line of David, a mere human whom God adopts as his son. This episode provides a glimpse into the data that tell us otherwise. In Luke 1, the gospel writer portrays Jesus as more than a human, Davidic military deliverer.

Oct 19, 2020
Naked Bible 345: The Vine and the Branches
Ezekiel and John 15, the Vine and the Branches

Jesus’ allegory about the vine and the branches, ultimately about himself (the vine) and those who would claim to be his disciples (the branches) is quite familiar to Bible readers. Far less familiar is the fact that the content of Jesus’ teaching draws on the Old Testament. Scholars, aware of this fact, nevertheless disagree as to which Old Testament passage is the primary point of reference. This episode of the podcast addresses that issue and demonstrates how its answer informs our understanding of the theological points Jesus (and the gospel writer, John) want to make in John 15.

Oct 10, 2020
Naked Bible 344: Gentiles in the Psalms

Gentile inclusion is a familiar theme in the salvation plan of God. Bible students are generally aware that the idea is found in the Old Testament, typically in places like Gen 12:3. But the psalms are another fruitful (and even surprising) source for this trajectory in biblical theology. In today’s episode we take a look at the Zion Hymns in the Psalms and what it means for how we should think about Israel’s role (abd perhaps our own) in God’s salvation plan.

Oct 04, 2020
Naked Bible 343: Q&A 41
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Sep 26, 2020
Naked Bible 342: Ezekiel’s Dry Bones and the Gospel of John

In our last episode we saw how the Gospel of John repurposed parts of Ezekiel (chs. 34, 37:15-28) to describe Jesus as the Good Shepherd who would fulfill the role of God and King David as the rightful shepherd(s) of Israel. As we’ll see in this episode, John uses Ezekiel elsewhere, specifically the prophecy of the dry bones being restored to life (Ezek 37:1-4). While we think of this passage as speaking of the future resurrection of the dead, John thinks more broadly about how Jesus connects to the passage.

Sep 19, 2020
Naked Bible 341: The Book of Ezekiel in John 10

John 10 is one of the more familiar passages in the Gospel bearing that name. The chapter presents Jesus in bold ways. Listeners have already heard Dr. Heiser’s thoughts on the latter item (John 10:30-38), where Jesus quotes Psalm 82 in defense of his deity-oneness with the Father. In this episode of the podcast we take a closer look at John 10 and its treatment of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, specifically in terms of how Jesus / John repurpose material from Ezekiel 34 and 37.

Sep 12, 2020
Naked Bible 340: The Cloud of Witnesses in Hebrews 12

Hebrews 12:1 opens with a familiar exhortation: “Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us. . . .” Most discussion in church and Bible studies focuses on the struggle with sin, with the “cloud of witnesses” is usually interpreted as the believers in the preceding chapter. This episode of the podcast explores contextual clues in Hebrews 2 and 12, and the Old Testament context of Psalm 89 to support the conclusion that there’s much more going on in Heb 12:1, specifically with respect to the biblical theology of the divine council.

Sep 05, 2020
Naked Bible 339: Exodus in the Gospel of Matthew

We’ve noted many times how the New Testament draws on the Old Testament for its content. Some books stand out in that regard. The Gospel of Matthew is one of them. Long regarded as the most Jewish gospel due to its numerous hooks into the Old Testament, Matthew was especially fond of the book of Exodus. In this episode, we’ll take a trip through Matthew to see how frequently Matthew utilizes Exodus and Moses imagery and episodes in his presentation of Jesus.

Aug 29, 2020
Naked Bible 338: Conversation Series Part 5
Recently Dr. Heiser reached out to his audience asking whether pastors who follow the podcast had tried teaching the content of his book, The Unseen Realm, to their congregations. The response was amazing, with close to 150 responses. The interest in sharing the experience of teaching the meta-narrative of Scripture to congregations stimulated the idea to have guest pastors and teachers on the podcast to tell us their stories. Join us as we listen to pastors of diverse denominations and congregations talk about the impact of teaching biblical theology in its original context to their people.
Aug 22, 2020
Naked Bible 337: Q&A 40
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Aug 16, 2020
Naked Bible 336: Begotten by the Spirit

In Matt 1:20 the gospel writer describes Mary’s pregnancy to Joseph this way: “do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.” The wording is unusual for several reasons, most notably that the Greek verb translated “conceived” in the ESV means “fathered” or “begotten,” something the Old Testament never has the Spirit doing elsewhere and only rarely has God performing in any context. In this episode of the podcast, we talk about Matthew’s word choice in this verse and its theological implications.

Aug 09, 2020
Naked Bible 335: Jesus as the Gardener

In John 20:11-16 is a famous scene after the resurrection that takes place at the garden tomb. To our surprise we learn that Mary Magdalene failed to recognize the risen Jesus, instead “supposing him to be the gardener” (John 20:15). In this episode of the podcast, we discover that John’s intent in this scene was not to have his readers question Mary’s ignorance or judgment. Rather, the scene draws on a frequent ancient Near Eastern tradition, also present in the Hebrew Bible, that associates kings with gardens and even casts them as gardeners. The garden tomb scene and the identification of Jesus as the “gardener” turns out to be filled with symbolism that presents Jesus as the Davidic messiah-king.

Aug 03, 2020
Naked Bible 334: Paradise Lost

Dr. Louis Markos returns to the podcast (first appearance, episode 322), this time to talk about the influence of Paradise Lost, the classic work by John Milton, and its influence on Christian thought about Satan and demons. Dr. Markos is Professor of English at Houston Baptist University. He is an authority on C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien and also teaches courses on mythology, Classical Literature and Victorian and Romantic Literature. Dr. Markos recently reviewed Dr. Heiser’s book, The Unseen Realm, and found its emphasis on the supernatural metanarrative of the Bible not only fascinating, but quite important for contemporary believers, especially millennials

Dr. Louis Markos’ Amazon Author Page

Jul 26, 2020
Naked Bible 333: The Israelite King and Jesus as King

Listeners to this podcast know that the New Testament’s use of the Old Testament is crucial to being an intelligent reader of the New Testament. Usually this takes the form of a New Testament writer citing a specific Old Testament passage and either interpreting it or applying it. Sometimes the relationship between the testaments is much broader, where New Testament writers presume an entire backdrop of worldview elements or practices. In this episode we illustrate how the gospel writers intentionally present Jesus in the context of specific elements of Israelite kingship. Knowing this helps us get more out of the gospel presentations of Jesus’ life.

Jul 20, 2020
Naked Bible 332: Conversation Series Part 4

Recently Dr. Heiser reached out to his audience asking whether pastors who follow the podcast had tried teaching the content of his book, The Unseen Realm, to their congregations. The response was amazing, with close to 150 responses. The interest in sharing the experience of teaching the meta-narrative of Scripture to congregations stimulated the idea to have guest pastors and teachers on the podcast to tell us their stories. This episode is the fourth of a series in that regard. Join us as we listen to pastors of diverse denominations and congregations talk about the impact of teaching biblical theology in its original context to their people.

Jul 11, 2020
Naked Bible 331: Q&A 39
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Jul 04, 2020
Naked Bible 330: The Exodus and John 3:5

Few passages in the Bible are as familiar to Bible readers as John 3, the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. John 3 of course gives us memorable lines, such as “you must be born from above” (more popularly, “you must be born again”) and of course John 3:16. The chapter has also produced famous interpretive headaches, like “unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot see the kingdom of God” (John 3:5). This episode of the podcast seeks to explicate this verse by exploring the strength of the idea that the exodus and its Old Testament imagery provides the context for interpreting John 3.

Jun 28, 2020
Naked Bible 329: Binding and Loosing

In Matthew 16:19; 18:18 Jesus tells the disciples they have the authority to “bind” and “loose” in heaven and on earth. What does this language mean? What is being bound or loosed? In what way does the “binding” and “loosing” operate? Is “heaven” the afterlife residence of believers or something else? This episode of the podcast explores these passages with the help of parallels from the Bible and Second Temple Period Jewish literature and reaches a fascinating conclusion: Binding and Loosing refers to exorcism and authority over supernatural powers of darkness.

Jun 21, 2020
Naked Bible 328: Jesus and the Honeycomb

In Luke 24:36-43 the resurrected Jesus appears to the disciples. To help cure their disbelief, Jesus asks them if they have something to eat. The passage records how Jesus is given a piece of fish which he eats before their eyes to establish his resurrection is physical. Some English Bible translations of Luke 24:42 include “some honeycomb” with the fish. Others omit the detail. This episode of the podcast discusses why English translations differ and what the honeycomb detail telegraphs in terms of the theology of the resurrected Jesus.

Jun 14, 2020
Naked Bible 327: The Old Testament Afterlife and the Psalms of Korah

The Psalms of (or to) the sons of Korah are a small subset of the Psalter. However, their content is significant to the matter of whether the Old Testament has a theology of a positive afterlife, where the righteous are present with the Lord. The sons of Korah were the descendants of the Levite named Korah who rebelled against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16). When Korah was judged by being swallowed up by the earth into Sheol (the grave in the earth), Numbers 26:1 tells us specifically that the sons of Korah were spared from Sheol. In this episode we discuss how this tradition informs several psalms, which in turn inform us about the afterlife for the righteous.

Jun 06, 2020
Naked Bible 326: Conversation Series Part 3
Recently Dr. Heiser reached out to his audience asking whether pastors who follow the podcast had tried teaching the content of his book, The Unseen Realm, to their congregations. The response was amazing, with close to 150 responses. The interest in sharing the experience of teaching the meta-narrative of Scripture to congregations stimulated the idea to have guest pastors and teachers on the podcast to tell us their stories. Join us as we listen to these people of diverse denominations and congregations talk about the impact of teaching biblical theology in its original context to their people.
Jun 01, 2020
Naked Bible 325: Q&A 38
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


May 24, 2020
Naked Bible 324: Psalm 91 and Demons

With the advent of the coronavirus threat and subsequent quarantine measures, many people are referencing Psalm 91 as though it were intended to provide immunity from the virus. This is an abuse of this psalm. In this episode of the podcast, we talk about the meaning of Psalm 91 – specifically, its characterization as an exorcistic psalm in the days of Jesus. That context has ramifications for its use by Satan to tempt Jesus into acting outside of God’s plan for salvation and Jesus’s rebuttal.

Links to articles:

Craig Evans, “Jesus and Evil Spirits in the Light of Psalm 91,” Baptistic Theologies 1 (2009): 43-58

Dr. Gerrit C. Vreugdenhil,  "Demonic doom: Psalm 91 and the threat of evil spirits and demons"

Naked Bible blog: “Would Jesus Say the Coronavirus is a Deserved Judgment on Wicked People?”

May 16, 2020
Naked Bible 323: Dr. Ben Witherington III

Having authored more than sixty books and appeared as a frequent guest on major cable and network television programs, Dr. Ben Witherington is one of the most widely read biblical scholars in the world. He has for many years serves as Professor of New Testament Interpretation at Asbury Theological Seminary in Kentucky and is an ordained minister in the United Methodist tradition. In today’s episode of the podcast we chat with Dr. Witherington about his recent book, Who God Is: Meditations on the Character of Our God (Lexham Press, 2020), his blogging ministry, and his fiction.

May 09, 2020
Naked Bible 322: Dr. Louis Markos

Dr. Louis is Professor of English at Houston Baptist University. He is an authority on C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien and also teaches courses on mythology, Classical Literature and Victorian and Romantic Literature. Dr. Markos recently reviewed Dr. Heiser’s book, The Unseen Realm, and found its emphasis on the supernatural metanarrative of the Bible not only fascinating, but quite important for contemporary believers, especially millennials. In this episode of the podcast, we talk to Dr. Markos about his work, his review, and the value of literature for theological thinking and apologetics. Enjoy more after conversation at the very end of the podcast.

Dr. Louis Markos’ Amazon Author Page

May 04, 2020
Naked Bible 321: Q&A 37
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Apr 25, 2020
Naked Bible 320: Conversation Series Part 2
Recently Dr. Heiser reached out to his audience asking whether pastors who follow the podcast had tried teaching the content of his book, The Unseen Realm, to their congregations. The response was amazing, with close to 150 responses. The interest in sharing the experience of teaching the meta-narrative of Scripture to congregations stimulated the idea to have guest pastors and teachers on the podcast to tell us their stories. Join us as we listen to these people of diverse denominations and congregations talk about the impact of teaching biblical theology in its original context to their people.
Apr 19, 2020
Naked Bible 319: Conversation Series Part 1

Recently Dr. Heiser reached out to his audience asking whether pastors who follow the podcast had tried teaching the content of his book, The Unseen Realm, to their congregations. The response was amazing, with close to 150 responses. The interest in sharing the experience of teaching the meta-narrative of Scripture to congregations stimulated the idea to have guest pastors and teachers on the podcast to tell us their stories. This episode is the first of a series in that regard. Join us as we listen to four pastors of diverse denominations and congregations talk about the impact of teaching biblical theology in its original context to their people.

Apr 12, 2020
Naked Bible 318: Divorce and Remarriage in the New Testament

Divorce and Remarriage in the New Testament with David Instone-Brewer

This episode follows the previous discussion on divorce and remarriage and the Old Testament with Dr. David Instone-Brewer. Divorce and remarriage are obviously sensitive and difficult subjects. Not surprisingly, the Bible has something to say about both. In this episode we chat with Dr. Instone-Brewer about what how the New Testament handles Old Testament teaching about divorce and remarriage. Specifically, the discussion focuses on the response of Jesus to his Jewish rivals on the question of divorce and Paul’s subsequent teaching in 1 Corinthians 7. Dr. Instone-Brewer is also a pastor, and so the episode includes pastoral advice to the divorced and remarried.


Dr. Instone-Brewer’s website on divorce and remarriage

Dr. Instone-Brewer’s website for online Bible Study

Apr 04, 2020
Naked Bible 317: Humanitarian Disaster Institute

On this episode of the podcast we talk to Dr. Jamie Aten, founder and executive director of Wheaton’s Humanitarian Disaster Institute, and Kent Annan, Director of Humanitarian & Disaster Leadership. Dr. Aten is a disaster psychologist, author, and speaker, and Professor Annan sustains the M.A. in Humanitarian & Disaster Leadership at Wheaton.

Together our two guests have produced a very helpful manual for helping churches and other ministries respond to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Join the conversation as they share insights for church preparedness and ministry during this time of upheaval.

Resources: Humanitarian Disaster Institute Covid-19 Church Manual
Mar 28, 2020
Naked Bible 316: Divorce and Remarriage in the Old Testament

Divorce and Remarriage in the Old Testament with David Instone-Brewer

Divorce and remarriage are obviously sensitive and difficult subjects. Not surprisingly, the Bible has something to say about both. In this episode we chat with Dr. David Instone-Brewer about what the Old Testament teaches about divorce and remarriage, situating the biblical text in its ancient Near Eastern and ancient Jewish contexts. The discussion includes Deut 24:1-4, a major biblical text on the issue, as well as God’s tumultuous relationship with Israel, often depicted by analogy to both marriage and divorce.


Dr. Instone-Brewer’s website on divorce and remarriage

Dr. Instone-Brewer’s website for online Bible Study

Mar 22, 2020
Naked Bible 315: Exodus Q&A Part 4
Mar 15, 2020
Naked Bible 314: Exodus Q&A Part 3
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Mar 09, 2020
Naked Bible 313: Exodus Q&A Part 2
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Mar 01, 2020
Naked Bible 312: Exodus Q&A Part 1
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Feb 24, 2020
Naked Bible 311: Exodus 35-40

Exodus 35-40 is highly repetitive with the content of Exodus 25-31. However, the order of the material presented is quite different. This episode explores how scholars have thought about the similarities and differences. Scholars have discovered literary patterns and theological messaging in comparing and contrasting these sections of Exodus. This episode reminds us to consider the intentionality of repetition and other patterns on the part of the writers / editors so that we don’t fall prey to the temptation to judge their work incorrectly.

Feb 17, 2020
Naked Bible 310: Exodus 33-34

Exodus 33:12-23 constitute the famous passage where Moses’ asks to see the Glory of God. In return, he receives a deflective answer and yet experiences God in human form on Mount Sinai. After having delved into this passage in the previous episode of the podcast, this episode returns to this passage and carries the content into Exodus 34. These chapters give us insight into how the anthropomorphized Yahweh links to the Angel of the Presence (Exod 23:20-23) who accompanied Israel into the Promised Land.

Feb 10, 2020
Naked Bible 309: Exodus 32-33

This episode of the podcast returns to parts of Exodus 32 that dovetail with the content of Exodus 33. The exchanges between God and Moses in these chapters produce points of confusion: If God really decided not to destroy Israel for the golden calf incident, then why does he still judge them? Why does Moses plead for God to turn away his anger and then demand that the perpetrators of the calf’s sacrilege be killed? In Chapter 33 God tells Moses that he will no longer be going with them to the Promised Land, but will still send “an angel” to guide them—a statement that confuses Moses. How is this consistent with God’s earlier promises in Exodus that he would take Israel to the Land and the identification of Angel of Exodus 23, who was the visible manifestation of Yahweh?

Feb 02, 2020
Naked Bible 308: Exodus 32

Exodus 32 details the tragic failure of Israel’s apostasy with the golden calf. The story is well known, mostly for its portrayal in the movie The Ten Commandments. The Israelites are in a panic. Moses has been gone forty days with no hint that he’ll return. In tandem with Moses’ absence, God has not manifested his presence over the same time period. The people are without evidence that God is still with them, they have no leader, they cannot return to Egypt, and they have no idea where they are supposed to go. They demand Aaron give them a god to fill these voids, a yearning that leads to disaster. This episode of the podcast discusses these elements and other less obvious issues in the passage, including whether the calf was thought to represent Yahweh in Israelite religion.

Jan 27, 2020
Naked Bible 307: Exodus 30-31

Exodus 30-31 completes the Torah description of the instructions for the Tabernacle and its furnishings. In this episode of the podcast we’ll talk about the altar of incense, the “horn” imagery used of the altar and elsewhere, the meaning and function of incense, and Bezalel and Oholiab, the main craftsmen picked by God for Tabernacle construction.

Jan 19, 2020
Naked Bible 306: Exodus 28-29

The descriptions of the vestments worn by the priests of Israel, particularly the high priest, can make for uninteresting reading. But these two chapters of Exodus and their content put forth significant theological messaging. In this episode of the podcast we discuss how the priestly garments take us into the concepts of kingship, mediation, and mission to the nations outside Israel.

Jan 13, 2020
Naked Bible 305:

In this episode of the podcast we welcome T. Dirk Smith, Vice President of (formerly known as Eastern European Mission). Dirk tells us about the ministry’s mission of getting Bibles to every person in Eastern Europe and beyond. has shipped Bible to over 30 countries in 22 languages and has some unique opportunities in that regard, including some eastern European countries who require the Bible in their public schools.

book referenced:
Jan 04, 2020
Naked Bible 304: Exodus 26-27 Part 2

In Part 1 of our discussion of Exodus 26-27, we talked about the theological messaging of the Tabernacle. Now our attention turns to some historical considerations prompted by some unexpected wording in verses found elsewhere in the Old Testament that appear to mention the Tabernacle when, it would seem, the ancient tent structure of Israel shouldn’t be around. Was the Tabernacle still part of Israel’s worship after the Temple was built? That’s the question we’ll tackle in this episode.

Dec 30, 2019
Naked Bible 303: Exodus 26-27 Part 1

Exodus 26-27 make for unexciting reading. Who really wants to read the blueprints for the Tabernacle? But we shouldn’t assume that these chapters are uninteresting or devoid of theological messaging. Quite the contrary. There’s a lot in these chapters that’s easy to miss. This episode of the podcast continues our discussion of the Israelite Tabernacle, this time with an eye toward the theology embedded in its description found in these two chapters.

Dec 22, 2019
Naked Bible 302: Bearing God’s Name

Carmen Imes is Associate Professor of Old Testament / Program Coordinator of the program in Bible & Theology at Prairie College in Alberta, Canada. She was a recent speaker at the Naked Bible Conference. In today’s episode she shares her research on several related threads: the concept of bearing God’s name (representing God as his people), the Old Testament Law (Torah), and the relevance of the Old Testament events at Sinai for believers today. Listen in to learn how the Law is misunderstood and misapplied by many Christians and how to think more carefully about the relevance of the Old Testament.

Dec 15, 2019
Naked Bible 301: Q&A 36 Part 2
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Dec 08, 2019
Naked Bible 300: Q&A 36 Part 1



Dec 01, 2019
Naked Bible 299: ETS/SBL Conferences
Dr. Heiser gives us a quick update on the 2019 ETS and SBL conferences.  


Nov 23, 2019
Naked Bible 298: Exodus 25 Part 3

Exodus 25 is about more than the Ark of the Covenant, the subject of the previous two episodes. Exodus 25:23-40 provides God’s instructions to Moses about two other sacred objects: the Bread of the Presence (the so-called “Shewbread”) and the Golden Lampstand (Menorah). In this episode of the podcast, we examine those two objects as to their nature and meaning in Israelite worship and thought.

Nov 17, 2019
Naked Bible 297: Exodus 25 Part 2

In Part of our discussion of Exodus 25, we focused on the nature and purposes of the Ark of the Covenant. Many scholars have noted similarities between the form and function of the Israelite Ark and other sacred objects of the ancient Near East. In this episode our focus is on the most transparent parallel, Egyptian palanquins (“sacred barks”).

Nov 10, 2019
Naked Bible 296: Exodus 25 Part 1

Exodus 25 begins the book’s description of the Tabernacle and its furnishings. The most prominent item is the Ark of the Covenant (Exod 25:10-22). In this episode, we briefly discuss some of the preliminary comments about the Tabernacle (Exod 25:1-9) before turning our attention to the Ark’s nature and purposes.

Nov 03, 2019
Naked Bible 295: Exodus 24 Part 2

In Part 1 of our study of Exodus 24 we looked at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:1-8). This ceremony led up to the communal meal with Yahweh that is the centerpiece (vv. 9-11) of the rest of the chapter (Exodus 24:9-18). In this episode of the podcast we look at the interpretive difficulties and implications of beholding the God of Israel and celebrating his presence with a meal. How can anyone see God and live? Does this meal with God have precedent? Does it foreshadow any New Testament events and themes?

Oct 27, 2019
Naked Bible 294: Exodus 24 Part 1

Exodus 24 is the culmination of the Sinai scene that began in Exodus 19. The first eight verses detail the covenant ratification ceremony. Burnt offerings and, significantly, peace offerings of fellowship, are sacrificed by the Israelites to certify their relationship with Yahweh and role as a kingdom of priests in his service. The ceremony is unusual in comparison with other Israelite rituals because of the way the blood is handled, how it is applied to the people, and the role of the 12 pillars (standing stones) that were part of the ritual. This episode of the podcast (Part 1 of Exodus 24) discusses the covenant ceremony, its meaning, and its implications leading up to the communal meal with Yahweh (vv. 9-11) that will be the focus of Part 2.

Oct 20, 2019
Naked Bible 293: Exodus 23:20-33

This episode wraps up the remainder of Exodus 23 (vv. 20-33). There are a number of interesting items in these remaining verses, beginning with the Angel in whom the Name (the presence) of God dwelt. That figure is part of the Old Testament Godhead language behind ancient Judaism’s (former) theological teaching about two powers in heaven (two Yahweh figures) that Dr. Heiser discussed at length in his book, The Unseen Realm. Other issues touched on in this episode are the “hornets” of v. 28, the dimensions of the land and the terminology for its pre-Israelite inhabitants (vv. 30-33).

Oct 12, 2019
Naked Bible 292: Q&A 35
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.


Oct 06, 2019
Naked Bible 291: Exodus 21-23 Part 2

This episode follows Part 1 of our brief exploration of the “Book of the Covenant”—the laws in Exodus 21-23 that follow the Ten Commandments. These laws are applications within ancient Israelite culture of the absolute, enduring principles expressed by the Ten Commandments. Part 1 dealt with why that is indeed the case. In this episode we offer commentary on select laws within the Book of the Covenant to show how they link back to the Ten Commandments.

Sep 29, 2019
Naked Bible 290: Exodus 21-23 Part 1

Most listeners will know the Ten Commandments. They might even know that those commandments are in Exodus 20. But few will know that those famous commandments are followed in Exodus 21-23 by a litany of odd, ancient, at times conflicting, “case laws” that apply the Ten Commandments to Israelite life. Scholars have found these case laws difficult to understand. A number of them don’t reflect the Mosaic time period. They don’t seem to have any comprehensible relationship to each other. Nevertheless, they get a lot of attention because they form what scholars call “the Book of the Covenant” – the body of laws and case laws that are the basis for Israel’s covenant relationship with Yahweh. In this episode we explore the problems with Exodus 21-23 and get a foothold on where to start in understanding this portion of Exodus.

Sep 21, 2019
Naked Bible 289: Exodus 20 Part 3

In the previous two parts of our discussion of Exodus 20, we talked about issues related to Decalogue and the first four of the Ten Commandments. In this episode we cover the remaining six commandments (honor your father and mother, do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not bear false witness, and do not covet). It may come as a surprise, but some of these are hard to define and have biblical exceptions.

Sep 14, 2019
Naked Bible 288: Exodus 20 Part 2

In the previous episode of the podcast we looked at the issues raised by close examination of the placement and nature of the Decalogue, the Ten Commandments. In this episode of the podcast, we take a look at the first four commands: having no gods before Yahweh, not making idols, not making the name of God inconsequential (“bearing the name in vain”), and remembering the Sabbath.

Article referenced:

Hallo, William W. "New Moons and Sabbaths: A Case-study in the Contrastive Approach." Hebrew Union College Annual 48 (1977): 1-18

Sep 08, 2019
Naked Bible 287: Exodus 20 Part 1

Exodus 20 is familiar to Bible readers for the Ten Commandments. Actually, only Exod 20:1-17 delineates those commands. The rest of the chapter resumes the Sinai theophany whose description began in Exodus 19. The “interruption” of that episode with the Decalogue is actually one of six issues discussed in this episode of the podcast—all preparatory to getting into the listed commands in future episodes. This episode deals with the unusual position of the Decalogue, the legal nature of the commandments, Jewish and Christian disagreement as to their number, the relationship of the Decalogue to ancient Near Eastern treaties, and the question as to why they were written on two tablets of stone.

Aug 31, 2019
Naked Bible 286: Exodus 19

Exodus 19 begins with the short move of the Israelite community from Rephidim to Sinai. The chapter not only sets the stage for the Ten Commandments of Exodus 20, but the covenant ceremony of Exodus 24. This episode focuses on the preparations for receiving the law and entering into the covenant. Toward that end, we focus on the nature of the Sinai covenant, its relation to the earlier Abrahamic covenant, and the ultimate goal of the covenant, expressed in Exod 19:5-6.

Aug 25, 2019
Naked Bible 285: Evil and Satan

Evil and Satan with Dr. Archie Wright.

Many listeners will know that the New Testament teaching about Satan underwent a good deal of development during the centuries that followed the Old Testament era. Like many theological concepts that begin in some form in the Old Testament (e.g., sacred space, kingdom of God), the subject of God’s main adversary (among other adversaries) develops over the course of time in the literature sacred to both Jews and Christians. In this episode we talk about that development with Dr. Archie Wright, whose academic work focuses on Second Temple Judaism and Christian origins, particularly in regard to the forces and figures of supernatural evil.

Aug 18, 2019
Naked Bible 284: Exodus 18

This chapter of the book of Exodus features the idea of Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law- to appoint judges in Israel to help Moses render judgment on disputes within the community. There is some confusion about the relationship of these judges to elders in Israel. This episode discusses eldership in Israel and the relation of these judges to the elders. Earlier episodes of the podcast (#249 - Did the Israelites Believe Their Judges Were Gods?; #109 – John 10, Gods or Men?) cover how the passage is used by those who wish to deny divine plurality in Psalm 82 and other passages.

Elders in OT
Aug 11, 2019
Naked Bible 283: Exodus 17 Part 2

Exodus 17:8-16 chronicles the battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites. The episode contains odd elements. So long as Moses’ arms were raised, Israel did well in battle. When they dropped, they did not. What is the point of this action? Why is there a reference to the “throne of Yahweh” associated with the altar built to commemorate the victory? And above all, why was Amalek cursed by Yahweh for elimination?

Aug 03, 2019
Naked Bible 282: Exodus 17 Part 1

The first seven verses of Exodus 17 give readers the story of the water from the rock at Rephidim. The story is straightforward enough. Moses strikes the rock as God instructs him (Exod 17:6) and God provided water in the desert wilderness for the Israelites to drink. Moses calls the place “Massah and Meribah” (Exod 17:7) which produces the point of orientation for this episode, and sets up Part 2. The item that unites the two parts is that this incident (Massah and Meribah) is associated elsewhere in Scripture with Kadesh. Since the location of Kadesh is known, this incident is part of the problem of the location of Mount Sinai (especially for the Midian view) and links this incident to the failure with the giant clans from Numbers 13 (Part 2).

Jul 28, 2019
Naked Bible 281: Exodus 16

Bible students will know Exodus 16 as the story of God’s provision of manna, the “bread from heaven” that sustained the Israelites during the long years of journeying to Canaan. The chapter is actually filled with a number of textual issues, most of which involve the question of authorship, but including the matter of the manna itself. In this episode, we discuss the phenomena of the text and apply what we find to thinking better about inspiration and historicity.

Jul 20, 2019
Naked Bible 280: Exodus 15 Part 2

Exodus 15:22-27 ostensibly serves as an itinerary anecdote about the grumbling of the Israelites at Marah, where they found the water undrinkable (“bitter”). But there is much more behind the short account. These verses theologically and symbolically encapsulate the deliverance from death (the Underworld) at the Red Sea Crossing and God’s desire to have human children in his abode, the “cosmic mountain” of Israelite and ancient Near Eastern thought. The symbolism extends into the New Testament as well. This episode overviews the symbolic motifs in the passage that would have informed an ancient Israelite reader.

Jul 14, 2019
Naked Bible 279: Stovall Weems

On this episode of the podcast Mike chats with Stovall Weems, lead pastor at Celebration Church in Jacksonville, FL. The conversation focuses on the story of how Mike and Stovall met and how their initial phone conversation was the catalyst to Mike accepting a job offer to start a school of theology for Celebration Church a little over a year later.

Jul 07, 2019
Naked Bible 278: Exodus 15 Part 1

Exodus 15 is referred to by scholars as the Song of Moses. The label is due to its poetic nature. On the surface the Song reiterates the crossing of the Red Sea. But there are actually a number of items in the passage that dip into divine council worldview content and ancient Israelite cosmology. This episode engages such items and shows how Exodus 15 is more than a repetition of Exodus 14.

Shi-Hor Map
Jun 29, 2019
Naked Bible 277: Exodus 14 Part 2

In Part 1 of our discussion of Exodus 14 and the Israelites’ journey out of Egypt we focused on the yam suph (“sea of Reeds” / Red Sea) problem and issues related to the ambiguity of physical place names (toponyms). In this episode of the podcast our focus is cosmic geography—namely, how Egyptian conceptions of their gods and physical world can contribute to reading the exodus story as a theological polemic.

Jun 22, 2019
Naked Bible 276: Exodus 14 Part 1

Exodus 14 is one of the major chapters detailing Israel’s departure from Egypt and the miraculous passing through the “Red Sea.” Other chapters include Exod 13:17-22, Exodus 15, and Numbers 33:5-8. The passages do not always agree in the way the event is described, a fact that has produced what scholars call the yam suph (“Red Sea”) problem. What is problematic in that phrase is not the supernatural nature of the way the crossing is presented, but where the crossing occurred and whether any part of what we think as the Red Sea was crossed. This episode unpacks and addresses the problem.


John P. Cooper, “Egypt’s Nile-Red Sea Canals: Chronology, Location, Seasonality and Function,” Pages 195-209 in Connected Hinterlands: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project IV Held at the University of Southampton, September 2008 (ed. Lucy Blue, et. al; BAR International Series 2052; Society for Arabian Studies Monographs No. 8 (2009)

Canal-Map (“Canal Map”) from: Amihai Sneh, Tuvia Weissbrod and Itamar Perath, “Evidence for an Ancient Egyptian Frontier Canal: The remnants of an artificial waterway discovered in the northeastern Nile Delta may have formed part of the barrier called "Shur of Egypt" in ancient texts,” American Scientist 63:5 (Sept-Oct 1975): 542-548

Canal-Map of possible exodus routes.

Jun 15, 2019
Naked Bible 275: Exodus 13

Exodus 13 takes us into the subject of the offering of the firstborn. Certain scholars argue that the passage is to be taken literally, that Yahweh demanded the Israelites to sacrifice their firstborn male child (i.e., human sacrifice). This episode surveys how this argument is made and evaluates it in terms of the data of the text and logical coherence.

Jun 09, 2019
Naked Bible 274: Q&A 34
Dr. Heiser answers your questions. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW
Jun 03, 2019
Naked Bible 273: Exodus 12 Part 2b
This episode continues the early/late date discussion. Scholars who accept the historicity of the biblical story of Israel’s exodus from Egypt have argued for centuries about when it occurred in real time. There are several theories, but the two main approaches are the “Early” Date (1446 BC) and the “Late” Date (1267 BC). This episode continues the explanation of how each date is defended and debated.

Early Date Resource: Bryant Wood, “The Biblical Date for the Exodus is 1446 BC: A Response to James Hoffmeier,” JETS 50.2 (2007): 249-258

Late Date Resource: James K. Hoffmeier, “What is the Biblical Date of the Exodus? A Response to Bryant Wood,” JETS 50.2 (2007): 225-247

Other links and articles noted in the episode:

Paul J. Ray, Jr., “The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn In Egypt

Bryant Wood, “The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,” JETS 48:3 (September 2005) 475–89

Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Görg, “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687,” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 2:4 (2010): 15-25

Douglas Petrovich, “Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh

Discovery of KV 5 tomb - Tomb of Ramses II's Many Sons Is Found in Egypt

May 25, 2019
Naked Bible 272: Exodus 12 Part 2a

Scholars who accept the historicity of the biblical story of Israel’s exodus from Egypt have argued for centuries about when it occurred in real time. There are several theories, but the two main approaches are the “Early” Date (1446 BC) and the “Late” Date (1267 BC). This episode explains how each date is defended and debated.

Early Date Resource: Bryant Wood, “The Biblical Date for the Exodus is 1446 BC: A Response to James Hoffmeier,” JETS 50.2 (2007): 249-258

Late Date Resource: James K. Hoffmeier, “What is the Biblical Date of the Exodus? A Response to Bryant Wood,” JETS 50.2 (2007): 225-247

Other links and articles noted in the episode:

Paul J. Ray, Jr., “The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn In Egypt

Bryant Wood, “The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,” JETS 48:3 (September 2005) 475–89

Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Görg, “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687,” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 2:4 (2010): 15-25

Douglas Petrovich, “Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh

Discovery of KV 5 tomb - Tomb of Ramses II's Many Sons Is Found in Egypt

May 18, 2019
Naked Bible 271: Exodus 12 Part 1

This episode of the podcast begins our discussion of the circumstances of the exodus event. There are many difficulties and issues that have distracted scholars over the years. Exodus 12:37 and Exodus 12:40 are two that we will discuss in this episode. The first confronts us with the problem of large numbers of people in the Exodus narratives. The second takes us into the duration of the sojourn (bondage) of Israel in Egypt, an item made controversial by its apparent disagreement with several other biblical passages.

D. M. Fouts, “A Defense of the Hyperbolic Interpretation of Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” JETS 40: 3 (1997): 377–87.

May 11, 2019
Naked Bible 270: Exodus 11-12

Exodus 11 and 12 focus on the final plague against Egypt, the death of the firstborn, and the institution of the Passover (Hebrew: pesaḥ / pesach). Like the other plagues, the death of the firstborn is an assault on not only the pharaoh and his people, but on Maat, the principle of cosmic order to be maintained by the gods of Egypt. This episode touches on that polemic, but also on the meaning and typology of Passover and the “Destroyer” of the final plague.

May 05, 2019
Naked Bible 269: Exodus 8-10

The previous episode discussed the four scholarly approaches to understanding the plagues upon Egypt in the exodus story. Two of those approaches (polemic, de-creation) were deemed more fruitful than the others, for they cast the plagues in terms of Yahweh’s mastery over creation order (the Egyptian concept of Maat) that in turn serves as a polemic against the theology of the ancient Egyptians. In this episode we go through the plagues of Exodus 8-10 (plague numbers 2 through 9) with an eye toward thinking about each plague as de-creation and polemic.

Apr 27, 2019
Naked Bible 268: Exodus 7:14-25

Exodus 7:14-25 is the entry point for the series of ten plagues God sent upon the land of Egypt and its people for pharaoh’s defiance of his command to free his people, Israel. This episode includes an introduction to how scholars talk about the plagues and how that discussion translates to the first plague, turning the Nile to blood.

Figure 3 Plagues as Decreation
Apr 21, 2019
Naked Bible 267: Exodus 7:1-13

Aside from the date of the exodus event and the revelation of the divine name, one of the most frequently discussed issues in the book of Exodus is the hardening of pharaoh’s heart. The narrative affirms that both God and pharaoh are the agents responsible for the hardening of pharaoh’s heart. How do we understand this in light of moral human responsibility, human free will, and the righteousness of God? This episode focuses on this topic.

Apr 14, 2019
Naked Bible 266: Exodus 5-6

This episode of the podcast covers two chapter of Exodus. Aside from some comments that relate to items in previous episodes, our discussion focuses on the biblical motif of the “hand of the Lord” and “outstretched arm” of the Lord. Both expressions are part of the confrontation between Moses and Aaron and Egypt’s pharaoh. Both are also important motifs in Egyptian literature. That isn’t a coincidence.

Apr 06, 2019
Naked Bible 265: Exodus 4:18-31

The second half of Exodus 4 presents a series of chronological problems in relation to Moses’ movements to and from Sinai and Jethro’s home and, ultimately, the journey to Egypt. The section includes the bizarre episode in verses 24-26 where God sought to kill Moses. Why was God angry? How does the circumcision of Moses’ son fix the problem? What does it mean that Moses’ wife, Zipporah, touched the foreskin of her son to Moses’ feet? This episode of the podcast unravels all these questions.

Mar 31, 2019
Naked Bible 264: Exodus 4:1-17

Exodus 4:1-17 continues Moses’ conversation with God at the burning bush after the revelation of the divine name. It is marked by Moses’ unwillingness to do what God has tasked him to do. This episode covers God’s compassionate responses to Moses and also his anger when Moses refuses the job. The conversation takes us into supernatural sign acts, Egyptian magic, and the concession by God of bringing Aaron (and the Aaronic priesthood) into his plan for Israel.

Mar 23, 2019
Naked Bible 263: Exodus 3 Part 3

Exodus 3:13-14 are two of the most familiar verses in the Old Testament: “Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I am has sent me to you.’ ”  God reveals his name here in the first person (ehyeh – I AM), but most of the time the Old Testament has the divine name in the third person (Yahweh). Biblical names typically have meanings, so what is the meaning of this name for God?

People can go up to my website for a detailed discussion of this. I favor the second view: “I am he who causes to be all that is,” arguing for a hiphil, a causative, vocalization of the verbal name phrase. Also a youtube video I created.  
Mar 16, 2019
Naked Bible 262: Exodus 3 Part 2b

This episode builds off Part 2a and our discussion of the Kenite Hypothesis. The episode essentially asks this question: How would a literate ancient Jew, with knowledge of 1 Enoch and the Hebrew Bible, understand the biblical writer’s linkage of the Kenites (relatives of Abraham and Moses) to Cain the murderer, whom the writer of Enoch associated with the sins of the Watchers? The answer may surprise you, and even bless you.

Mar 09, 2019
Naked Bible 261: Exodus 3 Part 2a

Exodus 3:1 puts Moses in Midian, a land that, as we saw in Part 1, is closely tied to occupants known as Kenites. The Kenites, in fact, overlap in biblical thought with the Midianites (Judg 1:16; 4:11). Midian is also connected with the idea that Yahweh, the God of Israel, came to his land “from the South,” where “South” is defined as Edom, Teman, Paran, and Midian (Hab 3:3-7; Deut 33:1-2; Judg 5:4-5). It is for this reason (and some archaeological data) that many scholars and archaeologists believe that the Kenites / Midianites transmitted the knowledge of Yahweh to Moses (and, hence, Israel). This episode explores the coherence of this idea.

Mar 02, 2019
Naked Bible 260: Exodus 3 Part 1

This episode focuses on Exod 3:1 (“Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God”) and how the place names (Horeb, Midian, “mountain of God”) might possibly dovetail with traditions about Yahweh “coming from the South” (from Teman, Paran, Edom, Seir) in other passages (Deut 33:2; Hab 3:3-7; Judg 5:4-5). Biblical critics have used the apparently contradictory nature of these passages to argue for biblical inconsistency with sources and that Yahweh worship did not originate with the Israelites. Others who have rejected the traditional location of Mount Sinai (Jebel Musa in the “V” of the Sinai Peninsula) in favor of Jebel al-Lawz in Midian have ignored or missed these passages.

Feb 24, 2019
Naked Bible 259: Exodus 2:11-25

Exodus 2:11-25 is the story of Moses’ capital offense in Egypt and his subsequent escape to the land of Midian. The story includes several textual and interpretive difficulties, leading to important questions. Where is the land of Midian? What is its relationship to Horeb? Is Horeb Sinai and, if it is, why do other passages distinguish the two? Who is Moses’ father-in-law: Jethro, Reuel, or Hobab? Did the people of Midian worship the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Egypt—and if not, why is God’s holy mountain connected to Midian?

Feb 17, 2019
Naked Bible 258: The Bible Project

In this episode we chat with Dr. Tim Mackie and Jon Collins about their amazingly successful and eminently useful ministry, The Bible Project. We learn a bit about their backgrounds, individually and as friends, how the Bible Project was born, and plans for the future.

Feb 09, 2019
Naked Bible 257: Exodus 2:1-10
Exodus 2:1-10 is the familiar story of the birth of Moses in Egypt. Lurking behind the familiar story is a point of controversy and misunderstanding:  its presumed relationship to ancient stories of the “abandoned child,” most specifically the legend of Sargon the Great’s birth. This episode asks the question of whether the biblical writer stole the Sargon story for Exodus 2:1-10, and how a potential relationship between the two might be processed well.
Feb 05, 2019
Naked Bible 256: Exodus 1 Part 2

This is the second of two episodes on Exodus 1. This episode focuses entirely on how the name “Raamses” in Exod 1:11 can potentially be accommodated by either the early (1446 BC) or late (1250 BC) date of the exodus from Egypt. We explore how the name is used in Egyptian texts, why it’s spelling makes a difference, and why its presence in Exod 1:11 does not require the late date of the exodus. We also spend some time talking about the film Patterns of Evidence and its use of the work of David Rohl.

Jan 27, 2019
Naked Bible 255: Exodus 1 Part 1

Exodus 1 is short in terms of verse count, but there are a surprising number of items in the text that need some comment—so many that we need two episodes!  In this episode we look at the language describing Israel’s condition under bondage in Egypt long after the time of Joseph. We talk about the reasons the biblical author links his description with Genesis 11:1-9, the Babel story; why the description of the bondage is justifiable historical; how the earlier story of Joseph in Egypt could be congruent with Exod 1:11, and how what pharaoh commanded the Hebrew midwives, Shiphrah and Puah, has been regularly misunderstood.

Jan 19, 2019
Naked Bible 254: Introducing the Book of Exodus

This episode launches our new book study series on the book of Exodus! As we do with every book study, this initial episode overviews the sorts of things to expect as we progress through Exodus: difficulties, controversies, and other points of interest relevant to understanding the book in its own context. Specifically, Dr. Heiser talks about how we should think about Old Testament history, historicity, metanarrative, “mythic history,” and historiography.

Jan 12, 2019
Naked Bible 253: The Persecuted Church in Nepal

In this episode we interview “Theo,” an American living in Nepal who teaches students full time. Theo has been a long-time listener to the podcast. Theo found the divine council context put forth in Dr. Heiser’s books to be paradigm changing, and now uses that content to teach his students in Nepal. Unfortunately, there are serious obstacles, as the Nepali government has become more antagonistic to Christianity in recent years.

Jan 05, 2019
Naked Bible 252: The Day of the Lord

What is the Day of the Lord? Most Bible students would associate it with a time of judgment. The reality, however, is that judgment is only one aspect. The Day of the Lord concept concerns things like the reclaiming of the nations, the general resurrection, and the “fullness of the Gentiles.” And since Jesus is Lord in the New Testament, the Old Testament of the Day of the Lord is married to the return of Jesus. This episode discusses all these facets of the Day of the Lord and how the full concept should prompt us to think well about end times.

Dec 22, 2018
Naked Bible 251: The Church Fathers and Genesis 1

Craig Allert is a scholar specializing in Patristic Fathers, those early Christian thinkers who lived and wrote just after the end of the apostolic age to (roughly 451 AD). On today’s episode we talk with Craig about his work in analyzing how the early church fathers understood and interpreted Genesis One. We talk about the ways they approached Genesis One and how modern researchers use and abuse what the fathers said about Genesis in debating divergent views of creationism.


Craig Allert, Early Christian Readings of Genesis One: Patristic Exegesis and Literal Interpretation

Dec 15, 2018
Naked Bible 250: The Pastoral Epistles

Rick Brannan plays a lead role in the production of ancient language resources for Logos Bible Software. He has also published several books on apocryphal gospels, the apostolic fathers, and the Pastoral Epistles. In this episode our focus is Pauline authorship studies relative to the Pastoral Epistles and analyzing the vocabulary of those epistles. Since Rick’s most recent work is on 2 Timothy, we discuss some interesting findings about whether 2 Timothy is really Paul’s “last will and testament” and Paul’s inclusion of angels in charge language (commands) in these epistles.

Rick Brannan Amazon page 

Rick Brannan, Lexical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles: First Timothy 

Rick Brannan, Lexical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles: Second Timothy 

Rick Brannan, Greek Apocryphal Gospels, Fragments, and Agrapha: A New Translation

Rick Brannan, Anticipating His Arrival: A Family Guide through Advent 

Rick Brannan, The Apostolic Fathers: A New Translation 

Dec 09, 2018
Naked Bible 249: Did Israelites View Their Judges as Gods?

The word elohim frequently speaks of a single deity, most notably the God of Israel, in the Hebrew Bible. Exceptions include Psalm 82:1, 6, where plural elohim refers to the members of God’s heavenly host (his council or assembly; cp. Psa 89:5-7). Dr. Heiser has devoted a great deal of attention to how such passages and such thinking should not be defined by modern readers as polytheism or henotheism. Though he has written extensively in published scholarly journals on the topic and in his best-selling book, The Unseen Realm, some opponents of the straightforward reading of Psalm 82 and other passages insist that the elohim of that psalm are people—specifically, Israelite judges. This episode of the podcast examines the proof-texts of such an idea and shows their deficiencies.

Material in this episode is drawn from Dr. Heiser’s article, “Should אלהים (ʾelōhîm) with Plural Predication be Translated “Gods”? BT Vol. 61, No. 3: 123-136. This article is not accessible online, but can be accessed only via a theological or university library or by subscribing to Dr. Heiser’s newsletter. Papers read at conferences and other articles that address divine plurality in Psalm 82 and elsewhere are freely available at Dr. Heiser’s divine council website.

For how this episode and its content relates to Jesus’ use of Psalm 82:6 in John 10:34, see Episode 109: John 10: Gods or Men?

Dec 02, 2018
Naked Bible 248: Live From Denver
Dr. Heiser and special guest answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Denver, Colorado.
Nov 24, 2018
Naked Bible 247: SBL Conference Interviews Part 2

In our second set of SBL interviews we talk to Dr. David DeSilva about his revised New Testament Introduction, Dr. Mike Grisanti about his books and ministry as a tour guide to Israel for Masters Seminary, Dr. David Goh about his pastoral ministry and his thoughts on The Unseen Realm,  Dr. Rick Hess about his co-edited volume (with Bill Arnold) and his other books on Joshua and the conquest, and doctoral student Hans Moscicke about his work on Eusebius as it relates to the Deuteronomy 32 worldview.

Book links:

David deSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament: Contexts, Methods & Ministry Formation 2nd Edition Michael Grisanti, The World and the Word: An Introduction to the Old Testament Michael Grisanti, Giving the sense: Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts

Richard HessAncient Israel’s History (edited with Bill Arnold)

Richard Hess, Joshua (Tyndale OT Commentary)

Richard Hess, The Old Testament: A Historical, Theological, and Critical Introduction Hans Moscicke, Eusebius's "Fall Narrative" in Demonstratio Evangelica 4.6–10: Demonic Removal of Angelic National Boundaries (Deut 32:8–9; Isa 10:13–14) and the Watchers Tradition, in Journal of Early Christian Studies 26 (2018): 1–24
Nov 23, 2018
Naked Bible 246: SBL Conference Interviews Part 1

In our first of two installments of interviews at the annual meeting of the SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) we talk to Dr. Bill Arnold about a new book on the History of Israel that he co-edited (with Rick Hess), Dr. Dan Wallace about his work at CSNTM (The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts), Dr. John Hilber about his work in biblical backgrounds, and David Burnett about his experience as a doctoral student at Marquette University.

Book links:

Ancient Israel’s History (edited by Bill Arnold and Rick Hess)

Behind the Scenes of the Old Testament: Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts (edited by John Hilber, Jonathan Greer, John Walton)

Nov 21, 2018
Naked Bible 245: ETS Conference Interviews Part 4
In this episode we sit down first with Dr. Carl Sanders and Dr. Ronn Johnson to talk about rejected ETS papers (!) and the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament; next we chat with Dr. Karl Kutz and Dr. Rebekah Josberger, authors of an important new first-year Hebrew grammar.
Nov 20, 2018
Naked Bible 244: ETS Conference Interviews Part 3
In this episode we chat with Doug van Dorn, a pastor in the Denver area who authored the Lexham Press handbook on Mike's book, The Unseen Realm; Dr. Gary Yates, OT professor at liberty University, who uses Unseen Realm in one of his courses; Jesse Myers, about the publishing philosophy of Lexham Press, and Dr. Sam Lamerson, President and Professor of NT at Knox Theological Seminary.
Nov 19, 2018
Naked Bible 243: ETS Conference Interviews Part 2
This episode features conversations with Dr. David Capes of Wheaton, Dr. Gerry Breshears of Western Seminary, and Dr. Mark Futato of Reformed Theological Seminary. We talk about a new book for the non-specialist on earl high Christology / Jewish binitarianism; uses of, and responses to, Mike's book, The Unseen Realm; Hebrew, and a forthcoming book on Hebrew accents and their exegetical importance. link to David Capes' book
Nov 18, 2018
Naked Bible 242: ETS Conference Interviews Part 1
In this set of interviews we talk to Dr. Peter Gurry of the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog; Henry Smith of ABR (Associates for Biblical Research); Dr. Mark Ward of Lexham Press/Faithlife/Logos, and Mike's original pastor after he came to the Lord, Dr. Dave Burggraff. Subjects range from new books of interest to our audience, archaeology, textual criticism, and reminiscences of Mike's beginning in his spiritual journey and biblical studies.
Nov 18, 2018
Naked Bible 241: Psalms 24 and 29 in Their Ancient Context

The psalms are often thought of as purely devotional. They of course have that value, but they also contain significant theological statements, especially to ancient Israelites whose ears were tuned to specific points of their content. We often miss such things since we are not part of the ancient Israelite world, particularly in terms of the religious struggle with Canaanite religion and Baalism. In this episode we look at Psalms 24 and 29 for how religious texts from Ugarit help inform our reading. These two psalms contain several specific polemical points directed against Baal that modern readers would miss.

Nov 11, 2018
Naked Bible 240: Colossians Q&A
Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Colossians.
Nov 03, 2018
Naked Bible 239: Q&A 33
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Oct 28, 2018
Naked Bible 238: Q&A 32
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Oct 21, 2018
Naked Bible 237: Colossians 4

This episode of the podcast concludes the series on Colossians. While the last chapter of Colossians contains mostly personal references to traveling companions and greetings from Paul, there are several items of interest. Does the chapter refer to a house church led by a woman (Nympha)? Is the “letter to the Laodiceans” a lost letter of Paul—and if so, is that a problem for inspiration?  The end of the letter makes it clear that Paul used an amanuensis (i.e., he dictated the letter). Does that mean Paul wasn’t well educated?

Oct 14, 2018
Naked Bible 236: Colossians 3:18-25

Paul continues his teaching on how gratitude toward Jesus, the author of salvation who is supreme over all other powers, ought to influence the believer’s conduct. In this Colossians 3:18-25, Paul focuses on commands about household management. The “household” relationships in view are husbands and wives, fathers and children, and household servants/slaves. All of Paul’s household principles are framed by Colossians 3:17 – “Whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.”

resource referenced: Thiselton, kephalē and Its Multiple Meanings
Oct 06, 2018
Naked Bible 235: Colossians 3:1-17

Colossians 3 is the pivot point for the epistle. Having tracked through a number of significant theological points relating to Christ’s supremacy to the law and angels, Paul turns to practical ramifications. This episode of the podcast focuses on two: (1) the “already but not yet” aspects of the Christian's status and how discipleship is rooted in that status, and (2) the “already but not yet” aspects of Christ's kingdom rule.

Sep 29, 2018
Naked Bible 234: Apps and Art

Part 1: Johnny Cisneros - Bible Study Apps for Word Studies in Colossians

What are some of the best Bible study apps today? And how can you use those study apps to gain meaningful insights into the key words in Paul’s Letter to the Colossians? In this episode, Dr. Heiser interviews his long-time friend and colleague, Johnny Cisneros. With his training in biblical languages and his doctoral studies in technology-enhanced learning, Johnny Cisneros is the ideal person to help you apply simple and powerful strategies to study the Bible. The discussion centers on introducing you to some popular Bible study apps, walking you through several examples of Greek word studies from Colossians, and finally, a special offer to the Naked Bible audience for video courses designed by Johnny Cisneros.

Part 2: Joe Fioramonti - Anno Domini

Joe Fioramonti is a long-time friend of Mike and the podcast. He’s an artist, a professor, and an entrepreneur. His new business, Anno Domini, designs and hand-produces unique but traditional art prints. One-third of the proceeds goes directly to ministries that focus on persecuted pastors and Christians in dangerous parts of the world.

Sep 22, 2018
Naked Bible 233: Honor and Shame Culture

The subject of honor and shame-based cultures is familiar to anthropologists, but a foreign topic to most people interested in biblical studies. Nevertheless, it is an important aspect of New Testament interpretation. In this episode we chat with Dr. David de Silva, a recognized expert in this area of Second Temple period / New Testament study. As he wrote in The Dictionary of New Testament Background, “Honor refers to the public acknowledgment of a person’s worth, granted on the basis of how fully that individual embodies qualities and behaviors valued by the group. First-century Mediterranean people were oriented from early childhood to seek honor and avoid disgrace, meaning that they would be sensitive to public recognition or reproach. Where different cultures with different values existed side by side, it became extremely important to insulate one’s own group members against the desire for honor or avoidance of dishonor in the eyes of outsiders, since only by so doing could one remain wholly committed to the distinctive culture and values of the group. This struggle is particularly evident in the NT, as church leaders seek to affirm the honor of Christians on the basis of their adherence to Jesus while insulating them from the disapproval they face from non-Christian Jews and Gentiles alike.”

David A. deSilva, “Honor and Shame,” Dictionary of New Testament Background: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 518–519.

Important Resources:

David de Silva, Honor, Patronage, Kinship, and Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture (IVP Academic, 2000)

David de Silva, Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance (Baker Academic, 2018) David de Silva, The Letter to the Galatians (New International Commentary on the New Testament (NICNT; 2018)
Sep 16, 2018
Naked Bible 232: Colossians 2:13-23
Our preceding three episodes in large part set the table for the remainder of Colossians 2. Paul revisits some familiar themes: the superiority of Jesus to Jewish mystical teachings about angels (stoicheia), food laws, and the Sabbath. The new element here, and focus of this episode, is Paul’s link between the cross event (in particular the resurrection) and the defeat of the powers of darkness. Because of the cross, the rule of the gods over the Gentile nations, set up by God himself as a punishment at Babel (Deut 32:8-9; cp. Deut 4:19-20; 17:1-3; 29:23-26) has been nullified and de-legitimized. This is the underpinning of Paul’s mission to reclaim people among the nations for God’s everlasting family.
Sep 08, 2018
Naked Bible 231: Colossians 2:11-12

These two verses are (in)famous in New Testament study. Paul’s comments about baptism and circumcision, and a “circumcision made without hands” have been an interpretive battle ground every since they were written down. How does baptism relate to our receiving and being rooted in Christ (Col 2:6-7)? Does baptism complement salvation? Does it propel us toward salvation? How does water baptism relate to circumcision at all—if indeed Col 2:11-12 is even about water baptism? What if Paul is talking about Spirit baptism (1 Cor 12:13)? What then?

Sep 01, 2018
Naked Bible 230: Colossians 2:9-10

As we saw in our previous episode, a lot of theology can be packed into just a handful of verses. Colossians 2:6-8 leads to the focus of this episode, Colossians 2:9-10. These two verses are the pivotal content for Paul’s response to the Colossian heresy, the Jewish-mystical elevation of supernatural beings (“angels”) as spiritual authorities and points of reference for reverence.

Logos Offer: and use coupon code: nakedbible7 at checkout
Aug 25, 2018
Naked Bible 229: Colossians 2:6-8

Two of the things we talk about most on the podcast pop up in this episode: the importance of deriving what you believe from the text of Scripture itself and the importance of reading the text in its original context. Regarding the first, we’ll explore some of the grammar Paul uses in Col 2:6-7 to talk about God’s role and our role in sanctification. In verse 8 we’ll discuss the stoicheia (“elemental spirits”) and how they might fit into the false teaching Paul was confronting at Colossae.

Aug 18, 2018
Naked Bible 228: Colossians 1:21-2:5

This episode continues our discussion of the epistle to the Colossians. Colossians 1:21-2:5 touch on some theological themes familiar from previous episodes of the podcast: the relationship of Israel and the Church, the need to keep believing the gospel for salvation, reconciliation, and Paul’s “mystery” teaching. There are also some surprises.

Aug 11, 2018
Naked Bible 227: Colossians 1:13-20

Colossians 1:13-20 contains some of the most important Christological content in the New Testament. It is also home to some of the most misunderstood. For example, does referring to Jesus as “firstborn” suggest that he was created? Does it point to chronology—that Jesus was the first created thing? How is that reconcilable with the “fullness of God” being in Jesus? When verse 20 speaks of “all things, whether on earth or in heaven” being reconciled to God through Jesus does that mean that Satan and fallen angels can be—and ultimately will be- forgiven for their sins and redeemed? This episode discusses all these and other issues.

Aug 04, 2018
Naked Bible 226: Colossians 1:1-13

We begin our study in the first chapter of Colossians with an eye toward some of Paul’s more important vocabulary. Why does he refer to the Colossian believers as “holy ones” (1:2)? What sort of “knowledge” (1:9) is he talking about?  What do the phrases “inheritance of the holy ones” and “domain of darkness” (1:12-13) mean in the context of Old Testament cosmic geography? Is the kingdom of God to which believers belong only future (1:13)?

Jul 28, 2018
Naked Bible 225: Introducing the Book of Colossians

This episode opens our new book study on Colossians. Disputes over the book’s authorship and date contribute directly to the major content issue of the book—the nature of the “Colossian heresy.” The so-called “Colossian heresy” is the label used by scholars to describe Paul’s theological opposition in the city and church of Colossae. Elements of the false teaching Paul confronted are reminiscent of Gnosticism. However, the mature Gnostic theologies known to scholars today did not take shape until the second century A.D. and thereafter. Other items Paul addresses are obviously related to Jewish opposition. Could these two theologies be related?

Jul 21, 2018
Naked Bible 224: The Falling Away and the Restrainer

2 Thessalonians 2:1-8 contains two enigmatic features. In the first four verses Paul takes on the false teaching, circulating in the Thessalonian church, that the Day of the Lord had already come to pass. In the process Paul tells the believers “Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the apostasia comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction.” It’s clear that the man of lawlessness is the antichrist, but what is the apostasia? Some translations render the Greek term “falling away,” but others have “rebellion”? Just what event is Paul talking that must occur before the revealing of the antichrist? Later in the chapter Paul mentions an impersonal “restraint” and a mysterious figure who is the “restrainer” that are holding back the events leading to the second coming. What or who could do that? This episode tackles both these difficulties.

Jul 14, 2018
Naked Bible 223: Q&A 31
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Jul 07, 2018
Naked Bible 222: Trees and Kings with Rusty Osborne

How ancient Israelites thought about the institution of kingship is deeply rooted in the ancient Near Eastern ideology of kingship. Kings were viewed as extensions of the rule of deities, the providers of life and welfare and order. Kings ensured that life for the people under his (and the deity’s) rule went along as it was intended. Trees were emblematic of these ideas, as they spoke of the fertility of the land, the presence of life in an otherwise arid, hostile environment, and a metaphorical connection between heaven and earth. In this episode of the podcast we interview Dr. William (“Rusty”) Osborne, an expert in this kingship metaphor, to help us navigate these concepts.

Book: Trees and Kings: A Comparative Analysis of Tree Imagery in Israel’s Prophetic Tradition and the Ancient Near East

Jun 30, 2018
Naked Bible 221: Baptism for the Dead

1 Corinthians 15:29 is one of the more enigmatic verses in the Bible. Scholars have long struggled with the meaning of Paul’s questions: “. . . What do people mean by being baptized on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized on their behalf?” Just what was going on at Corinth that involved baptism for the dead? Is this literal (water) baptism or something else? Who are the dead – believers or unbelievers? Does baptism help dead unbelievers in the afterlife? If not, what’s the benefit? How does this verse fit the wider context of Paul’s discourse on the resurrection?

Article resource:

James E. Patrick, "Living Rewards for Dead Apostles: ‘Baptised for the Dead’ in 1 Corinthians 15.29," New Test. Stud. 52 (2006): 71–85

Jun 23, 2018
Naked Bible 220: Q&A 30
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Jun 16, 2018
Naked Bible 219: Q&A 29
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Jun 09, 2018
Naked Bible 218: Authorship and Date of the Book of Job

Many Christians believe the book of Job is the earliest book of the Bible, written sometime before Moses in the patriarchal era. Few Old Testament scholars assign any merit to this idea. Why the disagreement? Is there any basis for thinking Job is earlier than the time of Moses? Is there any way to know when Job was written and who might have written it? Does any point of biblical history or theology depend on the answer? We discuss all these issues in this episode of the podcast.

Jun 03, 2018
Naked Bible 217: Authorship and Date of the Book of Isaiah

When it comes to debates over biblical inspiration, the authorship and the book of Isaiah is one of the more contentious topics. Traditionally, the book in its entirety (66 chapters) was considered to have been entirely written by the prophet Isaiah, who lived in the late 8th century – early 7th century BC. From the 19th century onward, modern critical scholars argued that the book was actually three separate books (chs 1-39, 40-55, 56-66) composed in different eras (the latter sections being written during and after the exile). Consequently scholarly talk about the book of Isaiah speaks of First, Second (“Deutero”), and Third (“Trito”) Isaiah(s). Many evangelical scholars continue to reject this academic consensus, charging that it’s acceptance undermines inspiration, scriptural consistency, and predictive prophecy? Are those charges accurate? On what basis is multiple authorship argued? How do traditional single-author proponents defend their case? We discuss all these issues in this episode of the podacast.

Rooker article (in protected folder accessible by newsletter subscribers)

Mark F. Rooker, “Dating Isaiah 40–66: What Does the Linguistic Evidence Say?” Westminster Theological Journal 58, no. 2 (1996): 303–12

May 26, 2018
Naked Bible 216: Q&A 28
Dr. Heiser answers your questions. Dr. Heiser's paper:

Does Deuteronomy 32:17 Assume or Deny the Reality of Other Gods?

May 19, 2018
Naked Bible 215: Q&A 27
May 12, 2018
Naked Bible 214: Q&A 26
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
May 05, 2018
Naked Bible 213: Do Good Works Contribute to Salvation?

What is the proper biblical relationship between faith and works? Do good works contribute to salvation? If not, then why should we care about the way we live? Personal holiness is something taught in Scripture, but the desire to please God in our lives often leaves Christians guilty when they fail. Believers begin to suspect God doesn’t love them any longer—or at least not as much. The result is that the clarity of the gospel gets muddled. This episode of the podcast aims to help us think clearly about grace, faith, and works in the Christian life.

Apr 28, 2018
Naked Bible 212: Joshua’s Conquest of Jericho and the Ugaritic Keret Epic

The basic details of the Israelite conquest of Jericho are well known. The renewal of the covenant at Shechem, the miraculous crossing of the Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant, Joshua’s encounter with the supernatural commander of the Lord’s host, the sending of the spies to the city and their reception by Rahab, the weird battle instructions to march around the city and blow the ram’s horns, and the collapse of the walls have been retold in countless Sunday School classes and sermons. But virtually unknown is that many of these details have correspondences in a story from Ugarit, an ancient city state in Syria. That story is known as the Keret (or Kirta) Epic. In this episode we talk about the similarities and how an ancient reader might have processed such parallels.

Apr 21, 2018
Naked Bible 211: Was Cain the Seed of the Serpent?

In 1 John 3:11-12 the apostle warned believers, “For this is the message that you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another. We should not be like Cain, who was of the evil one and murdered his brother.” Does this passage mean that Cain was fathered by Satan? The idea is indeed found in some ancient Jewish texts. Is there any evidence for that in the Old Testament account of his birth? This episode of the podcast answers those questions.

Apr 15, 2018
Naked Bible 210: God and Deception

This episode of the podcast raises a straightforward question: Does God ever deceive anyone? While listeners might think the answer must be in the negative, that actually isn’t the case. This episode considers several passages where God uses deception and suggests the same to biblical figures. We also consider related questions, such as: Is deception the same thing as lying? and, If God uses deception, how are we to think about that? Are there ramifications for personal ethics?

Apr 07, 2018
Naked Bible 209: A Fern and Audrey Testimony

This episode welcomes Fern and Audrey back to the podcast. Fern and Audrey minister to trauma survivors, particularly those whose trauma resulted in dissociation (see Episode 68). The conversation in this episode includes Alexa, a client of Fern and Audrey’s Discovering Mercy ministry, and allows listeners to understand their ministry from a survivor’s perspective.

Mar 31, 2018
Naked Bible 208: Q&A 25
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Mar 24, 2018
Naked Bible 207: Revelation 4-5 with Dr. Alan Bandy

Revelation 4-5, the Divine Council, and the Covenant Lawsuit Motif: A Discussion with Dr. Alan Bandy

Revelation 4-5 with its vision of God’s throne room and the 24 elders has long fascinated Bible students. While the heavenly throne is obvious to the scene, the actual setting often escapes attention. In accord with various divine council scenes in the Old Testament, the throne room of God is also where God holds council. Many OT council meetings are judicial in nature. A trial is held to assess loyalty to God’s covenants. That trial either leads to God’s vindication of the defendant or the dispensing of judgment for the guilty. In this episode we have a conversation with Dr. Alan Bandy who argued in his dissertation that Revelation 4-5 was a divine council scene informed by the covenant lawsuit motif of the Old Testament. Even further, Dr. Bandy believes that the book of Revelation as a whole is informed by the covenant lawsuit idea so that Christians and the whole world stand trial before God’s heavenly council with Jesus as the presiding judge.

Mar 18, 2018
Naked Bible 206: The 70 Bulls of the Feast of Tabernacles

Numbers 29:12-34 describes the sacrifices involved in the celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles, called in Hebrew, the Feast of Sukkot (“Booths”). Included in those sacrifices were 70 bulls, a number that far exceeds any other Israelites festival. Scholars have taken note of the number and speculated that it has some relationship to the number of the sons of God allotted to the nations in the judgment at Babel (Deut 32:8-9; cp. Genesis 10’s 70 nations). Some believe the passage is a vestige of polytheism (the bulls are offered to the gods of the nations) or that it describes an atonement ritual for the 70 nations of Genesis 10. In this episode of the podcast we examine these opinions and offer another interpretation, one that sees a connection to the Deuteronomy 32 worldview, but that focuses more on the meaning of the Feast of Sukkot.


Dr. Noga Ayali-Darshan: Sukkot’s Seventy Bulls: The Torah’s adaptation of a polytheistic ancient West-Semitic custom of sacrificing to seventy gods

The Meaning of Sukkot

The Seventy Bulls Sacrificed at Sukkot (Num 29:12-34) in Light of a Ritual Text from Emar (Emar 6, 373), VT 65 (2015)
Mar 13, 2018
Naked Bible 205: The Sword and the Servant with David Burnett

The enigmatic "two swords" passage of Luke 22:35-38 that famously features Jesus' command to the disciples, "the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one" (22:35), has long plagued biblical interpreters. Scholars have attempted to explain this passage in many ways. Some have suggested that Jesus was speaking figuratively, not speaking of buying literal swords, but alluding to the future persecution of the disciples. Some suggest Jesus was preparing them to take up swords to defend themselves after his departure, preparing them for bandits along the way. Along these lines, still others suggest Jesus was referring more generally to the time of trial to come after his resurrection. This passage has even featured prominently in modern debates regarding Christian positions on guns and violence, some evangelical voices going as far to suggest that Jesus by implication encourages the right to brandish and use fire arms. As such, this text has factored into discussion of Christian ethics. In this episode David Burnett returns to the podcast and offers a new approach, one that reframes the passage through a careful treatment of the text within its wider narrative context and Luke's use of scripture.

Resource: David A. Burnett- SBL Lk 22.35-38 Handout

Mar 03, 2018
Naked Bible 204: Grammar and Bible Study with Steve Runge

On this episode of the podcast we once again devote time to acquainting listeners with strategies and tools for more productive Bible study. Dr. Heiser talks to Dr. Steve Runge, a colleague at Logos Bible Software and an important name in the study of Greek grammar. Dr. Runge’s focus is discourse, a linguistic term for studying the biblical text above the word level. If you don’t know Greek, don’t fear! Dr. Runge’s methods apply to English as well—and he has been instrumental in creating tools for English-only Bible students that are firmly grounded in original language study. Listen and learn how to become a better student of the biblical text. The videos below feature Dr. Runge teaching some of the concepts we discuss and work through in this episode.

You already know discourse grammar but didn’t realize it (several videos)

Logos Bible Software datasets for the Greek New Testament (the dataset adds symbols to your English reverse interlinear)

Dr. Runge’s commentaries for English readers that derive from his grammar study

Feb 24, 2018
Naked Bible 203: Q&A 24
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Feb 17, 2018
Naked Bible 202: Hebrews Q&A Part 2
Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Hebrews.
Feb 10, 2018
Naked Bible 201: Hebrews Q&A Part 1
Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Hebrews.
Feb 03, 2018
Naked Bible 200: Global Reach

Our 200th episode celebrates the reach of the podcast and that of Dr. Heiser’s books, The Unseen Realm and Supernatural. The Naked Bible Podcast has dedicated listeners all over the world. Many found the podcast because of Dr. Heiser’s books. This episode celebrates both the impact of solid, biblical content in the lives of listeners and readers, and their effort to spread that content to others. Mike and Trey talk to folks doing ministry in the Middle East (Michael, Bell), Tanzania, Africa (Charles, Donald), and Tirana, Albania (David, Bruna, and Fitor).

Jan 29, 2018
Naked Bible 199: Hebrews 13

The final chapter of the book of Hebrews combines pastoral encouragement for believers under stress and reminders about the superiority of Jesus against what their persecutors were offering.  This episode wraps up our book study by highlighting how the writer blends his final appeal for faithfulness with encouragement for both the laity and the leadership in troublesome times.

Jan 20, 2018
Naked Bible 198: Hebrews 12

Hebrews 12 follows on the heels of the “hall of faith” in Hebrews 11. That’s important because heeding that context (and that of the rest of the book of Hebrews) will prevent us from taking certain things in Hebrews 12 out of context. The writer doesn’t follow the “hall of faith” with a treatise on how moral imperfection (sin) will result in keeping someone out of the kingdom of God. And yet many readers lapse into that thinking in this chapter. In this episode we read Hebrews 12 in light of Hebrews 11—and other preceding passages in the book—to reaffirm that salvation is about something done for us, not something we do, and about the obedience of Jesus, not our own obedience.

Jan 14, 2018
Naked Bible 197: Hebrews 11

Many Christians refer to Hebrews 11 as the “hall of faith.” The label is appropriate, but the chapter raises questions. Why did the Old Testament individuals listed in Hebrews 11 “make the cut”? Was there something extraordinary about them? This episode explores the relationship of this famous passage to its far less famous context: Heb 10:35-39. Those in the “hall of faith” are not there because they were shining examples of moral purity, or because they never had doubts about what God was doing, or because they weren’t tested. Rather, they are there because they all held fast to faith—they did not “shrink back” from their believing loyalty in what God had promised. Hebrews 11 illustrates that we must have faith in what God has done for us, not our performance.

Jan 07, 2018
Naked Bible 196: Hebrews 10

Hebrews 10 wraps up the author’s discourse on the superiority of the high priesthood of Jesus—a theme begun in chapter five. The chapter revisits how the Torah’s system of sacrifices could not take away sin as it was a shadow of things to come. The author references earlier high points of how Jesus is superior to Torah dealt with earlier. The entire second half of the chapter, though, focuses once more on the chief concern of the author—the reason he keeps telling his audience about the superiority of Jesus to the Mosaic Law—the need to keep believing the gospel so as to not “shrink back” to dependence on their obedience to law (merit-based performance) for salvation.

Karen Jobes article:

Dec 31, 2017
Naked Bible 195: Is Christmas a Pagan Holiday?

There is much discussion online at this time of year as to the presumed pagan origins of Christmas. December 25, we are told, was a date stolen from pagan worship, specifically from the festival of the “Birth of the Unconquered Sun” (Sol Invictus)? Should Christians have Christmas trees? Aren’t trees pagan objects of worship? How should Christians think about, and respond to, such questions? Do these questions have any relationship to the content of Scripture? Listen to find out.

Links and sources:

William Tighe, "Calculating Christmas: The Story Behind Dec 25" Touchstone Magazine (December, 2003)

Thomas J. Talley, The Origins of the Liturgical Year (The Liturgical Press, 1991)

Aaron Gleason, “How Christmas Baptizes Norse Mythology into Powerful Christian Archetypes,” The Federalist (December 15, 2017)

Origin of the names of the Days

Jewish month names from Babylon

Dec 25, 2017
Naked Bible 194: Hebrews 9

In his ninth chapter, the writer of Hebrews continues with his theme of the superiority of Christ over the Levitical sacrifices and priesthood. In chapter 8 he had referred to the “heavenly tent,” where Jesus was seated “at the right hand of majesty” subsequent to offering himself to provide salvation. In Hebrews 9, the focus of this episode, the sacrifice of Christ is described as an atonement superior not only to the sacrificial system broadly conceived, but specifically to the Day of Atonement ritual.

Dec 16, 2017
Naked Bible 193: Hebrews 8

The writer of Hebrews has, to this point, put forth the idea that Jesus is superior to Moses, Melchizedek, the Aaronic / Levitical Priesthood, and the angels. In this chapter he adds another point of comparison—the Mosaic covenant. The work of Jesus on the cross, his accession to the heavenly throne as great high priest, and the subsequent coming of the Spirit (who is identified with Jesus in the NT) are superior to the Torah covenant and its inability to save. This episode focuses on the use of how the writer of Hebrews telegraphs Christ’s superiority to the Mosaic covenant through his use of Old Testament New Covenant prophecies.


Scholarly Works recommended by Dr. Heiser: use code NAKEDBIBLE7 at checkout Video (Mobile Ed) Courses:
Dec 09, 2017
Naked Bible 192: SBL Conference Interviews Part 3
Our final set of interviews at SBL includes discussions with Tim Mackie from The Bible Project, and we learn about opportunities for biblical studies education in the UK from Dr. Matthew Lynch, a scholar in the UK familiar with the podcast and Mike's work.
Dec 02, 2017
Naked Bible 191: SBL Conference Interviews Part 2
In our second set of interviews from SBL in Boston, we talk with Ben Giffone about how to earn an advanced degree without going into debt, teaching overseas, and his own interest in Unseen Realm content and Israelite religion. We also chat with John Schwandt, director of Mobile Education for Logos Bible Software (Faithlife). John and Mike talk about the unique benefits of Mobile Ed courses and how they are a great tool for anyone interested in learning Scripture and theology from some of the country's best professors -- all without uprooting your life and incurring debt.
Nov 30, 2017
Naked Bible 190: SBL Conference Interviews Part 1
Mike and Trey once again traveled to Boston for the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). In this first set of conference interviews include getting caught up with David Burnett, now in his first semester of doctoral work at Marquette University. We also chat with Marina Westerdahl, a former student of Mike's at Knox Seminary about to begin doctoral work in Old Testament. Marina's research interests involve the divine council. Lastly, we visit with Sam Lamerson, professor of New Testament at Knox Seminary and fellow traveler with Mike in helping Christians think well about the paranormal.
Nov 28, 2017
Naked Bible 189: Live from Boston
Dr. Heiser and special guest David Burnett answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Boston, Massachusetts.
Nov 25, 2017
Naked Bible 188: ETS Conference Interviews Part 2
In this second installment of ETS interviews, Mike chats with Carl Sanders and Ronn Johnson, two long-time friends. In the first part of the conversation with Carl and Ronn, we focused on their own response to “higher life” sanctification and reminisced about our academic and teaching experiences. In Part 2, Mike, Carl, and Ronn conduct a thought experiment to illustrate what biblical-theological geeks do at these meetings by asking Ronn to toss out a new view of the atonement he’s been thinking about and then probing it for strengths and weaknesses.
Nov 23, 2017
Naked Bible 187: ETS Conference Interviews Part 1
It’s that time of year – a new round of interviews with scholars and professors at the annual meetings of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) and the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). In this first installment we talk to Hugh Ross about his new book, Improbable Planet, and his apologetics ministry; Doug Groothuis about anti-intellectual attitudes in the believing Church; Andy Naselli about his new book on “higher life” (Keswick) theology; and Maurice Robinson about his scholarly work on the Byzantine-Majority text type of the New Testament.
Nov 21, 2017
Naked Bible 186: Discovering MErcy with Fern and Audrey
Mike and Trey recently visited Fern and Audrey. The visit produced an opportunity not only to share some of the items discussed during that visit, but also new developments in their ministry to trauma survivors. This episode explores some of their work and methods in more detail and highlights a new direction in widening that ministry.
Nov 19, 2017
Naked Bible 185: Hebrews 7

Hebrews 7 picks up themes that are familiar already to readers of the book. The writer defends the superiority of Christ’s priesthood to the Levitical priesthood of the Old Testament on the basis of his connection to Melchizedek. A key part of this strategy is to declare that Levi “paid tithes to Melchizedek, being still in the loins of his ancestor” (Abraham). How are we to understand this idea? This episode tackles this difficult issue, as well as the tradition that Melchizedek was Noah’s son Shem.

McNamara, "Melchizedek: Gen 14:17-20 in the Targums, in Rabbinic and Early Christian Literature," Biblica 81 (2000)

Orlov, "The Melchizedek Legend of 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," Journal for the Study of Judaism Vol. 31, No. 1 (2000): 23-38
Nov 11, 2017
Naked Bible 184: Hebrews 5:11-6:20

Our series on the book of Hebrews continues the writer’s emphasis on the faithful priesthood of Christ – this time as the basis for turning away from a theology of dead works and clinging to faith. The centrality of not turning from the true gospel of faith in the work of Christ and God’s acceptance of the ministry of his Son – of continuing in “believing loyalty” to the gospel – is the central focus of the controversial statements in Heb 6:4-6. Does this passage teach that believers can lose salvation or reject salvation? Is there a difference? What about eternal security? This episode focuses on these questions.

Nov 04, 2017
Naked Bible 183: Hebrews 4:14-5:10

Hebrews 4:14-5:10 focuses on the fact that our high priest—the person who runs interference between us and God when it comes to eternal life—is the same person who gave his life for that purpose: Jesus. It is inconceivable in the writer’s mind that anyone who believes in Christ would be turned away from eternal life because Jesus, our high priest, understands the weakness of humanity and the power of external temptation. After all, he became a human precisely to provide salvation, knowing that it would mean experiencing human weakness and temptation. Human weakness and failure are therefore not going to change Christ’s disposition toward those who believe in him.

Oct 28, 2017
Naked Bible 182: Hebrews 4:1-13

Hebrews 4:1-13 continues an important theme introduced in Hebrews 3—holding fast to faith so as to enter into God’s rest (i.e., inherit the promise of eternal life). The writer strikes an analogy between the rest of God, earlier related to entrance (or not) into the Promised Land (Numbers 14), and God’s rest at the end of his creation work. God’s Sabbath rest is therefore identified with eternal life—a rest that is the result of God’s efforts, not ours. Since Christ is the one who provided eternal life through his work on the cross, Christ is our Sabbath.

Oct 22, 2017
Naked Bible 181: Hebrews 3

Hebrews 3 is the reader’s first introduction to what will be a familiar tension in the book: conditional statements about the believer’s salvation status. This episode focuses on this tension, pointing out that conditional statements in Hebrews are not attached to breaking the laws of Torah, or any sins of commission or omission. The conditional statements are not about works in any regard, as though believers could lose salvation when they sin. Rather, the focus is on how a believer can fall into unbelief—how they can choose to not believe the gospel. The end result is that believers are eternal secure if they believe (do not reject the gospel), but no one who rejects the gospel and therefore does not believe it has eternal life.

Oct 15, 2017
Naked Bible 180: Continuing the NAR Conversation with Dr. Michael L. Brown

This episode continues our discussion of the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) from the previous episode. Our guest on this episode is Dr. Michael L. Brown, biblical scholar and host of the well-known radio show, Line of Fire. Dr. Brown has long been part of the charismatic wing of Christianity and has ministered in a wide variety of capacities in that context. He has also been a persistent internal critic of the abuses and fringe behaviors within the charismatic movement. In this episode Dr. Brown relates his own experience with the NAR as an infrequent point of discussion within charismatic circles. He therefore doubts its validity as a movement, though the general influence of charismatic ministry has had great impact despite clear abuses in doctrine and practice.

Book: Michael L. Brown, Saving a Sick America: A Prescription for Moral and Cultural Transformation
Oct 07, 2017
Naked Bible 179: What is the New Apostolic Reformation?
What is the New Apostolic Reformation, with Holly Pivec The New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) seems to quite clearly justify labeling it a movement or denomination. Millions of people around the world are part of its network of churches. However, many NAR leaders and advocates deny that it’s a denomination or movement. Many Christians who are attracted by NAR teachings and practices have no idea that something called the NAR even exists. For those aware of its influence and presence within Christianity, the NAR has branded itself as representing the return of authoritative apostles and prophets to the modern church, complete with miracles such as healing and raising the dead. On this episode, we talk to Holly Pivec, an authority on the NAR, to learn what it is, what its defining characteristics are, and how we should think about its teachings. NOTE: Shortly after our interview, Holly Pivec informed us that her statement about Michael Brown teaching at C. Peter Wagner’s school was inaccurate. Dr. Brown is the founder of FIRE School of Ministry in Charlotte, NC. The doctrinal statement for that school is located here and includes a statement on modern apostles and prophets. Holly Pivec resources: Blog: Spirit of Error Books: A New Apostolic Reformation?: A Biblical Response to a Worldwide Movement God's Super-Apostles: Encountering the Worldwide Prophets and Apostles Movement
Sep 30, 2017
Naked Bible 178: Why the World Didn’t End on September 23

September 23 has come and gone. The world didn’t end. Jesus didn’t return. There was no rapture. Planet X (Nibiru) never showed up. Why not? The answers involve both astronomy and sound biblical interpretation. We’ll leave the astronomy to experts in that field. We’ll consider the biblical reasons why the September 23 prophetic date-setting was nonsense. Those reasons are actually transparent, at least if we care about paying attention to the biblical text. In this episode of the podcast, we talk about five features of the passages used by false teachers who promoted Sept 23 as having end-times meaning. Join us for an episode on how to ineptly interpret the Bible.

Check out Mike’s links to the PseudoAstronomy podcast for the astronomical flaws of Planet X (Nibiru)!

Sep 24, 2017
Naked Bible 177: Hebrews 2

In Hebrews 2 the writer continues to focus on the supremacy of Christ to the Law (Torah) and angels. Christ is superior for many reasons, but chiefly because only he, through his sacrificial death, burial, and resurrection could provide the eternal sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins and bring humans back to right relationship with God. As Hebrews 2:1415 say God became a man in Jesus Christ so that, “through death he [Jesus] might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery.” This statement is followed by another one whose significance is overlooked by many, especially those who mistakenly believe that the offer of salvation through Christ is extended to fallen angels: “For surely it is not angels that he helps, but he helps the offspring of Abraham. Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect.” This episode of the podcast focuses on the necessity of the incarnation not only to the superiority of Christ, but to the problematic idea that fallen angels can be forgiven.

Sep 16, 2017
Naked Bible 176: Hebrews 1:5-14

The writer of Hebrews builds on his assertions that the particular son of God (Jesus) who was the agent of creation, eternal wisdom, and the essence of God, by comparing him to other supernatural sons of God (angels). But what does a phrase like “You are my son, today I have begotten you” mean? Does this mean Jesus was a created being? This episode notes the use of this phrase and other Old Testament passages utilized by the writer of Hebrews to explore its actual meaning. Along the way, the episode discusses two links in Hebrews 1 to the Deuteronomy 32 worldview and the divine council.

Get 40% off Dr. Heiser's Jewish Trinity course. Limited Time Offer.

Sep 09, 2017
Naked Bible 175: Hebrews 1:1-4

Hebrews 1:1-4 sets the tone for the entire epistle. The writer asserts that the revelation given by God through one particular son—Jesus Christ—is superior to Torah. It is Christ who is the full expression of God’s wisdom, and the actual, essential being of God Himself. Since the “inheritance” language of Heb 1:1-4 cannot suggest that God himself is being retired and succeeded, the language needs to be understood in terms of co-rulership. But why is this particular son (1:2) different than all others? This episode explores and expands on these themes and addresses this question by discussing the Old Testament context for the phrases, “the radiance of the glory of God,” Wisdom Christology, and hypostasis terminology.

Sep 02, 2017
Naked Bible 174: Live from Lubbock
Dr. Heiser answers questions from a live audience. Thank you to Wayland Baptist University for hosting and Nathan for organizing the event. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Lubbock, Texas.
Sep 02, 2017
Naked Bible 173: Introducing the Book of Hebrews

This episode launches the next book study on the podcast: the book of Hebrews. After discussing some preliminaries about the book, the episode preps listeners to the fact that Hebrews is a book that draws heavily on the Old Testament. That strategy of the anonymous author means more than simply quoting the Old Testament. Rather, there are more significant hermeneutical issues to consider—issues that will reverberate throughout the book.

Aug 26, 2017
Naked Bible 172: Melchizedek Q&A
Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Melchizedek.
Aug 19, 2017
Naked Bible 171: Q&A 23
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Aug 12, 2017
Naked Bible 170: Melchizedek Part 3

In the previous episodes on Melchizedek we covered the Old Testament data (Parts 1A, 1B) and Second Temple Jewish interpretation (Part 2) of the enigmatic Melchizedek. This episode focuses on Hebrews 7, the New Testament passage that focuses on Melchizedek as a type or analogy to Jesus.

Aug 05, 2017
Naked Bible 169: Surviving and Thriving in Seminary

Surviving and Thriving in Seminary, with Danny Zacharias and Ben Forrest

Ever thought about taking a seminary class? Getting a degree in biblical studies? Even if you haven’t and just want good advice on how to do biblical research on your own, you’ll want to listen in on this conversation. This episode of the podcast focuses on the book by Drs. Zacharias and Forrest, How to Survive and Thrive in Seminary. You’ll learn a lot about expert resources (some of them free) and some strategy hints for the serious study of Scripture.

check out

Jul 30, 2017
Naked Bible 168: Melchizedek Part 2

In the previous two episodes on Melchizedek (1a, 1b) we covered the Old Testament data on this enigmatic figure. Jewish writers and readers in the Second Temple Period (ca. 500 BC – 70 AD) naturally had ideas on who Melchizedek was and how to understand him as a king-priest. This episode discusses important texts from the Second Temple Period that deal with Melchizedek. Primary attention is placed on texts that case Melchizedek as more than a man, in effect the divine messianic deliverer of Israel in the last days. These texts and the thinking behind them set the stage for how New Testament writers thought about Melchizedek and how they correlated him to Jesus.

Jul 23, 2017
Naked Bible 167: Melchizedek Part 1b

Melchizedek is one of the more enigmatic figures in the Bible. Mentioned in only two passages in the Old Testament (Gen 14:17-24; Psalm 110), he nevertheless drew a lot of attention during the Second Temple Period and the New Testament. Thousands of pages of scholarly research have been devoted to him. Nearly everything said about him produces interpretive problems, from the nature of his name, to its meaning, to his identity as a Canaanite (non-Israelite), to why Psalm 110 favors his priesthood about that of Aaron. This episode of the podcast finishes our discussion of the Old Testament material associated with Melchizedek. Later episodes will be devoted to how he was understood in Second Temple Judaism and the New Testament.


“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (IVP)

“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, Eerdmans)

Jul 15, 2017
Naked Bible 166: Melchizedek Part 1a

Melchizedek is one of the more enigmatic figures in the Bible. Mentioned in only two passages in the Old Testament (Gen 14:17-24; Psalm 110), he nevertheless drew a lot of attention during the Second Temple Period and the New Testament. Thousands of pages of scholarly research have been devoted to him. Nearly everything said about him produces interpretive problems, from the nature of his name, to its meaning, to his identity as a Canaanite (non-Israelite), to why Psalm 110 favors his priesthood about that of Aaron. This episode and the next (1b) of the podcast focuses on the Old Testament associated with Melchizedek. Later episodes will be devoted to how he was understood in Second Temple Judaism and the New Testament.


“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (IVP)

“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, Eerdmans)

Jul 09, 2017
Naked Bible 165: Q&A 22
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Jul 01, 2017
Naked Bible 164: Paul’s Ascent and Angelic Torment with David Burnett

David Burnett returns to the podcast to discuss Paul’s defense of his apostleship and his heavenly ascent in 2 Corinthians 11-12. This episode expands upon an earlier episode on Paul’s ascent, specifically linking it to Second Temple Jewish apocalyptic literature (the Apocalypse of Abraham) and rabbinic material that appears to draw on that earlier material. The link to Abraham in Jewish thought is important, as it informs part of Paul’s comments on being the seed of Abraham.

Jun 24, 2017
Naked Bible 163: Other Gods and Other Religions with Gerald McDermott
Gerald R. McDermott (PhD, University of Iowa) is Anglican Chair of Divinity at Beeson Divinity School in Birmingham, Alabama. Before joining Beeson, he was the Jordan-Trexler Professor of Religion at Roanoke College. He is also associate pastor at Christ the King Anglican Church and Distinguished Senior Fellow in the History of Christianity at Baylor University’s Institute for Studies of Religion. In this episode of the podcast we discuss two of Dr. McDermott’s books: God’s Rivals: Why Has God Allowed Different Religions? and Israel Matters: Why Christians Must Think Differently about the People and the Land. God’s Rivals raises the question of why there are other religions—why would God permit that? The content of the book takes note of the Deuteronomy 32 worldview discussed so often on the Naked Bible Podcast – that, for biblical writers, the gods were real and allotted to the nations (and vice versa) in judgment at the Babel event (Deut 4:19-20; 17:1-3; 29:23-26; 32:8-9 [per the Dead Sea Scrolls “sons of God” reading]; 32:17). Dr. McDermott surveys early church thinkers reflections on this situation and what it meant in God’s plan of salvation. Israel Matters discusses the diversity of opinion (positive and negative) in the believing Church toward the people, land, and state of Israel. Books referenced:
  1. God's Rivals: Why Has God Allowed Different Religions? Insights from the Bible and the Early Church
  2. Israel Matters: Why Christians Must Think Differently about the People and the Land
  3. The New Christian Zionism: Fresh Perspectives on Israel and the Land
Jun 18, 2017
Naked Bible 162: The Evil Eye

The “evil eye” was a widespread superstition in the ancient world, one that continues on into the present day. The belief that one could cause someone harm merely by looking at them, or cast a spell over them by the same means, shows up in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamian, Greece, Rome, and Rabbinic writings. But does the Bible contain any reference to the notion? This episode explores biblical references to having an “evil eye” and discusses the meaning of those references in biblical thought.

Select References:

Marie-Louise Thomsen, “The Evil Eye in Mesopotamia," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51:1 (1992): 19-32

Edwin M. Yamauchi, “Magic in the Biblical World,” Tyndale Bulletin 34 (1983): 169-200 (Sec IV.C)

Nicole Tilford, "The Affective Eye: Re-Examining a Biblical Idiom," Biblical Interpretation 23 (2015) 207-221

D. A. Fiensy, “The Importance of New Testament Background Studies in Biblical Research: The ‘Evil Eye’ in Luke 11: 34 as a Case Study,” Stone-Campbell Journal. 2:1 (1992): 75-88

Eastman, "The Evil Eye and the Curse of the Law: Galatians 3:1 Revisited," Journal for the Study of the New Testament 83 (2001): 69-87

Jun 11, 2017
Naked Bible 161: Translating Genesis 1-11

In this episode Dr. Heiser talks to the men behind a new translation project, John Hobbins and Samuel Bray. The first volume of their effort is entitled Genesis 1-11: A New Old Translation for Readers, Scholars, and Translators. Our discussion focuses on the translation enterprise – what translators need to think about as they do their work. The strength of this new project is its thorough documentation by the translators of what and how they were thinking during the process of producing their translation. Over 130 pages of notes about the Hebrew text and its translation issues accompany the translation.

The work comes highly recommended, and Naked Bible Podcast listeners can purchase the resource at a discount.

Preorder HERE and use the code: GETNAKED to receive a discount.

Jun 03, 2017
Naked Bible 160: Q&A 21
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.   resource referenced: Erickson, The Work of the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament
May 28, 2017
Naked Bible 159: Noah’s Nakedness, the Sin of Ham, and the Curse of Canaan

The episode of Noah’s drunkenness in Genesis 9 has long befuddled interpreters. One of Noah’s sons, Ham, commits some heinous crime against his father. Oddly, though, Ham is not the one cursed by his father. Instead, Ham’s son Canaan bears the wrath of Noah. This episode explores the traditional solutions to the interpretive confusion and offers an alternative based on recent research in the Hebrew text.


John Sietze Bergsma and Scott Walker Hahn, "Noah's Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan," Journal of Biblical Literature 124:1 (2005): 25-40

May 21, 2017
Naked Bible 158: The Fate of the Ark of the Covenant

The Ark of the Covenant is well-known because of the popular Indiana Jones movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark. That pop culture film offers just one of over a dozen theories on what happened to the Ark of the Covenant. The question arises because the ark is not one of the artifacts taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in the biblical account of the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple in 586 BC, nor is it listed among the temple treasures returned to Israel in Ezra 1, the account of the release of the captive Judeans. This episode surveys the more interesting and important theories as to the fate of the ark.


John Day, "Whatever Happened to the Ark of the Covenant?" Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel (Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 422; Bloomsbury T&T Clark; Rev. Ed edition, 2007), 250-270

John Bimson, "Shoshenk and Shishak: A Case of Mistaken Identity?" Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum 6 (1992/93): 19-32

Michael S. Heiser, "Moses as High Priest and Sorcerer? A Response to Graham Hancock's

Egyptian Explanation for the Ark of the Covenant" Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 39-40 (1995) 48-65

link referenced:

May 14, 2017
Naked Bible 157: Ezekiel 40-48 Part 2

This episode continues our discussion of Ezekiel’s temple vision. Whereas Part 1 noted the problems a literalistic approach produces for both coherent interpretation and consistency in biblical theology, this episode looks at positive indications in the text that compel us to read the temple vision in a way that transcends literalism. Doing so observes the way Ezekiel re-purposes cosmic mountain imagery and Leviticus 25 in these chapters and produces fascinating conceptual and theological connections between the temple vision and Jesus, his atonement, and believers as members of his body.


Jon D. Levenson, “The Temple and the World,” The Journal of Religion 64, no. 3 (Jul., 1984): 275-298 (esp. pp. 283-289)

John S. Bergsma, “Restored Temple as 'Built Jubilee' in Ezek 40-48,” Proceedings of the Eastern Great Lakes and Midwest Biblical Societies 24 (2004): 75-85

May 06, 2017
Naked Bible 156: Ezekiel 40-48 Part 1

These final chapters of Ezekiel are known for the prophet’s vision of a new temple. However, scattered within that vision is an enigmatic figure referred to as the “prince” (Hebrew: nasiʾ). In this episode we discuss whether or not Ezekiel’s temple vision should be understood as a functioning building used after the return of the messiah, and how such a literal expectation aligns (or not) with the notion that the “prince” is a Davidic messianic figure. There are serious textual and theological problems for rigid literalism in both respects.


Drawings of Ezekiel’s Temple

Apr 30, 2017
Naked Bible 155: David Limbaugh
This episode features a conversation with David Limbaugh, author of The True Jesus: Uncovering the Divinity of Christ in the Gospels. While the conversation naturally focuses on David's most recent book, we also get to know him, his spiritual journey, and his thoughts about academic biblical study and its place in the Church at large.
Apr 22, 2017
Naked Bible 154: Q&A 20
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Apr 15, 2017
Naked Bible 153: Ezekiel 38-39 Part 2

This follow-up to Part 1 on these popular and controversial chapters focuses on the interpretation of the Gog-Magog invasion as a whole. Special attention is paid to how Rev 20:7-10 re-purposes Ezekiel 38-39 and how that re-purposing is consistent with a sound interpretation of those two chapters in their own context. They key to this consistency is recognizing the cosmic-supernatural outlook of elements in Ezekiel 38-39, particularly the description of participants and the burial of Gog and his hordes in the “Valley of the Travelers (Hebrew: ‘oberim)” in Ezek 39:11.


Day of the Lord” (Anchor Bible Dictionary)

Meredith Kline, “Har Magedon: The End of the Millennium,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39:2 (June 1996): 207-222

Apr 08, 2017
Naked Bible 152: Ezekiel 38-39 Part 1

Ezekiel 38-39, Part 1: Who or What is Gog?

As was the case with Ezekiel 37, these chapters are among the most familiar in the entire book of Ezekiel. This first of two episodes on these chapters focuses on the terminology: Gog, Magog, Meshech, Tubal, and Togarmah. It also addresses the fallacies of translating Hebrew nesiʾ roʾsh as “prince of Rosh” and interpreting the phrase as modern-day Russia, and the difficulties ancient translators had with the term. An alternative understanding of Gog is offered, one that is consistent with the supernaturalistic worldview of the “foe from the north” motif in Old Testament thought.


Greece Anatolia Russia Map

Paul Tanner, “Daniel’s ‘King of the North’: Do We Owe Russia an Apology?” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35:3 [Sept 1992]: 315-328 (see esp. 322-326 for the evangelical dispensational predilection for an identification with Russia). Tanner’s article will also be some useful backgrounding for Part 2 of Ezekiel 38-39.

Apr 01, 2017
Naked Bible 151: Ezekiel 37

Ezekiel 37 is one of the most familiar in the entire book, but that familiarity really extends only to the first fourteen verses. The chapter actually contains two oracles which telegraph the same ideas and work in tandem. This episode discusses the vision of the dry bones, particularly the debate over whether it provides information on a theology of individual bodily resurrection, and the prophecy of the two sticks representing the rejoining of the two halves of Israel. Both parts of the chapter relate to the restoration of the entire nation and return to the land. The question of fulfillment for these prophecies is also taken up in this episode.

Mar 26, 2017
Naked Bible 150: Ezekiel 35-36

These two chapters seems intrusive. The oracles against the nations ended in Ezekiel 32, followed by the announcement of Jerusalem’s fall (ch. 33) and a transition to the future hope of Israel (ch. 34). Chapters 35-36 are an oracle against Edom (“Mount Seir”) followed by more restorative language in Chapter 36. This episode of the podcast explains why Ezekiel 35 isn’t interruptive because, for the Israelite and OT theology, the judgment of Edom was part of Israel’s restoration to her former glory. Chapter 36, more obviously about the future hope of Israel, raises important questions about eschatology. Specifically, many Bible students assume the chapter’s comments about the coming of the Spirit and restoration of God’s people to the land pertain to a future millennial kingdom. However, the NT quotes the chapter several times, at least two of which have fulfillment in the first century or the OT period itself. Ezekiel 36 therefore raises the issue of whether any element of Ezekiel 36 awaits fulfillment in the distant future—a question that is appropriate the rest of the way (Ezekiel 37-48).

Mar 18, 2017
Naked Bible 149: Q&A with Fern, Audrey, and Beth

This episode follows episodes 68 and 120. Fern, Audrey, and Beth minister to trauma victims whose trauma has produced DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder) or involved Trauma-based Mind Control (TBMC).  If those terms and associated concepts are unfamiliar to you, then episode 68 is an essential precursor to this episode. This episode focuses on addressing listener questions about this ministry. What you’ll hear in this episode, however, isn’t a model for ministry. As you listen, do not assume you can take what’s said today, get the transcript, make a checklist, and do this sort of ministry. The episode discusses in some detail how the ministry of Fern, Audrey, and Beth differs from traditional deliverance ministry and why those differences matter.

Please support them by donating here.

Resources: Project Bluebird Colin Ross

Mar 11, 2017
Naked Bible 148: Q&A 19
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Mar 05, 2017
Naked Bible 147: Ezekiel 33-34

On the surface, these chapters finalize the destruction of Jerusalem and the covenant failure of its leadership and people as the cause. But there is more than meets the eye. The notion of a “watchman” prominent in Ezekiel chapter 33 is found elsewhere and has possible connections to the divine council. Ezekiel chapter 34 is heavily re-purposed in the New Testament, especially in casting Jesus in the role of God, the true shepherd of Israel. Lastly, we get a hint of the “already but not yet” theme of biblical eschatology.

Feb 27, 2017
Naked Bible 146: Ezekiel 32

Ezekiel 32 is a lament for the empire of Egypt, whose hubris was compared to a rebellious divine council member in the previous chapter (one of the “trees” of God’s garden in Lebanon/Eden). This episode focuses on two items in the chapter. Early in the chapter, the prophet casts pharaoh as both a sea dragon and a lion, two seemingly incompatible metaphors. Is this a mistake or is it meaningful? This episode also discusses whether Ezekiel 32:21-28 has anything to do with the origin of demons as the disembodied spirits of the giants.


Theodore Lewis, “CT 13.33-34 and Ezekiel 32: Lion-Dragon Myths,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116:1 (1996):28-47

Feb 19, 2017
Naked Bible 145: Ezekiel 31

Ezekiel 31 is part of the prophet’s oracles against Egypt (chs. 29-32). The chapter strikes an analogy between the mighty nation of Egypt and a great cedar tree in Eden, the envy of other glorious trees in the garden of God. The symbol of the “world tree” or “cosmic tree” is well known, not only to scholars of the ancient Near East, but other cultures as well. The cosmic tree represents a mythological pillar or column that unites all elements of Israel’s ancient three-tiered cosmology. Its branches reach the heavens; its trunk is fixed to the earth, while its roots descend into the subterranean deep of Sheol. It gives life to everything living thing yet it intersects with the realm of the dead. As with Ezekiel28, many scholars presume the point of that the great tree is Adam, to whom Pharaoh is being compared and judged for his hubris. This common assumption misses the meaning of the primeval cosmic tree and its associated forest as this episode details.


Silviu Bunta, “The MEŠU-Tree and the Animal Inside: Theomorphism and Theriomorphism in Daniel 4,” Scrinium 3:1 (2007): 364-384

Edward Lipinski, “El's Abode: Mythological Traditions Related to Mount Hermon and to the Mountains of Armenia,” Orientalia Lovaniensa Periodica II, (Leuven, 1971), pp. 13-69


Feb 12, 2017
Naked Bible 144: Ezekiel 29-30

Ezekiel 29-30 are the first two of four chapters that preserve a series of oracles against Egypt and her Pharaoh. As in the case of the oracles against the prince of Tyre, Ezekiel’s imagery of cosmic, non-human forces of chaos that resist God’s order frames Yahweh’s judgment of the hubris of Egypt. This episode therefore pays special attention to chaos and Leviathan imagery while referencing other symbols and metaphors that juxtapose Egypt’s deserved demise and Israel’s future restoration.

Feb 05, 2017
Naked Bible 143: Ezekiel 28

The focus in this episode is Ezek 28:1-19. As readers of my book, The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible know, this is a controversial passage.  All scholars agree that this is an oracle and lament against a human prince of Tyre. The disagreement stems from vv. 11-19, but 1-19 is peripherally affected. The debate is over just who the prince of Tyre in vv. 11-19 is being compared to -- i.e., what is the point of analogy? Many say that the prince of Tyre is being compared to Adam in Eden. This would mean that it is Adam who is being referred to as a "guardian cherub" (v. 14) who walked in the midst of the stone of fire (a reference to either divine council members or the divine council locale). Dr. Heiser shares the view of other scholars who say that the prince of Tyre is being compared to a divine rebel -- and that this passage is related to another one (Isaiah 14) that compares a human ruler (king of Babylon) to a divine rebel. Further, he argues that these two passages are related to Genesis 3, the OT's own story of a primeval divine rebellion. This means that the anointed cherub is a divine being, a rebellious member of the divine council (stones of fire) – not Adam. This episode explores why the debate exists and adds some details in defense of Dr. Heiser’s position.

Chart: TUR-Ezek28-Isa14-Gen3

Jan 29, 2017
Naked Bible 142: Ezekiel 26-27

Five of the seven nations that are the target of judgment oracles were found in Ezekiel 25. Tyre takes its position in the prophetic crosshairs next. Over the course of three chapters (26-28), God has Ezekiel pronounce Tyre’s dire future in the wake of her hubris and delight at Jerusalem’s destruction. This episode covers Ezekiel 26-27 with an oracle of judgment (Ezek 26) and a lament (Ezek 27).

Jan 21, 2017
Naked Bible 141: Ezekiel 25

Following the prophecy of Jerusalem’s fall (Ezek 24), the next major section in the book of Ezekiel is a series of oracles against the foreign, enemy nations that celebrated the city’s demise. Seven nations are denounced by the prophet as under Yahweh’s judgment. Nearly every book classified among the major and minor prophets contains a collection of such oracles (e.g., Isaiah 13–23; Jeremiah 46–51). This episode discusses the nature of these oracles and discusses how the oracles of Chapter 25 can be read in the context of the Deuteronomy 32 cosmic-geographical worldview of Israel.

Jan 15, 2017
Naked Bible 140: Ezekiel 24

Chapter 24 is a turning book in the book of Ezekiel. After Ezekiel’s call (Ch. 1-3), the book has, to this point, been a series of gloom-and-doom pronouncements to the exiled Jews in Babylon subverting their expectations that Jerusalem, the temple, and their friends and loved ones back in Jerusalem were safe from  divine judgment. Chapter 24 announces the judgment of the city of Jerusalem and what’s left of Israel has begun—Ezekiel is to mark the very day he received the oracles which constitute this chapter.

Jan 08, 2017
Naked Bible 139: Q&A 18
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Dec 31, 2016
Naked Bible 138: What Day was Jesus Born?
On what day was Jesus actually born? What year? Does the timing matter? Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus on December 25, but virtually all Christians know that day isn’t the real birth date of the messiah. While that is certainly the case, has the birth date of Jesus been lost to time, or can it be reckoned. This episode of the podcast explores these questions and provides a solution draw from Scripture, backed by both Jewish messianic tradition and astronomy.   LOGOS 7 DISCOUNT: get 20% off a base package plus 5 books!
Dec 25, 2016
Naked Bible 137: Ezekiel 23

Ezekiel 23 essentially takes up where Ezekiel 16 left off. The latter chapter is perhaps the most sexual explicit in the entire Bible, as its theme is to present Jerusalem and Judah as a whore to telegraph her spiritual betrayal of Yahweh. In this chapter both the defunct Norther kingdom (Israel/Samaria) and the remaining Southern kingdom (Judah/Jerusalem) are portrayed as sister prostitutes (Oholah and Oholibah), soliciting every man they can find. The names of the sisters convey the focus well: Israel went into apostasy, and her sister followed her path. And that means the remaining sister, Jerusalem, will come to the same end as Samaria did.

Dec 17, 2016
Naked Bible 136: Ezekiel 21-22

These two chapters of Ezekiel beat a familiar drum: Jerusalem is doomed (21) because of her unrelenting wickedness and apostasy (22). Chapter 21 consists of four oracles “clarifying” for hard-of-hearing Israelites what fate awaited them as Nebuchadnezzar moved toward Jerusalem. Chapter 22 is comprised of three separate sermonettes targeting the evils of the city’s politicians, prophets, priests, and population. The city is cast as worse than Sodom and Gomorrah, as God charges he cannot find a single person (Ezek 22:30) in the city who will put himself on the line to oppose its evil.

Dec 10, 2016
Naked Bible 135: Ezekiel 19-20

These two chapters in Ezekiel rehearse parts of Israel’s tragic history in different ways. This episode discusses both chapters, but devotes more attention to several controversial and difficult passages in chapter 20. Ezekiel 19 is a lamentation that uses animal and plant imagery to describe the demise of Israel’s last few kings. Chapter 20 reviews Israel’s history of apostasy and Yahweh’s gracious refusal to abandon them altogether.

Dec 04, 2016
Naked Bible 134: Conference Interviews Part 6
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 6 of those interviews, we chat with Stephen Huebscher (PhD candidate at Clarks Summit University), David DeSilva (New Testament professor at Ashland Theological Seminary), and Dr. Craig Keener (New Testament professor at Asbury Theological Seminary).  
Nov 27, 2016
Naked Bible 133: Live from San Antonio
Our first live episode where Dr. Heiser and special guest David Burnett answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in San Antonio, Texas.  
Nov 26, 2016
Naked Bible 132: Conference Interviews Part 5
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 5 of those interviews, we meet Dr. John Walton (Old Testament professor at Wheaton College), Dr. Ben Witherington (New Testament professor at Asbury Theological Seminary), and Dr. Tremper Longman (Old Testament professor at Westmont College).  
Nov 25, 2016
Naked Bible 131: Conference Interviews Part 4
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 4 of those interviews, we chat with Dr. N. T. Wright (former Bishop of Durham and Canon of Westminster, now New Testament professor at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland), Dr. Brannon Ellis (Publisher for Lexham Press), and Dr. Carmen Imes, who teaches biblical studies at George Fox University.  
Nov 24, 2016
Naked Bible 130: Conference Interviews Part 3
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 3 of those interviews, we hear again from David Burnett, a familiar voice on the podcast, and meet Dr. Lynn Cohick (New Testament professor at Wheaton College) and Dr. Peter Gurry (New Testament textual critic, blogger at the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog).  
Nov 23, 2016
Naked Bible 129: Conference Interviews Part 2
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 2 of those interviews, we meet Dr. Andy Naselli (New Testament professor at Bethlehem College and Seminary), Mike Licona (Theology professor at Houston Baptist University), Dr. Sam Lamerson (President & New Testament professor, Knox Theological Seminary), and Kyle Greenwood (Old Testament professor at Colorado Christian University).  
Nov 22, 2016
Naked Bible 128: Conference Interviews Part 1
During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In this first installment, we hear from Dr. Carl Sanders and Thomas Hudgens (respectively, professors of Theology and New Testament at Lancaster Bible College & Graduate School), and Randall Price of World of the Bible Ministries.
Nov 21, 2016
Naked Bible 127: Q&A 17
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.
Nov 19, 2016
Naked Bible 126: Ezekiel 18

Ezekiel 18 focuses on one central idea: individual accountability for one’s own sinfulness. The chapter opens with God’s rejection of the pervasive Israelite idea that the suffering of one generation is the result of the sins of previous generations. The message God wants to communicate through the prophet is that the Israelites in captivity in Babylon and those about to suffer the destruction of Jerusalem have no one but themselves to blame. But yet the idea of corporate responsibility and the effects of sin being felt “unto the third and fourth generation” is found in the Torah. This episode discusses how individual and corporate responsibility are complementary, not contradictory.

Nov 13, 2016
Naked Bible 125: Bible Study Tools

Everyone interested in the study of Scripture wants to feel adequate to the task. But there are many obstacles—real and merely imagined—to being competent in Bible study. In this episode Dr. Heiser interviews his long-time friend and colleague, Johnny Cisneros. With skills in biblical language study and doctoral candidate status in instructional design, Johnny Cisneros is the perfect person to not only help people think better about strategies and tools for Bible study, but to also produce something useful to everyone who wants to develop Bible study skills. The discussion focuses on studying Greek and Hebrew words and a new video course developed by Johnny Cisneros that is about to launch.

URL for course:

Nov 05, 2016
Naked Bible 124: Ezekiel 17

Ezekiel 17 presents a riddle or parable of two eagles about the treachery of Zedekiah, the puppet governor appointed by Nebuchadnezzar to replace Jehoiachin, the Judahite king taken captive in an earlier wave of exile of which Ezekiel had been a part. Zedekiah would be captured in the last phase of exile, the destruction of Jerusalem, in 586 B.C. Part of the riddle includes messianic language of the branch, verbiage that takes this episode’s discussion into the Bible’s adaptation of the ancient omphalos (“navel of the earth”) myth.

Articles on the omphalos / “navel of the earth” motif:

Alexander, Philip S. “Jerusalem as the Omphalos of the World: On the History of a Geographical Concept.” Judaism 46, no. 2 (1997): 147–58.

Terrien, Samuel L. “Omphalos Myth and Hebrew Religion.” Vetus Testamentum 20, no. 3 (1970): 315–38.

Wensinck, A. J. The Ideas of the Western Semites Concerning the Navel of the Earth. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller, 1916. (public domain)

Oct 29, 2016
Naked Bible 123: Ezekiel 16

Ezekiel 16 is known for being the most sexually explicit chapter in the Bible. Some scholars even consider it pornographic. The prophet casts the city of Jerusalem as a whore when articulating why God has condemned it and marked it for destruction. This episode explores the portrayal of spiritual apostasy as wanton whoredom in all its ugliness—and God’s amazing ability to forgive in spite of it.

Oct 23, 2016
Naked Bible 122: Ezekiel 14-15

The words of Ezekiel 14-15 were addressed to Jewish elders in Babylon who had come to Ezekiel for a word from the Lord. Knowing they were still idol worshippers in their hearts, God refused to give them comfort. Instead he lowered the boom: Jerusalem’s judgment was certain. God’s case is presented in language drawn from Leviticus 26, which had foreshadowed Israel’s apostasy and expulsion from the land. This episode focuses on this vocabulary and a special interpretive problem of Ezekiel 14.

Oct 14, 2016
Naked Bible 121: Ezekiel 12-13

The prophet Ezekiel has telegraphed the doom of Jerusalem in a series of visual re-enactment signs, visions, and prophetic oracles. Chapters 12-13 continue with more sign acts, but shifts to God’s assessment of objections by the exiles as to the certainty of Jerusalem’s fate. God therefore directs Ezekiel to demolish the idea that “We have heard all this doom and gloom before, but nothing ever happens.”

Oct 08, 2016
Naked Bible 120: Fern, Audrey, and Beth
Fern and Audrey return with an update on their work with ritual abuse survivors, and introduce a colleague (“Beth”) who does the same work. Beth tells listeners her own story of growing up in “traditional” deliverance ministry, and how her approach to helping survivors now is different in light of the divine council worldview.
Sep 30, 2016
Naked Bible 119: Ezekiel 10-11
Ezekiel 10-11 are the concluding chapters to a prophetic vision that began in chapter 8. In this episode we discover how these chapters provide more Godhead talk from the Old Testament and the departure of the glory of God from the temple.
Sep 25, 2016
Naked Bible 118: Q&A 16
Dr. Heiser answers your questions.   links referenced:  (not mentioned on the show)... links to two annotated bibliographies on 2nd Temple Jewish Literature:
Sep 18, 2016
Naked Bible 117: Ezekiel 8-9